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hardening

hardening

hardening Sentence Examples

  • One of the most valuable characteristics of the iron alloys is their capacity for hardening, which they owe in the main to the presence of certain small percentages of carbon relatively to minute quantities of other elements: as manganese, tungsten, nickel and others of less importance.

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  • Silicic hardening does not begin till the full height is nearly attained.

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  • "The government pretty much abandoned us," Kelli said, tone hardening.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and slightly darkening with age.

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  • Hardening And Tempering Annealing >>

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  • The shares, when made of the same material, required constant sharpening; this necessity was removed by the device, patented by Robert Ransome in 1803, of chilling and so hardening the under-surface of the share; the upper surface, which is soft, then wears away more quickly than the chilled part, whereby a sharp edge is always assured.

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  • The color is fixed and the glaze set by secondary firing at a lower temperature than that necessary for hardening the p4te.

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  • To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.

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  • In their train came the great field preachers of Wales, like John Elias and Christmas Evans, and later the Primitive Methodists, who by their camp meetings and itinerancies kept religious enthusiasm alive when Wesleyan Methodism was in peril of hardening.

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  • In this tribe are included Orthoptera with a large prothorax, whose eggs are enclosed in a common purse or capsule formed by the hardening of a maternal secretion.

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  • Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.

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  • As a result, certain varieties, such as blister steel, are called " steel " solely because they have the hardening power, and others, such as low-carbon steel, solely because they are free from slag.

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  • But the former lack the essential quality, slaglessness, which makes the latter steel, and the latter lack the essential quality, the hardening power, which makes the former steel.

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  • Steel is iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and also is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (b) is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.

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  • That the ancients should have discovered an art of hardening bronze is grossly improbable, first because it is not to be hardened by any simple process like the hardening of steel, and second because, if they had, then a large proportion of the ancient bronze tools now known ought to be hard, which is not the case.

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  • 23-79) the relative value of different baths for hardening was known, and oil preferred for hardening small tools.

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  • This change from austenite to ferrite and cementite, from the y through the # to the a state, is of course accompanied by the loss of the " hardening power," i.e.

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  • the power of being hardened by sudden cooling, because the essence of this hardening is the retention of the (3 state.

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  • As such steel cools slowly past Ar3, Ar 2 and Ar 1, it loses its hardening power progressively.

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  • Thermal Treatment.-The hardening, tempering and annealing of steel, the chilling and annealing of cast iron, and the annealing of malleable cast iron are explained readily by the facts just set forth.

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  • The hardening of steel consists in first transforming it into austenite by heating it up into region 4 of fig.

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  • The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.

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  • Like the hardening of steel, it hinders the transformation of the austenite, whether primary or eutectic, into pearlite+cementite, and thus catches part of the iron in transit in the hard a state.

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  • Its combination of ductility with strength and hardening power has given it very extended use for the armour of war-vessels.

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  • The many steel objects which need an extremely hard outer surface but a softer and more malleable interior may be carburized superficially by heating them in contact with charcoal or other carbonaceous matter, for instance for between 5 and 48 hours at a temperature of 800° to goo° C. This is known as " case hardening."

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  • The plate is then by Krupp's process heated so that its impact face is above while its rear is below the hardening temperature, and the whole is then cooled suddenly with sprays of cold water.

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  • Under these conditions the hardness, which is very extreme at the impact face, shades off toward the back, till at about quarter way from face to back all hardening ceases, and the rest of the plate is in a very strong, shock-resisting state.

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  • The hardening of the extremities of the fibro-vascular tissue is the cause of the spiny margin of many leaves, such as the holly, of the sharp-pointed leaves of madder, and of mucronate leaves, or those having a blunt end with a hard projection in the centre.

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  • Tannin is a hardening and astringent substance, and in large quantities impairs digestion.

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  • Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial.

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  • It is generally admitted that the aluminate is the chief agent in the first setting of the cement, and that its ultimate hardening and attainment of strength are due to the tricalcium silicate.

