The body of Gustavus Adolphus was embalmed at Weissenfels after the battle of Lutzen.
In the political interests which these contests involved he took no part; his favourite disciple, the princess Elizabeth, was the daughter of the banished king, against whom he had served in Bohemia; and Queen Christina, his second royal follower, was the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus.
Other buildings of note are the massive episcopal palace (1470-1500), afterwards a royal palace, and the old gymnasium founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1627, which contains the valuable library of old books and manuscripts belonging to the diocese and state college, and collection of coins and antiquities.
The coronation of Birger Jarlsson Valdemar took place in the cathedral in 1251; and in the reign of Gustavus Vasa several important diets were held in the town.
His policy was in principle the policy of Elizabeth, of Gustavus Adolphus, and - in the following generation - of William of Orange.
As a military commander Cromwell was as prompt as Gustavus, as ardent as Conde, as exact as Turenne.
Conde's fame Crom= was established in his twenty-second year, Gustavus was twenty-seven and Turenne thirty-three at the military beginning of their careers as commanders-in-chief, Cromwell, on the other hand, was forty-three when he fought in his first battle.
But before long he came to understand, as no other commander of the age save Gustavus understood it, the value of true "shock-action."
As Sweden was known to be exhausted by the long wars of Gustavus Adolphus and his successors, and weakened by internal dissensions, the dismemberment seemed an easy matter, and Peter embarked on the scheme with a light heart; but his illusions were quickly dispelled by the eccentric young Swedish king, Charles XII., who arrived suddenly in Esthonia and completely routed the Russian army before Narva.
After 1772, when Gustavus III.
Summoned to Stockholm in 1782 by Gustavus III.
Bain, Gustavus III.
The same year witnessed the downfall of Napoleon's persistent enemy, Gustavus IV.
Harte, the author of the Life of Gustavus Adolphus, acknowledged the aid which Carteret had given him.
In 1608 she appeared at court, where her beauty soon attracted admiration and became the theme of the poets, her suitors including the dauphin, Maurice, prince of Orange, Gustavus Adolphus, Philip III.
The victories of Gustavus Adolphus secured no permanent advantage, and his death at Liitzen was followed by that of the elector at Mainz on the 29th of November 1632.
The town was founded in 1632 by King Gustavus Adolphus.
Napoleon, then standing near the Gustavus Adolphus monument on the field of Liitzen, heard the roar of a heavy cannonade to his right rear.
Other higher educational institutions in Minnesota are Hamline University (Methodist Episcopal), with a college of liberal arts at St Paul, and a college of medicine at Minneapolis; Macalester College (Presbyterian) at St Paul; Augsburg Seminary (Lutheran) at Minneapolis; Carleton College (non-sectarian, founded in 1866) and St Olaf College (Lutheran, founded in 1874) at Northfield; Gustavus Adolphus College (Lutheran) at St Peter; Parker College (Free Baptist, 1888) at Winnebago City; St John's University (Roman Catholic) at Collegeville, Stearns county; and Albert Lea College for women (Presbyterian, founded 1884) at Albert Lea.
He attracted the attention of Gustavus III.
Gustavus at once took the young priest by the hand, appointed him, at twenty-five, one of his chaplains; made him a canon before he was thirty and a bishop at thirty-two, and finally placed him at the head of the newly appointed commission for reforming the ecclesiastical administration of the country.
Lulea as founded by Gustavus Adolphus was 7 m.
Pleasing humorous sketches are contained also in Ignatius Nagy's Beszelyek (1843) and " Caricatures " or Torzkepek (1844); in Caspar Bernat's Fresko kepek (1847-1850); in Gustavus Lauka's Vida, and his A jo regi vilag (The Good Old World), published respectively in 1857 and 1863; and in Alexander Balazs's Beszelyei (1855) and TiikOrdarabok (1865).
John Hetenyi and Gustavus Szontagh must be rather regarded as adopters and developers of the ethical teaching of Samuel Koteles in the previous period.
(Pozsony, 1847), John Czech, Gustavus Wenczel, Frederick Pesty and Paul Szlemenics as writers on legal history; Joseph Bajza, who in 1845 commenced a History of the World; Alexander Szilagyi, some of whose works, like those of Ladislaus KOvary, bear on the past of Transylvania, others on the Hungarian revolution of 1848-1849; Charles L, nyi and John Pauer, authors of treatises on Roman Catholic ecclesiastical history; John Szombathi, Emeric Revesz and Balogh, writers on Protestant church history; William Fraknoi, biographer of Cardinal Pazman, and historian of the Hungarian diets; and Anthony Gevay, Aaron Sziladi, Joseph Podhradczky, Charles Szabo, John Jerney and Francis Salamon, who have investigated and elucidated many special historical subjects.
