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hanseatic

hanseatic

hanseatic Sentence Examples

  • The town subsequently joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • About 1350 it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • Founded in the 10th century as Lowenwold, Uelzen became in the middle ages an active member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The assertion of Hanseatic influence in the two decades, 1356 to 1377, marks the zenith of the League's power and the completion of the long process of unification.

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  • The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.

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  • Matriculating at the university of Gottingen in 1811, he began by devoting himself to astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813 - 14, and became lieutenant of artillery in the Prussian service in 1815.

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  • The town joined the Hanseatic League in 1407.

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  • The artificial harbour, somewhat exposed, lies south of the ancient Hanseatic harbour, now filled up and covered with gardens.

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  • Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.

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  • The defensive alliance of the city with Lubeck in 1241, extended for other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of the Hanseatic League, of which Hamburg continued to be one of the principal members.

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  • The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic regiment, under Prussian officers.

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  • In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.

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  • In the same month Fitzgerald and his friend Arthur O'Connor proceeded to Hamburg, where they opened negotiations with the Directory through Reinhard, French minister to the Hanseatic towns.

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  • The town was a member of the Hanseatic league.

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  • The state has two Amtsgerichte (courts of first instance) at Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, and a superior court, Landgericht, at Bremen, whence appeals lie to the Oberlandesgericht for the Hanseatic towns in Hamburg.

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  • By the convention with Prussia of the 27th of June 1867, the free state surrendered its right to furnish its own contingent to the army, the recruits being after that time drafted into the Hanseatic infantry regiment, forming a portion of the Prussian IX.

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  • HANSEATIC LEAGUE.

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  • It is impossible to assign any precise date for the beginning of the Hanseatic League or to name any single factor which explains the origin of that loose but effective federation of North German towns.

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  • Though Lubeck's right as court of appeal from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power.

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  • In the same month Fitzgerald and his friend Arthur O'Connor proceeded to Hamburg, where they opened negotiations with the Directory through Reinhard, French minister to the Hanseatic towns.

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  • It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.

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  • While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.

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  • The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.

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  • Even more important than the assistance which the concentration of the German trade at Bruges gave to that leading mart of European commerce was the service rendered by the German counter of Bruges to the cause of Hanseatic unity.

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  • Not merely because of its central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy.

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  • The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.

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  • The result of Hanseatic representations was the confirmation by Richard II.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic league in 1270, and about the same time began to engage in the linen manufacture, which was greatly extended during the 16th and 17th centuries by a number of refugees from the Netherlands.

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  • For the Rhine provinces not incorporated in Prussia, with the special object of regulating episcopal elections; concerned Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxony, Nassau, Frankfort, the Hanseatic towns, Oldenburg and Waldeck.

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  • Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.

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  • The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.

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  • in 1377 of all their privileges, which accorded them the preferential treatment they had claimed and became the foundation of the Hanseatic position in England.

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  • The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.

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  • It became, indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns for a policy of seapower in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th century its independence was frequently manifested.

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  • In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.

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  • A few new members were admitted, mainly from the westernmost sphere of Hanseatic influence, but membership was refused to some important applicants.

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  • Separate assemblies were held in the groups for the discussion both of local and Hanseatic affairs, and gradually, but not fully until the 16th century, thegroups became recognized as the lowest stage of Hanse organization.

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  • By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.

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  • The Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 14J7, its later war and embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its fellows to secure a landtrade outside the sphere of Hanseatic influence.

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  • The closing of the Novgorod counter in 1494 was due not only to the development of the Russian state but to the exclusive Hanseatic policy which had stimulated the opening of competing trade routes.

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  • At the Hanseatic assembly of 1469, Dantzig, Hamburg and Breslau opposed the maintenance of a compulsory staple at Bruges in the face of the new conditions produced by a widening commerce and more advantageous markets.

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  • Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.

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  • The tax was abolished in 1267 by the Hanseatic League, but it was revived by the Swedes in 1688, and confirmed by Hanover.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of George I.

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  • The large church of St Mary, with a lofty tower, dating from the 14th century, the Renaissance castle of the 16th century, now used as a prison, and one of the ancient town-gates restored in 1872 are memorials of the time when Stolp was a prosperous member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • From the r4th to the 16th century it was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1340 Konigsberg entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • Among the more important public buildings must be noticed the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche), a handsome brick edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, the government offices and the theatre.

