About 130 the emperor Hadrian decided to rebuild Jerusalem, and make it a Roman colony.
We do not, however, know its date, save that, if not Domitian's work, it was carried out soon after his death, and the whole frontier thus constituted was reorganized, probably by Hadrian, with a continuous wooden palisade reaching from Rhine to Danube.
Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian, was adored in Egypt a century after his death (Origen, Contra Celsum, iii.
Gregorovius, The Emperor Hadrian, trans.
The first building to which the name was given was that built in Rome in 27 B.C. by Agrippa; it was burned later and the existing building was erected in the reign of Hadrian; since A.D.
This was restored by Hadrian for the 15 m.
The noble qualities of the child attracted the attention of Hadrian, who, playing upon the name "Verus," said that it should be changed to "Verissimus" (Bhpiccimoc on medals).
Hadrian adopted, as his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (uncle of Marcus), on condition that he in turn adopted both Marcus (then seventeen) and Lucius Ceionius Commodus, the son of Aelius Caesar, who had originally been intended by Hadrian as his successor, but had died before him.
From the time of Socrates in unbroken succession up to the reign of Hadrian, the school was represented by men of strong individuality.
Trajan, who had been set against Hadrian by reports of his extravagance, soon took him into favour again, chiefly owing to the goodwill of the empress Plotina, who brought about the marriage of Hadrian with (Vibia) Sabina, Trajan's great-niece.
The emperor Hadrian, when he rebuilt the city, changed the name to Aelia Capitolina.
With Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise IIEpi Tov irpwrov 11vxpov, with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and with Hadrian himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna.
Communal independence had probably been acquired as early as the end of the 10th century, but the first of the popes to reside in Orvieto and to recognize its communal administration was Hadrian IV.
The massacres they perpetrated were avenged in kind and all the insurrections were quelled when Hadrian succeeded Trajan.
Hadrian had forbidden circumcision as illegal mutilation: he had also replaced Jerusalem by a city of his own, Aelia Capitolina, and the temple of Yahweh by a temple of Jupiter.
Hadrian sent his best generals against the rebels, and at length they were driven from Jerusalem to Bethar (135).
Jerusalem was rebuilt by Hadrian, orders to this effect being given during the emperor's first journey through Syria in 130, the date of his foundations at.
The death of Hadrian and the accession of Antoninus Pius (138), however, gave the dispersed people of Palestine a breathing-space.
The whole closes with an appeal to the princes, with a reference to the edict issued by Hadrian in favour of the Christians.
Hadrian treated the city with special favour, and on the occasion of his visit in A.D.
Ceded to the Parthians by Hadrian, it became a Roman colony (Septimia Colonia Nisibis) under Septimius Severus.
Hadrian made three provinces of it, Syria, Syria Phoenice and Syria Palestina.
The name was also borne by the following saints: (1) a Roman tribune who suffered martyrdom under Hadrian; (2) a bishop of Siscia in Pannonia; (3) the patron of the Tegernsee in Bavaria, beheaded in Rome in 269 and invoked by those suffering from gout.
HADRIAN (PUBLIUS AELIUS HADRIANUS), Roman emperor A.D.
He served with distinction in both Dacian campaigns; in the second Trajan presented him with a valuable ring which he himself had received from Nerva, a token of regard which seemed to designate Hadrian as his successor.
In 107 Hadrian was legatus praetorius of lower Pannonia, in 108 consul suffectus, in 112 archon at Athens, legatus in the Parthian campaign (113117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months.
When Trajan, owing to a severe illness, decided to return home from the East, he left Hadrian in command of the army and governor of Syria.
On the 9th of August 117, Hadrian, at Antioch, was informed of his adoption by Trajan, and, on the iith, of the death of the latter at Selinus in Cilicia.
The provinces were unsettled, the barbarians on the borders restless and menacing, and Hadrian wisely judged that the old limits of Augustus afforded the most defensible frontier.
From Antioch Hadrian set out for Dacia to punish the Roxolani, who, incensed by a reduction of the tribute hitherto paid them, had invaded the Danubian provinces.
An arrangement was patched up, and while Hadrian was still in Dacia he received news of a conspiracy against his life.
Hurrying back to Rome, Hadrian endeavoured to remove the unfavourable impression produced by the whole affair and to gain the goodwill of senate and people.
From Egypt Hadrian returned through Syria to Europe (his movements are obscure), but was obliged to hurry back to Palestine (spring, 133) to give his personal attention (this is denied by some historians) to the revolt of the Jews, which had broken out (autumn, 131, or spring, 132) after he had left Syria.
" Hadrian"), which lasted till 135.
Leaving the conduct of affairs in the hands of his most capable general, Julius Severus, in the spring of 134 Hadrian returned to Rome.
Hadrian died at Baiae on the 10th of July 138.
In military matters Hadrian was a strict disciplinarian, but his generosity and readiness to share their hardships endeared him to the soldiers.
Among the magnificent buildings erected by Hadrian mention may be made of the following: In the capital, the temple of Venus and Roma; his splendid mausoleum, which formed the groundwork of the castle of St Angelo; the pantheon of Agrippa; the Basilica Neptuni; at Tibur the great villa 8 m.
Hadrian was fond of the society of learned men - poets, scholars, rhetoricians and philosophers - whom he alternately humoured and ridiculed.
The letter of Hadrian to the consul Servianus (in Vopiscus, Vita Saturnini, 8) is no longer considered genuine.
The character of Hadrian exhibits a mass of contradictions, well summed up by Spartianus (14.11).
Diirr, Die Reisen des Kaisers Hadrian (1881); F.
Gregorovius, The Emperor Hadrian (Eng.
Plew, Quellenuntersuchungen zur Geschichte des Kaisers Hadrian (Strassburg, 1890); O.
Schulz, "Leben des Kaisers Hadrian," Quellenanalysen [of Spartianus' Vita] (1904); E.
Kornemann, Kaiser Hadrian and der letzte grosse Historiker von Rom (1905); W.
Hitzig, Die Stellung Kaiser Hadrians in der romischen Rechtsgeschichte (1892); C. Schultess, Bauten des Kaisers Hadrian (1898); G.
12 9, the temple was completed and dedicated by Hadrian, who set up a chryselephantine statue of Zeus in the cella.