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gypsum

gypsum

gypsum Sentence Examples

  • Some iron ore, gypsum, salt and limestone are also produced.

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  • Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant.

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  • The occurrence of red deposits in western Australia, Scotland, the Ural mountains, in Michigan, Montana and Nova Scotia, &c., associated in some instances with the formation of gypsum and salt, clearly points to the existence of areas of excessive evaporation, such as are found in land-locked waters in regions where something like desert conditions prevail.

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  • As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.

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  • caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution.

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  • It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.

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  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).

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  • The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.

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  • ancient animal), a name applied by Cuvier to the remains of ungulate mammals recalling tapirs in general appearance, from the Lower Oligocene gypsum quarries of Paris.

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  • Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county.

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  • Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock.

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  • ancient animal), a name applied by Cuvier to the remains of ungulate mammals recalling tapirs in general appearance, from the Lower Oligocene gypsum quarries of Paris.

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  • Two days' journey beyond Rakka, where the Euphrates breaks through the basalt dike of el-IIamme, are two admirably preserved ruins, built of gypsum and basalt, that on the Mesopotamian side called Zelebiya (Chanuga), and that on the Syrian, much the finer of the two, Halebiya or Zenobiya, the ancient Zenobia.

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  • gypsum, celestine, aragonite and calcite.

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  • Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.

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  • It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.

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  • 1 The metals of the alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at about the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • A pantograph armed with cutting-files a which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was employed in1893-1900by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief map of Switzerland on a scale of 1: ioo,000.

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  • border of the state in Erie county is a narrow belt containing large deposits of gypsum, and in 1908 the value of the state's output ($760,759) was greater than that of any other state, although Michigan produced a larger quantity.

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  • The stratified rocks of this system include marine limestones, shales and sandstones; estuarine, lagoonal and fresh-water shales, sandstones and marls with beds of coal, oil-bearing rocks, gypsum and salt.

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  • Though destitute of metals Aisne furnishes abundance of freestone, gypsum and clay.

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  • In this part of its course the rocky sides of the valley, which sometimes closely approach the river, are composed of marls and gypsum, with occasional selenite, overlaid with sandstone, with a topping of breccia or conglomerate, and rise at places to a height of 200 ft.

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  • Liquid occasionally enclosed in the sulphur and gypsum has been found by 0.

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  • These were the first indications of the (From the Paris gypsum.) Restoration of Palaeotherium magnum.

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  • Gypsum in Carbon county and in Cascade county is worked for plaster.

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  • In the yield of gypsum, phosphate rock and salt the United States leads the world.

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  • There are exquisite gypsum rosettes and intricately involved helictites.

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  • Though destitute of metals Aisne furnishes abundance of freestone, gypsum and clay.

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  • It is the principal port of the island, exporting barley, wheat, cotton, raisins, oranges, lemons and gypsum.

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  • The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.

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  • After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.

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  • The leading industries are linenweaving, tanning, brewing, horse-dealing and the quarrying of marble and gypsum.

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  • Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).

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  • 15 [52]), and millstones, salt (from a marsh at the east end of the harbour), and gypsum are still exported.

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  • Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays.

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  • The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum.

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  • Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.

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  • Gypsum and marble also deserve mention.

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  • Peat is found in abundance, as well as gypsum, china-clay, potters' earth and salt.

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  • common salt, Epsom salts, gypsum and magnesium chloride were recognized amongst its constituents.

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  • The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.

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  • Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.

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  • Gypsum, millstone and paving-stone are quarried in the vicinity.

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  • It consists mainly of grey dreary flats covered with selenite; and a little below the surface, gypsum.

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  • The mineral products of the district also include lignite, copper, manganese, vitriol, lime, gypsum, volcanic stones (used for millstones) and slates.

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  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.

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  • In the last petroleum, natural gas, salt and gypsum are obtained, but elsewhere in southern Ontario no economic minerals except building materials are obtained.

