Has-been sentence example

has-been
  • Nothing has been the same.
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  • The house has been unbearably lonely without you.
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  • Nothing has been going on that you wouldn't be welcome to watch.
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  • This has been hard for you, as well.
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  • The Surreal Life - A show where has-been celebrities live together in one house for two weeks completing challenges and achieving one ultimate goal together.
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  • Russie has been keeping secrets from you.
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  • Daddy has been sick.
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  • I don't know, but his gun has been fired since it was last cleaned.
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  • He has been very assertive and direct.
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  • "Second," Katie cut in, "His father's family has been in this country longer than yours."
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  • Nighy starred as Bill Mack, the has-been pop star in the romantic comedy Love Actually.
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  • According to Martha, no one has been near that mine in years.
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  • New, disease resistant trees are bringing back the splendor of what has been called one of the prettiest towns in New England.
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  • Someone has been on the porch.
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  • Iliana has been a favorite among them.
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  • That young man has been in the water fight for years.
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  • Denton has been asking where you are.
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  • My phone has been off.
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  • I'm a bitch and a middle-aged has-been.
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  • No other woman has been able to resist me.
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  • All the good stuff here has been dug out already.
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  • In the United States imprisonment for debt was universal under the common law, but it has been abolished in every state, except in certain cases, as where there is any suspicion of fraud or where the debtor has an intention of removing out of the state to avoid his debts.
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  • Ne'Rin has been talking to his father, A'Ran.
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  • Her son has been called from Denver and is to arrive tomorrow on the afternoon train.
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  • This week has been hell.
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  • Just after the world thought that pop princess Britney Spears had fizzled into a has-been, she showed up on the list at Wondrous.com that states her 2010 earnings to have been $64 million.
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  • I think that possibility has been eliminated.
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  • My goal has been to enjoy what I have left then …die.
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  • Tin has been manufactured since 1892.
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  • Astorga has been the see of a bishop since the 3rd century, and was formerly known as the City of Priests, from the number of ecclesiastics resident within its walls.
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  • It is thus different from legal fiction, by which a new rule is introduced surreptitiously, and under the pretence that no change has been made in the law, and from statutory legislation, in which the obligatory force of the rule is not supposed to depend upon its intrinsic fitness.
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  • The trouble is, my ranch has been a safe haven and even headquarters for the wolf population around here.
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  • This much has been clear for months, since the Oracle made her appearance.
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  • There was no way I was going to brief Howie on all that had happened, how his living room is covered in blood and his house has been ransacked; not in his present state of mind.
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  • We think he might be an Ancient, but he.s so weak and his face has been so damaged, we can.t tell.
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  • His father may have betrayed mine, but he has been loyal for all these years we've been exiled.
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  • His family has been very understanding.
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  • Tonight has been an education for me.
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  • If you loved her enough to destroy the world for her, then you know the pain Kris has been through twice.  Hell cannot hold a candle to that kind of pain.
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  • This courtship has been going on too long and you're getting bored.
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  • Your father has been worried because you haven't called in a week.
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  • The Ansichten vom Rhein, &c., has been frequently reprinted (best edition by A.
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  • When reason rises to the conception of universal order, when actions are submitted, by the exercise of a sympathy working necessarily and intuitively to the idea of the universal order, the good has been reached, the true good, good in itself, absolute good.
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  • Fabian was martyred during the persecution under the emperor Decius, his death taking place on the 10th of January 250, and was buried in the catacomb of Calixtus, where a memorial has been found.
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  • The ship is then stopped, and the cable gradually hove up towards the surface; but in deep water, unless it has been caught near a loose end, the cable will break on the grapnel before it reaches the surface, as the catenary strain on the bight will be greater than it will stand.
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  • The result has been that wind velocities published in many official publications have of ten been in error by nearly 5 0%.
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  • This Volt-Wheel has been around a half dozen years.
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  • Most everyone has been evac'd by the state.
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  • Charles here has been offered up by Jonny in exchange for your help for a thirty-day ceasefire.
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  • "This has been a long time coming, Watcher, but don't come back," Damian said.
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  • Darkyn has been spinning out of control for many years.
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  • Hell has a library, and the librarian has been teaching me about the deities through these little video tutorial things.
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  • Someone has been visiting Alex at the hospital almost every day.
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  • "Officer, this has been just a horrible morning," she started.
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  • If it's hereditary, then the mutation has been hidden from us for, like, maybe even hundreds of thousands of years.
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  • Everything that.s gone wrong has been because of you! he returned.
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  • There has been only war as long as I can remember.
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  • When she found none, she returned to the living room, where the rest of the boxes has been deposited, and searched them.
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  • The heat has been lowered now that the men have left and it is oh so cold as I lay huddled here beneath my thin blankets.
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  • "Someone has been in my room," Edith said, sounding more perplexed than upset.
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  • My dearest Joshua has been absent for near a week now, bound to the duties of his calling, and those of his wife who is much involved in the charities of our city.
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  • We have been through more together than you could possibly imagine, and through it all Sarah has been my rock, and I hers.
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  • Sarah broke in, "Elisabeth has been telling us about your visit to New Orleans, as well."
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  • Elisabeth has been under pressure from the pack long before meeting you.
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  • Although she has been somewhat elusive, she will now serve my purpose twofold.
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  • Didn't you say your sister has been asking you to visit?
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  • This has been a typical day for me - with the exception of a nice evening out.
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  • "He has been very erratic lately," she agreed.
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  • One of our chefs has been working to make some since the message came in.
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  • The guest bedroom has been ready for visitors since my daughter died ten years ago.
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  • I cannot.  My Sight has been stunted, no doubt as punishment for my tampering in Fate's court.
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  • "Gabe has been your guardian angel," she added.
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  • Mr. O'Connor has been the perfect host.
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  • Mr. Mayer has been very kind.
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  • Everybody would like to see Alfred Nota locked up but nobody has been able to make anything stick.
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  • Randy has been so good about it—so encour­aging, but even so—I feel like it's a sin to smile, or laugh.
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  • I just don't want her hurt any more than she has been.
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  • I haven't noticed, but Brutus has been here a lot, so I guess the goats have been too.
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  • Do you think this has been easy for me?
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  • This rumor has been around for some time, hasn't it?
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  • It has been awhile since you have been you.
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  • It's forbidden to do so, has been since the Schism, the Other said.
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  • The Warlord has been captured!
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  • Most of the army has been in the south and are beyond our ability to recall in time.
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  • Not necessarily and Ed never has been until recently.
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  • Katie has been helping me crawl out of yesteryear and Alex is trying to make me less dependent.
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  • Your vengeance has been achieved, and my world saved.
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  • "Then unless one of us has been within three feet of her …" Gerry frowned.
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  • I think he hacked into Ingrid's computer and has been waiting for his chance.
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  • The atomic weight of the element has been determined by analysis.
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  • cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.
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  • It has been noticed at Woburn Abbey that the antlers are shed and replaced twice a year.
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  • The above gives some idea of the evidence that has been accumulated in favour of the laws of chemical combination, laws which can be deduced from the atomic theory.
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  • The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
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  • The name, it has been suggested, is identical with Libyan or Libi.
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  • Vico has been generally described as a solitary soul, out of harmony with the spirit of his time and often directly opposed to it.
