Gulf of sentence example

gulf of
  • To the south of Terranova there is no harbour of any importance on the east coast (the Gulf of Orosei being exposed to the E., and shut in by a precipitous coast) until Tortoli is reached, and beyond that to the Capo Carbonara at the south-east extremity, and again along the south coast, there is no harbour before Cagliari, the most important on the island.
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  • This depression runs nearly from north to south, from the Gulf of Asinara to the Gulf of Cagliari.
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  • The Mesozoic beds are limited in extent, the most extensive areas lying around the Gulf of Orosei on the east and west of Sassari in the north.
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  • I) and maintaining a navy at Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba (1 Kings ix.
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  • It has two important branches - at the south-west the Gulf of Aden, connecting with the Red Sea through the strait of Bab-elMandeb; and at the north-west the Gulf of Oman, connecting with the Persian Gulf.
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  • Seaboard.The shore of the Mediterranean encircling the Gulf of the Lion (Golfe du Lion) from Cape Cerbera to Martigues is lowlying and unbroken, and characterized chiefly by lagoons separated from the sea by sand-dunes.
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  • The Turkish fleet which had come up from Cyprus and Crete anchored in the Gulf of Patras.
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  • The capitan pasha left his anchorage in the Gulf of Patras with his fleet in a single line, without reserve or advance-guard.
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  • The same remark may be made of the rest of the sea-board; for, with the exception of Spencer Gulf, the Gulf of St Vincent and Port Phillip on the south, and Moreton Bay, Hervey Bay and Broad Sound on the east, the coast-line is singularly uniform.
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  • In the Gulf of Carpentaria are numerous islands, the largest bearing the Dutch name of Groote Eylandt.
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  • Several minor ranges, the topography of which is little known, extend from Cambridge Gulf, behind a very much broken coast-line, to Limmen Bight on the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • Besides those mentioned, there are a number of smaller rivers discharging on the north coast, and on the west shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria the Roper river discharges itself into Limmen Bight.
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  • Along the portion of the south shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria which belongs to Queensland and the east coast, many large rivers discharge their waters, amongst them the Norman, Flinders, Leichhardt, Albert and Gregory on the southern shore, and the Batavia, Archer, Coleman, Mitchell, Staaten and Gilbert on the eastern shore.
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  • The rivers flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria, as well as those in the Northern Territory, drain country which is subject to regular monsoonal rains, and have the general characteristics of sub-tropical rivers.
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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
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  • The Cretaceous period was initiated by the subsidence of a large area to the south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, whereby a Lower Cretaceous sea spread southward, across western Queensland, western New South Wales and the north-eastern districts of South Australia.
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  • The north-west coast, particularly the portions north of Cambridge Gulf and the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, are favoured with an annual visitation of the monsoon from December to March, penetrating as far as Soo m.
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  • This element was introduced via Torres Strait, and spread down the Queensland coast to portions of the New South Wales littoral, and also round the Gulf of Carpentaria, but has never been able to obtain a hold in the more arid interior.
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  • This ship entered the Gulf of Carpentaria, and sailed south as far as Cape Keerweer, or Turn-again.
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  • In 1622 the " Leeuwin," or " Lioness," made some discoveries on the south-west coast; and during the following year the yachts " Pera " and " Arnheim " explored the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • It thence passed farther north to the Burdekin, ascending to the source of that river, and turned westward across a table-land, from which there was an easy descent to the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • Three of them, respectively commanded by Mr. Walker, Mr. Landsborough, and Mr. Norman, sailed to the north, where the latter two landed on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, while Mr. Walker marched inland from Rockhampton.
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  • The Barcoo or Cooper's Creek and its tributary streams were traced from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly course to Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers watering the country towards the Gulf of Carpentaria were also explored.
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  • He then pushed on, through a very thick forest, with scarcely any water, till he came to the streams which supply the Roper, a river flowing into the western part of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • Hann, with Messrs Warner, Tate and Taylor, in 1873, related to the country north of the Kirchner range, watered by the Lynd, the Mitchell, the Walsh and the Palmer rivers, on the east side of the Gulf of Carpentaria.
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  • The chief facts already established are the greater saltness of the North Atlantic compared with the South Atlantic at all.depths, and the low salinity at all depths in the eastern equatorial region, off the Gulf of Guinea.
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  • It was the most northern of the Ionian cities, and was situated on the coast of the peninsula which separates the gulf of Cyme, occupied by Aeolian settlers, from the Hermaean Gulf, on which stood Smyrna and Clazomenae.
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  • About 1880, while the Gediz Chai was throwing its silt unchecked into the Gulf of Smyrna and gradually filling the navigable channel, there was talk of reviving Fokia as a new port for Smyrna, and connecting it with the Cassaba railway.
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  • The river Mahi, which passes through the states of Partabgarh and Banswara, receiving the Som, drains the south-west corner of Rajputana through Gujarat into the Gulf of Cambay.
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  • Gisborne for a land line connecting St John's, Newfoundland, and Cape Ray, in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and proceeded himself to get control of the points on the American coast most suitable as landing places for a cable.
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  • The Aegean itself is naturally divided by the island-chains and the ridges from which they rise into a series of basins or troughs, the deepest of which is that in the north, extending from the coast of Thessaly to the Gulf of Saros, and demarcated southward by the Northern Sporades, Lemnos, Imbros and the peninsula of Gallipoli.
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  • The Lavagna, which enters the sea at Chiavari, is the only stream of any importance between Genoa and the Gulf of Spezia.
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  • From the neighborhood of Potenza, the main ridge of the Apennines is continued by the Monti della Maddalena in a direction nearly due south, so that it approaches within a short distance of the Gulf of Policastro, whence it is carried on as far as the Monte Pollino, the last of the lofty summits of the Apennine chain, which exceeds 7000 ft.
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  • This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.
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  • The Liri (Liris) or Garigliano, which has its source in the central Apennines above Sora, not far from Lake Fucino, and enters the Gulf of Gaeta about 10 m.
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  • The Silarus or Sele enters the Gulf of Salerno a few miles below the ruins of Paestum.
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  • Below this the watershed of the Apennines is too near to the sea on that side to allow the formation of any large streams. Hence the rivers that flow in the opposite direction into the Adriatic and the Gulf of Taranto have much longer courses, though all partake of the character of mountain torrents, rushing down with great violence in winter and after storms, but dwindling in the summer into scanty streams, which hold a winding and sluggish course through the great plains of Apulia.