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  • The capacity for hardening is an invaluable property not only in regard to cutting-tools, but also in prolonging the life of parts subjected to severe friction.

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  • The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.

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  • Generally speaking they do not share in the special modifications of the flowering glumes, and rarely themselves undergo modification, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sclerachne, Manisuris, Anthe- phora, Peltophorum), so as to afford greater protection to the flowers or fruit.

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  • Types of muffle furnaces are figured in the article Annealing, Hardening And Tempering.

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  • Hardening, Jenn turned away and retreated through the forest and rocks to the compound.

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  • "The government pretty much abandoned us," Kelli said, tone hardening.

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  • The musical biopic is hardening into a formula of lots of suffering and then final salvation.

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  • chamois inserts are synthetic and can be washed repeatedly without fear of hardening.

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  • Once slip has started the stress required for further plastic deformation increases a little, due to work hardening in the material.

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  • hardening the arteries over time.

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  • hardening of the arteries ' .

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  • hardening of the arteries.

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  • hardening of attitude by the Germans.

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  • hardening of public opinion about crime since the 1990s.

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  • hardening of the heart toward our fellow men.

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  • hardening of positions over the last few weeks is not necessarily a negative indicator.

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  • A ' tolerable ' leader is required to prevent a further hardening of the anti-Conservative vote.

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  • They also help to reduce hardening of the arteries.

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  • ARDEX S 20 Gray, flexible rapid hardening and rapid drying natural stone tile adhesive, reduced risk of water staining.

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  • As a result of this gradual hardening and fibrosis of the fascia, symptoms may arise many years after the original incident.

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  • hardening process, added at 1% - 3% by weight.

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  • hardening effect upon the conscience.

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  • hardening floor tile bedding mortar in conjunction with ARDEX E 90 admixture.

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  • This is known as precipitation hardening, or age hardening.

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  • The increase in stress upon yield stress is due to material strain hardening.

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  • induction hardening: this involves selective heating of the surface region of the gear using induction coils.

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  • The Harrow Safe Home Project has brought gains through target hardening.

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  • More refined surface hardening can be achieved with lasers or electron beams.

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  • Quarry sap - the moisture found in most newly quarried stone which quickly dries out forming the case hardening.

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  • precipitation hardening, or age hardening.

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  • ARDEX S 21 mixed with sand provides a thin screed with rapid hardening properties allowing walkability and tiling after only three hours.

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  • The wind shifted and we took a heading heading slightly toward Brixham before dropping the spinnaker, hardening up and making for Dartmouth.

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  • The cathedral is faced with pale grey limestone, easily chiselled, but hardening on exposure.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • 21, d) - such as may be noticed in the majority of the Lepidoptera - whose appendages are closely and immovably pressed to the body by a general hardening and fusion of the cuticle.

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    0
  • His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.

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  • The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and slightly darkening with age.

    0
    0
  • The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere.

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    0
  • Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.

    0
    0
  • Hardening And Tempering Annealing >>

    0
    0
  • The shares, when made of the same material, required constant sharpening; this necessity was removed by the device, patented by Robert Ransome in 1803, of chilling and so hardening the under-surface of the share; the upper surface, which is soft, then wears away more quickly than the chilled part, whereby a sharp edge is always assured.

    0
    0
  • The color is fixed and the glaze set by secondary firing at a lower temperature than that necessary for hardening the p4te.

    0
    0
  • To this we may add a fantastic and absurd allegorization, the indiscriminate laudation of saints and martyrs, polemical strife, the hardening of the doctrine into dogma, the development of a narrow ecclesiasticism, and the failure of the missionary spirit in the orthodox section of the Eastern Church (as contrasted with the marvellous evangelistic activity of the Nestorians.

    0
    0
  • In their train came the great field preachers of Wales, like John Elias and Christmas Evans, and later the Primitive Methodists, who by their camp meetings and itinerancies kept religious enthusiasm alive when Wesleyan Methodism was in peril of hardening.