On subjects of politics, amongst the more important works are the various monographs of Gustavus Beksics on the Dualism of AustriaHungary, on the " New Foundations of Magyar Politics " (A magyar politika uj alapjai, 1899), on the Rumanian question, &c.; the writings of Emericus Balint, Akos Beothy, Victor Concha (systematic politics), L.
Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Barwald of the 23rd of January 1631.
In the Thirty Years' War it was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, who erected fortifications, remains of which are still extant.
He accompanied Gustavus III.
It was necessary for Gustavus to have an agent thoroughly in the confidence of the French royal family, and, at the same time, sufficiently able and audacious to help them in their desperate straits, especially as he had lost all confidence in his accredited minister, the baron de Stael.
During the regency of the' duke of Sudermania (1792-1796) Fersen, like all the other Gustavians, was in disgrace; but, on Gustavus IV.
On the outbreak of the war with Napoleon, Fersen accompanied Gustavus IV.
He prevented Gustavus from invading Prussia in revenge for the refusal of the king of Prussia to declare war against France, and during the rest of the reign was in semidisgrace, though generally a member of the government when the king was abroad.
In the circumstances, one must needs adopt the opinion of Fersen's contemporary, Baron Gustavus Armfelt, "One is almost tempted to say that the government wanted to give the people a victim to play with, just as when one throws something to an irritated wild beast to distract its attention.
In 1631 the town was taken by Tilly, and in 1632 by Gustavus Adolphus.
In 1632 Munich was occupied by Gustavus Adolphus, and in 1705, and again in 1742, it was in possession of the Austrians.
CHRISTINA (1626-1689), queen of Sweden, daughter of Gustavus Adolphus and Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg, was born at Stockholm on the 8th of December 1626.
The senate and the estates, naturally anxious about the succession to the throne, had repeatedly urged her majesty to marry, and had indicated her cousin, Charles Gustavus, as her most befitting consort.
During the Thirty Years' War Mainz was occupied by the Swedes in 1631 and by the French in 1644, 'the fortifications being strengthened by the former under Gustavus Adolphus; in 1688 it was captured again by the French, but they were driven out in the following year.
In 1631 Gustavus Adolphus garrisoned it with 600 men, who remained in possession till they were expelled four years later by the imperial general Lamboy.
Sir James Lumsden, a soldier of fortune under Gustavus Adolphus, who distinguished himself in the Thirty Years' War, was born in the parish of Kilrenny about 1598.
On the second occasion, under the guidance of his eldest son, the crown prince Gustavus, afterwards Gustavus III., he succeeded in overthrowing the tyrannous "Cap" senate, but was unable to make any use of his victory.
Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III.
The town was given municipal privileges by Gustavus Adolphus in 1620, but is modern in appearance, having been rebuilt after fires in 1860 and 1865.
His mother, Dorothea of Saxe-Lauenburg, was the elder sister of Catherine, the first wife of Gustavus Vasa and the mother of Eric XIV.
The tension which had prevailed between the two kingdoms during the last years of Gustavus Vasa reached breaking point on the accession of Gustavus's eldest son Eric XIV.
die jildisch-alexandrinische Theosophie, Stuttgart, 1831) was rapidly followed by an elaborate biography, in two volumes, of Gustavus Adolphus (Gustav Adolf, Konig von Schweden, and seine Zeit, Stuttgart, 1835-1837), and by a critical history of primitve Christianity (Kritische Geschichte des Urchristenthums, 3 vols., Stuttgart, 1838).
In 1557 he declined the invitation of Gustavus I.
In his early life he served in the army of Gustavus Adolphus, where he rose to the rank of colonel of cavalry.
[CHARLES GUSTAVUS] (1622-1660), king of Sweden, son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibriicken, and Catherine, sister of Gustavus Adolphus, was born at Nykoping Castle on the 8th of November 1622.
His father, a ribbon-weaver, was a descendant of a Swedish soldier who (in the service of Gustavus Adolphus) was left wounded at Rammenau and settled there.
The university was founded by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1632; but in 1699 teachers and students removed to Pernau on the advance of the Russians, and on the occupation of the country by Peter the Great again took flight to Sweden.
In 1600 it fell into the hands of the Swedes, in 1603 reverted to the Poles, and in 1625 was seized by Gustavus.
LUTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the 6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein.
On the 5/15th November, Gustavus, with some 20,000 men, advanced from Naumburg on the Saale to meet a contingent of his German allies at Grimma, S.E.
Gustavus had now to choose between proceeding to Grimma and fighting VV i allenstein on the chance that Pappenheim had not rejoined.
Gustavus's hopes of an early decision were frustrated by the fog, which delayed the approach and deployment of the Swedes.