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  • Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain adjoining the Gulf of Tarentum, which in the early ages of history was surrounded by a girdle of Greek cities—some of which attained to almost unexampled prosperity—has for centuries past been given up to almost complete desolation.
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  • The fishing is largely carried on by boats from Tone del Greco, in the Gulf of Naples, where the best coral beds are now exhausted.
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  • In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
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  • In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.
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  • After another reverse on the east side of the Gulf of Darien Ojeda returned to Hispaniola and died there.
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  • The Spaniards in the Gulf of Darien were left by Ojeda under the command of Francisco Pizarro, the future conqueror of Peru.
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  • One of the crew of Enciso's ship, Vasco Nunez de Balboa, the future discoverer of the Pacific Ocean, induced his commander to form a settlement on the other side of the Gulf of Darien.
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  • In 1534 Jacques Cartier set out to continue the discoveries of Verazzano, and visited Newfoundland and the Gulf of St Lawrence.
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  • He then crossed the Pacific to Macao, and in July 1787 he proceeded to explore the Gulf of Tartary and the shores of Sakhalin, remaining some time at Castries Bay, so named after the French minister of marine.
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  • Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
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  • After that they spread rapidly S., up to the nearly uninhabited valley of the Usuri, to what is now the Gulf of Peter the Great.
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  • In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
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  • This upheaval - the consequences of which have been felt even within the historic period, by the drainage of the formerly impracticable marshes of Novgorod and at the head of the Gulf of Finland - together with the destruction of forests, contributes towards a decrease of precipitation over Russia and towards increased shallowness of her rivers.
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  • The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
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  • Even the White Sea is merely a gulf of that ocean.
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  • The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
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  • By their means the plains of the central plateau - the very heart of Russia, whose natural outlet was the Caspian - were brought into water-communication with the Baltic, and the Volga basin was connected with the Gulf of Finland.
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  • Urals, and enters the ocean by a large estuary at the Gulf of Pechora.
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  • The Neva (40 m.) flows from Lake Ladoga into the Gulf of Finland.
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  • At the same time that these two extensions were being undertaken by old and well-established railways, a new company-the Kansas City, Mexico && Orient-was engaged in constructing a line almost due south-west from Kansas City, Mo., to the lower part of the gulf of California in Mexico; while an additional independent line was under construction from Denver in a north-westerly direction towards the Pacific coast.
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  • As the mouth is choked with sandbanks, goods are disembarked at Mariinsk and carried by train (9 m.) to Alexandrovsk at the head of the Gulf of Tartary.
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  • The most important inlet, the Ceramic Gulf, or Gulf of Cos, extends inland for 70 m., between the great mountain promontory terminating at Myndus on the north, and that which extends to Cnidus and the remarkable headland of Cape Krio on the south.
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  • North of this is the deep bay called in ancient times the Gulf of Iasus (now known as the Gulf of Mendeliyah), and beyond this again was the deeper inlet which formerly extended inland between Miletus and Priene, but of which the outer part has been entirely filled up by the alluvial deposits of the Maeander, while the innermost arm, the ancient Latmic Gulf, is now a lake.
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  • The land was traversed by old-established trade routes and possessed important harbours on the Gulf of `Akaba and on the Mediterranean coast, the latter exposing it to the influence of the Levantine culture.
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  • Alliance with Phoenicia gave the impulse to extended intercourse; trading expeditions were undertaken from the Gulf of Akaba, and Ahab built himself a palace decorated with ivory.
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  • Rasun and Pekah directed their blows from the north, Philistia threatened the west flank, and the Edomites who drove out the Judaeans from Elath (on the Gulf of 'Akaba) were no doubt only taking their part in the concerted action.
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  • In the war with Hannibal, they were among the first to declare in his favour after the battle of Cannae, and it was in their country that Hannibal held his ground during the last stage of the war (at Castrum Hannibalis on the gulf of Scylacium).
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  • Near this hamlet on the coast of the Gulf of Mirabello in east Crete,t he American archaeologist MissHarriet Boyd hasexcavated a great part of another Minoan town.
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  • When this chain formed the Atlantic mountainborder of the continent excepting this north-eastern corner, Mississippi had not emerged from the waters of the ancient Gulf of Mexico.
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  • About 40% of the total catch of the state is made by the inhabitants of Harrison county on the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • The territorial limits were extended on the north to the state of Tennessee in 1804 by the acquisition of the west cessions of South Carolina and Georgia, and on the south to the Gulf of Mexico by the seizure of West Florida in 1810-1813, 1 but were restricted on the east by the formation of the Territory of Alabama in 1817.
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  • The Atlantic coast-line of the territory has one deep indentation - the Gulf of San Matias - but, owing to the arid surroundings, there are no ports or towns upon it.
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  • It is finely situated at the northern extremity of the Gulf of Cagliari, in the centre of the south coast of the island.
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  • It enters the Gulf of Cadiz between the Portuguese town of Villa Real de Santo Antonio and the Spanish Ayamonte, after a total course of 510 m.
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  • There are two forms which are very common in the Gulf of Naples.
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  • The Genoese won a victory in the gulf of Alexandretta (1294); but on the other hand the Venetians under Ruggiero Morosini forced the Dardanelles and sacked the Genoese quarter of Galata.
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  • Physically the country is divided into two regions, the one a series of mountain ranges occupying the northern and eastern portions of the kingdom, and the other a plain which stretches southwards from Mukden, the capital, to the Gulf of Liao-tung.
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  • A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
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  • The most important commercial place, however, is the treaty port of Niu-chwang, at the head of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
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  • Zbtieir frontier obliquely from the Gulf of Akeba to Rakka (Raqqa) on Euphrates, and thus placed the Hamad in Arabia.
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  • Caloosahatchee river, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico near Charlotte Harbour, is its principal outlet.
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  • Then, jealous of the French explorations along the Gulf of Mexico, they turned their attention to the west coast, and in 1696 founded Pensacola.
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  • The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
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  • These railway communications, and the situation of the city (on the Piedmont Plateau) on the water-parting between the streams flowing into the Atlantic Ocean and those flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, have given Atlanta its popular name, the "Gate City of the South."