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  • In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic League.

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  • In the 13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • Riga having become a centre for trade, intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsk.

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  • The preponderating industrial activity of the kingdom fosters the tendency of the population to concentrate in towns, and no German state, with the exception of the Hanseatic towns, has so large a proportion of urban population, this forming 52.97% of the whole.

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  • The Hanseatic and Flemish merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained almost without trade.

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  • Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.

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  • Foreign chapmen eagerly competed for special privileges of Skanor and Falsterbo, and the Hanseatic merchants in particular aimed at obtaining a monopoly there.

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  • The conquest of Gotland at once led to a war between Valdemar and Sweden allied with the Hanseatic towns; but in the spring of 1362 Valdemar repulsed from the fortress of Helsingborg a large Hanseatic fleet provided with "shooting engines" (cannon) and commanded by Johan Wittenburg, the burgomaster of Lubeck.

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  • The place is said to date from the 9th century; it obtained civic rights in 1208, and later became a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It was a member of the Hanseatic League, and during the Thirty Years' War became a stronghold of the Imperialists.

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  • From about 1276 it ranked as the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, and from 1284 it was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, obtained many of the privileges of a free Imperial town, and endeavoured to assert its independence of the bishop. The citizens gladly accepted the reformed doctrines, but the supremacy of the older faith was restored in 1604 by Bishop Theodore von Fiirstenberg, who forcibly took possession of the city.

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  • Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League, and its suzerainty passed in 1547 from the abbesses to the dukes of Juliers.

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  • It received municipal rights in 1256 and was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The city was again walled in 1255; before 1284 it had become a member of the Hanseatic league; and by the end of the 14th century it was practically a powerful independent republic, which exercised an effective control over the Frisian Ommelande between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee.

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  • In the following century a new enemy appeared in the Hanseatic league, which was jealous of its rivalry, but their invasion was frustrated by Queen Philippa.

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  • BREMEN, a city of Germany, capital of the free state of Bremen, and one of the Hanseatic towns.

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  • The romantic old town, with its winding streets and lanes, flanked by massive gabled houses, dates from the medieval days of Hanseatic prosperity.

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  • In an upper hall a model of an old Hanseatic frigate, with the device Navigare necesse est, vivere non est necesse, hangs from the ceiling.

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  • Bremen had been admitted to the Hanseatic league in 1283, but was excluded in 1285, and not readmitted until 1358.

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  • The Hanseatic museum is housed in a carefully-preserved gaard, or store-house and offices of the Hanseatic League of German merchants, who inhabited the German quarter (Tydskenbryggen) and were established here in great strength from 1445 to 1558 (when the Norwegians began to find their presence irksome), and brought much prosperity to the city in that period.

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  • When, in 1201, the city joined the Hanseatic League its power and repute were so great that it was made the chief place of a third of the confederation.

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  • From 1370 along with other towns in the province of Skane, it was united for fifteen years with the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.

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  • Incorporated in 1241, it became a flourishing commercial town, and though repeatedly subject to the counts o Cleves, was a member of the Hanseatic League, and as late as 1521 a free imperial city.

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  • Great importance was also acquired by the Hanseatic League, which had originated during the interregnum in a treaty of alliance between Lubeck and Hamburg.

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  • It ultimately included more than eighty cities and became one of the greatest commercial powers in Europe (see HANSEATIC LEAGUE).

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  • The Hanseatic League carried on war with Valdemar V., king of Denmark, and his ally, the king of Norway, seventy-seven towns declaring war on these monarchs in 1367, and emerged victorious from the struggle, while its commerce extended to nearly all parts of the known world.

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  • Industry and trade were so completely paralysed that in 1635 the Hanseatic League was virtually broken up, because the members, once so wealthy, could not meet the necessary expenditure.

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  • She was supported by Bavaria, but on the other side were Prussia, Brunswick, Baden, Nassau, Meckleftburg and various other countries, besides the Hanseatic towns.

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  • The town, which was the seat of the bishops of Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the law of Lubeck " by its bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League.

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  • Soon after returning under the protection of Mecklenburg in the 14th century it joined the Hanseatic League; and was one of the original members of the powerful Wendish Hansa, in which it exercised an influence second only to that of Lubeck.