The infantry in the centre was arrayed in the small and handy battalions then peculiar to Gustavus's army, the horse on either wing extended from opposite Li tzen to some distance beyond Wallenstein's left, which Pappenheim was to extend on his arrival.
Not until 11 was it possible to open fire, for want of a visible target, but about noon, after a preliminary cannonade, Gustavus gave the word to advance.
Gaining at last room to form, the Swedes charged and routed the first line of the Imperial cavalry but were stopped by the heavy squadrons of cuirassiers in second line, and at that moment Gustavus galloped away to the centre where events had taken a serious turn.
It was this which brought Gustavus from the extreme right, and he was killed here in leading a counter charge.
But the news of Gustavus's death spread and the fire of the assault died out.
But Pappenheim fell in the moment of victory and his death disheartened the Imperialists almost as much as the fall of Gustavus had disheartened the Swedes.
Near the spot where Gustavus fell a granite boulder was placed in position on the day after the battle.
- The foregoing account of Gustavus's last victory is founded chiefly upon Lieut.-Colonel Hon.
1 Norway was included in the changes, but Sweden had won its independence of Denmark, under Gustavus Vasa, who, in 1523, was proclaimed king.
STEPHEN CZARNIECKI (1599-1665), Polish general, learnt the science of war under Stanislaw Koniecpolski in the Prussian campaigns against Gustavus Adolphus (1626-1629), and under Wladislaus IV.
In the Thirty Years' War it was successively taken by Gustavus Adolphus (1631), by Wallenstein (1633), by the elector of Brandenburg (1634), and again by the Swedes, who held it from 1640 to 1644.
The edict of restitution, however, in 1629, opened his eyes to the emperor's projects, and he joined Gustavus Adolphus.
After the death of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Liitzen, not far from Leipzig, in 1632, the elector, who was at heart an imperialist, detached himself from the Swedish alliance, and in 1635 concluded the peace of Prague with the emperor.
and Gustavus Adolphus, when her forces were sorely needed elsewhere.
In June 1788 Gustavus III.
1860-1869, "Gustavus III.
After a careful education, completed by the usual grand tour, Magnus learned the art of war under Gustavus Horn, and during the reign of Christina (1644-16J4), whose prime favourite he became, though the liaison was innocent enough, he was raised to the highest offices in the state and loaded with distinctions.
Although real historical personages - Gustavus Vasa, Olaus Petri the reformer and Gerdt the Anabaptist - figure as leading characters, they are made symbolic of the present-day forces of progress and reaction.
(r 5331 577), king of Sweden, was the only son of Gustavus Vasa and Catherine of Saxe-Lauenburg.
This was Goran Persson, born about 1530, who had been educated abroad in Lutheran principles, and after narrowly escaping hanging at the hands of Gustavus Vasa for some vile action entered the service of his son.
The head of the Sture family at this time was Count Svante, who had married a sister of Gustavus Vasa's second wife, and had by her a numerous family, of whom two sons, Nils and Eric, still survived.
The next day Karin was crowned queen of Sweden and her infant son Gustavus proclaimed prince-royal.
In 1786, when the opposition against Gustavus III.
In 1789 he was one of the deputies whom Gustavus III.
It is fairly certain that Pechlin was at the bottom of the plot for murdering Gustavus in 1792.
In 1625 he was appointed guardian of the Ukraine against the Tatars, but in 1626 was transferred to Prussia to check the victorious advance of Gustavus Adolphus.
In 1774 he became an ensign in the guards, but his frivolity provoked the displeasure of Gustavus III.
He remained absolutely faithful to Gustavus when nearly the whole of the nobility fell away from him; brilliantly distinguished himself in the later phases of the Russian war; and was the Swedish plenipotentiary at the conclusion of the peace of Verela.
During the last years of Gustavus III.
On his deathbed Gustavus III.
When Gustavus IV.
He would have nothing to say to the revolutionaries who in 1809 deposed Gustavus IV.
See Robert Nisbet Bain, Gustavus III.
Fogelberg of Gustavus Adolphus and of Odin, and of Oscar I.
Founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1619, Gothenburg was from the first designed to be fortified, a town of the same name founded on Hisingen in 1603 having been destroyed by the Danes during the Calmar war.
The lan of Halland formed part of the territory of Denmark in Sweden, and accordingly, in 1534, during his war with the Danes, Gustavus Vasa assaulted and took its chief town.
of Denmark, the emperor Ferdinand II., and for the Swedes both before and after the death of Gustavus Adolphus.
Arranging a truce between Poland and Sweden, she unleashed Gustavus Adolphus.
The enraged Finnish colonel thereupon approached Gustavus III.