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  • Thus Pizigano's map of 1367 extends as far east as the Gulf of Persia, whilst the Medicean map of 1356 (at Florence) is remarkable on account of a fairly correct delineation of the Caspian, the Shari river in Africa, and the correct direction given to the west coast of India, which had already been pointed out in a letter of the friar Giovanni da Montecorvino of 1252.
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  • The whole region is characterized by a remarkable degree of physical uniformity, and may be broadly described as a vast plateau of an average elevation of 3000 ft., bounded westwards by the Ethiopian and Galla highlands and northwards by an inner and an outer coast range, skirting the south side of the Gulf of Aden in its entire length from the Harrar uplands to Cape Guardafui.
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  • Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
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  • At the same time Musha Island, at the entrance to the Gulf of Tajura, was bought by the British " for ten bags of rice," Bab Island, in the same gulf, and Aubad Island, off Zaila, were also purchased, the object of the East India Company being to obtain a suitable place " for the harbour of their ships without any prohibition whatever."
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  • During 1884, 1885, 1886 treaties guaranteeing British protection were concluded with various Somali tribes and in 1888 the limits of the British and French spheres were defined, all claims to British jurisdiction in the Gulf of Tajura and the islands of Musha and Bab being abandoned.
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  • The Gulf of Tajura is 28 m.
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  • The inhabitants are, on the north side of the Gulf of Tajura, chiefly Danakils (Afars, q.v.); on the southern shore Galla and Somali.
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  • The chief town and seat of administration is Jibuti (q.v.), pop. about 15,000, which has taken the place of Obok, on the opposite (northern) side of the Gulf of Tajura.
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  • Between 1883 and 1887 treaties with Somali sultans gave France possession of the whole of the Gulf of Tajura.
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  • The northern shore, along the Gulf of Aden, is backed by tablelands separated by the beds of mountain torrents - generally dry.
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  • Alula, on the Gulf of Aden, is the chief town of the Mijertin Somali.
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  • These flood plains form collectively what is known as the alluvial region, which extends in a broad belt down the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico, and up the Ouachita and its branches and the Red river to and beyond the limits of the state.
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  • It divides the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico into two passages of nearly equal width, - the Strait of Florida, about I io m.
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  • Avlona occupies an eminence near the Gulf of Avlona, an inlet of the Adriatic, almost surrounded by mountains.
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  • Towards Egypt the frontier is a line drawn from Akaba at the head of the Gulf of Akaba north-westwards to the little port of El Arish on the Mediterranean.
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  • Nelson, misled by false information, ranged the West Indies as far south as the Gulf of Paria, in search of his opponent whom he supposed to be engaged in attacks on British possessions.
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  • They extend from Cape Nun on the west to the Gulf of Gabes on the east, a distance of some i 50o m., traversing Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
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  • This range sends a branch northward which joins the Mejerda range of the Maritime Atlas, and another branch runs south by Gafsa to the Gulf of Gabes.
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  • This lake drained southward into the Gulf of Mexico via the Minnesota and Mississippi rivers, until the ice sheet which had prevented its natural drainage to the north had melted sufficiently to allow it to be drained off into Hudson Bay by way of the Nelson River.
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  • On the 29th of September a Greek naval force, commanded by an English Philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings, had destroyed some Turkish vessels in Salona Bay, on the north side of the Gulf of Corinth.
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  • Auriferous sands, but not very rich, have been discovered in the feeders of Lake Hanka and the Suifong river, as also on the smaller islands of the Gulf of Peter the Great.
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  • The coast-line has few indentations, the chief being the double gulf of the Ob and the Taz, separated from the Sea of Kara by an elongated peninsula (Samoyede), and from the bay of the Yenisei by another.
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  • The northern part of the Sea of Japan, which washes the Usuri region, has, besides the smaller bays of Olga and Vladimir, the beautiful Gulf of Peter the Great, on which stands Vladivostok, the Russian naval station on the Pacific. Okhotsk and Ayan on the Sea of Okhotsk, Petropavlovsk on the east shore of Kamchatka, Nikolayevsk, and Vladivostok on the Sea of Japan, and Dui on Sakhalin are the only ports of Siberia.
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  • The mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto was the scene of the great sea fight in which the naval power of Turkey was for the time being destroyed by the united papal, Spanish and Venetian forces (October 7, 1571).
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  • But no closer connexion followed at that time than an agreement for the suppression of piracy, or of inroads of troops to the eastward of the Runn or Gulf of Cutch.
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  • Its commanding position at the head of the Gulf of Quarnero, and spacious new harbour works, as also its immediate connexions with both the Austrian and Hungarian railway systems, render it specially advantageous as a commercial port.
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  • Behind the wide bay between Cape Codera and Cumana there is an interruption in the Maritime Andes; but both ranges reappear between Cumana and the Gulf of Paria.
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  • The surface of the llanos is almost a dead level, the general elevation 1 The name means " little Venice," and is a modification of the name of Venecia (Venice), originally bestowed by Alonzo de Ojeda in 1499 on an Indian village, composed of pile dwellings on the shores of the Gulf of Maracaibo, which was called by him the Gulf of Venecia.
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  • The geographical name is sometimes extended over all these branches, and so reaches from Aetolia to the Gulf of Lamia.
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  • On March 10 Bulair was also bombarded from the Gulf of Saros.
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  • It is situated on the plain between the Gulf of Venice and the Alps, 18 m.
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  • It was determined in the first place to take a tower on Cape Mortella which commanded the only secure anchorage in the Gulf of San Fiorenzo.
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  • The town is situated nearly io miles from the Gulf of Cutch.
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  • North of Katif it is desert and only inhabited by nomads; at Katif, however, and throughout the district to the south bordering on the Gulf of Bahrein there are ample supplies of underground water, welling up in abundant springs often at a high temperature, and bringing fertility to an extensive district of which El Hofuf, a town of 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, is the most important centre.
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  • South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.
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  • Mefat which enters the Gulf of Aden near Balhaf.
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  • In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.
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  • The Gulf of Akaba is a strip of country which has been let down between two parallel faults, and several similar faulted troughs occur in the Sinai peninsula.
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  • The larger antelopes, so common on the African side of the Gulf of Aden, are not found, except one variety, the Oryx beatrix (called by the Arabs, wild cow), which is an inhabitant of the Nafud between Tema and Hail; it is about the size of a donkey, white, and with long straight horns.