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  • C. t has for its subject pavements and roads, their construction, mosaic floors; c. 2 is on white stucco for walls (opus albarium); c. 3 on concrete vaults, gypsum mouldings, stucco prepared for painting; c. 4 on building of hollow walls to keep out the damp, wall decoration by various processes; c. 5 on methods and styles of wall painting, the debased taste of his time; c. 6 on fine stucco made of pounded marble - three coats to receive wall paintings; c. 7 on colours used for mural decoration; c. 8 on red lead (minium) and mercury, and how to use the latter to extract the gold from wornout pieces of stuff or embroidery; c. 9 on the preparation of red lead and the method of encaustic painting with hot wax, finished by friction; cc. to-14 on artificial colours - black, blue, purple;, c. to white lead and ostrum, i.e.

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  • The salt is commonly associated with gypsum, often also with anhydrite, and occasionally with sylvite, carnallite and other minerals containing potassium and magnesium.

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  • Nothing is added during or after grinding save a small amount (I to 2%) of calcium sulphate in the form either of gypsum or of plaster of Paris, which is sometimes needed to make the cement slower-setting.

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  • _?: of whatever type is apt to contain a certain amount (5 Medway: its setting time is calcium sulphate, naturally formed from the sulphur in the raw materials or fuel, or intentionally added to the finished cement as gypsum or plaster of Paris.

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  • It has a remarkable retarding effect on the hydration of the calcium aluminate, and consequently on the setting of the cement; thus it is that a little gypsum is often added to convert a naturally quick-setting cement into one which sets slowly.

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  • The raw material is gypsum (q.v.).

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  • The mode of preparation is to calcine the gypsum at temperatures which depend on the class of cement to be produced.

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  • If plaster of Paris is to be made, calcination is carried out at about 204° C. (= 400° F.); at this temperature, gypsum, CaSO 4.2H 2 O, loses three-quarters of its combined water and becomes 2CaSO 4 H 2 O.

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  • 500° C. (= 932° F.), and the whole of the combined water of the gypsum is expelled, the anhydrous sulphate CaSO 4 being obtained.

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  • Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.

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  • There is reason to suppose that the change described takes place in two stages, the gypsum first forming orthorhombic crystals and then crystallizing in the monosymmetric system.

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  • Gypsum thus crystallized is in its normal monosymmetric form, more stable under ordinary conditions than the orthorhombic form.

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  • Correlatively in its process of dehydration to form plaster of Paris, monosymmetric gypsum is converted into the orthorhombic form before it begins to be dehydrated.

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  • It is the practice in Great Britain to burn pure gypsum at a low temperature so as to convert it into the hydrate 2CaSO 4 H 2 O, to soak the lumps in a solution of alum or of aluminium sulphate, and to recalcine them at about 500° C. On grinding they give Keene's cement.

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  • In 1766 he received a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences for an essay on the best means of lighting a large town; and among his early work were papers on the analysis of gypsum, on thunder, on the aurora and on congelation, and a refutation of the prevalent belief that water by repeated distillation is converted into earth.

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  • Red ochre, for which there is only a limited market, is mined on Ormuz, Abu Musa and other islands in the Gulf; salt, as deposits, on Ormuz and Qishm I., and by evaporation, near Mohammerah, Fao and elsewhere on both sides of the Gulf; gypsum is widely distributed throughout the Gulf; iron, as haematite and pyrites, widely found through the Ormuz series.

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  • Fars series; marls, clays and sand stones with limestones and inter bedded strata of rock gypsum.

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  • In the neighbourhood are deposits of gypsum and salt.

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  • In Afghanistan, as in other regions near the great Eurasian system of folds, the Miocene includes extensive deposits of gypsum and salt.

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  • Gypsum is found in large quantities in the plain of Kandahar, being dug out in fragile coralline masses from near the surface.

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  • Other minerals which exist but have not yet been developed in paying quantities are copper ore, alum, gypsum and plumbago.

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  • The sandstones with gypsum, copper and sulphur of Dombe are doubtfully considered to be of Triassic age.

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  • The eastern edge of the basin is formed by a ridge of gypsum and on its margin grow palms. In parts the salt lies thick on the plain, which then has the appearance of a lake frozen over.

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  • Among other minerals are sulphur, lime, gypsum and phosphate.

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  • Luneburg owes its importance chiefly to the gypsum and lime quarries of the Kalkberg, which afford the materials for its cement works, and to the productive salt-spring at its base which has been known and used since the 10th century.