    0
    0
  • resina, probably Latinized from Greek prpivri, resin), a secretion formed in special resin canals or passages of plants, from many of which, such as, for example, coniferous trees, it exudes in soft tears, hardening into solid masses in the air.

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  • Thus intransitive bases seem to have begun only with soft consonants, and it is doubtful whether the parent tongue possessed hard consonants at all; while transitive bases were formed by hardening of the initial consonants and at the same time pronouncing the words in a higher tone, and these two latter changes are supposed to have been indicated by a prefix to the base-word.

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  • In this tribe are included Orthoptera with a large prothorax, whose eggs are enclosed in a common purse or capsule formed by the hardening of a maternal secretion.

    0
    0
  • Between 1860 and 1870 the invention of the Bessemer and open-hearth processes introduced a new class of iron to-day called " mild " or " carbon wcarbon steel," which lacked the essential property of steel, the hardening power, yet differed from the existing forms of wrought iron in freedom from slag, and from cast iron in being very malleable.

    0
    0
  • As a result, certain varieties, such as blister steel, are called " steel " solely because they have the hardening power, and others, such as low-carbon steel, solely because they are free from slag.

    0
    0
  • But the former lack the essential quality, slaglessness, which makes the latter steel, and the latter lack the essential quality, the hardening power, which makes the former steel.

    0
    0
  • Steel is iron which is malleable at least in some one range of temperature, and also is either (a) cast into an initially malleable mass, or (b) is capable of hardening greatly by sudden cooling, or (c) is both so cast and so capable of hardening.

    0
    0
  • That the ancients should have discovered an art of hardening bronze is grossly improbable, first because it is not to be hardened by any simple process like the hardening of steel, and second because, if they had, then a large proportion of the ancient bronze tools now known ought to be hard, which is not the case.

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  • (about 150o B.C.) so far that bellows were used for forcing the forge fire; that in Homer's time (not later than the gth century B.C.) the delicate art of hardening and tempering steel was so familiar that the poet used it for a simile, likening the hissing of the stake which Ulysses drove into the eye of Polyphemus to that of the steel which the smith quenches in water, and closing with a reference to the strengthening effect of this quenching; and that at the time of Pliny (A.D.

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  • 23-79) the relative value of different baths for hardening was known, and oil preferred for hardening small tools.

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  • Again, (3-iron may be preserved incompletely as in the " hardening of steel," which consists in heating the steel into the austenite state of region 4, and then cooling it so rapidly, by quenching it in cold water, that, for lack of the time needed for the completion of the change from austenite into ferrite and cementite, much of the iron is caught in transit in the (3 state.

    0
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  • This change from austenite to ferrite and cementite, from the y through the # to the a state, is of course accompanied by the loss of the " hardening power," i.e.

    0
    0
  • the power of being hardened by sudden cooling, because the essence of this hardening is the retention of the (3 state.

    0
    0
  • As such steel cools slowly past Ar3, Ar 2 and Ar 1, it loses its hardening power progressively.

    0
    0
  • Thermal Treatment.-The hardening, tempering and annealing of steel, the chilling and annealing of cast iron, and the annealing of malleable cast iron are explained readily by the facts just set forth.

    0
    0
  • The hardening of steel consists in first transforming it into austenite by heating it up into region 4 of fig.

    0
    0
  • The degree of hardening which the steel undergoes increases with its carbon-content, chiefly because, during sudden cooling, the presence of carbon acts like a brake to impede the transformations, and thus to increase the quantity of 0-iron caught in transit, but probably also in part because the hardness of this 0-iron increases with its carbon-content.

    0
    0
  • Like the hardening of steel, it hinders the transformation of the austenite, whether primary or eutectic, into pearlite+cementite, and thus catches part of the iron in transit in the hard a state.

    0
    0
  • Its combination of ductility with strength and hardening power has given it very extended use for the armour of war-vessels.