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  • The Gulf of Gabes, the Syrtis Minor of the ancients, is a semicircular shallow indentation of the Mediterranean, about 50 m.
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  • The district between Bizerta and the Gulf of Tunis is a most attractive country, resembling greatly the mountainous regions of South Wales.
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  • They stretch with only two short breaks in a line from the Mediterranean at the Gulf of Gabes to the Algerian frontier, which they penetrate for a considerable distance.
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  • It would seem probable that at one time these shats (at any rate the Shat el Jerid) were an inlet of the Mediterranean, which by the elevation of a narrow strip of land on the Gulf of Gabes has been cut off from them.
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  • With this country of Jerid may be included the island of Jerba, which lies close to the coast of Tunisia in the Gulf of Gabes.
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  • Trieste is situated at the northeast angle of the Adriatic Sea, on the Gulf of Trieste, and is picturesquely built on terraces at the foot of the Karst hills.
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  • This last-named river is navigable from the Gulf of Tongking to Man-hao, a town ten days' journey from Yun-nan Fu.
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  • It is now not only the headquarters of the English naval squadron in the Persian Gulf, and the land terminus of the Indo-European telegraph, but it also forms the chief station in the Gulf of the British India Steam Navigation Company, which runs its vessels weekly between Bombay and Basra.
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  • The east coast, from Cape Shiriya (Shiriyazaki) in the north, to Cape Inuboye (Inuboes4ki) near Tokyo Bay, though abounding in small indentations, has only two large bays, those of Sendai and Matsushima; but southward from Tokyo Bay to Cape Satta (Satanomisaki) in KiOshi there are many capacious inlets which offer excellent anchorage, as the Gulf of Sagami (Sagaminada), the Bays of Suruga (Surugawan), lie (Isenumi) and Osaka, the Ku Channel, the Gulf of Tosa (Tosonada), &c., Opening into both the Pacific and the Sea of Japan and separating Shikoku and KiQshi from the main island as well as from each other, is the celebrated Inland Sea, one of the most picturesque sheets of water in the world.
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  • Their headquarters were in the island of Jerba in the Gulf of Gabes.
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  • This island separates the Gulf of Taranto from the deep inlet of the Mare Piccolo, and is sheltered by two other flat islands, San Pietro and San Paolo; the latter is occupied by a lighthouse.
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  • The prosperity of the town is largely due to the export trade in phosphates, esparto grass, oil, almonds, pistachio nuts, sponges, wool, &c. There is in the Gulf of Gabes a rise and fall of 5 ft.
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  • A fleet of small steamers, schooners and junks, carries on trade with the towns and districts on the east and west coasts of the Gulf of Siam.
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  • The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
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  • On the contrary, the North Sea, the British fringing seas (English Channel, Irish Sea and Minch), and the Gulf of St Lawrence cross the main lines of dislocation.
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  • The level of the Gulf of Finland at Kronstadt and of the Gulf of Bothnia at Haparanda should similarly be 15 in.
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  • The Central American Sea communicates with the Atlantic through the channels between the Antilles, none of which is quite 1000 fathoms deep, and it sinks to a depth of 2843 fathoms in the Caribbean Basin, 3428 fathoms in the Cayman Trench and 2080 fathoms in the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • The saltest include the eastern Mediterranean with 39.5 per mille, the Red Sea with 41 to 43 per mille in the Gulf of Suez, and the Persian Gulf with 38.
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  • The fresher enclosed seas include the Malay and the East Asiatic fringing seas with 30 to 34.5 per mille, the Gulf of St Lawrence with 30 to 31, the North Sea with 35 north of the Dogger Bank diminishing to 32 further south, and the Baltic, which freshens rapidly from between 25 to 31 in the Skagerrak to 7 or 8 eastward of Bornholm and to practically fresh water at the heads of the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland.
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  • The observations of Aime in 1845 and of Semmola in the Gulf of Naples in 1881 show that the surface water in winter cools until the whole mass of water from the surface to the bottom, in 1600 fathoms or more, assumes the same temperature.
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  • Even in the Mediterranean sea-ice is formed annually in the northern part of the Black Sea, and more rarely in the Gulf of Salonica and at the head of the Adriatic off Triest.
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  • Hudson Bay is blocked by ice for .a great part of the year, and the Gulf of St Lawrence is blocked every winter.
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  • In the region of Somaliland, now the western part of the British protectorate of that name, the Arabs established the Moslem state of Adel or Zaila, with their capital at Zaila on the Gulf of Aden.
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  • In 1521 the then sultan Abubekr transferred the seat of government to Harrar, probably regarding Zaila as too exposed to the attacks of the Turkish and Portuguese navies then contending for the mastery of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
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  • During the months of December, January and February the rivers are frozen up, and even the Gulf of Chih-li is fringed with a broad border of ice.
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  • The deeply indented shore of the Gulf of Papua forms the boundary of the subsided area between the two countries, and from it the land stretches out for 200 to 300 m.
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  • The Great Barrier Reef of Australia can be traced more or less continuously round the Gulf of Papua and along the south-east coast to the extremity of the Louisiades.
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  • It is quite true that modern idealists like Berkeley himself have sought to save themselves from the gulf of sub-.
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  • In that and the following year the coasts of Yucatan and of the Gulf of Mexico were explored successively by Francisco Hernandez Cordova and Juan de Grijalva, who both sailed from Cuba.
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  • Between 1534 and 1542 this seaman, a native of St Malo, explored the Strait of Belle Isle and the Gulf of St Lawrence, and visited the Indian village of Hochelaga, now Montreal.
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  • Captain Hull had been cruising off the Gulf of St Lawrence, and the engagement, which took place on the 19th of August, was fought south of the Grand Bank.
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  • Fishing in Lake Peipus gives occupation to nearly 100,000 persons, and is also carried on in the Gulf of Riga and in the rivers.
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  • A small part of the state, in the W., drains to the Ohio, and thence, by way of the Mississippi, to the Gulf of Mexico; and a much larger area drains into the Susquehanna, entering the head of Chesapeake Bay.
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  • The rivers named all drain to the Gulf of Guinea; the rivers in the extreme north of the colony belong to the Niger system, being affluents of the Bani or Mahel Balevel branch of that river.