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  • For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized that there are different varieties of urinary calculi.

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  • copper, gold, iron, petroleum, asbestos, soda, silver and lead, gypsum, stone and clay products.

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  • The gypsum product (from the Laramie plains) in 1908 was 31,188 tons, valued at $94,935.

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  • Among other manufactures were gypsum wall-plaster, saddlery and harness, malt liquors and tobacco, cigars and cigarettes.

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  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.

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  • In some countries, particularly in Italy, Spain and Portugal, it has been and still is a common practice to add a small quantity of gypsum to the fermenting must or to dust it over the grapes prior to pressing.

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  • Gypsum beds are widely distributed, and the supply is inexhaustible, but their great distance from centres of consumption has prevented their profitable working.

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  • Gypsum is exported unburnt from the Carpas, and as plaster of Paris from Limasol and Larnaca.

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  • The various agricultural products, cattle and mules, cheese, wines and spirits, silk cocoons and gypsum make up the bulk of the exports.

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  • The town has sandstone and gypsum quarries, breweries and woollen mills, and cultivates fruit and vegetables.

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  • The figures for the more important minerals are as follows: Gold ore, manganese ore and uranium ore are produced in small quantities, and the list of minerals worked in the United Kingdom also includes chalk, lead, alum, phosphate of lime, chert and flint, gravel and sand, zinc ore, gypsum, arsenic, copper, barytes, wolfram and strontium sulphate.

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  • There are also many quarries of rock-salt, gypsum, lime and some of marble, alabaster, soapstone, &c. The annual revenue of ~he government from the leases, rents and royalties of mines does not amount to more than 15,000, and about 6000 of this amount is derived from the turquoise mines near Nishapur.

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  • The deposits formed by evaporation from these lakes and marshes or salines, are mixtures of borates, various alkaline salts (sodium carbonate, sulphate, chloride), gypsum, &c. In the mud of the lakes and in the surrounding marshy soil fine isolated crystals of borax are frequently found.

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  • Gypsum, bone-dust, superphosphate of lime and nitrate of soda may also be used, and wood ashes are advantageous if the soil contains much vegetable matter; but the best results are usually obtained when farmyard manure is supplemented by artificials, not by using artificials alone.

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  • Cleveland's Cabinet and Marion's Avenue, each a mile long, are adorned by myriads of gypsum rosettes and curiously twisted crystals, called "oulopholites."

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  • Common salt (chiefly from Alcacer do Sal near Setubal), gypsum, lime and marble are exported; marble and granite of fine quality abound in the southern provinces.

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  • gypsum - with liberation of SH 2, and it is found that the sulphur bacteria thrive under such conditions by oxidizing the SH 2 and storing the sulphur in their own protoplasm.

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  • (c X 600;) al X 1500, above.) (From Fischer's Vorlesungen uber Bakterien.) into the higher plants as sulphates, built up into proteids, decomposed by putrefactive bacteria and yielding SH 2 which the sulphur bacteria oxidize; the resulting sulphur is then again oxidized to SO 3 and again combined with calcium to gypsum, the cycle being thus complete.

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  • The northern part is rugged mountainous "old land," not completely worn down by erosion; and the southern part is a portion of the old coastal plain, whose layers contain salt, gypsum and some inferior coal.

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  • Gypsum is obtained from deposits along the banks of the Grand river in Kent county and in the vicinity of Alabaster along the shore of Lake Huron in Iosco county.

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  • The territory is rich in minerals, among which are gold, silver, copper, lead, gypsum, coal and salt.

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  • The lake bed is for the most part clear sand along the margin, and in deeper water is largely coated with crusts of salt, soda and gypsum.

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  • There are valuable deposits of gypsum on Chicagof Island, and marble quarries are being developed on Prince of Wales Island.

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  • Coal, iron, sulphur, gypsum, rock-salt, lacustrine salt and naphtha are all known to exist, but only the last two are extracted.

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  • Crystals of quartz are usually attached at one end to their rocky matrix, but sometimes, especially when embedded in a soft matrix of clay, gypsum or salt, they may be bounded on all sides by crystal faces (fig.