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  • By his exposition of the political history of the kingdom, based on a study of its laws and institutions and of the legal conflicts between the state and the court of Rome, Pietro Giannone was the initiator of what has been since known as civil history.
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  • On these grounds it has been sought to establish a close relation between Vico and Grotius.
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  • It has been justly observed by many that this continuous cyclical movement entirely excludes the progress of humanity towards a better future.
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  • It has been replied that these cycles are similar without being identical, and that, if one might differ from another, the idea of progress was not necessarily excluded by the law of cycles.
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  • The suggestion has been made by Allmann and recently upheld by Schepotieff that Rhabdopleura is related to some of the Graptolites.
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  • An allied fungus peculiar to woods, with a less fleshy cap than the true mushroom, with hollow stem, and strong odour, has been described as a close ally of the pasture mushroom under the name of A.
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  • The Monongahela has been improved by locks and dams to Fairmont.
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  • Each of the magisterial districts (of which, as has been said, there must be at least three and not more than ten in each county) elects one or two magistrates and constables, and a board of education of three members.
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  • The Supreme Court in 1871 decided in favour of West Virginia, and there has been no further question.
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  • It has been alleged that he was a Wykehamist, a scholar at Winchester College and New College, Oxford.
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  • Since 1731 it has been composed of the two towns of Clermont and Montferrand, now connected by a fine avenue of walnut trees and willows, 2 m.
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  • We shall suppose they did it upon great consideration and weighing of the matter, and it would be very strange and very ill if we should disturb and set aside what has been the course for a long series of times and ages."
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  • 10, a poem addressed to Augustus, thus making five books, and this arrangement has been accepted by several editors.
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  • 2, 87 seq., Horace has been thought to make a direct attack on Propertius.
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  • At La Carlota the Spanish government established a station for the study of the culture of sugar-cane; by the American government this has been converted into a general agricultural experiment station, known as "Government Farm."
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  • Lava streams and other signs of volcanic action abound, but there has been no igneous activity since the Spaniards took possession.
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  • An interval of three years without rain has been known.
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  • The work of fortifying the place has been carried on by the British government, which possesses here a naval hospital, military prison and other necessary institutions.
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  • Since the British occupation Valletta has been a naval and military station of the first importance.
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  • " Rood stairs " remain in many English churches where the rood loft has been destroyed.
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  • The period of Vansittart's government has been truly described as "the most revolting page of our Indian history."
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  • On the one hand the retributive principle itself has been very largely superseded by the protective and the reformative; on the other punishments involving bodily pain have become objectionable to the general sense of society.
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  • By arrangement with the Chinese government a branch of the Imperial maritime customs has been established there for the collection of duties upon goods coming from or going to the interior, in accordance with the general treaty tariff.
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  • Biagio has been built, is uncertain.'
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  • A village of the Byzantine period has been explored at Balatizzo, immediately to the south of the modern town (Notizie degli Scavi, 1900, 511-520).
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  • It will be sufficient to describe those forms with which the most important work has been done, or which have survived the tests of time and experience.
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  • With the Cape micrometer a systematic difference has been found in the coincidence point for head above and head below amounting to o"-14.
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  • The problem has been how to accomplish this work with the minimum of labour consistent with the desired accuracy.
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  • Thus a latent image of the " reseau-lines " will be formed on the sensitive plate, and, when the latter has been exposed to the sky in the telescope, we obtain, on development, a negative of the images both of the stars and of the reseau-lines.
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  • The apparatus has been used with complete success at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, and at Melbourne, Sydney and Cordoba.
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  • Still more recently the method has been largely employed at the Cape of Good Hope and elsewhere.
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  • For accurate measurement of the displacements of lines of stellar spectra which are produced by the relative motion of star and observer in the line of sight, a very beautiful instrument has been devised by Dr J.
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  • Bavaria has been ruled by the Wittelsbachs.
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  • In the aeneolithic necropolis of Anghelu Ruju, near Alghero, of 63 skulls, 53 belong to the" Mediterranean " dolico-mesocephalic type and i o to a Eurasian brachycephalic type of Asiatic origin, which has been found in prehistoric tombs of other parts of Europe.
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  • Where rational cultivation has been introduced, it has almost always been by non-Sardinian capitalists.
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  • Though much land previously devoted to grain culture has been planted with vines, the area under wheat, barley, beans and maize is still considerable.
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  • of Iglesias, but has been covered up again (F.
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  • An able paper written by him to the king in support of these principles, on the ground especially of their advantage to trade, has been preserved.
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  • Dryden, while compelled to honour him as an upright judge, overwhelmed his memory with scathing, if venal, satire; and Dryden's satire has been accepted as truth by later historians.
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  • He has been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the organizer of the "Church of the Desert."
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  • The building has been restored in modern times to serve as a court of justice and a prison.
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  • Such a view of existence has been common throughout the history of thought, and especially among physical scientists.
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  • For, as the medieval Portuguese stated, it is merely a generic term for the capital of any considerable chief, and it has been applied even by them to several distinct places.
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  • The interior has been much destroyed by the ravages of gold-seekers and amateur excavators.
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  • Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
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  • As to long-haired cats, there appear originally to have been two closely-allied strains, the Angora and the Persian, of which the former has been altogether replaced in western Europe by the latter.
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  • Siamese cats may have the tail either straight or kinked, but whether the latter feature belongs of right to the breed, or has been acquired by crossing with the ordinary black and tabby kink-tailed cats of the country, is not known.
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  • This page has been locked to prevent editing; there are a number of reasons why this may be so, please see Project:Protected page.
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  • When the office increased in importance the mayors of the palace did not, as has been thought, pursue an identical policy.
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  • " I can say with truth," he writes to the princess Elizabeth, 9 " that the principle which I have always observed in my studies, and which I believe has helped me most to gain what, knowledge I have, has been never to spend beyond a very few hours daily in thoughts which occupy the imagination, and a very few hours yearly in those which occupy the understanding, and to give all the rest of my time to the relaxation of the senses and the repose of the mind."
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  • A fire without light, compared to the heat which gathers in a haystack when the hay has been stored before it was properly dry - heat, in short, as an agitation of the particles - is the motive cause of the contraction and dilatations of the heart.
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  • An electric tramway has been constructed from Rome to Ostia and thence to the seashore, now some 2 m.
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  • The south-eastern portion of the city has been excavated only very partially.
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  • It has been doubted whether Pericles favoured this enterprise, but among its chief promoters were two of his friends, Lampon the soothsayer and Hippodamus the architect.
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  • Pericles' home policy has been much debated since ancient times.
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  • It has been traced certainly to the 13th, and conjecturally to the 12th century.
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  • Difference of opinion prevails as to the condition of the jack after it has been driven into the ditch.
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  • According to Scottish rules, unless it has been forced clean out of bounds, such a jack is still alive.
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  • From this early astrological use the form of "glory" or "nimbus" has been adapted or inherited under new beliefs.
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  • In two cases, however, it has been found in the absence of appreciable quantities of uranium and thorium compounds, namely in beryl, and in sylvine (potassium chloride).
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  • The density of helium has been determined by Ramsay and Travers as 1.98.
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  • There are valuable forests in the mountainous districts, a part of which has been set aside for preservation under the name of the Luquillo forest reserve.
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  • Aisse has been the subject of three plays: by A.
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  • He destroyed the royal palace by fire, an act which has been variously estimated by historians.