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  • The Hanseatic League, whose political ascendancy had been shaken by the Union, enraged by Eric's efforts to bring in the Dutch as commercial rivals, as well as by the establishment of the Sound tolls, materially assisted the Holsteiners in their twenty-five years' war with Denmark (1410-35), and Eric VII.

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  • Matters were still further complicated by the continual interference of the Hanseatic League; and Christian I.

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  • Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.

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  • Although it was burnt down in 1188, Magdeburg became a flourishing commercial town during the 13th century, and was soon an important member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • About the same time Lubeck and Bremen merchants settled there, and their settlement became an important seaport of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The central part, however, with its winding narrow streets, is redolent of its historical past, when, as one of the leading cities of the Hanseatic League, it enjoyed commercial supremacy over all the towns of Westphalia.

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  • About the middle of the 13th century it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • Its power was at its height early in the, 5th century, when it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • Minden (Mindun, Mindo), apparently a trading place of some importance in the time of Charlemagne, was made the seat of a bishop by that monarch, and subsequently became a flourishing member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Subsequently entering the Hanseatic League, it rose to some commercial importance.'

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  • Lubeck has a court of first instance (Amtsgericht) and a high court of justice (Landgericht); from the latter appeals lie to the Hanseatic court of appeal (Oberlandesgericht) at Hamburg, and from this again to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) in Leipzig.

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  • - Lubeck, the capital of the free state, was formerly the head of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Towards the end of the 15th century the power of the Hanseatic League began to decline, owing to the rise of Burgundy in the west, of Poland and Russia in the east and the emancipation of the Scandinavian kingdom from the union of Calmar.

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  • The last Hanseatic diet met at Lubeck in 1630, shortly after Wallenstein's unsuccessful attack on Stralsund; and from that time merciless sovereign powers stopped free intercourse on all sides.

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  • The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially dissolved, Lubeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion with Bremen and Hamburg.

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  • In 1109 Andernach received civic rights, passed in 1167 to the electors of Cologne, in 1253 joined the confederation of the Rhine cities and was the most southern member of the Hanseatic league.

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  • Numerous handsome medieval buildings testify to its former prosperity as a prominent member of the Hanseatic league, and its many quaint houses with high gables and overhanging eaves have gained for it the appellation "the Nuremberg of the North."

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  • After the destruction of Bardowiek, then the chief commercial centre of North Germany, by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, in 1189, Luneburg inherited much of its trade and subsequently became one of the principal towns of the Hanseatic league.

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  • Nearly all the Hanseatic towns belonged to this category.

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  • belong rather to the history of the Hanseatic League (q.v.).

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  • The town, which had received its first charter in 1237 and later joined the Hanseatic League, became the capital of the duchy.

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  • The grand old patrician houses of the days of its Hanseatic glory, with their lofty and often elaborately ornamented gables and their balconied windows, are the delight of the visitor to the town.

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  • It was one of the four chief towns of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It became a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Sieveking, president of the Hanseatic High Court of Appeal at Hamburg.

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  • It soon acquired a considerable trade, and joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • The fishery is of ancient importance; at the old towns of Falsterbo and SkanOr, south of Malmo, thousands of fishermen were employed until the harbours became choked in 1631, and the fish were a valuable item in the Hanseatic commerce.

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  • It afterwards joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • The Hanseatic League, particularly, had numerous settlements of this kind, the earliest being the Steelyard at London, established in the 13th century.

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  • Kiel is mentioned as a city in the next century; in 1242 it received the Lubeck rights; in the 14th century it acquired various trading privileges, having in 1284 entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • Already a leading centre of trade it entered the Hanseatic League in 1360.

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  • Salzwedel was also a member of the Hanseatic League, and, at the beginning of the 16th century seems to have transacted a great part of the inland commerce of North Germany.

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  • The old town still preserves its Hanseatic features - high storehouses, with spacious granaries and cellars, flanking the narrow, winding streets.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, and from 1253 refused to recognize the rights of the bishop and the knights.

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  • Pasewalk became a town during the 12th century and was soon a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1510 it was captured by the Hanseatic League, in 1522 it came under Danish sway, and in 1526 it was made directly subject to the city of Lubeck.

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  • the Hanseatic League which displeased the merchants of London, because of the advantagebus terms granted to the foreigner.

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  • with the Hanseatic League had left the Germans still in control of the northern seas.

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  • During the 14th century it held a high place among the towns of the Hanseatic League.

