How to use Harbours in a sentence
There are few harbours which admit vessels drawing more than 15 ft.
The nucleus of the city is built on a ridge of rock (Mount Sceberras) which runs like a tongue into the middle of a bay, which it thus divides into two harbours, the Grand Harbour to the east and the Marsamuschetto to the west, which are subdivided again by three other peninsulas into creeks.
The coast of Sardinia contains few seaports, but a good proportion of these are excellent natural harbours.
Pietro, forms a more or less protected basin, upon the shores of which are several small harbours (the most important being Carloforte), which are centres of the export of minerals and of the tunny fishery.
The harbour of Vancouver is one of the finest natural harbours in the world.Advertisement
Although having a great extent of coast-line, Argentina has but few really good harbours.
Other small harbours on the lower Patagonian coast are not prominent, owing to lack of population.
The coast, constantly encroaching on the sea by reason of the alluvium washed down by the rivers of the Pyrenees and Cvennes, is without important harbours saving that of Cette, itself continually invaded by the sand.
On the whole, however, France is inadequately provided with natural harbours; her long tract of coast washed by the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay has sqarcely three or four good seaports, and those on the southern shore of the Channel form a striking contrast to the spacious maritime inlets on theEnglish side.
The term sailor is used in a very wide sense and includes all persons earning their living by navigation on the sea, or in the harbours or roadsteads, or on salt lakes or canals within the maritime domain of the state, or on rivers and canals as far as the tide goes up or sea-going ships can pass.Advertisement
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The foundations also of the moles that separate the harbours are of Hellenic work, though the existing moles were erected by the Knights of St John.
Rhodes has two harbours.
The two harbours are separated by a mole which runs obliquely into the sea.
There are, however, numerous spacious harbours, especially on the eastern coast, which are referred to in the detailed articles dealing with the different states.Advertisement
There are two harbours, both artificial - the old or northern harbour and the southern or Agha harbour.
It is perfectly straight, without harbours, and approached only through a dangerous bar.
Railways, roads and harbours which contractors had undertaken to construct for reasonable amounts were frequently made to cost thrice the original estimates.
The scenery is everywhere strikingly beautiful and varied, and the coral beds of the more secluded bays in its harbours are conspicuous for their exquisite colouring.
The coasts of the Andamans are deeply indented, giving existence to a number of safe harbours and tidal creeks, which are often surrounded by mangrove swamps.Advertisement
The coasts are fairly indented, and, protected by these reefs, which often support a chain of green islets, afford many good harbours and safe anchorages.
To Carmania belonged also the coast, with the islands and harbours of Hormuz and Bander Abbasi.
The coast-line of both main islands is deeply indented and many of the bays and inlets form secure and well-protected harbours, some of which, however, are difficult of access to sailing ships.
Between this headland and the frontier of Lycia is the sheltered bay of Marmarice, noted in modern times as one of the finest harbours of the Mediterranean.
Besides these are Syme, Telos, Nisyros, Calymnos, Leros and Patmos, all of which have been inhabited, both in ancient and modern times, and some of which contain excellent harbours.Advertisement
The land was traversed by old-established trade routes and possessed important harbours on the Gulf of `Akaba and on the Mediterranean coast, the latter exposing it to the influence of the Levantine culture.
If the reefs impede navigation they form some good harbours.
The three principal towns are on the northern coast and possess small harbours suitable for vessels of light draught.
The expansion of Cretan commerce has been retarded by many drawbacks, such as the unsatisfactory condition of the harbours, the want of direct steamship lines to England and other countries, and the deficiency of internal communications.
By means of its navigable waters and safe harbours the state has an extensive coasting trade.Advertisement
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
For its size and in relation to its sheep population Wales harbours the disease to a far greater extent than the other divisions of Great Britain.
Naval preparations went on apace at all the dockyards, and numbers of flat-bottomed boats were built or repaired at the northern harbours.
No ship coming thence was to be admitted into French or allied harbours; ships transgressing the decree were to be good prize of war; and British subjects were liable to imprisonment if found in French or allied territories.
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.Advertisement
The only good harbours are those of Beirut and Alexandretta (Iskanderun).
Along much of the western coast and along nearly the whole of the eastern coast extends a line of sand reefs and narrow islands, enclosing shallow and narrow bodies of water, such as Indian river and Lake Worth - called rivers, lakes, lagoons, bays and harbours.
On account of its sand reefs, the east coast has not so many harbours as the west coast.
The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
Since 1890 much has been done by the national Government, aided in many cases by the local authorities and by private enterprise, to improve the harbours and to extend the limits of river navigation.Advertisement
The numerous harbours are chiefly artificial, usually located at the mouths of streams, the improvements consisting of two parallel piers extending into the lake and protecting a dredged channel.
At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony.
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
In the harbours of Zea and Munychia traces may be seen of the remarkable series of galley-slips in which the Athenian fleet was built and repaired.
Among the travellers of whose information he was thus able to avail himself were Pytheas of Massilia, Patroclus, who had visited the Caspian (285-282 B.C.), Megasthenes, who visited Palibothra on the Ganges, as ambassador of Seleucus Nicator (302-291 B.C.), Timosthenus of Rhodes, the commander of the fleet of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-246 B.C.) who wrote a treatise " On harbours," and Philo, who visited Meroe on the upper Nile.Advertisement
Exclusive of the slaves who died before they sailed from Africa, 121% were lost during their passage to the West Indies; at Jamaica 42% died whilst in the harbours or before the sale and one-third more in the " seasoning."