By the 23rd of August Sprengtporten was ready to re-embark for Stockholm with 780 men, but contrary winds kept him back, and in the meantime Gustavus III.
He could, never forgive Gustavus for having forestalled the revolution, and his morbidly irritable and suspicious temper saw slights and insults in the most innocent conjunctures.
His first quarrel with Gustavus happened in 1774 when he refused to accept the post of commander-in-chief in Finland on the eve of threatened war with Russia.
Sprengtporten thereupon tendered his resignation as colonel of the guard, and at a personal interview with Gustavus was so violent and insolent that anything like agreement between them became impossible.
(London, 1895); C. Julin, Gustavus III.
In the war with Sweden, generally known as the "Kalmar War," because its chief operation was the capture by the Danes of Kalmar, the eastern fortress of Sweden, Christian compelled Gustavus Adolphus to give way on all essential points (treaty of Knared, 10th of January 1613).
For a time, however, he stayed his hand, but the urgent solicitations of the western powers, and, above all, his fear lest Gustavus Adolphus should supplant him as the champion of the Protestant cause, finally led him to plunge into war against the combined forces of the emperor and the League, without any adequate guarantees of co-operation from abroad.
In his extremity Christian now formed an alliance with Sweden (1st of January 1628), whereby Gustavus Adolphus pledged himself to assist Denmark with a fleet in case of need, and shortly afterwards a Swedo-Danish army and fleet compelled Wallenstein to raise the siege of Stralsund.
The Order of the Sword (the " Yellow Ribbon "), the principal Swedish military order, was founded, it is said, by Gustavus I.
The Order of Vasa (the " Green Ribbon "), founded by Gustavus III.
Washburn, the surveyor-general of Montana, and Lieutenant Gustavus C. Doane of the Second United States Cavalry, made the "Yellowstone Wonderland" widely known.
Smith, Short History of Christian Missions, pp. '16-118; Gustavus Vasa in 1559 made an effort to educate and evangelize the Lapps.
In 1772 he co-operated in the revolutionary plans of his brother Gustavus III..
On the death of Gustavus III., Charles, now duke of Sudermania, acted as regent of Sweden till 1796; but the real ruler of the country was the narrow-minded and vindictive Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm, whose mischievous influence over him was supreme.
On the accession of Gustavus IV.
(November 1796), the duke became a mere cipher in politics till the 13th of March 1809, when those who had dethroned Gustavus IV.
Meanwhile Gustavus Adolphus had landed in Germany, and the elector had refused to allow him to cross the Elbe at Wittenberg, thus hindering his attempt to relieve Magdeburg.
However, for the present the efforts of Gustavus Adolphus prevented the elector from deserting him, but the position was changed by the death of the king at Lutzen in 1632, and the refusal of Saxony to join the Protestant league under Swedish leadership. Still letting his troops fight in a desultory fashion against the imperialists, John George again negotiated for peace, and in May 1635 he concluded the important treaty of Prague with Ferdinand II.
Later, the countess of Albany threw herself on the protection of her brother-in-law Henry, Cardinal York, at Rome, and the formal separation between the ill-matched pair was finally brought about in 1784, chiefly through the kind offices of King Gustavus III.
In 1658, the States-General interfered to save the Danes from Charles Gustavus of Sweden.
His works include The Campaign of Chancellorsville (1881), A Bird's Eye View of our Civil War (1882, later edition 1897), a complete, accurate and remarkably concise account of the whole war, Patroclus and Penelope, a Chat in the Saddle (1883), Great Captains (1886), a series of lectures, Riders of Many Lands (1893), and a series of large illustrated volumes entitled A History of the Art of War, being lives of "Great Captains," including Alexander (2(2 vols., 1888), Hannibal (2(2 vols., 1889), Caesar (2 vols., 1892), Gustavus Adolphus (2 vols., 1896) and Napoleon (4(4 vols., 1904-1907).
From 1658 to 1660 it was unsuccessfully beleaguered by Charles Gustavus of Sweden; and in the following year it was rewarded by various privileges for its gallant defence.
Gustavus's mother, Cecilia Mansdatter, was closely connected by marriage with the great Sture family.
Gustavus's youthful experiences impressed him with a life-long distrust of everything Danish.
of Denmark, the young Gustavus bore the governor's standard, and in the same year (15'8) he was delivered with five other noble youths as a hostage to King Christian, who treacherously carried him prisoner to Denmark.
In his extremity, Gustavus saw only one way of deliverance, an appeal for help to the sturdy yeomen of the dales.
By releasing his country from the tyranny of Denmark, Gustavus had made the free independent development of Sweden a possibility.
It was this lack of native talent which compelled Gustavus frequently to employ the services of foreign adventurers like Berent von Mehlen, John von Hoja, Konrad von Pyhy and others.