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  • There is some roofing slate along the Rogue river, natural cement, nickel ore, bismuth and wolframite in Douglas county, gypsum in Baker county, fire-clay in Clatsop county, borate of soda on the marsh lands of Harney county, infusorial earth and tripoli in the valley of the Deschutes river, chromate of iron in Curry and Douglas counties, molybdenite in Union county, bauxite in Clackamas county, borate of lime in Curry county, manganese ore in Columbia county, and asbestos in several of the southern and eastern counties.

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  • The normal sulphates are the more important, and occur widely and abundantly distributed in the mineral kingdom; anhydrite, gypsum, anglesite, barytes, celestite and kieserite are among the commonest species.

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  • of the city lies a gypsum bed, extending over an area of about 50 sq.

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  • It has various manufactures, including gypsum, plaster, oatmeal, brick and tile, sewer pipe, pottery, foundry and machine-shop products, and shoes.

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  • From the gypsum beds near Fort Dodge was taken in 1868 the block of gypsum from which was modelled the "Cardiff Giant," a rudely-fashioned human figure, which was buried near Cardiff, Onondaga county, New York, where it was "discovered" late in 1869.

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  • In the central portion, which belongs to the Triassic formation, magnesian limestone, ferruginous sandstone and gypsum are representative rocks.

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  • Gypsum (in beautiful crystalline form) is found in an almost continuous bed across the state running northeast and south-west with three principal areas, the northern in Marshall county, the central in Dickinson and Saline counties, and the southern (the heaviest, being 3 to 40 ft.

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  • Marble, granite and gypsum are worked; and large quantities of vitriol are manufactured.

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  • Upper and Middle Cretaceous, containing phosphates, gypsum, naphtha, sulphur and alum, attain thicknesses of 2000 and 5000 ft.

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  • There are abundant deposits of gypsum, alum, kaolin, marble and similar materials.

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  • There he found mural paintings, some of which represented local lake or river scenes, carved woodwork, fragments of pottery, gypsum images of Buddha, and traces of gardens.

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  • to and beyond the Kansas border are composed chiefly of great deposits of rock gypsum.

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  • Gypsum, limestone, freestone and marble are quarried; there are also mines of copper, lead, iron, zinc and rock salt.

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  • The lowest is the Triassic Keuper found in the Isle of Axholme and the valley of the Trent in the form of marls, sandstone and gypsum.

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  • Gypsum is dug in the Isle of Axholme, whiting is made from the chalk near the shores of the Humber, and lime is made on the Wolds.

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  • It is composed of red and variegated sandstones, dolomites and marls, traversed in some places by ophitic rocks, and containing deposits of gypsum, aragonite and rocksalt, It thus resembles the Trias of England and Germany.

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  • They have left behind them thick deposits of clays, marls, gypsum and limestone, in which numerous remains of the land-animals of the time have been preserved.

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  • Six considerable steppe regions are counted: (I) that of Old Castile, situated to the south of Valladolid, and composed chiefly of hills of gypsum; (2) that of New Castile, in the south-east (including parts of La Mancha); (3) the Aragonese, occupying the upper part of the basin of the Ebro; (4) the littoral, stretching along the south-east coast from Alicante to the neighborhood of Almeria; (5) the Granadine, in the east of Upper Andalusia (the former kingdom of Granada); and (6) the Baetic, in Lower Andalusia, on both sides of the valley of the Jenil or Genii.

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  • On the east side a peninsula, El-Lisan ("the tongue"), of white calcareous marl with beds of salt and gypsum, divides the sea into two unequal parts: this peninsula is about 50 ft.

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  • Traces of dissolved salts, such as common salt, gypsum or alum, greatly accelerate deposition.

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  • The gypsum sands of New Mexico Territory were relentless in their search for new victims.

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  • Nodular anhydrite (Arab Formation)Gypsum(dark lenticular shapes) in brown/grey lime mudstone (lens 2.5cm sq) What environment do these structures/textures occur in?

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  • Baryte contains the chemical element barium, which is heavier than the calcium, in gypsum.

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  • Water filtering down through the rock has deposited calcite, gypsum, baryte and celestine in the cracks, sometimes as well-formed crystals.

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  • gypsum based and cement based.

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  • gypsum used in dentistry.