Macneill, working chiefly on surveys, harbours and railroads, and was appointed in 1855 to the chair of civil engineering in Glasgow, vacant by the resignation of Lewis Gordon, whose work he had undertaken during the previous session.
The harbours are connected with the town by an embankment and railway built across a shallow, dry at low water save for a narrow channel.
A remarkable feature of the Cuban coast is the number of excellent anchorages, roadsteads and harbours.
The peculiar pouch-shape of almost all the harbours named (Matanzas being a marked exception) greatly increases their security and defensibility.Advertisement
These pouch harbours are probably " drowned " drainage basins.
On the 30th of November the Russian fleet attacked and destroyed a Turkish squadron in the harbour of Sinope; on the 3rd of January the combined French and British fleets entered the Black Sea, commissioned to " invite " the Russians to return to their harbours.
A vast sum of money and the labour of thousands of men were employed to clear harbours for them, at and near Boulogne.
It consists of a rocky promontory, containing three natural harbours, a large one on the north-west which is still one of the chief commercial harbours of the Levant, and two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval purposes.
Themistocles was the first to urge the Athenians to take advantage of these harbours, instead of using the sandy bay of Phaleron; and the fortification of the Peiraeus was begun in 493 B.C. Later on it was connected with Athens by the Long Walls in 460 B.C. The town of Peiraeus was laid out by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, probably in the time of Pericles.
The British troops were directed towards Lisbon and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
The double bay of Gizhiga and Penzhina, as well as that of Taui, would be useful as harbours were they not frozen seven or eight months in the year and persistently shrouded in dense fogs in summer.
The coast-line of Galicia, extending to about 240 m., is everywhere bold and deeply indented, presenting a large number of secure harbours, and in this respect forming a marked contrast to the neighbouring province.
He took up the question of lighthouses and harbours; in the former he secured greater efficiency, in the latter he prevented useless expenditure.
Daux, in the years preceding 1869, explored the sites of the ancient harbours of Utica, Hadrumetum, Thapsus (Dimas).
There are also numerous canals, and what look like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.
The coast of Brazil is indented with a number of almost landlocked bays, forming spacious and accessible harbours.
Santa Catharina and Maranhao have well-sheltered harbours formed by an island lying in the mouth of a large bay, but the latter is shallow and difficult of access.
It stands on undulating and easily drained ground, upon a bed of sandstone rock, on a peninsula jutting into one of the deepest, safest and most beautiful harbours in the world; and in addition it lies in the centre of a great carboniferous area.
These harbours on the eastern side of Sydney are mainly frequented by cargo boats trading in coal, corn, frozen meat, wool, hides and various ores.
The expenditure is largely on reproductive works (railways, harbours, post office, &c.), on the judiciary and police, education and military defence.
In 1576 Manuel de Mesquita Perestrello, commanded by King Sebastian to explore the coast of South Africa and report on suitable harbours, -made a rough chart, even then of little use to navigators, which is of value as exhibiting the most that was known of the country by its discoverers before the advent of their Dutch rivals, who established themselves at Cape Town in 1652.
In 1910 the control of the railways passed to the harbours and railway board of the Union of South Africa.
The large towns through which the river flows have vied with one another in building harbours, providing shipping accommodation, and furnishing other facilities for the efficient navigation of the Elbe.
Capacious river harbours have been formed at various points, twenty-nine of these being in Germany and eight in Holland.
The lake never freezes over, and is less obstructed by ice than the other lakes, but the harbours are closed by ice from about the middle of December to the middle of April.
Under favourable conditions mining may be conducted under the protection of a few yards of solid rock only, as in the submarine work for the removal of reefs in the harbours of San Francisco and New York.
Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, - a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a resort of pirates, and, in the middle ages, led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders.
Paita and Chimbote have good natural harbours, but the others, for the most part, are open roadsteads or unsheltered bays.
The southern coast in particular is deeply indented; and there two bold peninsulas, extending for several miles into the sea, form two capacious natural harbours, namely, Deep Water Bay, with the village of Stanley to the east, and Tytam Bay, which has a safe, well-protected entrance showing a depth of 10 to 16 fathoms. An in-shore island on the west coast, called Aberdeen, or Taplishan, affords protection to the Shekpywan or Aberdeen harbour, an inlet provided with a granite graving dock, the caisson gate of which is 60 ft.
Large new harbours to the north of the city were opened in 1887.
The other administrative officers are a secretary of state, an attorney-general, an auditor, a treasurer, a commissioner of public schools, a railroad commissioner, and a factory inspector, and various boards and commissions, such as the board of education, the board of agriculture, the board of health, and the commissioners of inland fisheries, commissioners of harbours and commissioners of pilots.
The bay, unlike all the other better harbours of the island, has a broad mouth, 2 m.
Harbours and shallows covered with Zostera are likewise favourite haunts of this species, although the water may be brackish.
There are two harbours,difficult of access owing to the number of reefs and sunken rocks.
In addition to the harbours of Valletta, there are in Malta, facing N.W., the bays called Mellieha and St Paul's, the inlets of the Salina, of Madalena, of St Julian and St Thomas; on the S.E.
The principal harbours are those of Wilmington, New Castle and Lewes.