It was not the least of Gustavus's many anxieties.
On that occasion, apparently by way of protest against the decree of the diet of Vesteras (r 5th of January 1 544), declaring the Swedish crown hereditary in Gustavus's family, the Danish king caused to be quartered on his daughter's shield not only the three Danish lions and the Norwegian lion with the axe of St Olaf, but also "the three crowns" of Sweden.
Gustavus, naturally suspicious, was much perturbed by the innovation, and warned all his border officials to be watchful and prepare for the worst.
But Gustavus was not satisfied, and this was the beginning of "the three crowns" dispute which did so much damage to both kingdoms.
The events which led to the rupture of Gustavus with the Holy See are set forth in the proper place (see Sweden: History).
Here it need only be added that it was a purely political act, as Gustavus, personally, had no strong dogmatic leanings either way.
Subsequently, when the Protestant hierarchy was forcibly established in Sweden, matters were much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus.
The incessant labour, the constant anxiety, which were the daily portion of Gustavus Vasa during the seven and thirty years of his reign, told at last even upon his magnificent constitution.
Ten days later, supported by his sons, Gustavus greeted the estates in the great hall of the palace, when he took a retrospect of his reign, reminding them of the misery of the kingdom during the union and its deliverance from "that unkind tyrant, King Christian."
Four days later the diet passed a resolution confirming the hereditary right of Gustavus's son, Prince Eric, to the throne.
Gustavus was thrice married.
Much more fortunate was Gustavus's second marriage, a year after the death of his first consort, with his own countrywoman, Margaret Lejonhufvud, who bore him five sons and five daughters, of whom three sons, John, Magnus and Charles, and one daughter, Cecilia, survived their childhood.
Queen Margaret died in 1551; and a twelvemonth later Gustavus wedded her niece, Catharine Stenbock, a handsome girl of sixteen, who survived him more than sixty years.
Gustavus's outward appearance in the prime of life is thus described by a contemporary: "He was of the middle height, with a round head, light yellow hair, a fine long beard, sharp eyes, a ruddy countenance ...
On the other hand, Gustavus had his full share of the family failings of irritability and suspiciousness, the latter quality becoming almost morbid under the pressure of adverse circumstances.
Alberg, Gustavus Vasa and his Times (London, 1882); R.
Watson, The Swedish Revolution under Gustavus Vasa (London, 1889); O.
Gustavus II Adolphus >>
Among the more conspicuous buildings are St Olaf's church (erected by Gustavus Adolphus in 1616 and rebuilt in 1765-1767); St Hedvig's, built by the German colony in 1670; the town hall, dating from the beginning of the 19th century; the high school (1868), and technical and weaving schools.
This was followed by the treaty of alliance between Denmark and Russia of the 12th of August 1773, which was partly a mutually defensive league, and partly an engagement between the two states to upset the new constitution recently established in Sweden by Gustavus III., when the right moment for doing so should arrive.
But there can be no doubt that he regarded this antiSwedish policy as the correct one for Denmark, especially with a monarch like Gustavus III.
Then came Gustavus III.'s sudden war with Russia in 1788.
It was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, and in 1635 it surrendered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bombarded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war of 1803 it suffered severely.
A more inauspicious moment could not have been chosen for these two serious steps, because in the summer of 1630 Gustavus Adolphus left Sweden at the head of a strong army for the purpose of sustaining the Protestant cause in Gei~many.
Having captured Frankfort-on-Oder and forced the hesitating elector of Brandenburg, George William, to grant him some assistThe earn- ance, Gustavus Adolphus added the Saxon army to his paignof, own, and in September 1631 he met Tilly, at the heed Gustavus of nearly the whole force of the League, at Breitenfeld, P near Leipzig,, where he gained a victory which placed North Germany entirely at his feet.
Having quickly assembled this, h drove the Saxons from Bohemia, and then marched towards Franconia, with the intention of crossing swords with his only serious rival, Gustavus Adolphus, who had left Munich when he heard that this foe had taken the field.
Gustavus made an attempt to storm these fortifications, but he failed to make any impression on them; he failed also in inducing Wallenstein to accept battle, and he was forced to abandon Nuremberg and to march to the protection of Saxony.
These acquisitions, which surpassed the advantages Gustavus Adolphus had hoped to win, gave Sweden the command both of the Baltic and of the North Sea.
During 1870 and 1871 meetings were held by the Gustavus Adolphus Verein, and a great Protestant conference was called, at which resolutions were passed demanding the expulsion of the Jesuits and condemning the Vatican decrees.
After numerous vicissitudes it fell into the hands of the Poles in 1520, and in 1626 it was captured by Gustavus Adolphus.
