Three species are inhabitants of New Guinea and the fourth is found in North Queensland.
'ANNOBON, or Anno Bons, an island in the Gulf of Guinea, in 1° 24' S.
Many cisterns are infested with Guinea worm (filaria medinensis, Gm.).
The rock wallabies again have short tarsi of the hind legs, with a long pliable tail for climbing, like that of the tree kangaroo of New Guinea, or that of the jerboa.
Filaria medinensis - the Guinea worm - is parasitic in the subcutaneous connective tissue of man (occasionally also in the horse).
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
Having been refused permission to pass through Morocco, he chose the Guinea Coast route.
Among the larger birds are cranes, herons, the ibis, storks, eagles, vultures, falcons, hawks, kites, owls, the secretary birds, pelicans, flamingoes, wild duck and geese, gulls, and of game birds, the paauw, koraan, pheasant, partridge, guinea fowl and quail.
From Torres Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.
These marine deposits are not found anywhere along the eastern coast of Australia; but they occur, and reach about the same height above sea-level, in New Guinea, and are widely developed in New Zealand.
purposes are provided by the department, Guinea the commune and the central authority.
away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.
TOGOLAND, a German colony on the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa.
Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
Among game birds are three varieties of bustard, guinea fowl, partridges, sand grouse and wild geese.
The typical members of the group are the cuscuses (Phalanger), ranging from the Moluccas and Celebes to New Guinea, in which the males are often different in colour from the females.
With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.
that the continent was first inhabited by a Papuan type of man who made his way thither from Flores and Timor, New Guinea and the Coral Sea.
Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.
LOS ISLANDS (ISLAS DE LOS IDOLOS), a group of islands off the coast of French Guinea, West Africa, lying south of Sangarea Bay, between 9° 25' and 9° 31' N.
The map of British New Guinea is on a scale of 1:330,200 (1898).
The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.
The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.
Many English voyages were also made to Guinea and the West Indies, and twice English vessels followed in the track of Magellan, and circumnavigated the globe.
From this place Quiros returned to America, but Torres continued the voyage, passed through the strait between Australia and New Guinea which bears his name, and explored and mapped the southern and eastern coasts of New Guinea.
The species, about a dozen in number, are widely distributed over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and several of the adjacent islands.
Dampier's literary ability eventually secured for him a commission in the king's service; and he was sent on a voyage of discovery, during which he explored part of the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and discovered the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and New Britain, returning in 1701.
Henley in some plays, Beau Austin, Admiral Guinea and Robert Macaire.
They were desired by France because of their geographical position, Konakry, the capital of French Guinea, being built on an islet but 3 m.
The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source of sugar.
of New Guinea, included in Micronesia, between 5° and 10° N., and 135° and 165° E., belonging to Germany.
On the 1st of March the Dutch fleet sighted the island of Juan Fernandez; and, having crossed the Pacific, the explorers sailed along the north coast of New Guinea and arrived at the Moluccas on the 17th of September 1616.
of Konakry on the Gulf of Guinea.
Araucaria Cunninghami, the Moreton Bay pine, is a tall tree abundant on the shores of Moreton Bay, Australia, and found through the littoral region of Queensland to Cape York Peninsula, also in New Guinea.
Taking opossums to have been the ancestors of the group, the author considers that the present writer may be right in his view that marsupials entered Australia from Asia by way of New Guinea.
The emu corresponds with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea.
The chief facts already established are the greater saltness of the North Atlantic compared with the South Atlantic at all.depths, and the low salinity at all depths in the eastern equatorial region, off the Gulf of Guinea.
He then reached Tongatabu, one of the Friendly Islands of Cook; and returned by the north coast of New Guinea to Batavia.
In 1644 Tasman made a second voyage to effect a fuller discovery of New Guinea.
He visited the New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain and part of New Guinea.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.
The Papuan Subregion, chiefly New Guinea with its dependencies, the Timor group of islands, the Moluccas and Celebes.
The number of peculiar genera, besides those just mentioned, is too great for them to be named here; some of the most remarkable on the continent are: Balaeniceps, the whaleheaded heron; Balaearica, the crowned crane; Podica, finfoot; Numida and allied genera of guinea fowls.
The forest-clad basin of the Congo, with the coastal districts of the bay of Guinea, seem to form one domain in opposition to the rest.
m.) It is at the southern extremity of Liberia, Cape Palmas, that the West African coast from Morocco to the southernmost extremity of Guinea turns somewhat abruptly eastwards and northwards and faces the Gulf of Guinea.
But I refused the permission which Becket solicited of reprinting it; the public curiosity was imperfectly satisfied by a pirated copy of the booksellers of Dublin; and when a copy of the original edition has been discovered in a sale, the primitive value of half-a-crown has risen to the fanciful price of a guinea or thirty shillings."
Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
Borneo, the most western and the largest of the northern group of islands which extends between 110° and 150° E., as far as New Guinea or Papua, is but little known.
New Guinea extends almost to the same meridian as the eastern coast of Australia, from the north point of which it is separated by Torres Straits.
Deer do not extend into New Guinea, in which island the genus Sus appears to have its eastern limit.
A Monograph of the Odontophorinae or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr Sharpe (1850-1883); The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes (1863-1873); and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, and, after the author's death in 1881, undertaken by Mr Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three thousand coloured plates.
Next stands the order Gallinae with 4 " cohorts "; (I) Tetraonomorphae, comprising 2 families, the sand-grouse (Pterocles) and the grouse proper, among which the Central American Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphae, with 4 families, pheasants peacocks, turkeys, guinea fowls, partridges, quails, and hemipodes (Turnix); (3) Macronyches, the megapodes, with 2 families; (4) the Duodecimpennatae, the curassows and guans, also with 2 families; (5) the Struthioniformes, composed of the tinamous; and (6) the Subgrallatores with 2 families, one consisting of the curious South American genera Thinocorus and Attagis and the other of the sheathbill (Chionis).
It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried goods for other colonies, it traded-often evading British laws-with Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies.
In nonArabic-speaking countries it is known by other names, such as Indian or African millet, pearl millet, Guinea corn and Kaffir corn.
They include French West Africa, (1:2,000,000; 2nd ed., 1908), French Guinea (1 :500,000; 1902) and the Ivory Coast and Dahomey (1:1,500,000; 1907-1908).
Ellis, West African Islands (London, 1885), and the works cited under French Guinea.
As to the origin of that name, some writers consider it a corruption of Guiana-pig, but it is more probable that the word "Guinea" merely signifies foreign.
Among game birds the bustard, guinea fowl, sand grouse (kata), blue rock, green pigeon, partridge, including a large chikor (akb) and a small species similar to the Punjab sisi; quail and several kinds of duck and snipe are met with.
ACCRA, a port on the Gulf of Guinea in 5° 31' N., 0° 12' W., since 1876 capital of the British Gold Coast colony.