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  • The Catabanes produce frankincense and Hadramut myrrh, and there is a trade in these and other spices with merchants who make the journey from Aelana (Elath, on the Gulf of `Akaba) to Minaea in seventy days; the Gabaeans (the Gaba'an of the inscriptions, Pliny's Gebanitae) take forty days to go to Hadramut.
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  • The main range of the Rocky Mountains separates that part which is drained west into the'Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean from that which is drained east into the Missouri and Mississippi rivers and the Gulf of Mexico, and from a very small part which is drained north-east into Hudson Bay; the water-parting which in Montana separates the drainage into Hudson Bay from the drainage into the Gulf of Mexico crosses only the north-west region of Teton county.
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  • The villages of the Guajiros in the Gulf of Maracaibo are described by Goering as composed of houses with low sloping roofs perched on lofty piles and connected with each other by bridges of planks.
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  • It was a populous place as early as the 11th century, and carried on a lively trade with Narva on the Gulf of Finland.
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  • The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
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  • The northern portion of this ridge forms the water-parting between the streams that empty into Hudson Bay and those that flow into the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • A Sukhotai inscription of about 1284 states that the dominions of King Rama Kamheng extended across the country from the Mekong to Pechaburi, and thence down the Gulf of Siam to Ligore; and the Malay annals say that the Siamese had penetrated to the extremity of the peninsula before the first Malay colony from Menangkabu founded Singapore, i.e.
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  • When, on the outbreak of the Swedish war of 1809, the emperor ordered the army to take advantage of an unusually severe frost and cross the ice of the Gulf of Finland, it was only the presence of Arakcheev that compelled an unwilling general and a semi-mutinous army to begin a campaign which ended in the conquest of Finland.
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  • The western strait, opening into the Gulf of Gabes, is a mile and a half broad; the eastern strait is wider, but at low water it is possible to cross to the mainland by the Tarik-el-Jemil (road of the camel).
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  • The west coast is indented by two deep inlets, (t) the northernmost, the Gulf of Ismid (anc. Gulf of Astacus), penetrating between 40 and 50 m.
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  • At the foot of the grey limestone mass of Mount Mitzekeli (1500 ft.), which forms part of the fine range of hills running north from the Gulf of Arta, there lies a valley (the Hellopia of antiquity) partly occupied by a lake; and the city is built on the slopes of a slight eminence, stretching down to the western shore.
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  • Later, when this was found to consist of a vast archipelago enclosing the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, Antilia assumed its present plural form, Antilles, which was collectively applied to the whole of this archipelago.
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  • Later on, the opening of rapid means of transport from Kano and other cities to the Gulf of Guinea also affected Ghadames, which, however, maintains a considerable trade.
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  • Save near the towns and in the cultivated district of Kabylia, the coast is bare and uninhabited; and in spite of numerous indentations, of which the most important going from west to east are the Gulf of Oran, the Gulf of Arzeu, the Bay of Algiers, and the gulfs of Bougie, Stora and Bona, there are few good harbours.
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  • Arzeu (3085) occupies a site on the western side of the gulf of the same name.
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  • Jijelli (4878), on the eastern side of the Gulf of Bougie, occupies the site of the Roman colony of Igilgilis.
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  • The American coasts are for the most part mountainous and unbroken, the chief indentation being the Gulf of California; but the general type is departed from in the extreme north and south, the southern coast of South America consisting of bays and fjords with scattered islands, while the coast of Alaska is similarly broken in the south and becomes low and swampy towards the north.
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  • The Gulf of Nicoya, a shallow landlocked inlet, containing a whole archipelago of richly-wooded islets, derives its name from Nicoya, an Indian chief who, with his tribe, was here converted to Christianity in the 16th century.
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  • Its direction changes from south-east to east-south-east opposite to the entrance into the Gulf of Nicoya, where it is cut into two sections by a depression some 20 m.
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  • The more southerly of the two Costa Rican ranges, known as the Cordillera de Talamanca, rises south of the Gulf of Nicoya, and extends midway between the two oceans towards the south-east.
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  • The Tempisque enters the Pacific at the head of the Gulf of Nicoya, and tends to silt up that already shallow inlet (5-10 fathoms) with its alluvial deposits.
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  • The decisive engagement was fought (probably) in the Gulf of Morbihan and the Romans gained the victory by cutting down the enemy's rigging with sickles attached to poles.
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  • The interior curve formed by the Gulf of Mexico is comparatively regular and has a coast-line of about 1400 m.
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  • The outer curve facing the Pacific is less regular, is deeply broken by the Gulf of California, and has a coast-line of 4574 m., including that of the Gulf.
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  • On the Pacific coast there are a number of islands off the rocky shores of Lower California and in the Gulf of California - most of them barren and uninhabitable like the adjacent coast.
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  • The hydrography of Mexico, therefore, is of the simplest description - a number of small streams flowing from the plateau or mountain slopes eastward to the Gulf of Mexico and westward to the Pacific. Most of these are little more than mountain torrents, but one has a course exceeding 500 m., and few have navigable channels.
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  • The principal watershed is formed by the sierras of the state of Mexico, from which streams flow north-east to the Gulf of Mexico, northwest to the Pacific and south-west to the same coast below its great eastward curve.
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  • The south-west part of the Gulf of Mexico is called the Gulf of Campeche (Campeachy), but no distinction is necessary.
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  • The former is opposite the Gulf of Campeche, and.
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  • The rainfall is heavy in the south, except Yucatan, but diminishes gradually toward the north, until on the Pacific and Gulf of California coasts it almost disappears.
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  • Since the closing years of the last century pearl fishing in the Gulf of California has been carried on with modern appliances and better results by an English company under a concession from the government.
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  • Thus the architectural remains, though they fail to solve the problem of the culture of the nations round the Gulf of Mexico, throw much light on it when their evidence is added to that of religion and customs. At any rate two things seem probable - first, that the civilizations of Mexico and Central America were pervaded by a common influence in religion, art, and custom; second, that this common element shows traces of the importation of Asiatic ideas into America.
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  • This enters the Gulf of Arta some distance south of the town.
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  • It forms a delta on the south of the Gulf of Honduras.
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  • The average rainfall is very heavy, especially on the Atlantic slope, where the prevailing winds are charged with moisture from the Gulf of Mexico or the Caribbean Sea; at Tual, a high station on the Atlantic slope, it reaches 195 in.; in central Guatemala it is only 27 in.
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  • It is situated on the island of Kotlin, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, 20 m.