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  • From the top of the ridge we were able to look down on the next valley which also contains gypsum.

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  • Minerals formed in this way include gypsum, rock salt, and various nitrates and borates.

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  • These units use limestone to absorb the sulfur which produces gypsum as a waste product.

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  • adding gypsum to clay soils will help improve soil structure.

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  • You can hike or even dune surf the shifting white gypsum.

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  • Over 95 per cent of the natural gypsum come from Rajasthan.

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  • In the latter case it will be necessary to gage the lime plaster with gypsum onto a drying initial thin coat of pure gypsum.

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  • Radioactivity is a major concern where plasterboard is made from synthetic gypsum.

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  • dry gypsum, with no free moisture, contains 21% chemically bonded water by weight (Thomas 2002 ).

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  • gypsum plasterboard which is 100% recycled.

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  • gypsum plaster from the new blocks has already been put down.

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  • gypsum crystals in Doolin river cave which, I think, is the first report of them in Co Clare.

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  • gypsum mine that day, he was among the dead.

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  • gypsum board side of the Maxiboard.

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  • gypsum products in July 2004.

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  • There is no change to the disposal of waste gypsum products in July 2004.

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  • The rocks here are red marls, with bands of the mineral gypsum.

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  • This third derivative of gypsum is calcium sulfate hemihydrate termed alpha modified.

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  • The gypsum underlay has survived well and still bears clear imprints of the lowest layer of blocks.

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  • Like all karst water systems gypsum karst can rapidly transmit pollutants.

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  • Our objective was to study the odd landforms developed on the gypsum - deep tubes dissolved into the surface.

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  • The rocks here are red marls, with bands of the mineral gypsum.

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  • The cement and gypsum plaster was hacked off to allow the cob and stone walls to breathe.

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  • Non load bearing walls are built in flue gas gypsum plasterboard which is 100% recycled.

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  • It had gypsum plaster and Artex applied to the walls with a shiny vinyl silk emulsion over the top.

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  • Typical sprays are based on gypsum or cement, with added vermiculite or mineral wool.

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  • The machine to unload the gypsum wagons has arrived at Rushcliffe Halt.

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  • This starch is designed to provide binding strength in gypsum wallboard.

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  • The formation of spores is used as an analytical method for determining whether a yeast is contaminated with another species, - for example: a sample of yeast is placed on a gypsum or porcelain block saturated with water; if in ten days at a temperature of 52° F.

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  • It is the principal port of the island, exporting barley, wheat, cotton, raisins, oranges, lemons and gypsum.

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  • In this part of its course the rocky sides of the valley, which sometimes closely approach the river, are composed of marls and gypsum, with occasional selenite, overlaid with sandstone, with a topping of breccia or conglomerate, and rise at places to a height of 200 ft.

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  • Two days' journey beyond Rakka, where the Euphrates breaks through the basalt dike of el-IIamme, are two admirably preserved ruins, built of gypsum and basalt, that on the Mesopotamian side called Zelebiya (Chanuga), and that on the Syrian, much the finer of the two, Halebiya or Zenobiya, the ancient Zenobia.

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  • The reduction of sulphates to sulphides by means of organic matter, probably through the agency of sulphur-bacteria, may also indirectly furnish sulphur, and hence it is frequently found in deposits of gypsum.

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  • It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.

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  • gypsum, celestine, aragonite and calcite.

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  • It was formerly believed that the sulphur had a volcanic origin, but it is now generally held that it has either been reduced from gypsum by organic agencies, or more probably deposited from sulphur-bearing waters.

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  • Liquid occasionally enclosed in the sulphur and gypsum has been found by 0.

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  • copper pyrites (copper), galena (lead), blende (zinc), cinnabar (mercury), &c. Of the sulphates we notice gypsum and anhydrite (calcium), barytes (barium) and kieserite (magnesium).

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  • As quarried or mined free sulphur is always contaminated with limestone, gypsum, clay, &c.; the principle underlying its extraction from these impurities is one of simple liquation, i.e.

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  • Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant.

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  • Gypsum occurs in a number of places, the best known being in the north-west.

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  • They include gypsum, dolomite, conglomerates, phyllites, and a basic series of eruptive rocks (gabbros, peridotites, serpentines).