Cherbourg derives its chief importance from its naval and commercial harbours, which are distant from each other about half a mile.
Outside these harbours is the triangular bay, which forms the roadstead of Cherbourg.
The Tagus estuary, though partly blocked by a bar of sand, is one of the chief harbours of south-western Europe.
The harbours are accessib,le at all stages of the tide.
The harbour is one of the finest natural harbours in the kingdom, and has the advantage of a double tide, the tide of the English channel giving it high water first by way of the Solent and two hours later by way of Spithead.
The coast-line is extremely irregular, and the fjords, at least on the north, east and south, form a series of well-sheltered harbours.
Christmas Harbour on the north and Royal Sound on the south are noble harbours, the latter with a labyrinth of islets interspersed over upwards of 20 m.
Where the lake waters flood the stream mouths, there are excellent harbours, and lake navigation is therefore of high importance.
The Aucklands contain two of the finest harbours in the Pacific. Six hundred miles north of Auckland, the volcanic Kermadecs, covering 8208 acres, are picturesquely clothed with vegetation.
Rarotonga and Mangaia, in the Cook group, and Niue or Savage Island are the largest of these; Penrhyn and Suwarrow, though but small coral atolls, contain excellent harbours.
They are not too well served with harbours, except along Cook Strait, in Banks Peninsula, and by the grand but commercially useless fjords of the south-west.
There are large quantities of salmon in the lower Columbia river, in Gray's and Willapa harbours, and in Puget Sound; oyster fisheries in Gray's and Willapa harbours and in Puget Sound; cod, perch, flounders, smelt, herring and sardines in these and other salt waters.
Seattle and Tacoma are among the four leading ports of the United States on the Pacific. Other harbours on Puget Sound of commercial importance are Olympia, Everett and Bellingham.
The port has assumed first-class importance, mail steamers calling vL23 d regularly as well as men-of-war and the mercantile marine of all nations; and it is now one of the finest artificial harbours in the world.
The subsequent occupation of Port Arthur and other Chinese harbours by European powers, and the evident intention of consolidating Russian influence in Manchuria, were again and again the subject of Japanese representations at St Petersburg, and these representations became more vigorous when, in 1903, Russia seemed to be about to extend her Manchurian policy into Korea.
It also deals with the accounts of harbours, lighthouses and mercantile marine offices, and of the merchant seamen's fund, and with the consuls' accounts for disabled seamen abroad.
Off the mainland near Havant lies Hayling, a flat island of irregular form lying between the harbours of Langstone and Chichester.
The shores are rocky, there are no harbours, and the roadstead off Grand Bourg is difficult of access, owing to the surrounding reefs.
Thasos, the capital, stood on the north side of the island, and had two harbours, one of which was closed.
It stands on a square peninsula flanked by the western and eastern harbours and by the Otter river.
The exciting and profitable occupation of blockade-running led to countless small fights off the various harbours, and sometimes the United States navy had to fight a more serious action when some new "rebel" ironclad emerged from her harbour, inlet or sound.
Save near the towns and in the cultivated district of Kabylia, the coast is bare and uninhabited; and in spite of numerous indentations, of which the most important going from west to east are the Gulf of Oran, the Gulf of Arzeu, the Bay of Algiers, and the gulfs of Bougie, Stora and Bona, there are few good harbours.
In summer the east wind brings dense and sudden fogs; while in winter the northerly gales blow straight into the mouths of the harbours.
The terrors of this " savage sea and inhospitable shore," once described by Sallust, have, however, been greatly mitigated by the introduction of steam, the improvement of the harbours, and the establishment by the French government of an excellent system of lighthouses.
The coast of Australia is high and unbroken; there are no inlets of considerable size, although the small openings include some of the finest harbours in the world, as Moreton Bay and Port Jackson.
Enough is raised, however, besides the amount handed over to the government, to enable the schools, roads, harbours and public works of every kind to be maintained at a standard which compares very favourably with other parts of Spain.
The monotonous Atlantic littoral is unbroken by any large inlet or estuary, and thus contrasts in a striking manner with the varied outlines of the Pacific coast, which includes the three bold promontories of Nicoya, Golfo Dulce and Burica, besides the broad sweep of Coronada Bay and several small harbours.
It stood on the banks of the small river Lethaeus (Mitropolipotamo), about three hours distant from the sea, with which it communicated by means of its two harbours, Metallum and Lebena.
The coast, which is partly sandy, partly rocky, extends about 240 m.; its chief harbours are those of the capital, Barcelona, of Matar6, of Rosas and of Tarragona.
Under hellenizing influences, she became a goddess of sea and harbours, the Ino-Leucothea of the Greeks.
There is a marked difference between the Gulf and Pacific coastlines of Mexico in regard to their minor indentations and harbours.
Tampico and Coatzacoalcos, however, have been improved by breakwaters or jetties, and the deepening of the Channels across the bars, into safe and commodious harbours.
On the south side of the town there are three harbours - the large western or merchant harbour, the western flank of which is formed by a great mole joining the fortifications which traverse the breadth of the island on this side; the middle harbour, used chiefly for fitting out and repairing vessels; and the eastern or war harbour for vessels of the Russian navy.
The Peter and Catherine canals, communicating with the merchant and middle harbours, traverse the town.
Lastly, the promoters of public undertakings of a commercial character, such as railways and harbours, carry on their operations under statutes in which the provisions of the Lands Clauses Acts are incorporated.