ARU ISLANDS (Dutch Aroe), a group in the residency of Amboyna, Dutch East Indies; between 5° 18' and 7° 5' S., and 13 4 ° and 135° E.; the member nearest to the south-west coast of New Guinea lying about 70 m.
The principal formation is coralline limestone; the eastern coast is defended by coral reefs, and the neighbouring sea (extending as far as New Guinea, and thus demonstrating a physical connexion with that land) is shallow, and abounds in coral in full growth.
of Azurara's Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, Hakluyt Society's edition (1899).
Enygrus, ranging from New Guinea to the Fiji Islands.
Chersydrus ranges from Madras to New Guinea; the body and tail are laterally compressed and form a ventral fold which is covered with tiny scales like the rest of the body.
The king and his brother the duke of York (James II.), who were largely interested in the slave-trading Guinea Company, were eager to remove the Dutch ports from the slave coast.
changed by Artemis out of compassion into guinea fowls and removed to the island of Leros, where they mourned part of the year for their brother.
The Germans raised levies of Masai and Sudanese, and brought natives from New Guinea to help in suppressing the rising, besides sending naval and military contingents from Germany.
NEW GUINEA, the largest island (excluding Australia) in the world, lying between the equator and 12° S.
New Guinea was probably in Miocene times, if not later, united to the northern part of Queensland.
The northern extremity of New Guinea is all but severed from the mainland by the deep MacCluer Inlet, running eastwards towards Geelvink Bay which deeply indents the northern coast.
In a general way it may be said that on the west coast of New Guinea, from Cape Buru to the Louisiades, the sea is shallow, while on its steeper eastern side the water close in-shore is often too deep .Commerson Is.
Starting in the southern extremity of New Guinea from an abrupt face some 3000 ft.
The geology of British New Guinea is best known from the report of A.
Rep., British New Guinea, 1891-1892; Part.
Most of western British New Guinea consists of recent superficial deposits, in the basin of the Fly river.
The geology of the rest of New Guinea is imperfectly known.
In Murua (Woodlark I.) are quarries of the banded quartzite from which the best stone adzes found throughout south-east New Guinea are made.
Nearly all the rivers in New Guinea yield " colours " of gold, but only in the Louisiade Archipelago has enough been discovered to constitute the district a goldfield.
New Guinea shares in the poverty in mammals of the Australian sub-region.
Ceratochelys insculpta of the Fly river, a chelonian peculiar to New Guinea, is remarkable in having its nearest affinities (as have the Papuan tortoises) with South American species.
Only 4 genera and 5 species of snakes are peculiar to New Guinea, many of them poisonous.
Most of the foreshores of New Guinea are eucalyptusdotted grass lands; iri the interior dense forests prevail to a height of many thousand feet.
In the low and sub-mountainous lands the flora is a mixture of Malayan, Australian and Polynesian forms. There are, according to Muller, twice as many palms known from New Guinea as from Australia.
So large an area of New Guinea remains unexplored that it is impossible, except approximately, to state the number of its inhabitants, but probably 600,000 is under rather than over the mark.
On the west coasts there is a semi-civilization, due to intercourse with Malays and Bugis, who have settled at various points, and carry on the trade with the neighbouring islands, in some of which, while the coast population is Malay or mixed, that of the interior is identical with the people of the mainland of New Guinea.
Many of the tribes at the west end of New Guinea are, at all events in war time, head-hunters, and in the mountains cannibals.
Cannibalism, in fact, is practised here and there throughout New Guinea.
The mountain tribes are usually despised by their coast neighbours, but in the south of west New Guinea the coast people live in perpetual terror of their inland neighbours.
Though probably sighted by Antonio d'Abreu, i 5 i 1, New Guinea was apparently first visited either by the Portuguese Don Jorge de Meneses, driven on his way from Goa to Ternate in 1526 to take shelter at " Isla Versija " (which has been identified with Warsia, a place on the N.W.
The name of " New Guinea " was probably given by Ortiz de Retez, or Roda, who in 1546 first laid down several points along the north coast.
The voyage of Thomas Forrest (1774) in the " Tartar galley " of 10 tons, and his account of New Guinea (Voyage to New Guinea and the Moluccas, London, 1780), are still full of interest.
New Guinea was actually annexed in 1793 by two commanders in the East India Company's service, and the island of Manasvari in Geelvink Bay was held for some months by their troops.
After the peace of 1815 Dutch surveying expeditions to the west coasts became numerous, and in later times scientific explorers penetrated many of the unknown parts of Dutch New Guinea, such as A.
Brown and by Wilfred Powell, and in 1882 Dr Otto Finsch, whose name is well known in connexion with scientific work in New Guinea, made valuable explorations in the neighbourhood of Port Moresby and the Loluki river.
By authority, therefore, of Queensland, the mainland of New Guinea, opposite her shores east of the 141st meridian, was annexed to that colony in 1883.
German New Guinea was annexed on the 16th of November 1884, when the German flag was raised in Friedrich Wilhelmshafen and a trading company was established on the north-east coast, and in 1885 the two countries agreed to fix their boundaries through the then neutral areas of the country.
The result of this was the assignation to Great Britain of the portion now known as the Territory of Papua (British New Guinea), lying between the extreme limits of 5° and 12° S.
To Germany were assigned all the territory and islands to the north of the British boundary under the name of Kaiser Wilhelms Land, while all to the west of the 141st meridian remained under its old flag as Dutch New Guinea.
Chalmers on the coast of the Gulf of Papua (1893), and of officers of the German New Guinea Company in the ship " Ysabel " on the coasts and among the islands of the German territory; the expedition which crossed the south-eastern peninsula from Huon Gulf of which both the leaders, O.
The trade of British New Guinea is exclusively with the Australian colonies.
German New Guinea The German protectorate of New Guinea, so called after the island which contributes the greatest area, comprehends, besides Kaiser Wilhelms Land, the islands which are now commonly called the Bismarck Archipelago - viz.
In 1884 New Guinea was absolutely wild, not a single white man living on what is now the German part.
Three German mission societies formed settlements on New Guinea, with a branch one on the Gazelle peninsula.
It is divided into two districts with separate administrations, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; over both: presides an imperial governor, the seat of government being Herbertshohe in New Pomerania.
In each district there is a registry of deeds and a court of law, and in New Guinea a court of appeal, of which the governor is president.
A line of steamers plies between New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Singapore.
The revenue of German New Guinea is derived from taxes, dues and licences, and amounted on the 31st of March 1892 to about £3000; on the same rate, 1901, to £3750.
The New Guinea Company was to receive £ 20,000 for transferring proprietorship to government, which took over the administration in 1899.
16 a Dutch New Guinea comprises all the western portion of the island.
The boundary on the east, separating it from British New Guinea and German New Guinea, was finally settled in 1895.
