As Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Judicium de Thucydide, c. 23) distinctly states that the work current in his time under the name of Cadmus was a forgery, it is most probable that the two first are identical with the Phoenician Cadmus, who, as the reputed inventor of letters, was subsequently transformed into the Milesian and the author of an historical work.
Cnidus and Halicarnassus on the coast were colonized by Dorians.
At Halicarnassus (q.v.) the Mausoleum, the monument erected by Artemisia to her husband Mausolus, about 360 B.C., was excavated by Sir C. T.
Newton, History of Discoveries at Cnidus, Halicarnassus and Branchidae).
But his capital, Halicarnassus, was taken after a siege, and the principality of Caria conferred by Alexander on Ada, a princess of the native dynasty.
The treaty with the Latins is mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus alone, who had not seen it himself; indeed, it is doubtful whether it was then in existence, and in any case, considering the changes which the language had undergone, it would have been unintelligible.
An opposite tendency was that of the Aphthartodocetae or Phantasiastae, represented by Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, and, in his closing days, by Justinian.
Thus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentions 5000 equites as taking part in a review at which he himself was present.
She built for him, in Halicarnassus, a very magnificent tomb, called the Mausoleum, which was one of the seven wonders of the world, and from which the name mausoleum was afterwards given to all tombs remarkable for their grandeur.
SuIdas (s.v.), who mentions the second work, confounds the older Scylax with a much later author, who wrote a refutation of the history of Polybius, and is presumably identical with Scylax of Halicarnassus, a statesman and astrologer, the friend of Panaetius spoken of by Cicero (De div.
Coast of Asia Minor, where Rhodes, Cos, Cnidus and (formerly) Halicarnassus formed a " Dorian " confederacy.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus follows Cato.
Other accounts of Latinus, differing considerably in detail, are to be found in the fragments of Cato's Origines (in Servius's commentary on Virgil) and in Dionysius of Halicarnassus; see further authorities in the article by J.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus quotes a tradition that the name arose from the alleged fact that the people were the!
HERODOTUS (c. 484-425 B.C.), Greek historian, called the Father of History, was born at Halicarnassus in Asia Minor, then dependent upon the Persians, in or about the year 484 B.C. Herodotus was thus born a Persian subject, and such he continued until he was thirty or five-and-thirty years of age.
At the time of his birth Halicarnassus was under the rule of a queen Artemisia.
It is probable that Herodotus shared his relative's political opinions, and either was exiled from Halicarnassus or quitted it voluntarily at the time of his execution.
We are told that when he quitted Halicarnassus on account of the tyranny of Lygdamis, in or about the year 457 B.C., he took up his abode in Samos.
It is certain, however, that Halicarnassus became henceforward a voluntary member of the Athenian confederacy.
Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling, was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to obtain such status elsewhere.
This account of the hero's principal labours, exploits and crimes is derived from the mythologists Apollodorus and Diodorus, who probably followed the Heracleia by Peisander of Rhodes as to the twelve labours or that of Panyasis of Halicarnassus, but sundry variations of order and incident are found in classical literature.
His style was high-flown and artificial, as was natural considering his early training, and he frequently sacrificed truth to rhetoric effect; but, according to Dionysius of Halicarnassus, he and Theopompus were the only historical writers whose language was accurate and finished.
Amongst his authorities were the writers of Atthides (histories of Attica), the grammarian Didymus, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, and the lexicographer Dionysius, son of Tryphon.
Meanwhile, the study of the Greek classics was ably represented at Rome in the Augustan age by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (fl.
Several more or less contradictory traditions may be found in Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Strabo and other writers.
About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos.
At an early period Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis, which included Cos, Cnidus, Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus; but one of the citizens, Agasicles, having taken home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games instead of dedicating it according to custom to the Triopian Apollo, the city was cut off from the league.
In the early 5th century Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia, who made herself famous at the battle of Salamis.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
Struck by the natural strength and beauty of its position, Mausolus removed to Halicarnassus from Mylasa, increasing the population of the city by the inhabitants of six towns of the Leleges.
P. Pullan, History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus (1862-1863); J.
Fergusson, The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored (1862); E.
Stevenson, A Restoration of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (1909); J.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Epistle on Demosthenes and Aristotle (chap. 5), gives the following sketch of his life: - Aristotle ('ApeaToTE ujs) was the son of Nicomachus, who traced back his descent and his art to Machaon,son of Aesculapius; his mother being Phaestis, a descendant of one of those who carried the colony from Chalcis to Stagira.
Along with Halicarnassus and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.
Of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, Cnidus, &c. (1863).