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  • Ostensibly a solemn revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes, it has been justified as a symbolical act calculated to impress usefully the imagination of the East, and condemned as a senseless and vainglorious work of destruction.
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  • That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.
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  • The natural basis for a standard musical pitch is the voice, particularly the male voice, which has been of greater importance historically.
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  • The Halberstadt organ, about which so much has been written, was, according to Praetorius (Syntagma musicum, Wolffenbi ttel, 1618), built in 1361, and repaired or rebuilt 1495.
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  • Great Britain has been the last to fall in, but the predominance of the low pitch, introduced at Covent Garden Opera since 1880, is assured.
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  • Since the 5th century it has been the seat of an archbishop, who has now fifteen suffragans.
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  • The event showed that he judged the situation rightly - the religious scheme announced by him, though not accepted in all its details, became the dominant policy of the later time, and he has been justly called ' The stricter marriage law is formulated in Lev.
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  • This appears to be an independent form of the vision, which has been brought into connexion with that of i.
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  • The derivation of the word has been much debated.
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  • On the other hand it has been suggested (Prof. S.
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  • The Life of Theodosius has been translated into English by F.
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  • In modern times it has been more criticized than read.
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  • While the heroism of the Montenegrins has been lauded by writers of all countries, the Albanians - if we except Byron's eulogy of the Suloits - still remain unsung.
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  • Shkiipetar has been variously interpreted.
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  • No traveller can venture into the mountain districts without the bessa of one of the inhabitants; once this has been obtained he will be hospitably welcomed.
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  • In some districts there is a fixed price of blood; at Argyrokastro, for instance, the compensation paid by the homicide to the relatives of his victim is 1200 piastres (about £10), at Khimara 2000 piastres; once the debt has been acquitted amicable relations are restored.
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  • The costume of the Tosks differs from that of the Ghegs; its distinctive feature is the white plaited linen fustanella or petticoat, which has been adopted by the Greeks; the Ghegs wear trews of white or crimson native cloth adorned with black braid, and a short, close-fitting jacket, which in the case of wealthy persons is embellished with gold lace.
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  • Since the time of Ali Pasha, who broke the power of the local chieftains, southern Albania has been subject to the central Turkish power; before that period the mountaineers of Suli and Khimara enjoyed an independence similar to that of the Gheg tribes.
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  • Instruction in the Albanian language is prohibited by the Turkish government for political reasons; a single exception has been made in the case of an American school for girls at Kortcha.
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  • There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
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  • at Spalato and on the island of Lesina) has been shown by modern archaeologists to belong to the Roman period.
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  • Its population was given in 1894 as 135,232, but its area has been largely reduced since then.
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  • The early history of the territory comprised within the district of Dharwar has been to a certain extent reconstructed from the inscription slabs and memorial stones which abound there.
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  • Apart from the weighty objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that the main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon.
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  • The name, arising from this unusual sound, has been by metonymy translated into " God's Voice."
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  • In April and May the rivers have opened, the snow has disappeared, and the opportunity has been afforded the farmer of sowing his grain.
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  • The open grate still holds favour in England, though in America and on the continent of Europe it has been superseded by the closed stove.
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  • Heating by warmed air, one of the oldest methods in use, has been much improved by attention to the construction of the apparatus, and if properly installed will give as good effects as it is ossible to obtain.
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  • Bale is also the authority for another assertion that figures in what has been aptly termed the poet's "traditional biography," viz.
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  • Recent criticism has been far more impartial, and almost too much respect has been paid to his attainments, especially in the matter of metre, though Lydgate himself, with offensive lightheartedness, admits his poor craftsmanship.
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  • At the same time there has been a steadily These first three were joined in 1907 under the name of the United Methodist Church.
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  • He did not, however, as has been supposed, spend the best years of his manhood abroad, for he was certainly at home in 1571, when the preliminaries of his marriage were arranged at Merchiston; and in 1572 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Stirling of Keir.
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  • A few years afterwards he married again, his second wife being Agnes, daughter of Sir James 1 The descent of the first Napier of Merchiston has been traced to "Johan le Naper del Counte de Dunbretan," who was one of those who swore fealty to Edward I.
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  • It has been asserted (by Sir Thomas Urquhart) that the piece of artillery was actually tried upon a plain in Scotland with complete success, a number of sheep and cattle being destroyed.
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  • With respect to the calculating rods, he mentions in the dedication that they had already found so much favour as to be almost in common use, and even to have been carried to foreign countries; and that he has been advised to publish his little work relating to their mechanism and use, lest they should be put forth in some one else's name.
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  • It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
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  • It has been stated that Napier's mathematical pursuits led him to dissipate his means.
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  • The Rabdologia attracted more general attention than the logarithms, and as has been mentioned, there were several editions on the Continent.
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  • There seems but little doubt that Napier was the first to make use of a decimal separator, and it is curious that the separator which he used, the point, should be that which has been ultimately adopted, and after a long period of partial disuse.
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  • Aventinus, who has been called the "Bavarian Herodotus," wrote other books of minor importance, and a complete edition of his works was published at Munich (188'- 1886).
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  • As has been said of another thinker, he was " one of those deeply religious men who, when crude theological notions are being revised and called in question seek to put new life into theology by wider and more humane ideas."
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  • Much has been done of late years to make these subordinate standards of reformed doctrine more generally known.
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  • The form of worship associated with Presbyterianism has been marked by extreme simplicity.
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  • "In no portion of the empire," it has been said, "does the British flag now fly over a divided Presbyterianism, except in the British Isles themselves."
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  • - [[History In Different Countries]] From this general outline of Presbyterianism we now turn to consider its evolution and history in some of the countries with which it is or has been specially associated.
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  • Judged in other ways, however, the influence of the assembly's labours has been very great.
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  • 1 Since the union the growth of the Church has been considerable.
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  • The danger in this direction is that when Presbyterianism has been modified far enough to suit the English taste it may be found less acceptable to its more stalwart supporters from beyond the Tweed.
    0
    0
  • She has been a zealous supporter of Irish national education, which is theoretically "united secular and separate religious instruction."
    0
    0
  • Its polity has been of gradual growth, and still retains some features peculiar to itself.
    0
    0
  • From New England, as has been seen, Puritan settlers established Presbyterian churches (or churches which immediately became Presbyterian) in Long Island, on New Jersey, and in South Carolina; but the Puritans who remained in New England usually established Congregational churches.
    0
    0
  • The bridge by which the Via Aemilia crossed the river Parma, from which it probably takes its name, is still preserved, but has been much altered.
    0
    0
  • The fiction of Belisarius wandering as a blind beggar through the streets of Constantinople, which has been adopted by Marmontel in his Belisaire, and by various painters and poets, is first heard of in the 10th century.
    0
    0
  • The drying-up process has been comparatively rapid since the middle of the 19th century, a town which in 1850 was on the southern margin of the lake being in 1905 over 20 m.
    0
    0
  • In the east, the country of Kanem, the desiccation has been most marked.
    0
    0
  • In 1870 the lake rose to an exceptional height, but since then, save in 1897, there has been only the normal seasonal rise.
    0
    0
  • Kurze (Hanover, 1889); and has been translated into German by J.
    0
    0
  • ==Fauna== The Argentine fauna, like its flora, has been greatly influenced by the character and position of the pampas.