His failure, followed by the arrival of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany in 1630, proved the death blow of Austrian hopes.
In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was killed, in 1634 Wallenstein was assassinated, and in 1635 France entered into the war.
(1568-1592), but rebuilt later, a council-house erected by Gustavus III., who held a diet here in 1792, an exchange, and schools of commerce and navigation.
party and the lower orders generally took the part of Count Christopher, who acted throughout as the nominee of the captive Christian II., while the Protestant party, aided by the Holstein dukes and Gustavus Vasa of Sweden, sided with Christian III.
While Sweden, even after the advent of Gustavus Vasa, was still of but small account in Europe, Denmark easily held her own in Germany and elsewhere, even against Charles V., and was important enough, in 1553, to mediate a peace between the emperor and Saxony.
Whilst Gustavus Vasa had leaned upon the Swedish peasantry, in other words upon the bulk of the Swedish nation, which was and continued to be an integral part of the Swedish body-politic, Christian III.
His most important polemical work is an answer (1528) to twelve questions on the religious question propounded by Gustavus I.
(1550-1611), king of Sweden, was the youngest son of Gustavus Vasa and Margareto Lejonhufrud.
He consolidated the work of Gustavus Vasa, the creation of a great Protestant state: he prepared the way for the erection of the Protestant empire of Gustavus Adolphus.
By his first wife Marie, daughter of the elector palatine Louis VI., he had six children, of whom only one daughter, Catherine, survived; by his second wife, Christina, daughter of Adolphus, duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he had five children, including Gustavus Adolphus and Charles Philip, duke of Finland.
He got some assistance from Gustavus Hesselius, a Swedish portrait painter then living near Annapolis, and from John Singleton Copley in Boston; and in 1767-1770 he studied under Benjamin West in London.
Palmer, Senator Lyman Trumbull and Gustavus Koerner (1809-1896), one of the most prominent representatives of the German element in Illinois.
(1778-1837), king of Sweden, the son of Gustavus III.
The betrothal was actually fixed for the 22nd of September, when the whole arrangement foundered on the obstinate refusal of Gustavus to allow his destined bride liberty of worship according to the rites of the Greek Orthodox Church - a rebuff which undoubtedly accelerated the death of the Russian empress.
Nobody seems to have even suspected at the time that serious mental derangement lay at the root of Gustavus's abnormal piety.
Gustavus's prompt dismissal of the generally detested Gustaf Reuterholm added still further to his popularity.
On the 31st of October 1797 Gustavus married Frederica Dorothea, daughter of Charles Frederick, grand-duke of Baden, a marriage which might have led to a war with Russia but for the fanatical hatred of the French republic shared by the emperor Paul and Gustavus IV., which served as a bond of union between them.
Indeed the king's horror of Jacobinism was morbid in its intensity, and drove him to adopt all sorts of reactionary measures and to postpone his coronation for some years, so as to avoid calling together a diet; but the disorder of the finances, caused partly by the continental war and partly by the almost total failure of the crops in 1798 and 1799, compelled him to summon the estates to Norrkoping in March 1800, and on the 3rd of April Gustavus was crowned.
On the 29th of March Gustavus, in order to save the crown for his son, voluntarily abdicated; but on the 10th of May the estates, dominated by the army, declared that not merely Gustavus but his whole family had forfeited the throne.
In December Gustavus and his family were transported to Germany.
Gustavus now assumed the title of count of Gottorp, but subsequently called himself Colonel Gustafsson, under which pseudonym he wrote most of his works.
Gustavus V >>
Still Lubeck, even when nearly isolated, strove to preserve its predominance in a war with Denmark (1501-12), supporting Gustavus Vasa in Sweden, lording it over the north of Europe during the years 1534 and 1535 in the person of Jurgen Wullenweber, the democratic burgomaster, who professed the most advanced principles of the Reformation, and engaging with Sweden in a severe naval war (1536-70).
Attempting to interpret the book of Revelation, he promised the millennium in 1672, and guaranteed miraculous assistance to those who would undertake the destruction of the Pope and the house of Austria, even venturing to prophesy that Cromwell, Gustavus Adolphus, and Rakoczy, prince of Transylvania, would perform the task.
In the Thirty Years' War it was stormed by Gustavus Adolphus (1632), and captured by King Ferdinand (1634).
In 1864 and 1865 he published in the Revue des deux mondes a series of articles on Gustavus III.
Gustavus Adolphus gave the abbey as a principality to William, landgrave of Hesse, but William's rule only lasted for ten years.
After his cousin Gustavus Adolphus, whom in many respects he strikingly resembled, he was indubitably the most amiable and brilliant of all the princes of the House of Vasa.