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  • The area of the United States, as here considered, exclusive of Alaska and outlying possessions, occupies a belt nearly twenty degrees of middle latitude in width, and crosses Boundaries sad Area, North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The southern boundary is naturally defined on the east by the Gulf of Mexico; its western extension crosses obliquely over the western highlands, along an irregular line determined by aggressive Americans of Anglo-Saxon stock against Americans of Spanish stock.
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  • Between the two mountain systems extends a great central area of plains, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico northward, far beyond the national boundary, to the Arctic Ocean.
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  • The central plains are divided by a hardly perceptible height of land into a Canadian and a United States portion; from the latter the great Mississippi system discharges southward to the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • The drift deposits thereabouts are so heavy that the present divides between the drainage basins of Hudson Bay, Lake Superior and the Gulf of Mexico evidently stand in no very definite relation to the preglacial divides.
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  • The Gulf Coastal Plain.The westward extension of the Atlantic coastal plain around the Gulf of Mexico carries with it a repetition of certain features already described, and the addition of several new ones.
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  • The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
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  • The continent being interrupted on its eastern side by the Gulf of Mexico and Hudson Bay, with the Great Lakes between these two large water bodies, the northward bending of the July isotherms is most pronounced in the western part of the United States.
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  • So strong is the displacement of the area of highest interior temperatures westward from the middle of the continent that the Gulf of California almost rivals the Red Sea as an ocean-arm under a desert-hot atmosphere.
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  • In the same midsummer month all the eastern half of the United States is included between the isotherms of 66 and 82; the contrast between Lake Superior and the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, 1200 m.
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  • The strong changes of temperature with the seasons are indicated also by the distribution of summer maxima and winter minima; summer temperatures above 112 are known in the south-western deserts, and temperatures of 100 are sometimes carried far northward on the Great Plains by the hot winds nearly to the Canadian boundary; while in winter, temperatures of 40 occur along the mid-northern boundary and freezing winds sometimes sweep down to the border of the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.
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  • The warmed air of summer produces an area of low pressure in the west-central United States, which interrupts the belt of high pressure that planetary conditions alone would form around the earth about latitude 30; hence there is a tendency of the summer winds to blow inward from the northern Pacific over the Cordilleras toward the continental centre, and from the trades of the torrid Atlantic up the Mississippi Valley; conversely in winter time, the cold air over the lands produces a large area of high pressure from which the winds tend to flow outward; thus repelling the westerly winds of the northern Pacific and greatly intensifying the outflow southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic. As a result of these seasonal alternations of temperature and pressure there is something of a monsoon tendency developed in the winds of the Mississippi Valley, southerly infiowing winds prevailing in summer and northerly outfiowing winds in winter; but the general tendency to inflow and outflow is greatly modified by the relief of the lands, to which we next turn.
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  • The ranges of the Rocky Mountains in their turn receive some rainfall from the passing winds, but it is only after the westerlies are reinforced by a moist indraft from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlanticthe result of summer or of cyclonic inflowthat rainfall increases to a sufficient measure on the lower lands to support agriculture without irrigation.
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  • The District Of Ahmedabad lies at the head of the Gulf of Cambay, between Baroda and Kathiawar.
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  • The river Sabarmati and its tributaries, flowing from north-east to south-west into the Gulf of Cambay, are the principal streams that water the district.
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  • The precise limits were the river Silarus on the north-west, which separated it from Campania, and the Bradanus, which flows into the Gulf of Tarentum, on the north-east; while the two little rivers Laus and Crathis, flowing from the ridge of the Apennines to the sea on the west and east, marked the limits of the district on the side of the Bruttii.
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  • The main ridge approaches the western sea, and is continued from the lofty knot of mountains on the frontiers of Samnium, nearly due south to within a few miles of the Gulf of Policastro, and thenceforward is separated from the sea by only a narrow interval till it enters the district of the Bruttii.
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  • The mountains descend by a much more gradual slope to the coastal plain of the Gulf of Tarentum.
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  • Thus the rivers which flow to the Tyrrhenian Sea are of little importance compared with those that descend towards the Gulf of Tarentum.
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  • The Gulf of St Lawrence with its much indented shores and the coast of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick supply endless harbours, the northern ones closed by ice in the winter, but the southern ones open all the year round; and on the Pacific British Columbia is deeply fringed with islands and fjords with well-sheltered harbours everywhere, in strong contrast with the unbroken shore of the United States to the south.
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  • Taken as a whole, this eastern part of Canada, with a very irregular and extended coast-line on the Gulf of St Lawrence and the Atlantic, may be regarded as a northern continuation of the Appalachian mountain system that runs parallel to the Atlantic coast of the United States.
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  • A series of quartzites and slates referred to the Cambrian, and holding numerous and important veins of auriferous quartz, characterize its Atlantic or southeastern side, while valuable coal-fields occur in Cape Breton and on parts of its shores on the Gulf of St Lawrence.
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  • Superimposed on these rocks are Pleistocene boulder clay, and clay and sand deposited in post-glacial lakes or an extension of the Gulf of St Lawrence.
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  • In Ontario the flora of the northern part is much the same as that of the Gulf of St Lawrence, but from Montreal along the Ottawa and St Lawrence valleys the flora takes a more southern aspect, and trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants not found in the eastern parts of the Dominion become common.
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  • The sea-birds include a great variety of gulls, guillemots, cormorants, albatrosses (four species), fulmars and petrels, and in the Gulf of St Lawrence the gannet is very abundant.
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  • In 1534 a French expedition under Jacques Cartier, a seaman of St Malo, sent out by Francis I., entered the Gulf of St Lawrence.
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  • Ultimately the longer, more expensive, but more isolated route along the shores of the Gulf of St Lawrence was adopted.
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  • Near the north-east extremity of the island, and almost facing the entrance of the Gulf of Pagasae, is the promontory of Artemisium, celebrated for the great naval victory gained by the Greeks over the Persians, 480 B.C. Towards the centre, to the N.E.
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  • The English, too, claimed the region north of the Gulf of Mexico, and the territory of modern Alabama was included in the province of Carolina, granted by Charles II.
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  • Berbera stands at the head of a deep inlet which forms the only completely sheltered haven on the south side of the Gulf of Aden.