    0
    0
  • Another disturbing influence has been the high protective tariffs, adopted during the closing years of the century, which increased the costs of living more rapidly than the wages for labour, and compelled thousands of immigrants to seek employment elsewhere.
    0
    0
  • Argentina has been a member of the Postal Union since 1878.
    0
    0
  • There has been but slight improvement since that date.
    0
    0
  • Dairy-farming is making rapid strides, and the development of sheep-farming has been remarkable.
    0
    0
  • The guia tax on the transport of stock from one province to another, which has been declared unconstitutional in the courts, is still enforced, and is a vexatious tax upon the stock-raiser, while the consumption, or octroi, tax in Buenos Aires and other cities is a heavy burden upon small producers.
    0
    0
  • Secular education has been vigorously opposed by strict churchmen, and efforts have been made to maintain separate schools under church control.
    0
    0
  • 30, 1905) Unpaid bills, $3,332,594, Paper £8 22,950 The paper currency forms an important part of the internal debt, and has been a fruitful source of trouble to the country.
    0
    0
  • Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
    0
    0
  • It is only from the middle of the I9th century that close attention has been.
    0
    0
  • There were, however, but few prisons in France adapted for the cellular system, and the process of reconstruction has been slow, In 1898 the old Paris prisons of Grande-Roquette, Saint-Plagie and Mazas were demolished, and to replace them a large prison with 1500 cells was erected at Fresnes-ls-Rungis.
    0
    0
  • In all the colonies the judicature has been rendered independent of the executive.
    0
    0
  • The growth of the two cities has been rapid since 1900.
    0
    0
  • The population is about 2200, the natives being Polynesian, though their language has been classified as Melanesian.
    0
    0
  • As the House would, at this ratio, have become unmanageably large, the ratio, which is first settled by Congress before apportionment, has been raised after each census, as will be seen from the accompanying table.
    0
    0
  • A governor has been appointed since 1885, some importance being foreseen for the islands in connexion with the cutting of the Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to Australia opened up by that scheme.
    0
    0
  • It has been growing in repute as a health resort; the only considerable industry is weaving.
    0
    0
  • The one case in which jurisdiction has been given to it by statute is to enforce forfeitures under the statute of 1538.
    0
    0
  • The head of a white goat obtained in 1900 from the mountains at the mouth of Copper river, opposite Kyak Island, has been described as a species apart.
    0
    0
  • In elevating the marsupials to the rank of a sub-class the name Metatheria has been suggested as the title for the higher grade, with Marsupialia as the designation for the single order by which they are now represented.
    0
    0
  • In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.
    0
    0
  • From the number of its cheek-teeth, the banded ant-eater has been regarded as related to some of the primitive Jurassic mammals; but this view is disputed by Mr Bensley, who regards this multiplicity of teeth as a degenerate feature.
    0
    0
  • The occurrence in the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia of fossil marsupials allied to the living Caenolestes has been mentioned above.
    0
    0
  • There seems to have been a replacement of some of these teeth; and it has been suggested that this was of the marsupial type.
    0
    0
  • All that can be done is to form a continuous account in accord with the ancient histories, and with the original formation of the ground, so far as this has been identified by modern exploration.
    0
    0
  • But the site which has been already indicated at the N.E.
    0
    0
  • Since that time, except from 1229 to 12 3 9, and from 124 3 to 1244, the city has been held by the Mahommedans.
    0
    0
  • The growth has been chiefly towards the north and north-west; but there are large suburbs on the west, and on the southwest near the railway station on the plain of Rephaim.
    0
    0
  • Little effort has been made to meet the increased sanitary requirements of the larger population and wider inhabited area.
    0
    0
  • It has been universally admitted that " the palaces " or "the palace " (rd, 3aviXeca) burned down by Alexander are those now in ruins at Takhti Jamshid.
    0
    0
  • After the vigorous reaction has ceased and all the sodium has been used up, the mass is thrown into dilute hydrochloric acid, when the soluble sodium salts go into solution, and the insoluble boron remains as a brown powder, which may by filtered off and dried.
    0
    0
  • The atomic weight of boron has been determined by estimating the water content of pure borax (J.
    0
    0
  • Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
    0
    0
  • 3 it has been reduced to twenty; but in i Chron.
    0
    0
  • The term has been more plausibly identified with l-v-' (fern.
    0
    0
  • In § i and part of § 2 use has been freely made of W.
    0
    0
  • There is no evidence that these days were called shabattu, a word which is rendered by umu nuh libbi, " day of rest of the heart," and has been thought to be the origin of Sabbath.
    0
    0
  • The significance of seven throughout Babylonian literature is very marked, and most of the material has been collected by J.
    0
    0
  • This work has been largely utilized by Ignae-Acsady in his excellent Gabriel Bethlen and his Court (Hung., Budapest, 1890).
    0
    0
  • The estimate to be formed of this reasoning has been well stated by Dr A.
    0
    0
  • Whatever may have been Hegel's own belief in regard to personal immortality, the logical issue of his absolute idealism has been well stated by W.
    0
    0
  • The commerce of the island has been of late years increasing at a rapid rate.
    0
    0
  • The principal buildings which remain are the church of St John, which is become the principal mosque; the hospital, which has been transformed into public granaries; the palace of the grand master, now the residence of the pasha; and the senate-house, which still contains some marbles and ancient columns.
    0
    0
  • Its fires are not volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.
    0
    0
  • The Adelaide, discharging into Adam Bay, has been navigated by large vessels for about 38 m., and small vessels ascend still farther.
    0
    0
  • by large vessels; the East Alligator river, falling into the same gulf, has been navigated for 40 m.
    0
    0
  • As the plains on the Rolling Downs formation are mostly waterless, the discovery of this deep reservoir of water has been of great aid in the development of central Australia.
    0
    0
  • At Sydney, the average rainfall, since observations were commenced, has been 50 in.
    0
    0
  • A theory was therefore propounded that these known types were all derived from a continent which has been named Antarctica.
    0
    0
  • Just as we have evidence of a former mild climate in the arctic regions, so a similar mild climate has been postulated for Antarctica.
    0
    0
  • The " leathery turtle," which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been caught at sea off the Illawarra coast so large as 9 ft.
    0
    0
  • The great crocodile of Queensland has been known to attain a length of 30 ft.; there is a smaller one about 6 ft.
    0
    0
  • No certain cure has been or is likely to be discovered for their poison, but in less serious cases strychnine has been used with advantage.
    0
    0
  • So far the mud-fish has been found only in the Mary and the Burnett rivers.
    0
    0
  • No speculation of hypothesis has been propounded to account satisfactorily for the origin of the Australian flora.
    0
    0
  • As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
    0
    0
  • The expansion has been due mainly to the natural increase; that is, by reason of excess of births over deaths.
    0
    0
  • In the five years 1881-1888 the rate was 8 08 marriages (16.1 persons) per thousand of the population, declining to 6.51 in 1891-1895; in recent years there has been a considerable improvement, and the Australian marriage rate may be quoted as ranging between 6.75 and 7.25.
    0
    0
  • Religious instruction is not imparted by the state-paid teachers in any state, though in certain states persons duly authorized by the religious organizations are allowed to give religious instruction to children of their own denomination where the parents' consent has been obtained.
    0
    0
  • From the date of its first discovery, up to the close of 1905, gold to the value of £460,000,000 sterling has been obtained in Australia.