The first blow to its prosperity was the discovery of the sea-route to India in 1497; and the second was inflicted by the Thirty Years' War, during which Gustavus Adolphus was besieged here in an entrenched camp by Wallenstein.
The Reformed religion was introduced into Finland by Gustavus Vasa about 1528, and King John III.
His predecessor having created an order of nobility, - counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus Adolphus in the beginning of the 17th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants.
Gustavus and his successor did much for Finland by founding schools and gymnasia, building churches, encouraging learning and introducing printing.
Nothing remarkable seems to have occurred till 1788, under Gustavus III., who began to reign in 1771, and who confirmed to Finland those " fundamental laws " which they have succeeded in maintaining against kings and tsars for over two centuries.
In 1788 war again broke out between Sweden and Russia, and was carried on for two years without much glory or gain to either party, the main aim of Gustavus being to recover the lost Finnish province.
In 1808, under Gustavus IV., peace was again broken between the two countries, and the war ended by the cession in 1809 of the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia.
The town-hall is also in Riddarhustorg, and a statue of Gustavus Vasa, unveiled in 1773 on the 250th anniversary of his accession to the throne, stands here.
Riddarholmen (nobles' island), lying immediately west of Stadholmen, contains the old Franciscan church (Riddarholmskyrka), no longer used for regular service, which since the time of Gustavus Adolphus has been the burial-place of the royal family.
A fortification on one of the islands here was erected by Gustavus Vasa, but has been modernized and is maintained.
In 1 775 Gustavus III.
The extensive system of natural waterways, especially in central Sweden, has been utilized to the full in the development of internal navigation, just as the calm waters within the skargard afford opportunity for safe and economical coastwise, traffic. The earliest construction of canals dates from the 15th century, the patriot Engelbrekt and King Gustavus Vasa both foreseeing its importance.
Among the scientific and literary societies are to be noted the Swedish Academy, consisting of 18 members, which was instituted in 1786 by Gustavus III., after the pattern of the Academie Frangaise, for the cultivation of the Swedish language and literature; and the Academy of Science, founded in 1739 by Linnaeus and others for the promotion of the natural sciences.
It is stated in the saga that the Swedish kings were believed to have control over the seasons like their ancestor, the god Frey, and traces of this belief seem to have lingered in the country down to the times of Gustavus Vasa.
But the presidentship was too casual and anomalous an institution to Election of rally the nations round it permanently, and when Gustavus the tyranny of Christian II.
able the Swedish people elected Gustavus Eriksson Vasa, who as president had already driven out the Danes (see Denmark: History), king of Sweden at Strengnas (June 6, 1523).
So precarious was the position Gustavus L, genius p p 1523-1560.
He was especially urgent for the confirmation of his nominee Johannes Magni as primate, in the place of the rebellious archbishop Gustavus Trolle, who as a convicted traitor had been formally deposed by the Riksdag and was actually an outlawed exile.
If the pope would confirm the elections of his bishops, Gustavus promised to be an obedient son of the Church.
Scarcely had these letters been despatched when the king received a papal bull ordering the immediate reinstatement of Gustavus Trolle.
and the instability of Gustavus's position.
Gustavus could not accept as primate an open and Eric and of the Norwegian princess Ingeborg, determined traitor like Trolle.
But the Holy See was immovable, and Gustavus broke definitely with Rome.
But the affair caused such general indignation that Gustavus felt obliged, in May, to offer some justification of his conduct.
But the other bishops were also against Gustavus, and, irritated by their conscientious opposition, the king abandoned the no longer tenable position of a moderator and came openly forward as an antagonist.
Subsequently matters were much complicated by the absolutist tendencies of Gustavus.
Then Gustavus so curtailed the power of the bishops (ordinances of 1539 and 1540) that they had little of the dignity left but the name, and even that he was disposed to abolish, for after 1543 the prelates appointed by him, without any pretence of previous, election by the cathedral chapters, were called ordinaries, or superintendents.
In this Gustavus acted contrary to the religious instincts of the vast majority of the Swedish nation; for there can be no doubt at all that the Swedes at the beginning of the 16th century were not only still devoted to the old Church, but violently anti-Protestant.
This popular Romanism was the greatest of all Gustavus's difficulties, because it tended to alienate the Swedish peasants.
Gustavus's necessities had compelled him to break with the ecclesiastical traditions of Sweden; and they also compelled him, contrary to his masterful disposition, to accept constitutionalism, because without it his footing in his own kingdom would have been insecure.
This anomalous state of things was responsible for the half-dozen peasant risings with which Gustavus had to contend from 1525 to 15 4 3.
Though he prevailed in the end, Gustavus was obliged to humour the people throughout.
