There are few wild animals; but the eland, hartebeest and smaller antelopes are found, as well as the leopard and the jackal.
The antelopes include the beisa oryx, fairly common and widely distributed; the greater and lesser kudu (the greater kudu is not found on the Ogaden plateau); the Somali hartebeest (Bubalis Swaynei), found only in the Haud and Ogo districts; waterbuck, rare except along the Webi Shebeli and the Nogal; the dol or Somali bushbuck; the dibatag or Clarke's gazelle; the giraffe-like gerenuk or Waller's gazelle, very common; the aoul or Soemmering's gazelle, widely distributed; the dero (Gazella Speki); and the small dikdik or sakaro antelope, found in almost every thicket.
Western Cape Colony, is represented by the Brak and Ongers rivers, and, farther west, by the Zak and Olifants rivers, which, united as the Hartebeest, reach the Orange about 25 m.
Between the mouths of the Hartebeest and Molopo, in 28° 35' S., 20° 20' E., are the great waterfalls of the Orange, where in a series of cataracts and cascades the river drops 400 ft.
Hyenas, jackals, wild pig, polecats and wild dogs (Canis pictus) of different species are still found in or about bush jungles and forest clumps; elands (Antilope oreas) are preserved on some estates, and there are at least ten distinct species of antelope (hartebeest, bushbok, duiker, rietbok, rhebok, rovibok, blauwbok, &c.).
Many species of antelope are found, mostly in small numbers, including the kudu, hartebeest, the sable and roan antelope, the white tailed and the brindled gnu, waterbuck, red buck, duiker, blesbok, palla, springbuck (numerous), steinbok, grysbok and klipspringer.
The hartebeest appears now to be quite extinct; so also is the leucoryx, though formerly these two antelopes were found right up to the centre of Tunisia, as was also the ostrich, now entirely absent from the country.
Roman mosaics show representations not only of this ass, but of the oryx, hartebeest, and perhaps of the addax.
The last section of the true antelopes is the Bubalinae, represented by the hartebeest, Bubalis, blesbok and sassaby (Damaliscus), and the gnu or wildebeest (Connochaetes, also called Catoblepas), all being African with the exception of one or two hartebeests which range into Syria.
- Cape Hartebeest (Bubalis cama).
An antelope from the Lower Pliocene of Northern India known as Bubalis, or Damaliscus, palaeindicus indicates the occurrence of the hartebeest group in that country.
HARTEBEEST, the Boer name for a large South African antelope (also known as caama) characterized by its red colour, long face with naked muzzle and sharply angulated lyrate horns, which are present in both sexes.
This antelope is the Cape Hartebeest (Bubalis canna).
Bubalis cama or Alcelaphus cama of naturalists; but the name hartebeest has been extended to include all the numerous members of the same genus, some of which are to be found in every part of Africa, while one or two extend into Syria.
Among the varieties are the greater and lesser kudu (both rather rare); the duiker, gemsbuck, hartebeest, gerenuk (the most common - it has long thin legs and a camel-like neck); klipspringer, found on the high plateaus as well as in the lower districts; and the dik-dik, the smallest of the antelopes, its weight rarely exceeding so lb, common in the low countries and the foothills.
From the south a number of streams, the Brak and Ongers, the Zak and Olifants Vlei (the two last uniting to form the Hartebeest), flow north towards the Orange in its middle course.