    0
    0
  • Silver has been discovered in all the states, either alone or in the form of sulphides, antimonial and arsenical ores, chloride, bromide,.
    0
    0
  • Copper is known to exist in all the states, and has been mined extensively in South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland and.
    0
    0
  • For a number of years, however, the mine has been suffered to remain untouched, as the deposits originally worked were found to be depleted.
    0
    0
  • Bismuth is known to exist in all the Australian states, but up to the present time it has been mined for only in three states, viz.
    0
    0
  • Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited.
    0
    0
  • The rare element tellurium has been discovered in New South Wales at Bingara and other parts of the northern districts, as well as at Tarana, on the western line, though at present in such minute quantities as would not repay the cost of working.
    0
    0
  • In New South Wales, in the form of cinnabar, it has been discovered on the Cudgegong river, near Rylstone, and it also occurs at Bingara, Solferino, Yulgilbar and Cooma.
    0
    0
  • Cobalt occurs in New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia, and efforts have been made in the former state to treat the ore, the metal having a high commercial value; but the market is small, and no attempt has been made up to 1907 to produce it on any large scale.
    0
    0
  • Chromium has been discovered in Tasmania also.
    0
    0
  • It has been ascertained from recent explorations that the area of carboniferous formation in that state extends from the Irwin northwards to the Gascoyne river, about 300 m., and probably all the way to the Kimberley district.
    0
    0
  • The coal has been treated and found to be of good quality, and there are grounds for supposing that there are 250,000,000 tons in the field.
    0
    0
  • One of the richest has been found at Greta in the Hunter river district; it contains an average thickness of 41 ft.
    0
    0
  • Black coal has been discovered in Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised.
    0
    0
  • Except in the vicinity of cities and townships, however, little use has been made of the abundant deposits of clay.
    0
    0
  • Asbestos has been found in New South Wales in the Gundagai Bathurst and Broken Hill districts - in the last-mentioned district in considerable quantities.
    0
    0
  • Many descriptions of gems and gem stones have been discovered in various parts of the Australian states, but systematic search has been made principally for the diamond and the noble opal.
    0
    0
  • The oriental topaz has been found in New South Wales.
    0
    0
  • Oriental amethysts also have been found in that state, and the ruby has been found in Queensland, as well as in New South Wales.
    0
    0
  • The bulk of this indebtedness has been contracted for the purpose of constructing railways, tramways, water-supplies, and other revenue-producing works and services, and it is estimated that only 8% of the total indebtedness can be set down for unproductive services.
    0
    0
  • Each family, or family group, had a dual organization which has been termed (i) the Social, (2) the Local.
    0
    0
  • This custom, which has been defined as the invasion of actual marriage by allotting permanent paramours, is confined to a special set of tribes.
    0
    0
  • He left Batavia on what has been designated by Dutch historians the " Happy Voyage," on the 14th of August 1642.
    0
    0
  • nearly 134°, which is the most central marked point of the Australian continent, and has been named Central Mount Stuart.
    0
    0
  • The bodies of Burke and Wills were recovered and brought to Melbourne for a solemn public funeral, and a noble monument has been erected to their honour.
    0
    0
  • Taking the states as a whole, agrarian legislation has been the most important subject that has engrossed the attention of their parliaments, and every state has been more or less engaged in tinkering with its land laws.
    0
    0
  • In Victoria the law has been altered five times, and in Queensland and South Australia seven times.
    0
    0
  • To the Labour party in that state are admitted only persons who have worked for their living at manual labour, and this qualification of being an actual worker is one that was strongly insisted upon at the formation of the party and strictly adhered to, although the temptation to break away from it and accept as candidates persons of superior education and position has been very great.
    0
    0
  • They still contain many old and valuable ecclesiastical objects of art, although a great part has been removed to the various monasteries in Moldavia.
    0
    0
  • in 209, has been called Artabanus by some modern authors without any reason.
    0
    0
  • The ship's rudder, which was recovered in 1859, has been fashioned into a chair and a table, now in the possession of Lloyd's.
    0
    0
  • The original name of Palenque has been lost, and its present name is taken from the neighbouring village, Santo Domingo del Palenque.
    0
    0
  • The origin of his family has been traced back as far as the end of the 14th century.
    0
    0
  • But when the Panama "scandal" has been forgotten, for centuries to come the traveller in saluting the statue of Ferdinand de Lesseps at the entrance of the Suez Canal will pay homage to one of the most powerful embodiments of the creative genius of the 19th century.
    0
    0
  • The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
    0
    0
  • A statue to his honour has been erected at Maros-Vasarhely, but he lives still more enduringly in the immortal verses of the patriot poet Sandor Petofi, who fell in the fatal action of the 31st of July at Segesvar.
    0
    0
  • The first choir was burned down in 1213, but was rebuilt in 1242 at the same time as the transept, and is a superb specimen of pointed Gothic. There are five towers with spires, which give the outside an impressive appearance, and much has been done towards removing the squalid buildings that formerly concealed the cathedral.
    0
    0
  • In England materialism has been endemic, so to speak, from Hobbes to the present time, and English materialism is more important perhaps than that of any other country.
    0
    0
  • It is true that the killing of the god plays a prominent part in primitive cults, as has been shown more particularly through the valuable researches of J.
    0
    0
  • Gold is worked with success in Pahang, and has been exploited from time immemorial by the natives of that state and of Kelantan.
    0
    0
  • Malarial fevers make their appearance in places where the forest has been recently felled, or where the surface earth has been disturbed.
    0
    0
  • The Malays formerly suffered severely from smallpox epidemics, but in the portion of the peninsula under British rule vaccination has been introduced, and the ravages of the disease no longer assume serious dimensions.
    0
    0
  • Johor is the only Malay state in the southern portion of the peninsula, the whole of which is within the British sphere, which has been suffered to remain under native rule.
    0
    0
  • On account of this, it has been suggested that in a forgotten past the Sakai were themselves the fashioners of the stone implements, and certain it is that all tools which have no representatives among the stone kelts are known to the Sakai by obvious corruptions of their Malayan names.
    0
    0
  • The shafts are placed so close together that in many instances they are divided by only a couple of feet of solid ground, but at their bases a considerable amount of gallery work has been excavated, though it is possible that this was done by miners who came after the people who originally sank the shafts.
    0
    0
  • The importance of the Malay Peninsula, as has been noted, consisted in the privilege which its locality conferred upon it of being the distributing centre of the spices brought thither from the Moluccas en route for India and Europe.
    0
    0
  • The desire to obtain the monopoly of the spice trade has been a potent force in the fashioning of Asiatic history.
    0
    0
  • From the traces of a Roman road between Nantwich and Middlewich, and the various Roman remains that have been found in the neighbourhood, it has been conjectured that Nantwich was a salttown in Roman times, but of this there is no conclusive evidence.
    0
    0
  • It has been quarried since 1785; marble monuments were first manufactured about 1808; and at South Dorset in 1818 marble seems first to have been sawed in blocks, the earlier method having been chiselling.
    0
    0
  • Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
    0
    0
  • Vermont has been governed under the constitution of 1777, that of 1786 and that of 1793, with twentyeight amendments, of which the first was adopted in 1828, the second to thirteenth in 1836, the fourteenth to twenty-third in 1850, the twenty-fourth, twenty-fifth and twenty-sixth in 1870, and the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth in 1883.
