How to use Halley in a sentence
He died at Blackheath on the 7th of September 1836, and was buried beside Halley in the churchyard of Lee.
Edmund Halley, the astronomer, compiled the first variation chart of scientific value (1683), as also a chart of the winds (1686).
Halley's comet conforms very well, however, with a meteoric shower directed from Aquarius early in May.
Besides Napier and Briggs, special reference should be made to Kepler (Chilias, 1624) and Mercator (Logarithmotechnia, 1668), whose methods were arithmetical, and to Newton, Gregory, Halley and Cotes, who employed series.
Halley added in his edition (1710) a restoration of Book viii., in which he was guided by the fact that Pappus gives lemmas "to the seventh and eighth books" under that one heading, as well as by the statement of Apollonius himself that the use of the seventh book was illustrated by the problems solved in the eighth.Advertisement
An Arabic version of the first was found towards the end of the 17th century in the Bodleian library by Dr Edward Bernard, who began a translation of it; Halley finished it and published it along with a restoration of the second treatise in 1706.3rd.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
John Wallis utilized the intersections of this curve with a right line to solve cubic equations, and Edmund Halley solved sextic equations with the aid of a circle.
The labour and expense of passing this great work through the press devolved upon Halley, who also wrote the prefixed hexameters ending with the well-known line Nec fas est propius mortali attingere divos.
A collection of manuscripts regarding Halley is preserved among the Rigaud papers in the Bodleian library, Oxford; and many of his unpublished letters exist at the Record Office and in the library of the Royal Society.Advertisement
Halley was the first to suspect from observation the proper motions of the stars.
He had meantime (in 1742) been appointed to succeed Edmund Halley as astronomer royal; his enhanced reputation enabled him to apply successfully for an instrumental outfit at a cost of 1000; and with an 8-foot quadrant completed for him in 1750 by John Bird (1709-1776), he accumulated at Greenwich in ten years materials of inestimable value for the reform of astronomy.
This discovery was communicated by him to Edmund Halley in 17bo, but was not published, or communicated to the Royal Society, till after Newton's death, when a description of it was found among his papers.
In January 1684 Sir Christopher Wren, Halley and Hooke were led to discuss the law of gravity, and, although probably they all agreed in the truth of the law of the inverse square, yet this truth was not looked upon as established.
It appears that Hooke professed to have a solution of the problem of the path of .a body moving round a centre of force attracting as the inverse square of the distance; but Halley, finding, after a delay of some months, that Hooke " had not been so good as his word " in showing his solution to Wren, started in the month of August 1684 for Cambridge to consult Newton on the subject.Advertisement
Newton replied promptly, "an ellipse," and on being questioned by Halley as to the reason for his answer he replied, " Why, I have calculated it."
He could not, however, put his hand upon his calculation, but he promised to send it to Halley.
In the following November Newton redeemed his promise to Halley by sending him, by the hand of Mr Paget, one of the fellows of his own college, and at that time mathematical master of Christ's Hospital, a copy of his demonstration; and very soon afterwards Halley paid another visit to Cambridge to confer with Newton about the problem; and on his return to London on the 10th of December 1684, he informed the Royal Society " that he had lately seen Mr Newton at Cambridge, who had showed him a curious treatise De Motu," which at Halley's desire he promised to send to the Society to be entered upon their register.
It would add to my satisfaction if you would be pleased to let me know the long diameters of the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, assigned by yourself and Mr Halley in your new tables, that I may see how the sesquialteral proportion fills the heavens, together with another small proportion which must be allowed for."
Excepting in the correspondence with Flamsteed we hear nothing more of the preparation of the Principia until the 21st of April 1686, when Halley read to the Royal Society his Discourse concerning Gravity and its Properties, in which he states " that his worthy countryman Mr Isaac Newton has an incomparable treatise of motion almost ready for the press," and that the law of the inverse square " is the principle on which Mr Newton has made out all the phenomena of the celestial motions so easily and naturally, that its truth is past dispute."Advertisement
Although this manuscript contained only the first book, yet such was the confidence the Society placed in the author that an order was given " that a letter of thanks be written to Mr Newton; and that the printing of his book be referred to the consideration of the council; and that in the meantime the book be put into the hands of Mr Halley, to make a report thereof to the council."
Three days afterwards Halley communicated the resolution to Newton, and stated to him that the printing was to be at the charge of the Society.
At the next meeting of the council, on the 2nd of June, it was again ordered " that Mr Newton's book be printed," but, instead of sanctioning the resolution of the general meeting to print it at their charge, they added " that Mr Halley undertake the business of looking after it, and printing it at his own charge, which he engaged to do."
In order to explain to Newton the cause of the delay, Halley in his letter of the 22nd of May alleges that it arose from " the president's attendance on the king, and the absence of the vicepresidents, whom the good weather had drawn out of town"; but there is reason to believe that this was not the true cause, and that the unwillingness of the council to undertake the publication arose from the state of the finances of the Society.
Halley certainly deserves the gratitude of posterity for undertaking the publication of the work at a very considerable pecuniary risk to himself.Advertisement
In the same letter Halley found it necessary to inform Newton of Hooke's conduct when the manuscript of the Principia was presented to the Society.