    0
    0
  • carburizing wrought iron by long heating in contact with charcoal (cementation), or the proximate composition or constitution, as in the hardening, tempering and annealing of steel already described (§§ 28, 29), or both, as in the process of making malleable cast iron (§ 31).

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  • The many steel objects which need an extremely hard outer surface but a softer and more malleable interior may be carburized superficially by heating them in contact with charcoal or other carbonaceous matter, for instance for between 5 and 48 hours at a temperature of 800° to goo° C. This is known as " case hardening."

    0
    0
  • The plate is then by Krupp's process heated so that its impact face is above while its rear is below the hardening temperature, and the whole is then cooled suddenly with sprays of cold water.

    0
    0
  • Under these conditions the hardness, which is very extreme at the impact face, shades off toward the back, till at about quarter way from face to back all hardening ceases, and the rest of the plate is in a very strong, shock-resisting state.

    0
    0
  • The hardening of the extremities of the fibro-vascular tissue is the cause of the spiny margin of many leaves, such as the holly, of the sharp-pointed leaves of madder, and of mucronate leaves, or those having a blunt end with a hard projection in the centre.

    0
    0
  • Tannin is a hardening and astringent substance, and in large quantities impairs digestion.

    0
    0
  • Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial.

    0
    0
  • It is generally admitted that the aluminate is the chief agent in the first setting of the cement, and that its ultimate hardening and attainment of strength are due to the tricalcium silicate.

    0
    0
  • One of the most valuable characteristics of the iron alloys is their capacity for hardening, which they owe in the main to the presence of certain small percentages of carbon relatively to minute quantities of other elements: as manganese, tungsten, nickel and others of less importance.

    0
    0
  • The capacity for hardening is an invaluable property not only in regard to cutting-tools, but also in prolonging the life of parts subjected to severe friction.

    0
    0
  • The tissues and fluids are treated by various histological methods, but, to speak generally, examination is made either in films smeared on thin cover-glasses and allowed to dry, or in thin sections cut by the microtome after suitable fixation and hardening of the tissue.

    0
    0
  • Silicic hardening does not begin till the full height is nearly attained.

    0
    0
  • Generally speaking they do not share in the special modifications of the flowering glumes, and rarely themselves undergo modification, chiefly in hardening of portions (Sclerachne, Manisuris, Anthe- phora, Peltophorum), so as to afford greater protection to the flowers or fruit.

    0
    0
  • Types of muffle furnaces are figured in the article Annealing, Hardening And Tempering.

    0
    0
  • ARDEX S 21 mixed with sand provides a thin screed with rapid hardening properties allowing walkability and tiling after only three hours.

    0
    0
  • It is also essential for the hardening of the chitinous shell of crustaceans.

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  • The wind shifted and we took a heading heading slightly toward Brixham before dropping the spinnaker, hardening up and making for Dartmouth.

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  • Vitamin B folate lowers the levels of homocysteine in the blood, a compound believed to be responsible for hardening the arteries.

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  • Keep in a dry place, in an airtight container to keep the fondant from hardening.

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  • For about a week before your target planting date, begin hardening off your seedlings by placing them outside during the day and bringing them indoors at night.

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  • Hardening Off: Most seedlings that have been raised in a greenhouse or a sunny kitchen windowsill will be too tender for direct transplant into the garden.

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  • These herbs are never grown in a greenhouse, so they don't require any hardening.

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  • Arteriosclerosis-A chronic condition characterized by thickening, loss of leasticity, and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.

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  • Symptoms begin in the first few weeks of life and include an enlarged liver and spleen, adrenal calcification (hardening of adrenal tissue due to deposits of calcium salts), and fatty stools.

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  • Arteriosclerosis-A chronic condition characterized by thickening, loss of leasticity, and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.

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  • If the procedure is repeated, structural changes in the eardrum can occur, such as loss of tone (flaccidity), shrinkage or retraction, or hardening of a spot on the eardrum (tympanosclerosis).