In spite of these restrictions of its natural coast line on both the Atlantic and the Pacific, Canada is admirably provided with harbours on both oceans.
The Gulf of St Lawrence with its much indented shores and the coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick supply endless harbours, the northern ones closed by ice in the winter, but the southern ones open all the year round; and on the Pacific British Columbia is deeply fringed with islands and fjords with well-sheltered harbours everywhere, in strong contrast with the unbroken shore of the United States to the south.
Of the nine provinces of Canada only two have no coast line on salt water, the western prairie provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan; but Manitoba and Ontario have a seaboard only on Hudson Bay and its southern extension James Bay respectively, and there is no probability that the shallow harbours of the latter bay will ever be of much importance for shipping, though Churchill Harbour on the west side of Hudson Bay may become an important grain port.
The peninsula of Nova Scotia, connected by a narrow neck with New Brunswick, is formed by still another and more definite system of parallel ridges, deeply fretted on all sides by bays and harbours.
Though Halifax and St John are open in winter, much of the winter trade eastwards is done through American harbours, especially Portland, Maine, owing to the shorter railway journey.
It has safe harbours, in the north at Otterswick and in the south at Kettletoft.
The whole of the eastern coast is rocky and destitute of harbours, especially the part called Coela, or "the Hollows," where part of the Perisan fleet was wrecked.
There are no good harbours, and the only anchorage for large vessels is Tai-chung, or Yung-su, at the east end, with 9 to 13 fathoms of water.
The islands are well watered, though the streams seem to be small; the coasts afford some good harbours.
The principal inlets are Killary Harbour between Mayo and Galway; Clew Bay, in which are the harbours of Westport and Newport; Blacksod Bay and Broad Haven, which form the peninsula of the Mullet; and Killala Bay between Mayo and Sligo.
Padstow (Aldestowe 1273, Patrikstowe 1326, Patrestowe 1346) and St Ives are the only two tolerably safe harbours on the north coast of Cornwall.
Its main disadvantage is the lack of harbours - Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.
The mountainous region projects seaward beyond the normal coast line forming a large peninsula, the shores of which are deeply indented and contain some good harbours, such as that of Kiao-chow.
The estuaries of these rivers are rarely navigable, and along the entire littoral, a distance of 130 m., the only important harbours are at Gijon and Aviles.
On the other hand the lack of good harbours hindered its maritime development; and the Boeotian nation, although it produced great men like Pindar, Epaminondas, Pelopidas and Plutarch, was proverbially as dull as its native air.
There are harbours at Morrison's Haven to the west and at Cockenzie and Port Seton to the north-east, which practically form one village, with a population of 1687.
The harbours which played so important a part in antiquity are nearly all silted up, and, with the exception of Beirut, afford no safe anchorage for the large vessels of modern times.
The coast line of Istria extends for 267 m., including Trieste, and presents many good bays and harbours.
The navigation of the stream is considerably obstructed by sandbanks, but vessels of 200 tons can unload at the quays, which, with the town and Friarton harbours, lie below the South Inch.
The north and south harbours lie between the town and Keith Inch - a suburb at the extremity of the peninsula on part of which the town is built - and the isthmus dividing them is pierced by a canal crossed by an iron swing-bridge.
On the other hand the broad, gently-sloping, sandy beach is peculiarly fitted for sea-bathing, and in the absence of harbours permits the beaching of the characteristic flat-bottomed fishing boats.
The main object of the enterprise was to block the harbours of Zeebrugge and Ostend.
The now overpowering strength of the British fleet enabled it to occupy the Chesapeake and to execute innumerable attacks of a destructive character on docks and harbours.
By means of the causeway the channel between island and mainland was formed into two harbours, of which the larger, or southern, now known as Port Freano, was further enclosed by two strongly-built moles that are still in good part entire.
The four days' fight (11th-14th of June 1666) ended in a hard-won victory by de Ruyter over Monk, but later in this year (August 3rd) de Ruyter was beaten by Ayscue and forced to take refuge in the Dutch harbours.
On the west coast it has no harbours, Madras having a mere open roadstead, but on the east there are many good ports, such as Akyab, Moulmein, Rangoon and Tavoy river.
The coast is dangerous, and the only two harbours, Ellis Bay and Fox Bay, are very indifferent.
The shores are in places deeply indented, forming several natural harbours, the chief of which is that of St Anna on the south-west coast.
It is as right for the National Government to make the streams and rivers of the arid regions useful by engineering works for water storage, as to make useful the rivers and harbours of the humid regions by engineering works of another kind.
The Baltic has no perceptible tides; and a great part of its coast-line is in winter covered with ice, which also so blocks up the harbours that navigation is interrupted for several months every year.
To meet the difficulty arising from the want of good harbours in the Baltic, a small extent of territory near Jade Bay was bought from Oldenburg in 1854, for the purpose of establishing a war-port there.
The three entrances to the old and new harbours are sheltered by long and massive moles; and the whole complex of docks, building slips, machine shops, &c., forms the government dockyard, which is enclosed by a lofty wall with fourteen iron gates.
The north coast is generally steep and cliff-bound, and abundantly provided with good harbours, of which that of Palermo is the finest.
Palermo, Messina and Catania are the most important harbours, the former being one of the two headquarters (the other, and the main one, is Genoa) of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, and a port of call for the steamers from Italy to New York.