3 The list of the thirty communities be longing to the Latin league, given by Dionysius of Halicarnassus ' See R.
Maspero, Struggle of Nations, p. 312.1 The general notion of tax or tribute often prevailed over that of "the tenth" part, so that in Dion Halicarnassus (i.
On the other hand, the existence in the time of Dionysius of Halicarnassus of a treaty concluded between Tarquinius and the inhabitants of Gabii, shows that the town came under his dominion by formal agreement, not, as the tradition states, by treachery and violence.
The capital of Mausolus was a Greek city, Halicarnassus, and all that we can still trace of his great works of construction and adornment shows conformity to the pure Hellenic type.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ars rhet.
At the very end of his long career of theological discussion, Justinian himself lapsed into heresy, by accepting the doctrine that the earthly body of Christ was incorruptible, insensible to the weaknesses of the flesh, a doctrine which had been advanced by Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, and went by the name of Aphthartodocetism.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus relates that Heracles, in the place where he stopped with his fleet on the return voyage from Iberia, founded a little city (iroXt X vr i v), to which he gave his own name; and he adds that this city was in his time inhabited by the Romans, and that, situated between Neapolis and Pompeii, it had rravri Katp& /3Ef3aLOvs (i.
There is, however, considerable evidence in support of the view that Greek va representing the sound arising from Ky, xy, Ty, By was pronounced as sh (s), while representing gy, dy was pronounced in some districts zh (z).4 On an inscription of Halicarnassus, a town which stood in ancient Carian territory, the sound of vv in `AXoKapvaao-Ewv is represented by T, as it is also in the Carian name Panyassis (IIavvfiTcos, geni tive), though the ordinary is also found in the same inscription.
Newton, Travels (1867), and Discoveries at Halicarnassus, &c. (1863); Dilettanti Society, Ionian Antiquities (1769-1840); J.
In the 4th century, however, Philippus of Theangela in south Caria describes Leleges still surviving as serfs of the true Carians, and Strabo, in the 1st century B.C., attributes to the Leleges a well-marked group of deserted forts, tombs and dwellings which ranged (and can still be traced) from the neighbourhood of Theangela and Halicarnassus as far north as Miletus, the southern limit of the "true Carians" of Pherecydes.
Although Polybius and Dionysius of Halicarnassus frequently find fault with him, the first uses him as his chief authority for the Second Punic War.
The epistles of Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Plutarch, Seneca and the Younger Pliny claim mention at this point.
Still less has Livy anything in common with the naïve anxiety of Dionysius of Halicarnassus to make it clear to his fellow Greeks that the irresistible people who had mastered them was in origin, in race and in language Hellenic like themselves.
"This is the showing forth of the Inquiry of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, to the end that neither the deeds of men maybe forgotten by lapse of time, nor the works, great and marvellous, which have been produced, some by Hellenes, some by Barbarians, may lose their renown, and especially that the causes may be remembered for which these waged war with one another" (i.e.
The style found no imitator; history passed from Greece to Rome in the guise of rhetoric. In Dionysius of Halicarnassus the rhetoric was combined with an extensive study of the sources; but the influence of the Greek rhetoricians upon Roman prose was deplorable from the standpoint of science.
A i, "battle"), the "Battle of Frogs and Mice," a comic epic or parody on the Iliad, definitely attributed to Homer by the Romans, but according to Plutarch (De 529 Herodoti Malignitate, 43) the work of Pigres of Halicarnassus, the brother (or son) of Artemisia, queen of Caria and ally of Xerxes.
ARTEMISIA, daughter of Lygdamis, was queen of Halicarnassus and Cos about 480 B.C. Being a dependent of Persia, she took part in person in the expedition of Xerxes against the Greeks, and fitted out five ships, with which she distinguished herself in the sea-fight near Salamis (480).
Intermingled are some stories derived from the Greek mercenaries, especially about their leader Phanes of Halicarnassus, who 1 On the much discussed tablet, which is said to date from his 1 ith year, the writer had at first written "loth year of Cyrus," and then corrected this date into "1st year of Cambyses"; see Strassmaier, Inschriften von Cambyses, No.
But this hope failed; the Cyprian towns and the tyrant Polycrates of Samos, who possessed a large fleet, now preferred to join the Persians, and the commander of the Greek troops, Phanes of Halicarnassus, went over to them.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus enumerates it among the towns first occupied by the Pelasgi and then by the Tuscans.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus (iv.
But, in spite of these redeeming features, the prevailing baldness of Polybius's style excludes him from the first rank among classical writers; and it is impossible to quarrel with the verdict pronounced by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who places him among those authors of later times who neglected the graces of style, and who paid for their neglect by leaving behind them works "which no one was patient enough to read through to the end."