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  • African coast, lying between the Syrtis Major and Marmarica, the western limit being Arae Philaenorum, and the eastern a vague line drawn inland from the head of the gulf of Platea (Bomba).
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  • At the present day we understand by Cyrenaica a somewhat larger district than of old, and include ancient Marmarica up to the head of the gulf of Sollum (Catabathmus Magnus).
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  • Geologically and structurally Cyrenaica is a mass of Miocene limestone tilted up steeply from the Mediterranean and falling inland by a gentle descent to sea-level again at the line of depression, which runs from the gulf of Sidra through Aujila to Siwa.
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  • The island consists of two mountain masses, connected by a narrow isthmus of hills, and separated by a wide inlet of the sea known as the Gulf of Molo.
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  • The most considerable are the Wei, which flows into the Gulf of Chih-li; the I-ho, which empties into a lake lying east of the Grand Canal; and the Ta-wen, which rises at the southern foot of the I-sham Mountains and terminates in the Grand Canal.
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  • This may be either the Atlantic or the Gulf of Bothnia, according as the migration has commenced from the west or the east side of the central elevated plateau.
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  • The Guadalquivir rises among the mountains of Jaen and flows in a south-westerly direction to the Gulf of Cadiz, receiving many considerable tributaries on its way.
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  • In 1498, Columbus, when exploring the Gulf of Pal-la, which receives a large part of the outflow of the Orinoco, noted the freshness of its waters, but made no examination of their origin.
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  • On islands within one of the lagoons opening from the Gulf of Venice, the city of that name has its unique situation.
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  • Ajaccio occupies a sheltered position at the foot of wooded hills on the northern shore of the Gulf of Ajaccio.
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  • The Bight of Biafra, or Mafra (named after the town of Mafra in southern Portugal), between Capes Formosa and Lopez, is the most eastern part of the Gulf of Guinea; it contains the islands Fernando Po, Prince's and St Thomas's.
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  • It lies off the coast of Acarnania (Greece), immediately south of the entrance to the Gulf of Arta.
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  • It occupies a beautiful and well-sheltered situation on the east side of the Gulf of Rapallo, 182 m.
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  • The idea of making the Gulf of Spezia a great naval centre was first broached by Napoleon I.
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  • It rises at the upper or eastern extremity of the Swiss canton of the Valais, flows between the Bernese Alps (N.) and the Lepontine and Pennine Alps (S.) till it expands into the Lake of Geneva, winds round the southernmost spurs of the Jura range, receives at Lyons its principal tributary, the Saline, and then turns southward through France till, by many mouths, it enters that part of the Mediterranean which is rightly called the Golfe du Lion (sometimes wrongly the Gulf of Lyons).
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  • It is the only safe port easily accessible to large vessels for over 1000 m., between Sfax in Tunisia and Alexandria, for, although there is safe and deep anchorage in the recess of the Gulf of Bomba, the entrance is rocky and difficult.
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  • Its basin is divided naturally into three sections - (i) A northern, forming in the east the Gulf of Mortvyi Kultuk or Tsarevich Bay.
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  • The coastline of the Gulf of Mortvyi Kultuk on the north-east is, on the other hand, formed by a range of low calcareous hills, constituting the rampart of the Ust-Urt plateau, which intervenes between the Caspian and the Sea of Aral.
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  • A little east of the Gulf of Enzeli, which resembles the Kara-boghaz, though on a much smaller scale, the Sefid-rud pours into the Caspian the drainage of the western end of the Elburz range, and several smaller streams bring down the precipitation that falls on the northern face of the same range farther to the east.
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  • Eastwards it penetrated up the Uzboi depression between the Great and Little Balkhan ranges, so that that depression, which is strewn (as mentioned above) with Post-Tertiary marine deposits, was not (as is sometimes supposed) an old bed of the Oxus, but a gulf of the Caspian.
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  • Besides the ordinary waste of the shores, there have been extensive inundations by the sea within the historic period, the gulf of the Doliart having been so caused in the year 1276.
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  • Long narrow alluvial strips called Nehrungen, lie between the last two haffs and the Baltic. The Baltic coast is further marked by large indentations, the Gulf of LUbeck, that of Pomerania, east of Rugen, and the semicircular Bay of Danzig between the promontories of Rixhoft and Brusterort.
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  • The town, which is strongly fortified, holds a commanding strategic position on the route between western Europe and Brazil and South Africa, being situated in the Gulf of Goree on the eastern side of the peninsula of Cape Verde, the most westerly point of Africa.
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  • The town is situated on the Gulf of Genoa, and is the chief port and commercial town of Italy, the seat of an archbishop and a university, the headquarters of the IV.
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  • The former takes its rise in Mongolia, and after running an easterly course for about 400 m., turns S.W., and empties into the Gulf of Liao-tung, in the neighbourhood of Ying-tsze, up to which town, 20 m.
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  • Germany had in the meantime established itself in Cameroon, and the new British protectorate extended along the Gulf of Guinea from the British colony of Lagos on the west to the new German colony on the east, where the Rio del Rey marked the frontier.
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  • Here the desert meets the line of mountains which runs parallel to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez.
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  • Petroleum occurs at Jebel Zeit, on the west shore of the Gulf of Suez.
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  • On the other hand at the south end of the Suez canal the land niay have risen bodily, since the head of the Gulf of Suez has been cut off by a bank of rock from the Bitter lakes, which were probably joined to it in former days.
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  • Mehemet Ali and his successors up to and including Tewfik had not only administered the Sinai peninsula but certain posts on the Hejaz or Arabian side of the gulf of Akaba.
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  • As a compromise Mukhtar Pasha suggested as the frontier a line drawn direct from Raf a to Ras Mahommed (the most southern point of the Sinai peninsula), which would have left the whole of the gulf of Akaba in Turkish territory.
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  • He marched along the coast of the Gulf of Venice, and encountered the army of Totila at Taginae not far from Cesena.
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  • The present writer is even inclined to think that, besides this southern communication with the Caspian, Lake Aral may have been, even in historical times, connected with the Mortvyi Kultuk (Tsarevich) Gulf of the Caspian, discharging part of its water into that sea through a depression of the Ust-Urt plateau, which is marked by a chain of lakes (Chumyshty, Asmantai).
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  • In this case it might have been easily confounded with a gulf of the Caspian (as by Jenkinson).