Dutch New Guinea, however, has better natural advantages than either the British or German possessions in the island, and should eventually prove of real value to the Netherlands.
The claims to superiority over New Guinea on the part of the rulers of some of the small neighbouring islands date at least from the spread of Islam to the Moluccas at the beginning of the 15th century, and were maintained by the Malay rulers both of Bachian and of Gebeh and afterwards by the sultan of Tidore.
the four Papuan kingships, Waigeu, Salawatti, Misol and Waigamma on Misol Island) and certain islands or points on the north-west coast of New Guinea.
Nominally the sultan of Tidore is still the suzerain of western New Guinea, but his authority is scarcely recognized, except on some few shores and adjacent islands, and practically Dutch New Guinea used to be administered partly from Ternate and partly from Timor, upon more peaceful lines than was the case when the rule of the Dutch in New Guinea largely consisted of the sending of a warship now and again to some distant island or bay to burn a kampong, to punish rebellious villagers, and thus assert or reassert Dutch authority, or that of the sultan, who is their vassal.
In 1901, however, a more serious effort was made to establish some kind of government in the southern province of Dutch New Guinea, at Merawkay, where a small Dutch-Indian garrison was stationed with the professed object of preventing raids by bands of savages into the British territory near by.
There is an assistant Resident at Merawkay, whose immediate chief is the Dutch Resident at Ternate, and who is the civil administrator of the province of southern Dutch New Guinea.
Assistant Residencies have also been established at Manokvary in northern Dutch New Guinea, which has been formed into a province, under Ternate, and at Fakfak, in western Dutch New Guinea, likewise erected into a province, also under Ternate.
By 1902, therefore, Dutch New Guinea formed a government, with its headquarters at Ternate, divided into the three provinces named.
It was seriously contended in one part of the house that, as eminent men of geographical and ethnographical science had settled the question whether New Guinea belongs to Asia or Polynesia in favour of the latter, a New Guinea colonization scheme could not properly be proposed and decided upon in a section of the Dutch-Indian budget.
This budget concerned only the Asiatic possessions of Holland, not the Polynesian ones, and Dutch New Guinea must, consequently, have its own budget.
Finally, the majority of the states-general, backed by government, decided that New Guinea must still be reckoned to belong to Asia.
C. Rye, " Bibliography of New Guinea " (complete in 1883), in Supplementary Papers, R.G.S.
Haga, Nederlandsch Nieuw Guinea en de Papoesche Eilanden.
Romilly, The Western Pacific and New Guinea (London, 1886); R.
Parkinson, Im Bismarck Archipel (Leipzig, 1887); C. Kinloch Cooke, Australian Defences and New Guinea (London, 1887); J.
Strachan, Explorations and Adventures in New Guinea (London,, 1888); H.
Forbes, " British New Guinea as a Colony," in Blackwood's Magazine (July 1892); J.
P. Thompson, British New Guinea (London, 1892); L.
C. Haddon, Decorative Art of British New Guinea, Royal Irish Academy (Dublin, 1894); " Studies in Anthropogeography of Br.
New Guinea," in Geograph.
xvi., xvii.; " Geographische Untersuchungen in der Westhalfte von New Guinea," in Report of Sixth International Geographical Congress (London, 1895); J.
MacGregor, British New Guinea (London, 1897); H.
CayleyWebster, Through New Guinea (London, 1898); R.
Krieger, New Guinea (Berlin, 1899); F.
Blum, New Guinea and der Bismarck Archipel (Berlin); Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel; Malaysia and Pacific Archipelagoes (new issue, edited by Dr F.
Pratt, Two Years among New Guinea Cannibals (London, 1906); Annual Reports on British New Guinea.
2 Unless it be Oreopsittacus arfaki, of New Guinea, remarkable as the only parrot known as yet to have fourteen instead of twelve rectrices.
BIRDS OF PARADISE, a group of passerine birds inhabiting New Guinea and the adjacent islands, so named by the Dutch voyagers in allusion to the brilliancy of their plumage, and to the current belief that, possessing neither wings nor feet, they passed their lives in the air, sustained on their ample plumes, resting only at long intervals suspended from the branches of lofty trees by the wire-like feathers of the tail, and drawing their food "from the dews of heaven and the nectar of flowers."
It is also more common, and much more widely distributed, being found throughout New Guinea and the neighbouring islands.
They are only found in the small island of Waigiu off the coast of New Guinea.
pygmaeus) of Guinea; Hylarnus includes one species from Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest; while Nesotragus comprises the East African suni antelopes, N.
by the Gulf of Guinea, W.
by Liberia and French Guinea, N.
The rivers named all drain to the Gulf of Guinea; the rivers in the extreme north of the colony belong to the Niger system, being affluents of the Bani or Mahel Balevel branch of that river.
A similar system prevails in New Guinea.
of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
By an agreement of 1879 the sultan exercises authority over some parts of Halmahera, the Papuan Islands, the western half of New Guinea and the islands in Geelvink Gulf.
It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.
Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.
The remaining Europeans are mostly planters and heads of industrial establish 1 Including 487 in Merauke, the capital of Dutch New Guinea.
The explorers reached Amboyna and Ternate, after gaining some knowledge of Java, Madura, Sumbawa and other islands, possibly including New Guinea.
The extension of Dutch political power - notably in Java, Sumatra, Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, the Sunda Islands and New Guinea - proceeded simultaneously with the reform movement, and from time to time involved war with various native states.
The enterprise of Sir James Brooke led, after 1838, to the establishment of British sovereignty in North Borneo; in 1895 New Guinea was divided between Great Britain, Germany and the Netherlands; and the Spanish-American War of 1898 resulted in the cession of the Philippines, Sulu Island and the largest of the Mariana Islands to the United States, and the sale of the Caroline group to Germany.
of New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean, about 3° S., 152° E., in the administration of German New Guinea.
Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten sighted New Mecklenburg in 1616, but it was only recognized as part of an island separate from New Guinea by William Dampier in 1700, and as separate from New Pomerania in 1767 by Philip Carteret.
Later on, the opening of rapid means of transport from Kano and other cities to the Gulf of Guinea also affected Ghadames, which, however, maintains a considerable trade.
Scott, "Entomostraca from the Gulf of Guinea," Trans.
The Arafura Sea extends eastwards to Torres Strait, and beyond the strait is the Coral Sea, bounded by New Guinea, the islands of Melanesia and north-eastern Australia.
In the South Pacific the northwest monsoon of Australia affects a belt running east of New Guinea to the Solomon Islands.
Within the southern monsoon region there is a gradual transition to the northwest monsoon of New Guinea in low latitudes, and in higher latitudes to the north-east wind of the Queensland coast.