    0
    0
  • In presidential campaigns the state has been Federalist, 1792-1800; Democratic-Republican, 1804-1820; Adams-Republican, 1824-1828; Anti-Masonic, 1832; Whig, 1836-1852; and Republican since 1856.
    0
    0
  • The wool-growing industry has been almost entirely destroyed by the competition of Australia and the West, and the people are now engaged mainly in dairy-farming, timbering, graniteand marble-quarrying, and in keeping summer boarders.
    0
    0
  • The chronicler Saxo Grammaticus mentions in his Gesta Danorum the "rampart of Jutland" (Jutiae moenia) as having been once more extended by Valdemar the Great (1157-1182), which has been cited among the proofs that Schleswig (S4 nderjylland) forms an integral part of Jutland (Manuel hist.
    0
    0
  • But Einstein's work has been by no means confined to such abstract questions.
    0
    0
  • The constitution of fulminic acid has been investigated by many experimenters, but apparently without definitive results.
    0
    0
  • It has been general since the 9th century.
    0
    0
  • It has been sometimes misspelt "Tapacolo," as by C. Darwin, who gave (Journal of Researches, chap. xii.) a brief but entertaining account of the habits of this bird and its relative, Hylactes megapodius, called by the Chilenos "El Turco."
    0
    0
  • This result has been confirmed by its synthesis by A.
    0
    0
  • In its construction an attempt has been made to produce a building suitable for Christian worship whilst the architecture is Moorish in style.
    0
    0
  • Much damage has been done by earthquakes from time to time.
    0
    0
  • sessiliflora in the New Forest, has been adopted by foresters as a general term for this kind of oak; it seems to be the most prevalent form in Germany and in the south of Europe.
    0
    0
  • An important product of oak woods is the bark that from a remote period has been the chief tanning material of Europe.
    0
    0
  • The bark of young oak branches has been employed in medicine from the days of Dioscorides, but is not used in modern practice.
    0
    0
  • A bitter principle to which the name of quercin has been applied by Gerber, its discoverer, has also been detected in the acorn of the common oak; the nutritive portion seems chiefly a form of starch.
    0
    0
  • A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.
    0
    0
  • The oak in Europe is liable to injury from a great variety of insect enemies: the young wood is attacked by the larvae of the small stag-beetle and several other Coleoptera, and those of the wood-leopard moth, goat moth and other Lepidoptera feed upon it occasionally; the foliage is devoured by innumerable larvae; indeed, it has been stated that half the plant-eating insects of England prey more or less upon the oak, and in some seasons it is difficult to find a leaf perfectly free from their depredations.
    0
    0
  • His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk, which was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with the royal house of Stuart.
    0
    0
  • "It has been hitherto," Cromwell said, "a matter of, I think, but philosophical discourse, that a great place, a great authority, is a great burthen.
    0
    0
  • Worcester, his crowning victory, has been indicated by a German critic as the prototype of Sedan.
    0
    0
  • It has been said that his battles were decided by shock action; the real emphasis should be laid upon the word "decided."
    0
    0
  • Cromwell's personal character has been inevitably the subject of unceasing controversy.
    0
    0
  • In particular that conception which regarded "ambition" as the guiding motive in his career has been dispelled by a more intimate and accurate knowledge of his life; this shows him to have been very little the creator of his own career, which was largely the result of circumstances outside his control, the influence of past events and of the actions of others, the pressure of the national will, the natural superiority of his own genius.
    0
    0
  • Competent critics to-day recognize that such a view is impossible; and it has been suggested with Xxvii.
    0
    0
  • It has been suggested that we here have recorded the utterances of glossolalists.
    0
    0
  • More recently, the area has been further explored by the German expedition in the ss.
    0
    0
  • " National, " the Danish " Ingolf " expedition, and the minor expeditions of the " Michael Sars," " Jackal," " Research," &c., and since 1902 it has been periodically examined by the International Council for the Study of the Sea.
    0
    0
  • About the facts of his life there has been much difference of opinion.
    0
    0
  • Since the pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile.
    0
    0
  • A good deal of what passes under his name has been wrongly attributed to him.
    0
    0
  • This collection, which has been widely read, is a pendant to the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius and the monkish tales of Sozomen.
    0
    0
  • The church history has been published frequently in connexion with the histories of Socrates, Sozomen and others, e.g.
    0
    0
  • It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
    0
    0
  • The latter play was 1 Some doubt has been expressed as to whether the eggs are extruded or hatched within the body.
    0
    0
  • A new light has been thrown on the 7raparcXauviOupov of the Curculio .047-155) by the discovery of the Alexandrian erotic fragment published by Grenfell and Hunt (Oxford, 1896).
    0
    0
  • That there are many inconsistencies and signs of carelessness in his work has been proved in detail by Langen.
    0
    0
  • Shakespeare's Taming of the Shrew has been influenced in several respects (including the names Tranio and Grumio) by the Mostellaria.
    0
    0
  • A judicial system has been instituted to which natives as well as Europeans are amenable.
    0
    0
  • On the whole the history of the colony has been one of peaceful progress, interrupted now and again, as in 1903, by severe droughts.
    0
    0
  • Whitstable has been famous for its oyster beds from time immemorial.
    0
    0
  • A violent gust strikes the plate, which is driven back and carried by its own momentum far past the position in which a steady wind of the same force would place it; by the time the motion has reached the pen it has been greatly exaggerated by the springiness of the connexion, and not only is the plate itself driven too far back, but also its position is wrongly recorded by the pen; the combined errors act the same way, and more than double the real maximum pressure may be indicated on the chart.
    0
    0
  • of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure the wind velocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactory results.
    0
    0
  • In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
    0
    0
  • Fichte's general views on philosophy seem to have changed considerably as he advanced in years, and his influence has been impaired by certain inconsistencies and an appearance of eclecticism, which is strengthened by his predominantly historical treatment of problems, his desire to include divergent systems within his own, and his conciliatory tone.
    0
    0
  • art of music. Something has been said above as to its earlier aspects, in the time of Haydn.
    0
    0
  • The development of pianoforte technique since Beethoven has been in some ways even more revolutionizing than that of the brass instruments; and pianoforte instrumentation, both in solo and in chamber-music, is a study for a lifetime.
    0
    0
  • A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
    0
    0
  • The female is viviparous, and the young, which, unlike the parent, are provided with a long tail, live free in water; it was formerly believed from the frequency with which the legs and feet were attacked by this parasite that the embryo entered the skin directly from the water, but it has been shown by Fedschenko, and confirmed by Manson, Leiper and others, that the larva bores its way into the body of a Cyclops and there undergoes further development.
    0
    0
  • This simple type of life-history has been experimentally proved by Leuckart to be characteristic of Trichocephalus affinis, Oxyuris ambigua and other species.
    0
    0
  • Much attention has been paid to the improvement of the mechanical details of the lifting and other motions of cranes, and in important installations the gearing is now usually made of cast steel.
    0
    0
  • Ore of cobalt is obtained in no other locality in India, and although zinc blende has been found elsewhere it is known to have been extracted only in this province.
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  • Since then the political history of Rajputana has been comparatively uneventful.
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  • The authorship of an anonymous work, Squitinio della libertd Veneta, published at Mirandola in 1612, has been attributed to him.