Of the other harbours, Porto Empedocle and Licata share with Catania most of the sulphur export trade, and the other ports of note are Marsala, Trapani, Syracuse (which shares with the roadstead of Mazzarelli the asphalt export trade).
The east coast, nearest to Greece and richest in good harbours, was occupied first.
At the foot of the Cameroon peak a number of estuaries cut deep bays which form excellent harbours.
The port of Bahia, which has one of the best and most accessible harbours on the east coast of South America, has a large coastwise and foreign trade, and is also used as a port of call by most of the steamship lines trading between Europe and that continent.
Beyond the Delta eastward the coast is again barren and without harbours.
The harbours of Copenhagen, Elsinore and other towns were enlarged; many decaying towns were abolished and many new ones built under more promising conditions, including Christiania, which was founded in August 1624, on the ruins of the ancient city of Oslo.
He enlarged and embellished it, and provided it with new harbours and fortifications; in short, did his best to make it the worthy capital of a great empire.
Napoleon had determined that if Great Britain refused to accept Russia's mediation, Denmark, Sweden and Portugal were to be forced to close their harbours to her ships and declare war against her.
He spent immense sums on buildings of all sorts, on quays and harbours, on fortifications, repairing the walls of cities and erecting castles in Thrace to check the inroads of the barbarians, on aqueducts, on monasteries, above all, upon churches.
In the Tay, Forth and Clyde, where important harbours are situated, great expense is involved in constantly dredging to remove the sediment continually brought down from the land and carried backwards and forwards by the tides.
Their structure is adapted to short voyages in a sea well studded with harbours, not exposed to the most violent storms or most dangerous tides.
Of the numerous bays and harbours the chief is that of Scala, which, running far into the land on the eastern side, divides the island ' into two nearly equal portions - a northern and a southern.
Moreover, harbours and railways are under the control of the Union Parliament.
The Persian Gulf is lacking in good harbours, anchorage being mostly shallow and exposed.
Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.
The Port des Pecheurs, the principal of the three harbours, is on the south-east side of the Atalaye and is that most used by the fishermen of the town.
A belt line railway connects the several systems. Superior shares with Duluth one of the finest natural inland harbours in the world.
On the north coast there are no harbours; but fairly safe anchorages, even in the north-east winds, are available off Hadibu or under Haulaf, a few miles distant, and at Kallansayia, at the north-west end of the island.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.
In spite of its long coast-line, Messenia has no good harbours except the Bay of Pylos (Navarino), and has never played an important part in Greek naval history.
Korean harbours, except two or three which are closed by drift ice for some weeks in winter, are ice-free.
The coast is bold and rugged and with very few good harbours; San Diego and San Francisco bays being exceptions.
Its remoteness from the ports and harbours of the country, combined with the extreme unhealthiness of its situation, have led to its gradual decay subsequently to the formation of the comparatively recent settlement of Akyab, which place is now the chief town of the province.
Several of the natural harbours of North Borneo, on the other hand, are accessible, safe and commodious.
On the north, excepting the deltas formed by the Kizil and Yeshil Irmaks, there are no considerable coast plains, no good harbours except Sinope and Vona, and no islands.
On the south are the isolated plains of Pamphylia and Cilicia, the almost land-locked harbours of Marmarice, Makri and Kekova, the broad bay of Adalia, the deep-seated gulf of Alexandretta (Iskanderun), and the islands of Rhodes with dependencies, Castelorizo and Cyprus.
Its deposits have long since filled up the harbours of Miletus, and converted the islands which protected them into mounds in a swampy plain.
There are several excellent harbours (notably that of Ytternas), which were at one time of great importance to Russia from the fact that they are frozen up for a much briefer period than those on the coast of Finland.
The shores of the Red Sea are little indented; good harbours are almost wanting in the desert regions of the north, while in the south the chief inlets are at Massawa, and at Kamaran, almost directly opposite.
A disability against the trade of Cyprus has been the want of natural harbours, the ports possessing only open roadsteads; though early in the 10th century the construction of a satisfactory commercial harbour was undertaken at Famagusta, and there is a small harbour at Kyrenia.
The fishery is of ancient importance; at the old towns of Falsterbo and SkanOr, south of Malmo, thousands of fishermen were employed until the harbours became choked in 1631, and the fish were a valuable item in the Hanseatic commerce.
Owing to the natural configuration of the coast and the skargard excellent natural harbours are almost without number.
Artificial harbours are consequently few, but those at Helsingborg, Malmo, Halmstad, Ystad and Kalmar may be mentioned.
The coast of northern and central Chile is singularly deficient in good harbours.
There are some small harbours for coasting vessels of light draught along the coast of central Chile, usually at the partially obstructed mouths of the larger rivers, as San Antonio near the mouth of the Maipo, Constitucion at the mouth of the Maule, and Llico on the outlet of Lake Vichuquen, but there is no harbour of importance until Concepcion (or Talcahuano) Bay is reached.
There are three harbours on this bay, El Tome, Penco and Talcahuano (q.v.), the last being the largest and best-protected port on the inhabited part of the Chilean coast.
The large Gulf of Penas, south of Taytao peninsula, is open to the westerly storms of the Pacific, but it affords entrance to several natural harbours.
Many of the socalled ports are only landing-places on an open coast, others are on shallow bays and obstructed river-mouths, and some are little-known harbours among the channels and islands of the south.