South-eastward of the Malay Archipelago lies " the largest island and the smallest continent," Australia; eastward of the archipelago, New Guinea, the largest island if Australia be regarded as a continent only.
There now remains a vast number of small islands which lie chiefly (but not entirely) within an area which may be defined as extending from the Philippines, New Guinea and Australia to 130° W., and from tropic to tropic. These islands fall principally into a number of groups clearly enough defined to be well seen on a map of small scale; they are moreover divided, as will be shown, into three main divisions; but whereas they have enough characteristics in common to render a general view of them desirable, there is no well-recognized name to cover them all.
Among marine mammals, the dugong occurs in the parts about New Guinea and the Caroline Islands.
About this time, however, the Portuguese sighted the north coast of New Guinea.
One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.
William Dampier, however, making various voyages in 1690-1705, explored the coasts of Australia and New Guinea, and at the opening of the century both the French and the Dutch showed some activity.
The French were now taking a share in the work of discovery, and in 1768 Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed by way of the central Paumotus, the Society Islands, Samoa, the northern New Hebrides, the south coast of New Guinea and the Louisiade and Bismarck archipelagoes.
In1818-1819the French navigator Louis Claude Desaulses de Freycinet ranged from New Guinea through the Marianas to Hawaii.
In 1834 Dr Debell Bennett made scientific researches in the Society, Hawaiian and Marquesas Islands, in 1835 Captain Robert Fitzroy was accompanied by Charles Darwin, and in 1836 sqq., Abel Aubert du Petit-Thouars was carrying on the work of the French in the Pacific. During his voyage of 1837-1840, Dumont d'Urville was again in Polynesia, working westward from the Paumotu and Marquesas Islands by Fiji and the Solomon, Loyalty and Louisiade groups to New Guinea.
The seat of government of the German protectorate of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (New Guinea) is Herbertshohe in the Bismarck Archipelago.
Romilly, The Western Pacific and New Guinea (London, 1887); H.
Tiliqua of Australia, Tasmania and Malay Islands, has stout lateral teeth with rounded-off crowns; C. gigas of the Moluccas and of New Guinea is the largest member of the family, reaching a length of nearly 2 ft.; the limbs are well developed, as in Trachysaurus rugosus of Australia, which is easily recognized by the large and rough scales and the short, broad, stump-like tail.
- Dibamus novae-Guineae of New Guinea, the Moluccas, Celebes and the Nicobar Islands.
salvator is the largest species, reaching a length of 7 ft.; it ranges from Nepal and southern China to Cape York; a smaller species, common in New Guinea and Australia, is V.
Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea.
Jackson fell wounded, and on the 10th of May he died at Guinea's station.
Lastly the Guinea goat is a dwarf breed originally from the coast whence its name is derived.
Whether the New Guinea S.
Limnomys, from New Guinea, is a type less specialized for swimming, the hind-feet being much less twisted than in Hydromys, and not so fully webbed.
(For map, see Pacific Ocean.) A comparatively shallow sea surrounds the islands and indicates physical connexion with the Bismarck Archipelago and New Guinea, whereas directly east of the Solomons there 1 Some sentences from W.
The probable geological connexion with New Guinea would account for the Papuan character of the fauna of the Solomons, which form the eastern limit of certain Papuan types.
SORGHUM, a genus of grasses belonging to the tribe Andropogoneae, and including one of the most important tropical grains, Sorghum vulgare, great millet, Indian millet or Guinea corn.
The pili grass (Heteropogon contortus) is also noxious, for its awns get badly entangled in the wool of sheep. The native manienie (Stenotaphrum americanum) and kukai (Panicum pruriens), however, are relished by stock and are found on all the inhabited islands; the Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), a June grass (Poa annua), and Guinea grass (Panicum jumentorum) have also been successfully introduced.
MOLUCCAS, or Spice Islands, a name which in its wider sense includes all the islands of the Malay Archipelago between Celebes on the W., New Guinea on the E., Timor on the S., and the open Pacific Ocean on the N.
above the point where the river falls into the Calabar estuary of the Gulf of Guinea.
Calabar was the name given by the Portuguese discoverers of the 15th century to the tribes on this part of the Guinea coast at the time of their arrival, when as yet the present inhabitants were unknown in the district.
of the building and one guinea for those outside this radius.
of New Guinea, between I° and 7° S., and 146° and 153° E., belonging to Germany.
The largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands off the coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form of a great amphitheatre of oval shape.
Guinea grass grows abundantly on the hillsides, affording excellent pasturage; the forests, though few, include the mahogany and other useful trees.
GUINEA, the general name applied by Europeans to part of the western coast region of equatorial Africa, and also to the gulf formed by the great bend of the coast line eastward and then southward.
In the widest acceptation of the term, the Guinea coast may be said to extend from 13° N.
Southern or Lower Guinea comprises the coasts of Gabun and Loango (known also as French Congo) and the Portuguese possessions on the south-west coast, and Northern or Upper Guinea stretches from the river Casamance to and inclusive of the Niger delta, Cameroon occupying a middle position.
In a narrower use of the name, Guinea is the coast only from Cape Palmas to the Gabun estuary.
Originally, on the other hand, Guinea was supposed to begin as far north as Cape Nun, opposite the Canary Islands, and Gomes Azurara, a Portuguese historian of the 15th century, is said to be the first authority who brings the boundary south to the Senegal.
The name Guinea is found on maps of the middle of the 14th century, but it did not come into general use in Europe till towards the close of the 15th century.'
1 Guinea may, however, be derived from Ghana (or Ghanata) the name of the oldest known state in the western Sudan.
' Although the term Gulf of Guinea is applied generally to that part of the coast south of Cape Palmas and north of the mouth of the Congo, particular indentations have their peculiar designations.
The Bight of Biafra, or Mafra (named after the town of Mafra in southern Portugal), between Capes Formosa and Lopez, is the most eastern part of the Gulf of Guinea; it contains the islands Fernando Po, Prince's and St Thomas's.
By the early traders the coast of Upper Guinea was given names founded on the productions characteristic of the different parts.
The Grain coast, that part of the Guinea coast extending for Soo m.
from Sierra Leone eastward to Cape Palmas received its name from the export of the seeds of several plants of a peppery character, called variously grains of paradise, Guinea pepper and melegueta.
Towards the end of the 18th century, Guinea pepper was supplanted in Europe by peppers from the East Indies.
To two regions only of the coast is the name Guinea officially applied, the French and Portuguese colonies north of Sierra Leone being so styled.
Of the various names by which the divisions of Lower Guinea were known, Loango was applied to the country south of the Gabun and north of the Congo river.
Few questions in historical geography have been more keenly discussed than that of the first discovery of Guinea by the navigators of modern Europe.
In 1346 a Catalan expedition started for "the river of gold" on the Guinea coast; its fate is unknown.
