Among these petty chieftains, Sargon in 715 mentions Dayukku, "lieutenant of Man" (he probably was, therefore, a vassal of the neighbouring king of Man in the mountains of south-eastern Armenia), who joined the Urartians and other enemies of Assyria, but was by Sargon transported to Hamath in Syria "with his clan."
non-Semitic) is rendered certain by the proper names Jau-bit-di (= Ilu-bi`di) of Hamath in Sargon's inscriptions, Ahi-jawi (mi) in Sellin's discovered tablet at Ta'annek, to say nothing of those which have been found in the documents of Khammurabi's reign.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
In 854 the allies at least maintained themselves at the battle of Karkar (perhaps Apamea to the north of Hamath).
It is now known, also, that Ben-hadad and a small coalition were defeated by the king of Hamath; but the bearing of this upon Israelite history is uncertain.
[OLD Testament History Hamath and the quiescence of Assyria may have encouraged Israelite ambitions, but until more is known of the campaigns of Hadad-nirari and of Shalmaneser III.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
Another revolt was planned in 720 in which the province of Samaria joined with Hamath and Damascus, with the Phoenician Arpad and Simura, and with Gaza and " Egypt."
south of Hamath).
Moab, Ammon and Edom would appear to have been merely tributary, whilst in the north among his allies David could number the king of Hamath.
Jessup, rediscovered, at Hamah (Hamath) on Orontes, five basaltic blocks bearing pictographic inscriptions in relief, one of which had been reported by J.
Other conjectural identifications of groups of symbols with the place-names Hamath, Marash, Tyana are bases of Sayce's system.
The identification (Schrader, McCurdy, &c.) of Azariah with Azriyau of Ja'udi, the head of a North Syrian confederation at Hamath (Hamah) overcome by Tiglath-Pileser IV.
The most conspicuous of these is the king of Hamath who in the inscriptions of Sargon (722-705 B.C.) is called Yaubi'di and Ilubi'di (compare Jehoiakim-Eliakim).
On the defeat of Josiah at Megiddo his younger brother Jehoahaz (or Shallum) was chosen by the Judaeans, but the Egyptian conquerer Necho summoned him to his headquarters at Riblah (south of Hamath on the Orontes) and removed him to Egypt, appointing in his stead Eliakim, whose name ("El[God] raiseth up") was changed to its better-known synonym, Jehoiakim.
Arpad revolted soon afterwards, but after a siege was taken in 740 B.C. The following year Azariah of Judah appears among the enemies of Tiglath-Pileser, who had overthrown his Hamathite allies and annexed the nineteen districts of Hamath.
His armies penetrated to Lake Van and Tarsus, the Hittites of Carchemish were compelled to pay tribute, and Hamath (Hamah) and Damascus were subdued.
Although Aramaic inscriptions of the Assyrian period, like those of Zanjirli or that of King ZKR of Hamath, have not been found in Mesopotamia, already in the time of Shalmaneser II.
from North Syria, dating c. 800 B.C., in which Zakir, king of Hamath and La'ash frequently speaks of his god Be`el-shamin (Pognon, Inscr.
Many of them exchange their existing name for that of Antioch (Adana, Tarsus, Gadara, Ptolemais), Seleucia (Mopsuestia, Gadara) or Epiphanea (Oeniandus, Hamath).
rim, Hamath, was written ~ ~
The Ilamdnid Saif addaula shortly after this assumed the governorship of Aleppo, and became involved in a struggle with the Ikshid, whose general, Kgfur, he defeated in an engagement between Horns and Hamab (Hamath).
At his death (May 8th, 1238) at Damascus, his son Abfl Bakr was appointed to succeed with the title Malik al-AdilSaif al-din; but his elder brother Malik al-Salil~t Najm al-dIn Ayyub, having got possession of Damascus, immediately started for Egypt, with the view of adding that country to his dominions: meanwhile his uncle Ismail, prince of Hamath, with the prince of Horns, seized Damascus, upon hearing which the troops of Najm al-din deserted him at Nablus, when he fell into the hands of Malik al-N~ir, prince of Kerak, who carried him off to that city and kept him a prisoner there for a time; after which he was released and allowed to return to Nablus.
Among the literary ornaments of his reign was the historian and geographer Ismgil Abulfeda, to whom Malik al-N5~ir restored the government of Hamath, which had belonged to his ancestors, and even gave the title sultan.
as the Hebrew possession (from the " River of Egypt " to Hamath).
The anti-Assyrian alliance was, as often in west Asia, a temporary one, and the inveterate rivalries of the small states are illustrated, in a striking manner, in the downfall of Omri's dynasty and the rise of that of Jehu (842-c. 745); in the bitter onslaughts of Damascus upon Israel, leading nearly to its annihilation; in an unsuccessful attack upon the king of Hamath by Damascus, Cilicia and small states in north Syria; in an Israelite expedition against Judah and Jerusalem (2 Kings xiv.
in references to Ammon, Damascus and Hamath, and in Judaean relations with Philistia, Moab and Edom.
In Hamath we meet with the Baal of Heaven, Sun and Moon deities, gods of heaven and earth, and others.
A god " Most High " (`elyon) was perhaps already known in Hamath.
Diverging to Hamath and Aleppo, on his return to Damascus, he found the Black Death raging, so that two thousand four hundred died in one day.
2 The chief dates are: 720, defeat of a coalition (Hamath, Gaza and Musri) at Karkar in north Syria and Raphia (S.
HAMAH, the Hamath of the Bible, a Hittite royal city, situated in the narrow valley of the Orontes, 110 English miles N.
In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them.
After the Macedonian conquest of Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks in honour of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early Byzantine period it was known by both its Hebrew and its Greek name.
Hamath; Josephus (Ant.
He succeeded in breaking the power of Damascus, which had long been devastating his land, and extended his kingdom from Hamath on the Orontes to the Dead Sea.
Akizzi, governor of Katna (near Homs or Hamath), reported this to the Pharaoh who seems to have frustrated the attempt.
When Aramaic began to take the place of Assyrian in written documents is not known; but just across the Euphrates the change had occurred as early as the 8th century B.C. (Zengirli, Hamath; see also Pognon).
A series of campaigns against Edom, Moab, Ammon and the Aramaean states, friendly relations with Hiram of Tyre, and the recognition of his sovereignty by the king of Hamath on the Orontes, combine to portray a monarchy which was the ideal.
28, "Hamath, which had belonged to Judah" (R.V.) is incorrect; Winckler (Keilinschrift.
In 854 B.C. a league formed by Hamath, Arvad, Ammon, "Ahab of Israel" and other neighbouring princes, under the leadership of Damascus, fought an indecisive battle against him at Karkar (Qargar), and other battles followed in 849 and 846 (see Jews § 10).
64) to have died is probably a blunder for Hamath.
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