Halley only communicated to Newton the fact " that Hooke had some pretensions to the invention of the rule for the decrease of gravity being reciprocally as the squares of the distances from the centre," acknowledging at the same time that, though Newton had the notion from him, " yet the demonstration of the curves generated thereby belonged wholly to Newton."
In thus appealing to Newton's candour, Halley obviously wished that some acknowledgment of Hooke should be made.
On the 14th of July 1686 Newton wrote to Halley approving of his proposal to introduce woodcuts among the letterpress, stating clearly the different things which he had from Hooke, and adding, " And now having sincerely told you the case between Mr Hooke and me, I hope I shall be free for the future from the prejudice of his letters.
This scholium was- " The inverse law of gravity holds in all the celestial motions, as was discovered also independently by my countrymen Wren, Hooke and Halley."
It was dedicated to the Royal Society, and to it was prefixed a set of Latin hexameters addressed by Halley to the author.
While thus occupied he had an extensive correspondence with Halley, a very great part of which is extant.
He also wrote biographies of Sir Isaac Newton and Edmund Halley for Knight's British Worthies, various notices of scientific men for the [[Gallery]] of Portraits, and for the uncompleted Biographical Dictionary of the Useful Knowledge Society, and at least seven articles in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography.
As the upshot, the Historia coelestis, embodying the first Greenwich star-catalogue, together with the mural arc observations made 1689-1705, was issued under Edmund Halley's editorship in 1712.
But the most striking incident in the history of the verification of Newton's law was the return of Halley's comet to perihelion, on the 12th of March 1759, in approximate accordance with Clairault's calculation of the delays due to the action of Jupiter and Saturn.
Both irregularities had been noted, a century earlier, by Edmund Halley; both had, since that time, vainly exercised the ingenuity of the ablest mathematicians; both now almost simultaneously yielded their secret to the same fortunate inquirer.
Halley in a few cases, and since found to prevail universally.
Edmund Halley, the second astronomer royal, devoted most of his official attention to the moon.
Halley in 1716; they were later insisted upon by Lalande; an enthusiasm for co-operation was evoked, and the globe, from Siberia to Otaheite, was studded with observing parties.
But Edmund Halley found, by a comparison of ancient eclipses with modern observations, that the mean motion had been accelerated.
Of the eight books which made up his original treatise, only seven are certainly known, the first four in the original Greek, the next three are found in Arabic translations, and the eighth was restored by Edmund Halley in 1710 from certain introductory lemmas of Pappus.
The fifth book contains properties of normals and their envelopes, thus embracing the germs of the theory of evolutes, and also maxima and minima problems, such as to draw the longest and shortest lines from a given point to a conic; the sixth book is concerned with the similarity of conics; the seventh with complementary chords and conjugate diameters; the eighth book, according to the restoration of Edmund Halley, continues the subject of the preceding book.
The Conics of Apollonius was translated into Arabic by Tobit ben Korra in the 9th century, and this edition was followed by Halley in 1710.
Halley supplies corrections to some of the observations recorded in De Motu Stellarum.
The ticket counter is in a lobby, where there is a bust of Halley and some instruments, including a 1580 astrolabe.
We know that Boulliau's father observed the comet of 1607 which would later be called Halley ' s comet.
Lamprecht traces the genesis of this idea to none other than Sir Edmund Halley.
When it did so, sixteen years after Halleys death, Newtonian gravitation received a great boost and the comet was named after Halley.
There is also Halley's 8 foot mural quadrant of 1725.
The appearance of the Hale Bopp and Halley's comets, followed by solar and lunar eclipses, caused an upsurge in popular astronomy.
But popular phraseology did not conform to this canon, and comitia, which gained in current Latin the sense of "elections" was sometimes used of the assemblies of the Halley concluded that all the three orbits belonged to the same comet, of which the periodic time was about 76 years.
Ismael Bouillaud (1605-1694) stated in 1645 the fact of planetary circulation under the sway of a sun-force decreasing as the inverse square of the distance; and the inevitableness of this same " duplicate ratio " was separately perceived by Robert Hooke, Edmund Halley and Sir Christopher Wren before Newton's discovery had yet been made public. He was the only man of his generation who both recognized the law, and had power to demonstrate its validity.
Poisson's application to them in 1809 of Lagrange's theory of the variation of constants; Philippe de Pontecoulant successfully used in 1829, for the prediction of the impending return of Halley's comet, a system of " mechanical quadratures " published by Lagrange in the Berlin Memoirs for 1778; and in his Theorie analytique du systeme du monde (1846) he modified and refined general theories of the lunar and planetary revolutions.
This will enable us to exploit the regular radiosonde measurements from Halley to the full.
The appearance of the Hale Bopp and Halley 's comets, followed by solar and lunar eclipses, caused an upsurge in popular astronomy.
The most famous comet is, of course, Halley's Comet, but there are other comets like Holme's and Hale-Bopp.
The most popular is, of course, Halley's Comet, but there are many more comets to choose from over the centuries.
He calculated an orbit for the comet of 1 759 (Halley's), reduced Lacaille's observations of 515 zodiacal stars, and was, in 1763, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.