This inlet expands into five broad gulfs, united by narrower channels, and forms one of the finest natural harbours in Europe.
The desire to create a direct communication between the seclusion of Persis and the commerce of the world is evident in his foundation of several harbours, described by Nearchus, on the Persian coast.
The coast line, from the mouth of the Kunene on the west to the delta of the Zambezi on the east, is little indented and contains only two sheltered natural harbours of any size - Saldanha Bay on the west and Delagoa Bay on the east.
The harbours of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban are state owned, as are also nearly all the railways in the Union.
The administration of the railways, ports and harbours is entrusted to a board of not more than three commissioners (appointed by the governor-general in council) presided over by a minister of state.
Ships stopped at different ports, or rather at such few natural harbours as the inhospitable coast offered, from time to time, but no attempt was made by the Portuguese to colonize the southern end of the continent.
The only deep indentations of the Portuguese littoral are the lagoon of Aveiro and the estuaries of the Minho, Douro, Mondego, Tagus, Sado and Guadiana, in which are the principal harbours.
The harbours of Lisbon and Oporto are hardly inferior in beauty to those of Naples and Constantinople.
They began where the Arabs left off, by penetrating far into the Atlantic. The long littoral of their country, with its fine harbours and rivers flowing westward to the ocean, had been the training-ground of a race of adventurous seamen.
John dared not consent to close the harbours of Portugal against British ships.
Besides railway communication Michigan has a coast line of about 1600 m., along which vessels of 2000 tons can sail and find several good harbours, the water communication having been extended and improved by several canals, among which are the Sault Ste.
The Baltic coast has generally steep welldefined banks and is irregular, being pierced by numerous long and narrow inlets (Feihrden) which often afford excellent harbours.
The commerce and shipping of Schleswig-Holstein, stimulated by its position between two seas, as well as by its excellent harbours and waterways, are much more prominent than its manufactures.
There are no good harbours on the Atlantic coast.
There are four very fine natural harbours, viz.
Secondary harbours, available for coasting steamers, south of Sydney are at Port Hacking, Wollongong, Kiama, Shoalhaven, Bateman's Bay, Ulladulla, Merimbula, and Twofold Bay.
The great variety of the rocks which meet the sea along the south of Cornwall and Devon has led to the formation of a singularly picturesque coast - the headlands being carved from the hardest igneous rocks, the bays cut back in the softer Devonian strata, The fjord-like inlets of Falmouth, Plymouth and Dartmouth are splendid natural harbours, which would have developed great commercial ports but for their remoteness from the centres of commerce and manufactures.
Southampton and Portsmouth have gained importance through their fine natural harbours, improved by engineering works and fortifications; Bournemouth and Bognor, from their favourable position in the sunniest belt of the country, as health resorts.
To this subsidence are due the picturesque coastal scenery, the numerous islands and bays, the good harbours and the peculiar coast-line.
All along the coast-line there are capacious and well-protected harbours, Casco, Penobscot, Frenchman's, Machias and Passamaquoddy bays being especially noteworthy.
Although the temperature remains pretty steadily below the freezing point for at least three months of the year, many of the harbours remain unobstructed; for the tides and the prevailing off-shore winds break up and drive off the ice.
Banana, close to the mouth of the Congo and Banana Point, possesses one of the best natural harbours on the west coast of Africa, and is capable of sheltering vessels of the largest tonnage.
Under its ancient name of Urci, Almeria was one of the chief Spanish harbours after the final conquest of Spain by the Romans in 19 B.C. It reached the summit of its prosperity in the middle ages, as the foremost seaport of the Moorish kingdom of Granada.
Lake Superior is fairly well provided with natural harbours, and works of improvement have created additional harbours of refuge at various points.
Duluth, Superior, Port Wing, Wis., Ontonagon, Mich., and Grand Marais, Mich., are harbours with entrances formed by parallel jetties extending across obstructing bars.
On the Canadian side Fort William, in the mouth of the Kaministikwia, and Port Arthur, four miles distant, an artificial harbour, are the only important shipping points, being the lake terminals of three great transcontinental railway systems, though the whole north shore is liberally supplied with natural harbours.
On the 10th of September 1793 he obtained a vote of one hundred million francs for constructing vessels, and from September 1793 to January 1794 reorganized the military harbours of Brest and Cherbourg.
In time, however, he perceives that behind the fantastic garb of language there is an earnest and vigorous mind, an imagination that harbours fire within its cloudy folds, and an insight into the mysteries of spiritual life which is often startling.
Deep valleys, which seem to be only the prolongation of fjords, penetrate into the chain in the southern slope where exist several harbours on which settlements have been founded.
There are several groups of small islands on the northern coast, and a few small islands so near the mainland as to form sheltered harbours, as at Cartagena.
The former has been of slight service in the development of the country because of the unsettled and unhealthy character of the coast region, and the high mountain barriers between its natural ports and the settled parts of the republic. There are only two commercial ports on the coast, Tumaco and Buenaventura, though there are several natural harbours which would be of great service were there any demand for them.
The larger bays on this coast are Tumaco, Choco, Magdalena, Cabita, Coqui, Puerto Utria, Solano, Cupica and Octavia - some of them affording exceptionally safe and well-sheltered harbours.
The proposal involved the making of enlarged harbours at Dover and Audresselles on the French coast, and the bill, after passing the Commons, was thrown out by the casting vote of the chairman of a committee of the House of Lords.