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  • At a later period it entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1457 it joined the Hanseatic League, and in 1490 it came into the possession of Brunswick.

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  • In Great Britain the first trading charters were granted, not to English companies, which were then non-existent, but to branches of the Hanseatic League, and it was not till 1597 that England was finally relieved from the presence of a foreign chartered company.

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  • During the Hanseatic period it was the most important commercial town on the Sound, but in the 16th and 17th centuries greatly lost ground owing to the decay of its herring fisheries and the rise of its rival, Copenhagen.

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  • For the Rhine provinces not incorporated in Prussia, with the special object of regulating episcopal elections; concerned Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxony, Nassau, Frankfort, the Hanseatic towns, Oldenburg and Waldeck.

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  • It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.

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  • Matriculating at the university of Gottingen in 1811, he began by devoting himself to astronomy under Carl Friedrich Gauss; but he enlisted in the Hanseatic Legion for the campaign of 1813 - 14, and became lieutenant of artillery in the Prussian service in 1815.

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  • Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.

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  • About 1350 it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.

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  • The town joined the Hanseatic League in 1407.

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  • The artificial harbour, somewhat exposed, lies south of the ancient Hanseatic harbour, now filled up and covered with gardens.

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  • This may have been due in great part to the fact that the shipping and trade of Greenland became a monopoly of the king of Norway, who kept only one ship sailing at long intervals (of years) to Greenland; at the same time the shipping and trade of Norway came more and more in the hands of the Hanseatic League, which took no interest in Greenland.

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  • Many economic changes probably occurred in consequence of the variations in tide-generating force, as, for instance, the decline in the mediaeval Baltic herring fisheries controlled by the Hanseatic League.

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  • The defensive alliance of the city with Lubeck in 1241, extended for other purpose by the treaty of 1255, practically laid the foundations of the Hanseatic League, of which Hamburg continued to be one of the principal members.

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  • The state furnishes three battalions of the 2nd Hanseatic regiment, under Prussian officers.

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  • In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.

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  • The town was a member of the Hanseatic league.

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  • The state has two Amtsgerichte (courts of first instance) at Bremen and Bremerhaven respectively, and a superior court, Landgericht, at Bremen, whence appeals lie to the Oberlandesgericht for the Hanseatic towns in Hamburg.

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  • By the convention with Prussia of the 27th of June 1867, the free state surrendered its right to furnish its own contingent to the army, the recruits being after that time drafted into the Hanseatic infantry regiment, forming a portion of the Prussian IX.

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  • The town subsequently joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • HANSEATIC LEAGUE.

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  • It is impossible to assign any precise date for the beginning of the Hanseatic League or to name any single factor which explains the origin of that loose but effective federation of North German towns.

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  • While the political element in the development of the Hanseatic League must not be underestimated, it was not so formative as the economic. The foundation was laid for the growth of German towns along the southern shore of the Baltic by the great movement of German colonization of Slavic territory east of the Elbe.

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  • The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.

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  • Though Lubeck's right as court of appeal from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power.

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  • Even more important than the assistance which the concentration of the German trade at Bruges gave to that leading mart of European commerce was the service rendered by the German counter of Bruges to the cause of Hanseatic unity.

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  • Not merely because of its central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy.

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  • The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.

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  • The result of Hanseatic representations was the confirmation by Richard II.

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  • in 1377 of all their privileges, which accorded them the preferential treatment they had claimed and became the foundation of the Hanseatic position in England.

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  • The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.

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  • The assertion of Hanseatic influence in the two decades, 1356 to 1377, marks the zenith of the League's power and the completion of the long process of unification.

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  • It became, indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns for a policy of seapower in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th century its independence was frequently manifested.

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  • In the East, the German Order, while enjoying Hanseatic privileges, frequently opposed the policy of the League abroad, and was only prevented by domestic troubles and its Hinterland enemies from playing its own hand in the Baltic. After the fall of the order in 1467, the towns of Prussia and Livland, especially Dantzig and Riga, pursued an exclusive trade policy even against their Hanseatic confederates.

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  • The German Order in 1398 converted the Hanseatic poundage to a territorial tax for its own purposes, and one of the chief causes for Cologne's disaffection a halfcentury later was the extension from Flanders to other parts of the Netherlands of the levy made by the counter at Bruges.

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  • The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.