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  • After the cable has been again subjected to the proper electrical tests and found to be in perfect condition, the ship is taken to the place where the shore end is to be landed.
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  • Owing to the experience gained with many thousands of miles of cable in all depths and under varying conditions of weather and climate, the risk, and consequently the cost, of laying has been greatly reduced.
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  • When this has been done an electrical test is applied, and if the original fracture is between ship and shore the heaving in of cable will continue until the end comes on board.
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  • After the " final splice," as it is termed, between these ends has been made, the bight, made fast to a slip rope, is lowered overboard, the slip rope cut, and the cable allowed to sink by its own weight to its resting-place on the sea bed.
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  • As an ordinary instance, it has been stated that the cost of repairing the Direct United States cable up to 1900 from its submergence in 1874 averaged £8000 per annum.
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  • In depths beyond the reach of wave motion, and apart from suspension across a submarine gully, which will sooner or later result in a rupture of the cable, the most frequent cause of interruption is seismic or other shifting of the ocean bed, while in shallower waters and near the shore the dragging of anchors or 40 fishing trawls has been mostly responsible.
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  • Since by international agreement the wilful damage of a cable has been constituted a criminal offence, and the cable companies have avoided crossing the fishing banks, or have adopted the wise policy of refunding the value of anchors lost on their cables, the number of such fractures has greatly diminished.
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  • At offices where the work is heavier than can be dealt with by the A B C apparatus, the " Single Needle " instrument has been very largely employed; it has the advantage of slight Single liability to derangement, and of requiring very little adjustment.
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  • This form of relay is largely used, but in Great Britain it has been entirely .flisplaced by the form shown in fig.
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  • When a combination of signals has been received and the armatures have taken up their respective positions corresponding to the transmitting keyboard, certain mechanism in the receiver translates the position of the five armatures into a mechanical movement which lifts the paper tape against a type-wheel and prints the corresponding letter.
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  • One of the longest circuits upon which it has been successfully worked is that between St Petersburg and Omsk, a distance of approximately 2400 miles of iron wire, with three repeating stations.
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  • The peculiar construction of AC has been already referred to.
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  • In what is known as the " hybrid " form of recorder the permanent magnets are provided with windings of insulated copper wire; the object of these windings is to provide a means of " refreshing " the magnets by means of a strong current temporarily sent through the coils when required, as it has been found that, owing to magnetic leakage and other causes, the magnets tend to lose their power, especially in hot climates.
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  • Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.
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  • A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
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  • Evershed, and has been practically adopted at Lavernock and Flat Holme.
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  • Such a bolometer receiver has been used by C. Tissot (Comptes rendus, 1904, 137, p. 846) and others as a receiver in electric wave telegraphy.
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  • Very valuable work in devising forms of antennae for directive radio-telegraphy has been done by MM.
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  • The so-called musical arc of Duddell has been the subject of considerable investigation, and physicists are not entirely in accordance as to the true explanation of the mode of production of the oscillations.
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  • Poulsen's method of producing continuous or undamped electrical waves has been applied by him in radio-telegraphy.
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  • Much work has been done on this matter by E.
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  • An immense mass of information has been gathered on the scientific processes which are involved in electric wave telegraphy.
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  • It also forms amalgams with mercury, and on this account has been employed in dentistry for the purpose of stopping (or filling) teeth.
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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
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  • The atomic weight of cadmium has been revised by G.
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  • Another and somewhat similar example is furnished by what has been variously designated as the " string," toy," " lovers," and " mechanical " telephone.
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  • The chief difficulty with this transmitter, and with various others of later date based upon it, has been the frequent packing of the carbon granules, which renders the instrument inoperative.
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  • It is not practicable to connect each subscriber directly to all the others, hence a system of exchanges has been adopted.
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  • The fundamental principle of the magneto system has been described in connexion with the " Standard board."
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  • The " call-wire " system has been used to some extent, but it is now obsolete.
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  • An improvement in this respect has been effected by the insertion of condensers in the cord circuits, coupled with the use of two sets of impedance coils, one set on each.
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  • Several schemes embodying this idea have been developed, and one of them has been put into extensive operation.
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  • This form of cable has been superseded by a type with paper insulation.
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  • The cable is then placed in an oven, and, after all moisture has been driven off, it is passed through a lead press whence it emerges protected by a continuous lead pipe.
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  • Speech has been habitually transmitted for business purposes over a distance of 1542.3 m., viz., over the lines of the American Telegraph and Telephone Company from Omaha to Boston.
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  • Conversation has been carried on over 2200 m.
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  • As no practical process of telephone relaying has been devised, it is extremely important that the character of the line should be such as to favour the preservation of the strength and form of the telephone current.
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  • Many circuits have been " loaded " in the manner proposed by Pupin during recent years, especially in underground cables, and it has been found in practice that the transmission value of these when loaded is approximately from three to four times their value unloaded.
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  • The problem, however, of constructing a deep-sea cable satisfactorily, with suitable inductance coils inserted at short distances apart, is a difficult one, and one which it cannot be said has been solved.
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  • For subscribers who desire the telephone for occasional use, the party-line system has been devised, whereby several telephones are connected to one line leading to the exchange.
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  • A reduction has been made in the charges for trunk calls at night, and calls for single periods of three minutes are allowed at half the ordinary rates between 7 p.m.
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  • In those cases in which the company's licence has been extended beyond 1911 (Glasgow to 1913, Swansea to 1926, Brighton to 1926 and Portsmouth to 1926) the Postmaster-General will buy the unexpired licence with allowance for goodwill.
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  • The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
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  • It has been proved that the secretion contains a digestive ferment capable of rendering proteid matter soluble.
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  • - Spadix of Arum niaculatum from which the greater part of the spathe has been cut away.
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  • On the latter hypothesis it has been generally assumed that the wild camels are the descendants of droves of the domesticated breed which escaped when certain central Asian cities were overwhelmed by sand-storms. This theory, according to Professor Leche, is rendered improbable by Dr Sven Hedin's observations on the habits and mode of life of the wild camel.
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  • This is most clearly marked on the side of the Apennines, where the great Aemilian Way, which has been the high road from the time of the Romans to our own, preserves an unbroken straight line from Rimini to Piacenza, a distance of more than 150 m., during which the underfalls of the mountains continually approach it on the left, without once crossing the line of road.
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  • The Apennines (q.v.), as has been already mentioned, here traverse the whole breadth of Italy, cutting off the peninsula properly so termed from the broader mass of Northern Italy by a continuous barrier of considerable breadth, though of far inferior elevation to that of the Alps The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighborhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.
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  • The eucalyptus is of quite modern introduction; it has been extensively planted in malarious districts.
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  • It has been defined as apparently a kind of collective madness.
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  • Cereal If 1,828 2,044 cultivation occupies the foremost 599 74,209 111,943 place in area and quantity though i68 2,966 2,715 it has been on the decline since f903, still representing, however, an)56 477,191 718,221 advance on previous years.
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  • The vine has been attacked by the Oidium Tuckeri, the Phylloxera vastatrix and the Peronospora viticola, which in rapid succession wrought great havoc in Italian vineyards.
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  • There has been some improvement, however, while some of the heavier white wines, noticeably the Marsala of Sicily, have excellent keeping qualities.
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  • This has been encouraged by government prizes since 1904.
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  • This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.
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  • The possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social justice.