Gustavus's foreign policy at first aimed at little more than self-preservation.
Only with the pecuniary assistance of the wealthy merchants of Lubeck had he been able to Foreign establish himself originally; and Lubeck, in return, Policy of had exploited Sweden, as Spain at a later day Gustavus.
The hegemony of Denmark was indisputable, and Gustavus regarded that power with an ever-increasing suspicion which augured ill for peace in the future.
Still more offensive was the attitude of Sweden's eastern neighbour Muscovy, with whom the Swedish king was nervously anxious to stand on good terms. Gustavus attributed to Ivan IV., whose resources he unduly magnified, the design of establishing a universal monarchy round the Baltic.
In the last year of Gustavus's life (1560), the ancient military ofs weden.
(1560-1568), the eldest son and successor of Gustavus Vasa, was therefore a judicious act on the part of the new king of Sweden, John III.
Still worse, the war of Kalmar, prudently Peace of concluded by Charles's son, Gustavus Adolphus, Knared, in the second year of his reign, by the peace of Knared 1613.
By the beginning of 1616, Gustavus had become convinced of the impossibility of partitioning reunited Muscovy, while Muscovy recognized the necessity of buying off the invincible Swedes by some cession of territory.
In return for these concessions, Gustavus restored Great Novgorod and acknowledged Michael Romanov as tsar of Muscovy.
In this, as in every other Gustavus matter, Gustavus himself took the initiative.
Whilst in every other European country except England, the ancient popular representation by estates was about to disappear altogether, in Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus it grew into an integral portion of the constitution.
It is in Gustavus's reign, too, that we first hear of the Hemliga Utskott, or " secret committee " for the transaction of extraordinary affairs, which was elected by the estates themselves.
The eleven Riksdags held by Gustavus Adolphus were almost exclusively occupied in finding ways and means for supporting the ever-increasing burdens of the Polish and German wars.
It was to this national devotion quite as much as to his own qualities that Gustavus owed his success as an empire-builder.
by the knowledge that the Polish Vasas denied the right of Gustavus to the Swedish throne.
Gustavus regarded the Scandinavian kingdoms as the two chief pillars on which the Evangelical religion reposed.
Gustavus, whose lively imagination was easily excited by religious ardour, enormously magnified clerical influence in Poland and frequently scented dangers where only difficulties existed.
By the beginning of 1626 Livonia was conquered and the theatre of hostilities was transferred to the Prussian provinces of Poland (see Gustavus Adolphus; [[Koniecpolski [Stanislaus]]]).
The fertile and easily defensible delta of the Vistula was now occupied and Gustavus treated it as a permanent conquest, making his great minister Axel Oxenstjerna its first governor-general.
All Gustavus's further efforts were frustrated by the superior strategy of the Polish grandhetman Koniecpolski, War of Kalmar.
From these tolls Gustavus derived, in 1629 alone, 500,000 rix-dollars, a sum equivalent to the whole of the extraordinary subsidies granted to him by the Riksdag.
Thus Sweden held, for a time, the control of the principal trade routes of the Baltic up to the very confines of the empire; and the increment of revenue resulting from this commanding position was of material assistance to her during the earlier stages of the war in Germany, whither Gustavus transferred his forces in June 1630.
of Gustavus Adolphus's two immediate successors, Christina' and Charles X., shook the flimsy fabric of his empire to its very base.
The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property.
The On the 1st of June the Reaction Riksdag, as it was generally called, removed to the capital; and it was now that the French ambassador and the crown prince Gustavus called upon the new senators to redeem their promise as to a reform of the constitution which they had made before the elections.
Nothing could be done, however, till the arrival of the new king (then at Paris), and every one felt that with Gustavus III.
Immediately after his return to Stockholm, Gustavus endeavoured to reconcile the jarring factions by inducing the leaders to form a composition committee to adjust their differences.
It was now, for the first time, that Gustavus, reduced to the condition of a roi faineant, began seriously to consider the possibility of a revolution; of its necessity there could be no doubt.
The new constitution of the 10th of August 1772, which Gustavus imposed upon the terrified estates at the bayonet's point, converted a weak and disunited republic into a strong but limited monarchy, in which the balance of power inclined,.
But the absence of troops on the Finnish border, and the bad condition of the frontier fortresses, constrained the empress to listen to Gustavus's pacific assurances, and stay her hand.
But Gustavus's first Riksdag, that of 1778, opened the eyes of the deputies to the fact that their political supremacy had departed.
It rejected nearly all the royal measures outright, or so modified them that Gustavus himself withdrew them.
The aristocratic classes loudly complained that the young king, Gustavus IV., Gustavus still a minor, was being brought up among crypto IV., 1792- Jacobins; while the middle classes, deprived of 1809.
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