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  • The risk of hardening is 51 percent; its effects on hearing were not known as of 2004, but they are probably insignificant.

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  • Vertigo can also be caused by disorders of the central nervous system and the circulatory system, such as hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis), stroke, or multiple sclerosis.

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  • Arteriosclerosis-A chronic condition characterized by thickening, loss of leasticity, and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.

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  • Presbyopia-A condition affecting people over the age of 40 where the system of accommodation that allows the eyes to focus on near objects fails to work because of age-related hardening of the lens of the eye.

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  • Arteriosclerosis-A chronic condition characterized by thickening, loss of leasticity, and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.

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  • Atherosclerosis is hardening of the arteries.

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  • Arteriosclerosis-A chronic condition characterized by thickening, loss of leasticity, and hardening of the arteries and the build-up of plaque on the arterial walls.

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  • This condition is frequently caused by hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis).

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  • Peyronie's disease-A disease of unknown origin which causes a hardening of the corpora cavernosa, the erectile tissue of the penis.

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  • Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and stroke.

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  • Hardening of the arteries--or atherosclerosis--narrows blood vessels, causing the heart to work more forcibly to push blood through the restricted pathways.

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  • She was raped at age nine and became pregnant at age 14 - but instead of hardening her heart and closing herself off to society, Oprah worked her way to the top without ever forgetting about her tough and humble beginnings.

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  • When your blood pressure remains high over a long period of time, you will experience hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and are at risk for heart attacks and stroke.

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  • For years doctors have been telling us that too much sodium is bad for our health, as it causes kidney problems, high blood pressure, and hardening of the arteries.

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  • This component has a serious impact on the body, including hardening of the arteries and heart problems.

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  • Triglycerides make up a sticky form of fat that sticks to artery walls and can cause hardening and narrowing.

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  • By lowering your cholesterol, you help maintain your cardiovascular health by reducing your risk of atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.

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  • High cholesterol puts you at risk for atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries, a major risk factor for heart disease.

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  • This in turn keeps the blood vessels healthy and prevents unnecessary hardening.

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  • Over time, this can lead to atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.

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  • Regular exercise will elevate the levels of HDL or good cholesterol in your blood, further reducing your risk of atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries.

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  • Over time, the heart gets stronger and develops a lower resting heart rate and can pump blood more efficiently; this puts less stress on the circulatory system and keeps the blood vessels from hardening.

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  • Morphea: Chances are that you'll know there is something going on if you begin to present symptoms of morphea, or hardening and thickening of the skin.

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  • Hardening, Jenn turned away and retreated through the forest and rocks to the compound.

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    1
  • The cathedral is faced with pale grey limestone, easily chiselled, but hardening on exposure.

    0
    1
  • The course of the ensuing campaigns was to reveal the hardening of his mental powers.

    0
    1
  • 21, d) - such as may be noticed in the majority of the Lepidoptera - whose appendages are closely and immovably pressed to the body by a general hardening and fusion of the cuticle.

    0
    1
  • His character was hardening, and he deliberately adopted the most barbarous expedients for converting the Augustan Poles to his views.

    0
    1
  • The rock on the surface is as hard as flint, but underneath it gradually softens and furnishes an admirable stone for building which can be sawn into blocks of any size, hardening on exposure to the atmosphere.

    0
    1
  • The course of the ensuing campaigns was to reveal the hardening of his mental powers.

    0
    1
  • resina, probably Latinized from Greek prpivri, resin), a secretion formed in special resin canals or passages of plants, from many of which, such as, for example, coniferous trees, it exudes in soft tears, hardening into solid masses in the air.

    0
    2
  • Another point to which attention is directed is the exceptionally great effect which hardening has upon the magnetic properties of chrome steel; one specimen had a coercive force of 9 when annealed, and of no less than 38 when oilhardened.

    0
    3
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