The French claim that between 1364 and 1410 the people of Dieppe sent out several expeditions to Guinea; and Jean de Bethencourt, who settled in the Canaries about 1402, made explorations towards the south.
For further information see Senegal, Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, French Guinea, Portuguese Guinea, Liberia, &C. For the history of European discoveries, consult G.
de Azurara, Chronica de descobrimento e conquista de Guine, published, with an introduction, by Barros de Santarem (Paris, 1841), English translation, The Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, by C. R.
Guinea (Coin) >>
" And so, literally with " neither bread nor scrip," they went forth on their pilgrimage, and, incredible as it sounds, within ten years they had established missions in the islands of the West Indies, in South America, Surinam, Greenland, among the North American tribes, in Lapland, Tartary, Algiers, Guinea, the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon.
The Anglican Church in Canada has its Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society, working in the North-West and in Japan; and in Australia it has a Board of Missions, working amongst the Australian aborigines and in New Guinea.
- Missions: New Guinea, New Pomerania, Gilbert Islands.
In German New Guinea the Neuendethelsau (1886) and Rhenish (1887) Societies have fourteen stations.
In British New Guinea, the south-east portion of the island, the London Mission (1871), the Australian Wesleyans (1892) and the Anglican Church of Australia (1892), have arranged a friendly division of the field and met with gratifying success.
In 1871-1872 Great Britain, in exchange for certain possessions of Holland on the coast of Guinea, agreed to recognize the right of the Dutch to occupy the north of Sumatra.
P. maximum is the Guinea grass, native of tropical Africa; it is perennial, grows 8 ft.
Bosman in his Description of Guinea (1705), in the sense of "the false god, Bossum" or "Bohsum," properly a tutelary deity of an individual.
On the Guinea Coast the spirit implanted in the object is usually, if not invariably, non-human.
He dined on venison and champagne whenever he had been so fortunate as to borrow a guinea.
and men active and a reserve of ex-soldier settlers; the Kiao-Chau garrison (chiefly marines), numbering 2687 officers and men; and various small police forces in Togo, New Guinea, Samoa, &c.
By the support of some of the great financial firms they succeeded in forming a company, which carried on the business and undertook fresh settlements on the islands to the north of New Guinea.
But in 1884 and 1885 the German flag was hoisted on the north of New Th Guinea (to which the name Kaiser Wffhelmsland has Pac~ui~ been given), on several parts of the New Britain Archipelago (which afterwards became the Bismarck Archipelago), and on the Caroline Islands.
The New Guinea Company had less formidable enemies to contend with, and with the exception of a period of three years between 1889 and 1892, they maintained a full responsibility for the administration of their territory till the year 1899, when an agreement was made and ratified in the Reichstag, by which the possession and administration was transferred to the empire in return for a subsidy of 20,000 a year, to be continued for ten years.
The settlement in East Africa menaced the old-established British influence over Zanzibar, which was all the more serious because of the close connection between Zanzibar and the rulers of the Persian Gulf; and Australia saw with much concern the German settlement in New Guinea, especially as a British Protectorate (which in the view of Australians should have included the whole of what Germany was allowed to take) had previously been established in the island.
In the north-west the Upper Guinea mountains send their eastern spurs across the boundary, and from a volcanic rift, which runs southwest to north-east, the Cameroon peak towers up, its summit 13,370 ft.
Sittella, with four or five species, is found in Australia and New Guinea, whilst Daphnoesitta occurs in New Guinea.
in length, extends along the Gulf of Guinea from 2° 46' 55" E.
The birds include the ostrich, marabout, vultures, kites, hawks, ground hornbill, great bustard, guinea fowl, partridge, lesser bustard, quail, snipe, duck, widgeon, teal, geese of various kinds, paraquets, doves, blue, bronze and green pigeons, and many others.
of Sokoto, is an important entrepot for trade from the hinterland of the Guinea coast and the Hausa states.
Rice and wheat are cultivated in many parts, though the staple food is guinea corn.
Clapperton in 1826-1827 made a second journey, approaching the same territory from the Guinea coast.
Germany had in the meantime established itself in Cameroon, and the new British protectorate extended along the Gulf of Guinea from the British colony of Lagos on the west to the new German colony on the east, where the Rio del Rey marked the frontier.
Moreover, in many cases bishops have been sent to inaugurate new missions, as in the cases of the Universities' Mission to Central Africa, Lebombo, Corea and New Guinea; and the missionary jurisdictions so founded develop in time into dioceses.
It thus comprises all the insular groups which extend almost continuously from the south-eastern extremity of Asia to more than half-way across the Pacific. Its chief divisions are Malaysia with the Philippines; Australia with Tasmania and New Zealand; Melanesia, that is, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, Fiji, Loyalties and New Caledonia; Micronesia, that is, the Ladrones, Pelew and Carolines, with the Marshal] and Gilbert groups; lastly, Polynesia, that is, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Tahiti, the Marquesas, Ellice, Hawaii and all intervening clusters.
high, found wild in the Banda Islands and a few of the neighbouring islands, extending to New Guinea.
The coffee, cotton and Guinea pepper plants are indigenous, and the tobacco plant flourishes in several districts.
Another governor was D'Entrecasteaux, whose name is kept in remembrance by a group of islands east of New Guinea.
FRENCH GUINEA, a French colony in West Africa, formerly known as Rivieres du Sud.
by Portuguese Guinea and Senegal, E.
East and south of Futa Jallon the country slopes to the basin of the upper Niger, the greater part of which is included in French Guinea.
Among them are the Great and Little Scarcies, whose lower courses are in Sierra Leone, and the Rio Grande which enters the sea in Portuguese Guinea.
Those whose courses are entirely in French Guinea include the Cogon (or Componi), the Rio Nunez, the Fatalla (which reaches the sea through an estuary named Rio Pongo), the Konkure, whose estuary is named Rio Bramaya, the Forekaria and the Melakori.
All other inhabitants of French Guinea are regarded as comparatively late arrivals from the interior who have displaced the aborigines.'
The other tribes named are but sparsely represented in French Guinea, the coast region south of the Nunez and all the interior up to Futa Jallon being occupied by the Susu, a tribe belonging to the great Mandingan race, which forced its way seaward about the beginning of the 18th century and pressed back the Timni into Sierra Leone.
- French Guinea possesses a fertile soil, and is rich in tropical produce.
This part of the Guinea coast was made known by the Portuguese voyagers of the 15th century.
When driven from other parts of Guinea the slavers made this difficult and little known coast one of their last resorts, and many barracoons were built in the late years of the 18th century.
The right of France to the littoral as far south as the basin of the Melakori was recognized by Great Britain in 1882; Germany (which had made some attempt to acquire a protectorate at Konakry) abandoned its claims in 1885, while in 1886 the northern frontier was settled in agreement with Portugal, which had ancient settlements in the same region (see Portuguese Guinea).