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  • A remarkable feature of this quarter is a small council chamber with a gypsum throne of curiously Gothic aspect and lower stone benches round.

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  • The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.

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  • Most of the southern part of the county is occupied by Keuper marls and sandstones, the latter yield good building stone; and at Chellaston the gypsum beds in the former are excavated on a large scale.

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  • These were the first indications of the (From the Paris gypsum.) Restoration of Palaeotherium magnum.

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  • caves formed by the uplifting and folding of the rocks while gypsum was forming beneath, followed by the partial collapse of those rocks when the gypsum passed into solution.

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  • The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.

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  • Beds of rock gypsum extend over an area of 150 acres or more in Ottawa county.

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  • Other minerals that have been discovered but have not been industrially developed are gypsum, lignite and cement rock.

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  • 1 The metals of the alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at about the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • A pantograph armed with cutting-files a which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was employed in1893-1900by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief map of Switzerland on a scale of 1: ioo,000.

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  • After copies of such reliefs have been taken in gypsum, cement, statuary pasteboard, fossil dust mixed with vegetable oil, or some other suitable material, they are painted.

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  • The leading industries are linenweaving, tanning, brewing, horse-dealing and the quarrying of marble and gypsum.

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  • Many regard them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum).

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  • there are many sandy districts in the uplands, also sandy clays; in the " second bottoms " of the streams fertile sandy loams; abundant tertiary marls in the north-central region; some gypsum in the cretaceous " islands "; and some fossiliferous marls with decomposed limestones.

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  • 15 [52]), and millstones, salt (from a marsh at the east end of the harbour), and gypsum are still exported.

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  • Other important products are lignite, gypsum and a variety of valuable stones and clays.

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  • The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum.

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  • Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.

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  • Gypsum and marble also deserve mention.

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  • Peat is found in abundance, as well as gypsum, china-clay, potters' earth and salt.

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  • common salt, Epsom salts, gypsum and magnesium chloride were recognized amongst its constituents.

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  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.

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  • The divisional planes often contain small films of other minerals, the commonest being calcite, gypsum and iron pyrites, but in some cases zeolitic minerals and galena have been observed.

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  • Of more promise is the gypsum deposit extending over an area of about 50 sq.

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  • Some iron ore, gypsum, salt and limestone are also produced.

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  • border of the state in Erie county is a narrow belt containing large deposits of gypsum, and in 1908 the value of the state's output ($760,759) was greater than that of any other state, although Michigan produced a larger quantity.

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  • Gypsum in Carbon county and in Cascade county is worked for plaster.

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  • Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.

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  • Gypsum, millstone and paving-stone are quarried in the vicinity.

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  • Thus the sulphate constitutes the minerals anhydrite, alabaster, gypsum, and selenite; the carbonate occurs dissolved in most natural waters and as the minerals chalk, marble, calcite, aragonite; also in the double carbonates such as dolomite, bromlite, barytocalcite; the fluoride as fluorspar; the fluophosphate constitutes the mineral apatite; while all the more important mineral silicates contain a proportion of this element.

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  • Calcium sulphate, CaSO 4, constitutes the minerals anhydrite (q.v.), and, in the hydrated form, selenite, gypsum (q.v.), alabaster (q.v.), and also the adhesive plaster of Paris (see Cement).

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  • Smearing with gypsum (Tiravos, titanos) had a similar purifying effect, and it has been suggested that the Titans were no more than old-world votaries who had so disguised themselves.

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  • Salt and gypsum deposits, and other features of the Permian beds, together with the fewness of fossils, indicate that the climate of the Permian was notably arid in many regions.

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  • the Pescadero formation) it is highly metamorphic. The Eocene of southern California carries gypsum enough to be of commercial value.

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  • Glass and other sands and gravel ($13,270,032), lime ($11,091,186), phosphate rock ($10,653,558), salt ($7,553,632), natural mineral waters ($7,287,269), sulphur ($6,668,215, almost wholly from Louisiana), slate ($6,316,8 I7), gypsum ($4,138,560), clay ($2,599,986), asphalt ($1,888,881), talc and soapstone ($1,401,222), borax ($975,000, all from California), and pyrite ($857,113) were the next most important products in 1908.