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  • A few new members were admitted, mainly from the westernmost sphere of Hanseatic influence, but membership was refused to some important applicants.

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  • Separate assemblies were held in the groups for the discussion both of local and Hanseatic affairs, and gradually, but not fully until the 16th century, thegroups became recognized as the lowest stage of Hanse organization.

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  • By the peace of Copenhagen in 1441, after the unsuccessful war of the League with Holland, the attempted monopoly of the Baltic was broken, and, though the Hanseatic trade regulations were maintained on paper, the Dutch with their larger ships increased their hold on the herring fisheries, the French salt trade, and the Baltic grain trade.

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  • The Hanseatic embargo against Bruges from 1451 to 14J7, its later war and embargo against England, the Turkish advance closing the Italian Black Sea trade with southern Russia, all were utilized by Nuremberg and its fellows to secure a landtrade outside the sphere of Hanseatic influence.

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  • The closing of the Novgorod counter in 1494 was due not only to the development of the Russian state but to the exclusive Hanseatic policy which had stimulated the opening of competing trade routes.

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  • At the Hanseatic assembly of 1469, Dantzig, Hamburg and Breslau opposed the maintenance of a compulsory staple at Bruges in the face of the new conditions produced by a widening commerce and more advantageous markets.

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  • Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.

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  • Founded in the 10th century as Lowenwold, Uelzen became in the middle ages an active member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The tax was abolished in 1267 by the Hanseatic League, but it was revived by the Swedes in 1688, and confirmed by Hanover.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, and was later the residence of the branch of the ducal house, which received the title of elector of Hanover and ascended the British throne in the person of George I.

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  • The large church of St Mary, with a lofty tower, dating from the 14th century, the Renaissance castle of the 16th century, now used as a prison, and one of the ancient town-gates restored in 1872 are memorials of the time when Stolp was a prosperous member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • From the r4th to the 16th century it was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1340 Konigsberg entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • Among the more important public buildings must be noticed the Evangelical Marienkirche (Oberkirche), a handsome brick edifice of the 13th century with five aisles, the Roman Catholic church, the Rathhaus dating from 1607, and bearing on its southern gable the device of a member of the Hanseatic League, the government offices and the theatre.

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  • In 1379 it received from King Sigismund, then margrave of Brandenburg, the right to free navigation of the Oder; and from 1368 to about 1450 it belonged to the Hanseatic League.

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  • In the 13th century Hildesheim became a free city of the Empire; in 1249 it received municipal rights and about the same time it joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • Riga having become a centre for trade, intermediate between the Hanseatic towns and those of Novgorod, Pskov and Polotsk.

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  • The preponderating industrial activity of the kingdom fosters the tendency of the population to concentrate in towns, and no German state, with the exception of the Hanseatic towns, has so large a proportion of urban population, this forming 52.97% of the whole.

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  • The Hanseatic and Flemish merchants largely increased its prosperity, but on the withdrawal of the Hanseatic League about 1470 and the break-up of the gild system Boston's prosperity began to wane, and for some centuries it remained almost without trade.

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  • Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it obtained civic rights in 1244 and joined the Hanseatic league.

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  • Valdemar had indeed pledged it solemnly and irrevocably to King Magnus of Sweden, who had held it for twenty years; but profiting by the difficulties of Magnus with his Norwegian subjects, after skilfully securing his own position by negotiations with Albert of Mecklenburg and the Hanseatic League, Valdemar suddenly and irresistibly invaded Scania, and by the end of 1361 all the old Danish lands, except North Holland, were recovered.

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  • Foreign chapmen eagerly competed for special privileges of Skanor and Falsterbo, and the Hanseatic merchants in particular aimed at obtaining a monopoly there.

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  • The conquest of Gotland at once led to a war between Valdemar and Sweden allied with the Hanseatic towns; but in the spring of 1362 Valdemar repulsed from the fortress of Helsingborg a large Hanseatic fleet provided with "shooting engines" (cannon) and commanded by Johan Wittenburg, the burgomaster of Lubeck.

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  • The place is said to date from the 9th century; it obtained civic rights in 1208, and later became a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It was a member of the Hanseatic League, and during the Thirty Years' War became a stronghold of the Imperialists.

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  • From about 1276 it ranked as the most important place in the episcopal principality of Kamin, and from 1284 it was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, obtained many of the privileges of a free Imperial town, and endeavoured to assert its independence of the bishop. The citizens gladly accepted the reformed doctrines, but the supremacy of the older faith was restored in 1604 by Bishop Theodore von Fiirstenberg, who forcibly took possession of the city.