Guinea has a considerable measure of autonomy and a separate budget.
GUINEA FOWL, a well-known domestic gallinaceous bird, so called from the country whence in modern times it was brought to Europe, the Meleagris and Avis or Gallina Numidica of ancient authors.'
All these guinea fowls except the last are characterized by having the crown bare of feathers and elevated into a bony "helmet," but there is another group (to which the name Guttera has been given) in which a thick tuft of feathers ornaments the top of the head.
caudatum, in the South Pacific from New Guinea to the Loyalty Islands.
Illorin is a great trading centre, Hausa caravans bringing goods from central Africa, and merchandise from the coasts of the Mediterranean, which is distributed from Illorin to Dahomey, Benin and the Lagos hinterland, while from the Guinea coast the trade is in the hands of the Yoruba and comes chiefly through Lagos.
Confirmation of this is afforded by the occurrence in the mountains of Java of a pariah-like dog which has reverted to an almost completely wild condition; and likewise by the fact that the old voyagers met with dogs more or less similar to the dingo in New Guinea, New Zealand and the Solomon and certain other of the smaller Pacific islands.
To encourage trade with the Levant, Senegal, Guinea and other places, privileges were granted to companies; but, like the more important East India Company, all were unsuccessful.
Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
The residency consists of the following groups of islands: the Halmahera group, the Bachian and the Obi group, the Sula Islands, the islands near the western half of New Guinea (Gebeh, Vaigeu, Salawati, Misol, collectively called the Papuan Islands), the western half of New Guinea as far as 141° E., with the islands in Geelvink Gulf on the north coast of New Guinea (Schouten Islands, Yapen, &c.), along with others on the south coast.
Nominally the sultan is still ruler, but virtually his powers were greatly curtailed by his conventions with the Dutch-Indian government, under which he surrendered, with the concurrence of his grandees, many of his former rights to the Dutch resident, who became the de facto governor of the easternmost colonial possessions of Holland, especially since the transfer of Dutch New Guinea in 1901.
A poem in the Morning Chronicle brought him a guinea, and when that was spent he enlisted in the 15th Dragoons under the name of Silas Tomkyn Comberbache.
by French Guinea and S.
it forms the boundary between the protectorate and French Guinea; below that point it is wholly in British territory.
One of its headstreams, the Meli, rises in French Guinea in 10 30' W.
The main upper stream of the Moa separates French Guinea and Liberia and enters British territory in 10° 40' W.
The area for expansion on the north was in any case limited by the French Guinea settlements, and on the south the territory of Liberia' hemmed in the colony.
Both French and British military expeditions had been sent against the Sofas - Moslem mercenaries who, under the chieftainship of Fulas or Mandingos like Samory, ravaged the hinterland both of Sierra Leone and French Guinea.
They were important sources of food-supply to the natives, and are hunted by the colonists, both for sport and on account of the damage they do in consuming grass required for cattle and sheep. A few species are found in New Guinea, and the adjacent islands, which belong, in the zoological sense, to the Australian province, beyond the bounds of which none occurs.
The genus ranges from the eastern Austro-Malay islands to New Guinea.
They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor.
Meanwhile colonization progressed in the Azores and Madeira, where sugar and wine were produced; above all, the gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese.
Under Alphonso V., surnamed the African (1443-1481), the Gulf of Guinea was explored as far as Cape St Catherine, and three expeditions (1458, 1461, 1471) were sent to Morocco; in 1471 Arzila (Asila) and Tangier were captured from the Moors.
Pedro Alvares Cabral, sailing to India, but steering far westward to avoid the winds and currents of the Guinea coast, reached Brazil Woo) and claimed it for his sovereign.
Duarte de Menezes, captain of Alcacer, but his capital work is the chronicle of the conquest of Guinea (see Azurara).
Not much is known of the mandrill's habits in the wild state, nor of the exact limits of its geographical distribution; the specimens brought to Europe coming from the west coast of tropical Africa, from Guinea to the Gaboon.
of New Guinea, the Louisiade, Solomon, Santa Cruz, New Hebrides and Loyalty islands, New Caledonia, Fiji and intervening small groups.
He visited Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea and the Aru and Ke Islands.
The most significant point in the distribution of the marine Cainozoic rocks in New South Wales is their complete absence from the coastal districts; this fact indicates that while the Middle Cainozoic marine beds of Victoria and New Guinea were being deposited, Australia extended far eastward into the Tasman Sea.
The administrator of the islands is the governor of German New Guinea, but a number of officials reside on the islands.
There is the interesting case of Papua (formerly British New Guinea), over which a protectorate was established in 1884, but which became in 1906 a territory of the Australian Commonwealth.
P. miliaceum is millet (q.v.), and P. altissimum, Guinea grass.
The long-legged hairy sheep, which stands a good deal taller than a Southdown, ranges, with a certain amount of local variation, from Lower Guinea to the Cape.
In Angola occurs a breed of this sheep which has probably been crossed with the fat-tailed Malagasy breed; while in Guinea there is a breed with lappets, or wattles, on the throat, which is probably the result of a cross with the lop-eared sheep of the same district.
Hairy long-legged sheep are also met with in Persia, but are not pure-bred, being apparently the result of a cross between the long-legged Guinea breed and the fat-tailed Persian sheep.
Very different, on the other hand, is the condition of things in Australia and Papua, where marsupials (and monotremes) are the dominant forms of mammalian life, the placentals being represented (apart from bats, which are mainly of an Asiatic type) only by a number of more or less aberrant rodents belonging to the mouse-tribe, and in Australia by the dingo, or native dog, and in New Guinea by a wild pig.
Sugar and pineapples are the chief products for export, but sweet potatoes, yams, maize and guinea corn are grown for local consumption.
LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO, a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, extending south-eastward from the easternmost promontory of New Guinea, and included in the Australian territory of Papua (British New Guinea).
It is only occasionally found near the shore; its real home is the Atlantic, especially near Madeira and the Azores, but many captures are recorded from Great Britain, Ireland and Scandinavia; it strays as far north as Iceland and Newfoundland, and probably southwards to the latitudes of the coast of Guinea.
The name opah, which is now generally used, is derived from the statement of a native of the coast of Guinea who happened to be in England when the first specimen was exhibited (1750), and who thought he recognized in it a fish well known by that name in his native country.
PAPUANS (Malay papitwah or puwah-puwah, " frizzled," "woolly-haired," in reference to their characteristic hairdressing), the name given to the people of New Guinea and the other islands of Melanesia.
The pure Papuan seems to be confined to the north-western part of New Guinea, and possibly the interior.
Meyer, who spent several years in the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea, developed a contrary conclusion in his Die Negritos der Philippinen (1878), holding that the Negritos and Papuans are identical, and that possibly, or even probably, the former are an offshoot of the latter, like some other Polynesian islanders.