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  • In the yield of gypsum, phosphate rock and salt the United States leads the world.

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  • It is also found associated with limestone, as in the Mammoth Caves, Kentucky, and with gypsum, as atMontmartre.

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  • Grindstones, building-stone, talc, gypsum, marble and phosphates are also produced.

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  • The islands have large (unworked) supplies of pumice, sandstone, sulphur, gypsum, alum and mineral-paint ochres, and some salt, kaolin and sal-ammoniac, but otherwise they are without mineral wealth other than lava rocks for building purposes.

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  • There are exquisite gypsum rosettes and intricately involved helictites.

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  • It consists mainly of grey dreary flats covered with selenite; and a little below the surface, gypsum.

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  • But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.

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  • North of the Danube, in Germany as in England, red sandstones, shales and conglomerates predominate, together with beds of gypsum and salt.

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  • The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water.

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  • Gypsum, or sulphate of lime, applied as a top-dressing at the rate of 2 to 3 cwt.

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  • There are numerous quarries of excellent marble, alabaster, gypsum and building stone; and the porcelain-clay is among the finest in Europe.

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  • The stratified rocks of this system include marine limestones, shales and sandstones; estuarine, lagoonal and fresh-water shales, sandstones and marls with beds of coal, oil-bearing rocks, gypsum and salt.

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  • The occurrence of red deposits in western Australia, Scotland, the Ural mountains, in Michigan, Montana and Nova Scotia, &c., associated in some instances with the formation of gypsum and salt, clearly points to the existence of areas of excessive evaporation, such as are found in land-locked waters in regions where something like desert conditions prevail.

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  • The mineral products of the district also include lignite, copper, manganese, vitriol, lime, gypsum, volcanic stones (used for millstones) and slates.

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  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.

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  • In the last petroleum, natural gas, salt and gypsum are obtained, but elsewhere in southern Ontario no economic minerals except building materials are obtained.

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  • C. t has for its subject pavements and roads, their construction, mosaic floors; c. 2 is on white stucco for walls (opus albarium); c. 3 on concrete vaults, gypsum mouldings, stucco prepared for painting; c. 4 on building of hollow walls to keep out the damp, wall decoration by various processes; c. 5 on methods and styles of wall painting, the debased taste of his time; c. 6 on fine stucco made of pounded marble - three coats to receive wall paintings; c. 7 on colours used for mural decoration; c. 8 on red lead (minium) and mercury, and how to use the latter to extract the gold from wornout pieces of stuff or embroidery; c. 9 on the preparation of red lead and the method of encaustic painting with hot wax, finished by friction; cc. to-14 on artificial colours - black, blue, purple;, c. to white lead and ostrum, i.e.

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  • But investigations carried out in connexion with the "Challenger" expedition indicated that it was an artificial product, composed of a flocculent precipitate of gypsum thrown down from seawater by alcohol, and the hypothesis of its organic character was abandoned by most biologists, Huxley included.

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  • The salt is commonly associated with gypsum, often also with anhydrite, and occasionally with sylvite, carnallite and other minerals containing potassium and magnesium.

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  • Nothing is added during or after grinding save a small amount (I to 2%) of calcium sulphate in the form either of gypsum or of plaster of Paris, which is sometimes needed to make the cement slower-setting.

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  • _?: of whatever type is apt to contain a certain amount (5 Medway: its setting time is calcium sulphate, naturally formed from the sulphur in the raw materials or fuel, or intentionally added to the finished cement as gypsum or plaster of Paris.

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  • It has a remarkable retarding effect on the hydration of the calcium aluminate, and consequently on the setting of the cement; thus it is that a little gypsum is often added to convert a naturally quick-setting cement into one which sets slowly.

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  • The raw material is gypsum (q.v.).

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  • The mode of preparation is to calcine the gypsum at temperatures which depend on the class of cement to be produced.

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  • If plaster of Paris is to be made, calcination is carried out at about 204° C. (= 400° F.); at this temperature, gypsum, CaSO 4.2H 2 O, loses three-quarters of its combined water and becomes 2CaSO 4 H 2 O.