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  • Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League, and its suzerainty passed in 1547 from the abbesses to the dukes of Juliers.

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  • It received municipal rights in 1256 and was a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The city was again walled in 1255; before 1284 it had become a member of the Hanseatic league; and by the end of the 14th century it was practically a powerful independent republic, which exercised an effective control over the Frisian Ommelande between the Ems and the Lauwers Zee.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic league in 1270, and about the same time began to engage in the linen manufacture, which was greatly extended during the 16th and 17th centuries by a number of refugees from the Netherlands.

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  • In the following century a new enemy appeared in the Hanseatic league, which was jealous of its rivalry, but their invasion was frustrated by Queen Philippa.

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  • BREMEN, a city of Germany, capital of the free state of Bremen, and one of the Hanseatic towns.

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  • The romantic old town, with its winding streets and lanes, flanked by massive gabled houses, dates from the medieval days of Hanseatic prosperity.

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  • In an upper hall a model of an old Hanseatic frigate, with the device Navigare necesse est, vivere non est necesse, hangs from the ceiling.

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  • Bremen had been admitted to the Hanseatic league in 1283, but was excluded in 1285, and not readmitted until 1358.

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  • The Hanseatic museum is housed in a carefully-preserved gaard, or store-house and offices of the Hanseatic League of German merchants, who inhabited the German quarter (Tydskenbryggen) and were established here in great strength from 1445 to 1558 (when the Norwegians began to find their presence irksome), and brought much prosperity to the city in that period.

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  • When, in 1201, the city joined the Hanseatic League its power and repute were so great that it was made the chief place of a third of the confederation.

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  • From 1370 along with other towns in the province of Skane, it was united for fifteen years with the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1620 he represented the Genevan Church at the national synod of Alais, when the decrees of the synod of Dort were introduced into France; and in 1621 he was sent on a successful mission to the states-general of Holland, and to the authorities of the Hanseatic towns, with reference to the defence of Geneva against the threatened attacks of the duke of Savoy.

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  • Incorporated in 1241, it became a flourishing commercial town, and though repeatedly subject to the counts o Cleves, was a member of the Hanseatic League, and as late as 1521 a free imperial city.

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  • Great importance was also acquired by the Hanseatic League, which had originated during the interregnum in a treaty of alliance between Lubeck and Hamburg.

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  • It ultimately included more than eighty cities and became one of the greatest commercial powers in Europe (see HANSEATIC LEAGUE).

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  • The Hanseatic League carried on war with Valdemar V., king of Denmark, and his ally, the king of Norway, seventy-seven towns declaring war on these monarchs in 1367, and emerged victorious from the struggle, while its commerce extended to nearly all parts of the known world.

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  • Industry and trade were so completely paralysed that in 1635 the Hanseatic League was virtually broken up, because the members, once so wealthy, could not meet the necessary expenditure.

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  • She was supported by Bavaria, but on the other side were Prussia, Brunswick, Baden, Nassau, Meckleftburg and various other countries, besides the Hanseatic towns.

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  • The town, which was the seat of the bishops of Ermeland from 1255 to 1298, was granted the law of Lubeck " by its bishop in 1284, and admitted to the Hanseatic League.

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  • Soon after returning under the protection of Mecklenburg in the 14th century it joined the Hanseatic League; and was one of the original members of the powerful Wendish Hansa, in which it exercised an influence second only to that of Lubeck.

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  • The Hanseatic League, whose political ascendancy had been shaken by the Union, enraged by Eric's efforts to bring in the Dutch as commercial rivals, as well as by the establishment of the Sound tolls, materially assisted the Holsteiners in their twenty-five years' war with Denmark (1410-35), and Eric VII.

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  • Matters were still further complicated by the continual interference of the Hanseatic League; and Christian I.

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  • Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.

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  • Although it was burnt down in 1188, Magdeburg became a flourishing commercial town during the 13th century, and was soon an important member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • About the same time Lubeck and Bremen merchants settled there, and their settlement became an important seaport of the Hanseatic League.

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  • The central part, however, with its winding narrow streets, is redolent of its historical past, when, as one of the leading cities of the Hanseatic League, it enjoyed commercial supremacy over all the towns of Westphalia.