As to how the Papuans, who are the aborigines of New Guinea, may have peopled other and much more distant islands, information is lacking.
In western New Guinea, according to the Dutch missionaries, there is a vague notion of a universal spirit, practically represented Spirit by several malevolent powers, as Manoin, the mostn the woods; Narw, in the worship. c p louds, u above the trrees, l a sort of Erl-Konig h o carries off children; Faknik, in the rocks by the sea, who raises storms. As a protection against these the people construct - having first with much ceremony chosen a tree for the purpose - certain rude images called karwars, each representing a recently dead progenitor, whose spirit is then invoked to occupy the image and protect them against their enemies and give success to their undertakings.
In the north and north-east of New Guinea ancestorworship is widely practised.
In east New Guinea sometimes the houses are two-storeyed, the lower part being used for stores.
The "dobbos," or treehouses, built in high trees, are more or less peculiar to British New Guinea.
In British New Guinea alone is the mancatcher (a rattan loop at the end of a handle with a pith spike projecting into it) met with.
C. Haddon, Decorative Art of British New Guinea (Dublin, 1894).
About this time, moreover, it is probable that he had begun to gather information from the Moors with regard to the coast of "Guinea" and the interior of Africa.
In 1441 exploration began again in earnest with the venture of Antam Goncalvez, who brought to Portugal the first slaves and gold-dust from the Guinea coasts beyond Bojador; while Nuno Tristam in the same year pushed on to Cape Blanco.
In 1444-1446 there was an immense burst of maritime and exploring activity; more than 30 ships sailed with Henry's licence to Guinea; and several of their commanders achieved notable success.
for his work, and on which he bestowed many privileges in the new-won lands - the tithes of St Michael in the Azores and onehalf of its sugar revenues, the tithe of all merchandise from Guinea, the ecclesiastical dues of Madeira, &c. As "protector of Portuguese studies," Dom Henry is credited with having founded a professorship of theology, and perhaps also chairs of mathematics and medicine, in Lisbon - where also, in 1431, he is said to have provided house-room for the university teachers and students.
of New Guinea in the Pacific Ocean, about 6° S., 150° E., in the administration of German New Guinea.
The natives are Melanesians, resembling their Papuan kinsmen of eastern New Guinea, and are a powerful well-formed race.
ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group of about forty islands lying north of New Guinea, between 1° and 3° S., and 146° and 148° E., within the Bismarck Archipelago, belonging to Germany.
The true boas comprise some forty species; most of them are American, but the genus Eryx inhabits North Africa, Greece and south-western Asia; the genus Enygrus ranges from New Guinea to the Fiji; Casarea dussumieri is restricted to Round Island, near Mauritius; and two species of Boa and one of Corallus represent this subfamily in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in America, chiefly in tropical parts.
MADAGASCAR, an island in the Indian Ocean, and after New Guinea and Borneo the largest island in the world, about 260 m.
It was on the initiative of Portuguese living in England that Queen Elizabeth, in 1588, granted a patent to "certain merchants of Exeter and others of the west parts and of London for a trade to the river of Senega and Gambra in Guinea."
"Definite proposals were at that time formulated by which the Gambia was to be exchanged for all posts by France between the Rio Pongas (Pongo river, French Guinea) and the Gabun.
The most mountainous districts lie inland from the head of the Gulf of Guinea (Adamawa, &c.), where heights of 6000 to 8000 ft.
m., is, after New Guinea and Borneo, the largest island of the world.
north-west coast are the Canary and Cape Verde archipelagoes, which, like some small islands in the Gulf of Guinea, are of volcanic origin.
(The rarity of the air and the great radiation during the night cause the temperature in the Sahara to fall occasionally to freezing point.) Farther south, the heat is to some extent modified by the moisture brought from the ocean, and by the greater elevation of a large part of the surface, especially in East Africa, where the range of temperature is wider than in the Congo basin or on the Guinea coast.
Within the equatorial zone certain areas, especially on the shores of the Gulf of Guinea and in the upper Nile basin, have an intensified rainfall, but this rarely approaches that of the rainiest regions of the world.
Known in Egypt as the khamsin, on the Mediterranean as the sirocco, it is called on the Guinea coast the harmattan.
on the Guinea coast.
The third zone is a vast region of forest and rivers in the west centre, comprising the greater part of the basin of the Congo and the Guinea coast.
These two zones are It is therefore in the forests of the Congo, and among the lagoons and estuaries of the Guinea coast, that this earlier culture will The char- most probably be found.
frontiers of Sierra Leone and French Guinea, it traverses the interior plateaus in a vast curve, flowing N.E., E.
and S.E., until it finally enters the Gulf of Guinea through an immense delta.
That the vast network of rivers on the Guinea coast, of which the Nun was the chief, known as the Oil Rivers, formed the delta.
In1894-1895attention was directed to the middle and lower Niger, to which several expeditions started from the coast of Guinea.
Krause (north from the Gold Coast, 1886-1887) and the French Captain Binger (Senegal to Ivory Coast, 1887-1889) first defined its southern limits by revealing the unexpected northward extension of the basins of the Guinea coast streams, especially the Volta and Komoe, a fact which explained the absence of important tributaries within the Niger bend.
Besides these isolated posts Spain holds Rio de Oro, a stretch of the Saharan coast, and its hinterland lying between Morocco and French West Africa; the Muni River Settlements or Spanish Guinea, situated between French Congo and the German colony of Cameroon; Fernando P0, Annobon, Corisco and other islands in the Gulf of Guinea.
The last-mentioned is found in south-eastern New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania.
Of the three-clawed echidnas (Proechidna) confined to New Guinea there are two species, Bruijn's echidna (P. bruijnii), discovered in 1877 in the mountains on the north-east coast at an elevation of 350o ft., and the black-spined echidna (P. nigroaculeata) of larger size - the type specimen measuring 31 in., as against 24 in.
Charters were given to companies trading to Guinea, Morocco, Guiana and the Canaries, but none of these enjoyed a very long or prosperous existence, principally owing to the difficulties caused by foreign competition.
albino mice and rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs are widely used as laboratory animals for biological and medical purposes.
Rabbits, Tortoises and Guinea pigs also enjoy eating alfalfa for these reasons also but with added bonus of being good for their teeth.
alfalfa hay, a natural forage, provides the fiber necessary to maintain your guinea pig's intestinal health.
Jackson's left arm was successfully amputated but he developed pneumonia and he died at Guinea Station on 10th May, 1863.
bauxite ore it processes is shipped in from the Alcan mine in Guinea.
Sheep, goats, ducks, chickens, pot belly pig, rabbit, guinea pig.
Good guinea pig or cavy breeders will take the time to make sure you understand what keeping guinea pigs involves.