The Knysna rises in the Uiteniquas hills and is of importance as a feeder of the lagoon or estuary of the same name, one of the few good harbours on the coast.
Nearly the whole of the loans raised have been spent on railways, harbours, irrigation and other public works.
The war of 1870-7r found Boudin impecunious but great, for then there had well begun the series of freshly and vigorously conceived canvases and panels, which record the impressions of a precursor of the Impressionists in presence of the Channel waters, and of those autumn skies, or skies of summer, now radiant, now uncertain, which hung over the small ports and the rocky or chalk-cliff coasts, over the watering-places, Trouville, Dieppe, and over those larger harbours, with port and avant-port and bassin, of Dunkirk, of Havre.
The estuary harbours coasting vessels, and some shipbuilding is carried on.
This section is fringed northwards by the sandy beach of the Caspian, here almost destitute of natural harbours, and rises somewhat abruptly inland to the second section, comprising the northern slopes and spurs of the Elburz, which approach at some points within 1 or 2 m.
The coast is rock-bound and difficult of access; and though it contains several bays forming fairweather ports for vessels engaged in the coasting trade, Bombay, Karachi-in-Sind, Marmagoa and Karwar alone have harbours sufficiently land-locked to protect shipping during the prevalence of the south-west monsoon.
The harbours and exits of the lake freeze over, but the body of the lake never freezes completely.
The volume of traffic is immense, because practically all freight from the more westerly lakes finds terminal harbours in Lake Erie.
The large traffic on Lake Erie has brought into existence a number of important harbours on the south shore, nearly all artificially made and deepened, with entrances between two breakwaters running into the lake at right angles to the coast line.
But the two ancient harbours have been dried up; the two peninsulas have met; the long street has been extended to the present coast-line; a small inlet, called the Cala, alone represents the old haven.
Henry concluded a treaty with Florence, by which that republic undertook to receive his ships in its harbours and to allow them to purchase all eastern goods that they might require.
But more important was Philips acquisition of the throne of Portugal with its harbours, its colonies and its marine.
Gallipoli is the seat of a Greek bishop. It has two good harbours, and is the principal station for the Turkish fleet.
The high rocky coast is much indented by bays and arms of the sea, several of which form excellent harbours, that of St John being safe and commodious, but inferior to English Harbour, which, although little frequented, is capable of receiving vessels of the largest size.
St John (pop. about 10,000), the capital, situated on the north-west, is an exceedingly picturesque town, built on an eminence overlooking one of the most beautiful harbours in the West Indies.
Although both Falmouth and Parham have good harbours, most of the produce of the island finds its way to St John for shipment.
The Strategion, devoted to the military exercises of the brave little town, stood close to Sirkedji Iskelessi, and two artificial harbours, the Portus Prosforianus and the Neorion, indented the shore of the Golden Horn, respectively in front of the ground now occupied by the station of the Chemins de Fer Orientaux and the Stamboul custom-house.
To equip it more fully for that purpose, several artificial harbours were constructed along the southern shore of the city, where no natural haven existed to accommodate ships coming up the Sea of Marmora.
It was washed on two sides by the sea, and the coast is broken up into numerous small bays and harbours, which, however, are with few exceptions exposed to the south wind.
The harbours freeze for a few days in winter, as also does the bay occasionally, navigation being interrupted every year for an average of sixteen days; though this is materially shortened by the use of an ice-breaker.
A magnificent flight of nearly 200 granite steps leads from the Richelieu monument down to the harbours.
Sinaloa has excellent natural harbours, only two of which - Mazatlan and Altata - are much used.
The bays of Agiobampo and Topolobampo are prospective railway terminals with fine harbours.
It seldom freezes for more than one month, and the harbours are rarely ice-bound.
Of the other islands, Taviuni, remarkable for a lake (presumably a crater-lake) at the top of its lofty central ridge, is fertile, but exceptionally devoid of harbours; whereas the well-timbered island of Kandavu has an excellent one.
On the motion of Demosthenes he was warned from the harbours of Attica.
It is lower than the west though still bold in many places; the inlets are narrower and less deep, but more easily accessible, as appears from the commercial importance of the harbours of Cork and Waterford.
In 1882 the Commissioners of Public Works were given further powers to lend money to fishermen on the recommendation of the inspectors of fisheries; and under an act of 1883 the Land Commission was authorized to pay from time to time such sums, not exceeding in all £250,000, as the Commissioners of Public Works might require, for the creation of a Sea Fishery Fund, such fund to be expended - a sum of about £240,000 has been expended - on the construction and improvement of piers and harbours.
Under the Marine Works Act 1902, which was intended to benefit and develop industries where the people were suffering from congestion, about £34,000 was expended upon the construction and improvement of fishery harbours in such districts.
There are two good harbours on the west coast, Hillsborough Bay on which stands Hillsborough, the chief town, and Tyrell Bay, farther south.
The coast west of the mouth of the Isonzo is fringed by lagoons, and has the same character as the Venetian coast, while the Gulf of Trieste and the Istrian peninsula have a steep coast with many bays and safe harbours.
North of this line, however, is Antongil Bay, a deep and wide inlet running northwards for about 50 m.; farther north is Port Louquez, and at almost the extreme point of the island is Diego-Suarez Bay, one of the finest harbours in the world.