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  • For sponge fishing no accurate statistics are available before 1896; in that year 75 tons of sponges were secured, but there has been considerable diminution since, only 31 tons being obtained in 1902.
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  • The industrial progress of Italy has been great since 1880.
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  • Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
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  • Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
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  • The number has been reduced to less than half since 1897 by the suppression of smaller factories, while the production has increased from 47,690 millions to 59,741 millions.
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  • The rise of the industry has been favored by protective tariffs and by a system of excise which allows a considerable premium to manufacturers.
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  • Much has been done in keeping out the insects by fine wire netting placed on the windows and the doors of houses, especially in the railwaymens cottages.
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  • Women are, as a rule, paid less than men, and though their wages have also increased, the rise has been slighter than in the case of men.
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  • It thus appears that co-operation flourishes most in the districts in which the mezzadria system has been prevalent.
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  • Since 1899 there has been a steady increase both in imports and exports.
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  • As might be expected, progress has been most rapid wherever education, at the moment of national unification, was most widely diffused.
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  • There has been a corr~2sponding increase in the number of scholars.
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  • The rate of increase in the public state-supported schools has been much greater than in the private schools.
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  • The law of 1877 rendering education compulsory for children between six and nine years of age has been the principal cause of the spread of elementary education.
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  • The greatest increase has taken place in technical educarion, where it has been much more rapid than in classical education.
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  • An inventory of those subjects, the exportation of which can in no case be permitted, has been prepared; and the ministry has at its disposal a fund of 200,000 for the purchase of important works of art of al] kinds.
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  • Its effect, however, has been comparatively small.
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  • The materiel of the Italian navy has been completely transformed, especially in Virtue of the bill of the 31st of March 1875.
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  • The income of 60,741,418 in 1881 rose in 1899-1900 to 69,917,126; while the expenditure increased from 58,705,929 in 1881 to 69,708,706 in 1899-1900, an increase of 9,175,708 in income and 11,002,777 in expenditure, while there has been a still further increase since, the figures for 1905-1906 showing (excluding items which figure on both sides of the account) an increase of 8,766,995 in income and 5,434,560 in expenditure over 1899-1900.
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  • The buildings impost has been assessed since 1866 upon the basis of 12.50% of taxable revenue.
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  • - increased, especially that from the income tax on personal estate and the Customs, the yield from which has been nearly doubled.
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  • The most important change introduced by the new law has been the creation in every province of a provincial administrative junta entrusted with the supervision of communal administrations, a function previously discharged by the provincial deputation.
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  • No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
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  • A vast amount of material on the Risorgimenti has been published both in Italy and abroad as well as numeron works of a literary and critical nature.
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  • The question whether this surplus was real or only apparent has been much debated, but t,here is no reason to doubt its substantial reality.
    0
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  • The first of the annalists, the father of Roman history, as he has been called, was Q.
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  • C. Licinius Macer (died 66), who has been called the last of the annalists, wrote a voluminous work, which, although he paid great attention to the study of his authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the achievements of his own family.
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  • In one subdivision of the leeches, the Gnathobdellidae, the mouth has three chitinous jaws which produce a triangular bite, though the action has been described as like that of a circular saw.
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  • The leech has been used in medicine from remote antiquity as a moderate blood-letter; and it is still so used, though more rarely than formerly.
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  • The morality of this course has been much canvassed, though it seems really to involve nothing more than an express declaration of what the two oaths implied.
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  • Now, in considering the body of writings connected with this Veda, we are at once confronted by the fact that there are two different schools, an older and a younger one, in which the traditional body of ritualistic matter has been treated in a very different way.
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  • Whilst the Soma-sacrifice has been thus developed by the Brahmanas in an extraordinary degree, its essential identity with the Avestan Haoma-cult shows that its origin goes back at all events to the Indo-Iranian period.
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  • These speculations may be said to have formed the foundation on which the theory of the sacrifice, as propounded in the Brahmanas, has been reared.
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  • Raynaudus's authorities, in favour of the recognition of a natural theology and against it, do not, so far as the present writer has been able to consult them, use the expression.
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  • 28), identifying (so far as preserved) thirteen other Gods with Marduk, has been hailed by Friedrich Delitzsch (Babel and Bibel) as the great fountain-head of monotheism, and has influenced the bold if highly precarious conjectures of H.
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  • In Christian theology, much labour has been spent upon vindicating man's freedom against God's intrusion, or upon blotting out human power in order to leave room for the divine.
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  • In point of fact, as we look to history, we find that theism has been much simplified and cut down.
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  • First of all, attention has been concentrated upon God.
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  • Herbert Spencer finds that the modern individual has intuitions of duty which represent the inherited experience of what has been good for the race in the past.
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  • It has been truly observed' that the lineaments of Cicero intuitionalism are very clear in him.
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  • Later theists may be grouped according as their thought has been remoulded or not by the influences of Kant.
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  • In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.
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  • Browning has been charged by H.
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  • The theistic writers are usually intuitionalists; but it has been urged above that a fruitful study of theism must in each case inquire what is the writer's philosophical basis.
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  • James Ward's masterly criticism of Herbert Spencer (Naturalism and Agnosticism) has been mentioned above.
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  • It does not, as has been sometimes asserted, in any way establish a representative system, as this is understood to-day.
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  • Of imported animals, cattle, goats, asses and dogs thrive well, ponies and horses indifferently, and sheep badly, though some success has been achieved in breeding them.
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  • The traditional charge of cannibalism has been very persistent; but it is entirely denied by the islanders themselves, and is now and probably always has been untrue.
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  • It is inter esting to note that Mnestra has been shown by J.
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  • It has been shown above that polyps are budded only from polyps and that the medusae may be budded either from polyps or from medusae.
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  • It has been maintained that the gonads of Hydra represent sporosacs or gonophores greatly reduced, with the last traces of medusoid structure completely obliterated.
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  • (I) True fission or longitudinal division of an individual into two equal and similar daughter-individuals is not common but occurs in Gastroblasta, where it has been described in detail by Arnold Lang [30].
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  • (a) The Polyp. - Budding from the ectoderm alone has been described by A.
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  • The budding of this medusa has been worked out in detail by Chun (Hydrozoa, [1]), to whom the reader must be referred for the interesting laws of budding regulating the sequence and order of formation of the buds.
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  • This method of reproduction has been described by E.
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  • This must not be taken to mean, however, that the medusa is derived from a sessile polyp; it must be regarded as a direct modification of the more ancient free actinula form, without primitively any intervening polyp-stage, such as has been introduced secondarily into the development of the Leptolinae and represents 'a revival, so to speak, of an ancestral form or larval stage, which has taken on a special role in the economy of the species.
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  • It has been shown by C. F.
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  • The phylogenetic position of this genus has been discussed above.
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  • - This order has been constituted for a peculiar group of palaeozoic fossils, which have been interpreted as the remains of the skeletons of Hydrozoa of an extinct type.
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  • It has been asserted that the tentaculocysts are entirely ectodermal and that either the family should be placed amongst the Leptomedusae, or should form, together with certain Leptomedusae, an entirely distinct order.
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  • Since then it has been discovered in other botanic gardens in various parts of Europe, its two most recent appearances being at Lyons (1901) and Munich (1905), occurring always in tanks in which the Victoria regia is cultivated, a fact which indicates that tropical South America is its original habitat.
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