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  • Baffin Land is separated from Greenland by Baffin Bay and Davis Strait, from Ungava by Hudson Strait, from Keewatin and Melville Peninsula by Fox Channel and Fury-and-Hecla Strait, from Boothia Peninsula and North Somerset by the Gulf of Boothia and Prince Regent Inlet, and from North Devon by Lancaster Sound.
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  • When such plants are detached they are enabled to float for great distances, and the great Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic Ocean is probably only renewed by the constant addition of plants detached from the shores of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.
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  • A large Bulgarian principality was created extending from the Danube to the Aegean and from the Black Sea to the river Drin in Albania; it received a considerable coast-line on the Aegean and abutted on the Gulf of Salonica under the walls of that town.
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  • The coast, though less irregular than that of Caria, is indented by a succession of bays - the most marked of which is the Gulf of Macri (anc. Glaucus Sinus) in the extreme west.
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  • Such were Daedala in the west, adjoining the Gulf of Macri, Cragus on the sea-coast, west of the valley of the Xanthus, Massicytus (io,000 ft.) nearly in the centre of the region, and Solyma in the extreme east above Phaselis (7800 ft.).
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  • On the gulf of Glaucus, near the frontiers of Caria, stood Telmessus, an important place, while a short distance inland from it were the small towns of Daedala and Cadyanda.
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  • The Poronai flows south-south-east to the Gulf of Patience or Shichiro Bay, on the south-east coast.
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  • Three other small streams enter the wide semicircular Gulf of Aniva or Higashifushimi Bay at the southern extremity of the island.
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  • The Murghab river and the Hari Rud, which terminate in the oases of Mer y and Sarakhs, almost certainly penetrated to the gulf of the Kara Kum, but the question whether the Oxus was ever deflected so as to enter the gulf with the Murghab cannot be said to be answered decisively at present.
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  • We know that at the same time that some Scandinavian folk were harrying all the western lands, others were founding Garbariki (Russia) in the east; others were pressing still farther south till they came in contact with the eastern empire in Constantinople, which the northern folk knew as MikillgarOr (Mikklegard); so that when Hasting and Bjorn had sailed to Luna in the gulf of Genoa the northern folk had almost put a girdle round the Christian world.
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  • The line then runs almost due north to the south shore of the Gulf of Guayaquil, following the western water parting of the lower Tumbez valley.
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  • The Guayas or Guayaquil river is in part an estuary extending northward from the Gulf of Guayaquil, bordered by mangrove swamps and mud banks formed by the silt brought down from the neighbouring mountains.
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  • In addition to these three river systems, there are a large number of short streams on the coast flowing into the Pacific and Gulf of Guayaquil, only two of which have any special importance in the present undeveloped state of the country.
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  • Immediately north of the Gulf of Guayaquil is the Bay of Santa Plena, with a small port of the same name, which has a good, well-sheltered anchorage and is the landing-place of the West Coast cable.
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  • The Gulf of Guayaquil, which lies between the Ecuadorean and Peruvian coasts, is the largest gulf on the Pacific coast of South America between Panama and Chiloe.
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  • There are few islands off the coast of Ecuador, and only one of any considerable size - that of Puna in the Gulf of Guayaquil, which is 29 m.
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  • Midway in the outer part of the Gulf of Guayaquil is Amortajada or Santa Clara island, whose resemblance to a shrouded corpse suggested the name which it bears.
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  • North of the Gulf of Guayaquil there are only two small islands on the coast of more than local interest.
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  • It is to be noted that the Gulf of Guayaquil separates the humid, forestcovered coastal plain of Ecuador from the arid, barren coast of Peru, the two regions being widely dissimilar.
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  • The warm winds which sweep up the Mississippi Valley from the Gulf of Mexico are responsible for the extremes of heat, and the Arctic winds of the north, which find no mountain range to break their strength, cause the extremes of cold.
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  • Chief of these were Kaskaskia, established near the mouth of the Kaskaskia river, about 1720; Cahokia, a little below the mouth of the Missouri river, founded at about the same time; and Fort Chartres, on the Mississippi between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, founded in 1720 to be a link in a chain of fortifications intended to extend from the St Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico.
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  • From the Indian Ocean the Gulf of Oman is entered approximately where Persian territory begins at the tiny port of Gwattar.
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  • Few seas are more prolific in fish than the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman; the great proportion of known species are edible and many have a commercial value for the isinglass or oil Shelly conglomerates and dead coral reefs of the littoral; red sandhills of the coast of Trucial Oman; alluvium of Turkish Iraq; river and lake deposits of Oman and the interior of Persia.
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  • The whale is often seen in the Gulf of Oman; porpoises and swordfishes are common.
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  • Jibuti is situated at the entrance to and on the southern shore of the Gulf of Tajura about 150 m.
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  • Similar rocks occur also at one or two places in the desert of et-Tih, while towards the south they attain a greater extension, forming nearly the whole of Sinai and of the hills on the east side of the Gulf of Akaba.
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  • Israel at the death of Jeroboam was rent by divided factions, whereas Judah (under Uzziah) has now become a powerful kingdom, controlling both Philistia and the Edomite port of Elath on the gulf of `Akaba.
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  • The Argeia, or territory of Argos proper, consisted of a shelving plain at the head of the Gulf of Argolis, enclosed between the eastern wall of the Arcadian plateau and the central highlands of Argolis.
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  • The foothills which it occupies form the western boundary to the Argive plain as it stretches down towards the sea in the Gulf of Nauplia.
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  • The Nerbudda and Tapti carry the rainfall of the southern slopes of the Vindhyas and of the Satpura hills, in almost parallel lines, into the Gulf of Cambay.
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  • The first fruits of the victory were the foundation of a factory at Surat and at other places round the Gulf of Cambay and in the interior.
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  • On the west coast are the Caraballos Occidentales north from the Gulf of Lingayen and the Zambales southward from that gulf to Manila Bay.
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  • D a r Illana Ba S Sea e a Is Palmas Agno rises in the mountains on the north border, flows south, south-west and north-west, and discharges through several channels into the Gulf of Lingayen.
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  • Most of the Ilocanos are in the western half of north Luzon; most of the Bicols in south Luzon; most of the Pangasinans in the province of Pangasinan, which borders on the Gulf of Lingayen; most of the Pampangans in the province of Pampanga, which borders the north shore of Manila Bay; and most of the Cagayans in the valley of the Cagayan river.
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