There are several harbours, including the Porto Canale, for coasting vessels; the Porto Baross, for timber; and the Porto Grande, sheltered by the Maria Theresia mole and breakwater, besides four lesser moles, and flanked by the quays, with their grain-elevators.
On the north there arc numerous small indentations, many of which form convenient harbours, although the current flowing along the coast from the west often leaves in the stiller water at their mouths Coaat-Unes, obstruction bars.
The whole coast of the Bay of Valencia is low and ill provided with harbours; and along the east of Catalonia stretches of steep and rocky coast alternate with others of an opposite character.
There are few good harbours, Port 1 It was supposed to be indicated by the line which, according to the Turkish firman of 1841, describes a semicircle from the Siwa Oasis to Wadai, approaching the Nile between the Second and Third Cataracts.
Miletus, and later Ephesus, situated at the sea end of the other great trade route across Anatolia, competed for a time successfully with Smyrna, but both cities long ago lost their harbours and Smyrna remains without a rival.
Smyrna possessed two harbours - the outer, which was simply the open roadstead of the gulf, and the inner, which was a small basin, with a narrow entrance closed by a rope in case of need, about the place now occupied by bazaars.
The coast is indented by several harbours.
St Mary is the southernmost and easternmost of the Azores, lying south of the larger island .of St Michael's, through the medium of which its trade is conducted, as it has no good harbours of its own.
Through its long valleys run the roads that connect the Iranian plateau with the fertile lands and protected harbours of Asia Minor, and for its possession nations have contended from the remotest past.
The bay receives the waters of the St Croix and St John rivers, and has numerous harbours, of which the chief are St Andrews (on Passamaquoddy Bay) and St John in New Brunswick, and Digby and Annapolis (on an inlet known as Annapolis Basin) in Nova Scotia.
Its coasts for the most part, especially towards the south, are bold, and frequently indented with splendid bays and harbours, affording ample shelter and safe anchorage for ships.
There are two harbours, an outer, facing the town, protected by the island of Sirah, but now partially choked with mud; and an inner, called Aden Back-bay, or, by the Arabs, Bandar Tawayih, on the western side of the peninsula, which at all periods of the year admits vessels drawing less than 20 ft.
In1835-1836he was actively engaged in producing for publication a treatise on navigation, a remarkable achievement at so early a stage in his career; he was at this time made lieutenant, and gazetted astronomer to a South Sea exploring expedition, but resigned this position and was appointed to the survey of southern harbours.
He was born at St Germain, entered the priesthood and was successively cure of Elan near Mezieres, vicar-general of Pontoise (1747), bishop of Evreux (1753) and archbishop of Toulouse (1758), archbishop of Narbonne in 1763, and in that capacity, president of the estates of Languedoc. He devoted himself much less to the spiritual direction of his diocese than to its temporal welfare, carrying out many works of public utility, bridges, canals, roads, harbours, &c.; had chairs of chemistry and of physics created at Montpellier and at Toulouse, and tried to reduce the poverty, especially in Narbonne.
The department covers the eastern end of the island and includes all the islands off its coast, among which are Culebra and Vieques; the former (pop. in 18 99, 704) has two excellent harbours and is used as a U.S. naval station; the latter is 21 m.
The lagoon, which is enclosed by two coral barriers and accessible to the largest vessels on the north side, forms one of the finest natural harbours in the world.
The geographical map of the country is fairly complete, and with it much detailed information is now accessible regarding the coast and harbours of the Persian Gulf, the routes and passes of the interior, and the possibilities of commercial development by the construction of trade roads uniting the Caspian, the Karun, the Persian Gulf, and India, via Seistan.
The principal harbours are San Juan on the north and Ponce on the south coast; the former is accessible to vessels of about 30 ft.
He had compiled a sea-atlas (the Bahrije) of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas, every nook and cranny of which he had explored, with an account of the currents, soundings, landing-places, inlets and harbours.
The coast in the direction of the Euxine also was greatly feared by sailors, as the harbours were few and the sea proverbially tempestuous; but the southern shore was more attractive to navigators, and here we find the Greek colonies of Abdera and Mesambria on the Aegean, Perinthus on the Propontis, and, the most famous of all, Byzantium, at the meeting-point of that sea and the Bosporus.
The reply of the Western powers was first to compel the victor to maintain the territorial integrity of Chiria, and then within two years to establish themselves in Chinese harbours.
The fortified harbours of Halifax (N.S.) and Esquimalt (B.C.) were till 1905 maintained and garrisoned by the imperial government, but have since been taken over by Canada.
Projecting like a bastion into the Mediterranean at a very central point, Cyrenaica seems intended to play a commercial part; but it does not do so to any extent because of (1) lack of natural harbours, Bengazi and Derna having only open and dangerous roads (this is partly due to coastal subsidence; ancient ports have sunk); (2) the difficulty of the desert routes behind it, wells beings singularly deficient in this part of the Sahara.
The centre of their power is supposed to have been Boghaz Keui (see Pteria), east of the Halys, whence roads radiated to harbours on the Aegean, to Sinope, to northern Syria and to the Cilician plain.
The harbour, with the ceaseless activity of shipping, its calm waters, sheltered by many islands, and its well-wooded shores studded with pleasant watering-places, affords a series of charming views, apart from its claim to be considered one of the finest natural harbours in the kingdom.
The money thus obtained was appropriated in part to naval defence and harbours, and in part to the provision of old age pensions under the Federal Old Age Pension Act of 1908.