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  • About the middle of the 13th century it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • Its power was at its height early in the, 5th century, when it joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • Minden (Mindun, Mindo), apparently a trading place of some importance in the time of Charlemagne, was made the seat of a bishop by that monarch, and subsequently became a flourishing member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Subsequently entering the Hanseatic League, it rose to some commercial importance.'

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  • Lubeck has a court of first instance (Amtsgericht) and a high court of justice (Landgericht); from the latter appeals lie to the Hanseatic court of appeal (Oberlandesgericht) at Hamburg, and from this again to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) in Leipzig.

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  • - Lubeck, the capital of the free state, was formerly the head of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Towards the end of the 15th century the power of the Hanseatic League began to decline, owing to the rise of Burgundy in the west, of Poland and Russia in the east and the emancipation of the Scandinavian kingdom from the union of Calmar.

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  • The last Hanseatic diet met at Lubeck in 1630, shortly after Wallenstein's unsuccessful attack on Stralsund; and from that time merciless sovereign powers stopped free intercourse on all sides.

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  • The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially dissolved, Lubeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion with Bremen and Hamburg.

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  • In 1109 Andernach received civic rights, passed in 1167 to the electors of Cologne, in 1253 joined the confederation of the Rhine cities and was the most southern member of the Hanseatic league.

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  • Numerous handsome medieval buildings testify to its former prosperity as a prominent member of the Hanseatic league, and its many quaint houses with high gables and overhanging eaves have gained for it the appellation "the Nuremberg of the North."

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  • After the destruction of Bardowiek, then the chief commercial centre of North Germany, by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, in 1189, Luneburg inherited much of its trade and subsequently became one of the principal towns of the Hanseatic league.

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  • Nearly all the Hanseatic towns belonged to this category.

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  • belong rather to the history of the Hanseatic League (q.v.).

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  • The town, which had received its first charter in 1237 and later joined the Hanseatic League, became the capital of the duchy.

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  • The grand old patrician houses of the days of its Hanseatic glory, with their lofty and often elaborately ornamented gables and their balconied windows, are the delight of the visitor to the town.

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  • It was one of the four chief towns of the Hanseatic League.

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  • It became a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • Sieveking, president of the Hanseatic High Court of Appeal at Hamburg.

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  • It soon acquired a considerable trade, and joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • The fishery is of ancient importance; at the old towns of Falsterbo and SkanOr, south of Malmo, thousands of fishermen were employed until the harbours became choked in 1631, and the fish were a valuable item in the Hanseatic commerce.

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  • It afterwards joined the Hanseatic League.

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  • The Hanseatic League, particularly, had numerous settlements of this kind, the earliest being the Steelyard at London, established in the 13th century.

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  • Kiel is mentioned as a city in the next century; in 1242 it received the Lubeck rights; in the 14th century it acquired various trading privileges, having in 1284 entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • Already a leading centre of trade it entered the Hanseatic League in 1360.

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  • Salzwedel was also a member of the Hanseatic League, and, at the beginning of the 16th century seems to have transacted a great part of the inland commerce of North Germany.

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  • The old town still preserves its Hanseatic features - high storehouses, with spacious granaries and cellars, flanking the narrow, winding streets.

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  • It joined the Hanseatic League, and from 1253 refused to recognize the rights of the bishop and the knights.

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  • Pasewalk became a town during the 12th century and was soon a member of the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1510 it was captured by the Hanseatic League, in 1522 it came under Danish sway, and in 1526 it was made directly subject to the city of Lubeck.

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  • the Hanseatic League which displeased the merchants of London, because of the advantagebus terms granted to the foreigner.

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  • with the Hanseatic League had left the Germans still in control of the northern seas.

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  • During the 14th century it held a high place among the towns of the Hanseatic League.

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  • At a later period it entered the Hanseatic League.

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  • In 1457 it joined the Hanseatic League, and in 1490 it came into the possession of Brunswick.

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  • In Great Britain the first trading charters were granted, not to English companies, which were then non-existent, but to branches of the Hanseatic League, and it was not till 1597 that England was finally relieved from the presence of a foreign chartered company.

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  • During the Hanseatic period it was the most important commercial town on the Sound, but in the 16th and 17th centuries greatly lost ground owing to the decay of its herring fisheries and the rise of its rival, Copenhagen.

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