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  • 500° C. (= 932° F.), and the whole of the combined water of the gypsum is expelled, the anhydrous sulphate CaSO 4 being obtained.

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  • Keene's cement and its congeners are made in fixed kilns so constructed that only the gaseous products of combustion come into contact with the gypsum to be burnt, in order to avoid contamination with the ash of the fuel.

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  • There is reason to suppose that the change described takes place in two stages, the gypsum first forming orthorhombic crystals and then crystallizing in the monosymmetric system.

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  • Gypsum thus crystallized is in its normal monosymmetric form, more stable under ordinary conditions than the orthorhombic form.

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  • Correlatively in its process of dehydration to form plaster of Paris, monosymmetric gypsum is converted into the orthorhombic form before it begins to be dehydrated.

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  • It is the practice in Great Britain to burn pure gypsum at a low temperature so as to convert it into the hydrate 2CaSO 4 H 2 O, to soak the lumps in a solution of alum or of aluminium sulphate, and to recalcine them at about 500° C. On grinding they give Keene's cement.

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  • In 1766 he received a gold medal from the Academy of Sciences for an essay on the best means of lighting a large town; and among his early work were papers on the analysis of gypsum, on thunder, on the aurora and on congelation, and a refutation of the prevalent belief that water by repeated distillation is converted into earth.

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  • Red ochre, for which there is only a limited market, is mined on Ormuz, Abu Musa and other islands in the Gulf; salt, as deposits, on Ormuz and Qishm I., and by evaporation, near Mohammerah, Fao and elsewhere on both sides of the Gulf; gypsum is widely distributed throughout the Gulf; iron, as haematite and pyrites, widely found through the Ormuz series.

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  • Fars series; marls, clays and sand stones with limestones and inter bedded strata of rock gypsum.

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  • In the neighbourhood are deposits of gypsum and salt.

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  • In Afghanistan, as in other regions near the great Eurasian system of folds, the Miocene includes extensive deposits of gypsum and salt.

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  • Gypsum is found in large quantities in the plain of Kandahar, being dug out in fragile coralline masses from near the surface.

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  • Other minerals which exist but have not yet been developed in paying quantities are copper ore, alum, gypsum and plumbago.

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  • The sandstones with gypsum, copper and sulphur of Dombe are doubtfully considered to be of Triassic age.

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  • The eastern edge of the basin is formed by a ridge of gypsum and on its margin grow palms. In parts the salt lies thick on the plain, which then has the appearance of a lake frozen over.

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  • Among other minerals are sulphur, lime, gypsum and phosphate.

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  • Luneburg owes its importance chiefly to the gypsum and lime quarries of the Kalkberg, which afford the materials for its cement works, and to the productive salt-spring at its base which has been known and used since the 10th century.

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  • For his time he was a skilful chemical analyst; he knew how to distinguish potash and soda by the different colorations they produce in flame, and how to test for iron with prussiate of potash: he was aware that sulphate of potash, gypsum and heavy spar, in spite of their different appearances, all contain sulphuric acid; and he recognized that there are different varieties of urinary calculi.

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  • copper, gold, iron, petroleum, asbestos, soda, silver and lead, gypsum, stone and clay products.

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  • The gypsum product (from the Laramie plains) in 1908 was 31,188 tons, valued at $94,935.

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  • Among other manufactures were gypsum wall-plaster, saddlery and harness, malt liquors and tobacco, cigars and cigarettes.

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  • Minerals produced in small quantities include gypsum, millstones, salt and sandstone, and among those found but not produced (in 1902) in commercial quantities may be mentioned allanite, alum, arsenic, bismuth, carbonite, felspar, kaolin, marble, plumbago, quartz, serpentine and tin.

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  • In some countries, particularly in Italy, Spain and Portugal, it has been and still is a common practice to add a small quantity of gypsum to the fermenting must or to dust it over the grapes prior to pressing.

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  • East of the San Andreas Range, in the south central part of New Mexico, lies the basin of the extinct Lake Otero, in which are found the remarkable " white sands," consisting of dunes of almost pure granular gypsum and covering the area of 300 sq.

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  • Gypsum beds are widely distributed, and the supply is inexhaustible, but their great distance from centres of consumption has prevented their profitable working.

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