Wake up, People of South Africa, You are guinea pigs, guinea pigs, guinea pigs, for the Western drug cartels.
cavy breeders will take the time to make sure you understand what keeping guinea pigs involves.
Main course was guinea fowl, roast shallots, creamed celeriac, truffled egg, with thyme and pine nut tart.
Guinea fowl stewed with Treviso chicory and CrÃ¨me FraÃ®che is a deliciously rich and caramelized dish, using the maroon chicory from Treviso.
Under George 111 the guinea was the basis of gold coinage.
commenced at 11 a.m. with the Ladies Plate - for a silver goblet, value a guinea.
Interesting facts The Spanish conquistadors brought guinea pigs to Europe from South America 400 years ago.
Nov 21 Fire About 3:00 a fire started down by Gregory ' s guinea corn farm.
Guinea Pig Fun The last couple of days have been quite guinea pig oriented.
In Papua New Guinea a draft core curriculum on IE has been developed for all primary teachers ' colleges which is currently being piloted.
Diseases related to poor sanitation include dysentery, hepatitis, bilharzia, guinea worm, hook worm and tape worm.
Guinea pigs live in the wild in South America, living in rocky areas, grasslands and forest edges.
endangered wildlife from Papua New Guinea is entering Safari World with seemingly no restrictions.
Guinea pigs are quite fastidious in their diet, and any sudden alteration in their diet may mean they stop eating.
The spatial dynamics of mosquito transmission of lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea E. C. Chapman, LC.
They were given a dead guinea fowl to eat, feathers and all.
Brown the guinea fowl in a frying pan in the butter, then transfer to a roasting tin, breast down.
One of the special dishes of the day last spring was roast guinea fowl on bed of spinach with a topping of foie gras.
grooming Guinea pigs enjoy being groomed with a brush or comb, as long as it is done carefully and gently.
It comprises upwards of 11,000 volumes, and is patronized by about 80 members, who each subscribe one guinea per annum.
For example, if you took a tooth out by gas you charged a half guinea and the doctor charged the same.
I'll give you a golden guinea for a noggin, Jim.
guinea fowl in a frying pan in the butter, then transfer to a roasting tin, breast down.
guinea corn farm.
guinea pig breeder I liked who made money out of breeding cavies.
guinea pig pellets.
An Inca delicacy, often on the menu in the highlands, is roast guinea pig.
She has gone on to treat some of our rescue guinea pigs and has contacted Vedra for advice, without being prompted.
But a month later he became the proud father of 42 baby guinea pigs.
Our half guinea which is dated 1759 bears the old head portrait which was introduced in 1746.
On the menu might be anything from stuffed guinea fowl to seared sea bass with aubergine and basil infusion.
guinea fowl breasts from the bird and try to keep the wing bone attached.
Despite this, staff at Darley Oaks, which breeds guinea pigs for scientific research, have vowed to continue working as normal.
Within a few weeks he has killed a guinea pig in a botched robbery.
Some families keep guinea pigs which they breed and eat.
Maybe someone out there has a lonely guinea pig that needs a friend too.
The Agouti is a smooth-coated guinea pig that most closely resembles the wild type of guinea pig found in South America.
guinea pigs for scientific research, have vowed to continue working as normal.
The centerpiece was his most famous image - a shy youngster holding her pet guinea pig at the Sandringham Show.
Prior to being given to the human guinea pigs, it was extensively tested on animals.
I have 2 sows (female guinea pigs) avalible for sale both from different litters, but live together great at the moment.
Pig This little guinea pig is a male, less than 4 months old.
Preparation for the arrival of your guinea pig Get everything ready in advance of collecting your new guinea pig.
We hope to raise awareness of the many guinea pigs waiting for permanent loving homes.
guinea pig quot.
guinea pig breeder based in southampton, hampshire!
guinea pigs cage.
guinea pig candidate was Louise ): It took about 40 minutes to complete the questionnaire.
Your guinea pig will eat guinea pig mix and hay as the main part of his diet.
guinea pigs cannot.
guinea pigs in an experiment we could not fully understand?
Guinea worm disease has been almost eradicated through improved water and hygiene initiatives, public awareness campaigns, and improved monitoring.
Guinea pigs with this problem should not be bred since dental malocclusion is often hereditary.
Figure 3. Lack of effect of morphine on the responses of the longitudinal smooth muscle of a segment of guinea pig ileum in vitro.
What does " Guinea fowl and ginger sausages with spring onion mash and port wine jus " say to you?
What precisely is happening in sierra leone and new guinea?
lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea E. C. Chapman, LC.
mange in guinea pigs is a fairly common condition seen at this surgery.
The Guinea Grill, Mayfair W1 The Guinea Grill is located in a quiet mews in Mayfair, just off of Berkeley Square.
Spicer also was a key character in a 1997 army mutiny in Papua New Guinea.
When I was a wee nipper all we had at school were guinea pigs not real pigs!
orchid flora of Papua New Guinea has appeared.
The African porcupine is one of the largest rodents in the world, belonging to the same family as the Guinea Pig.
pot belly pig, rabbit, guinea pig.
The disease particularly affects poultry, which includes chicken, duck, goose, turkey and guinea fowl.
proclaiming the British protectorate of South-East New Guinea, at Port Moresby.
TST also failed to elicit a response in guinea pigs.
If a guinea pig develops bald patches on its face, this could indicate the fungal disease ringworm.
ringworm treatment has been effective on one guinea pig when regular veterinary treatment failed.
And there has been enormous progress in fighting river blindness, guinea worm, diarrheal diseases, and others.
The park contains mainly guinea savanna woodland and therefore has a similar variety of bird species to other countries of the sahel region.
sierra leone and new guinea?
To prioritize the feelings of the guinea pigs is to assert a quite spectacular failure of the human imagination.
subscription of one guinea a yearly member.
She was a very talkative guinea pig, too.
Guinea pigs can become quite tame with gentle handling.
Your guinea's mouth may then become infected with oral thrush.
titres of the agent in experimentally infected guinea pig corneas.
unkind to keep one guinea pig.
velveteen rabbit, only a guinea pig instead.
The seamen of Dieppe are said to have discovered the river about 1360, and even to have built a fort which became the nucleus of the town of St Louis, but this claim is unproved (see Guinea).
As regards geographical distribution, existing marsupials, with the exception of two families, Didelphyidae and Epanorthidae, are mainly limited to the Australian region, forming the chief mammalian fauna of Australia, New Guinea, and some of the adjacent islands.
The true phalangers, or opossums of the colonists, constitute the genus Trichosurus, while the ring-tailed species are known as Pseudochirus; the latter ranging to New Guinea.
From this profound foundation rise Australia, New Guinea and Melanesia, in varying slopes.
It has so completely obliterated the original flora, that a Queensland coast jungle is almost an exact replication of what may be seen on the opposite shores of the straits, in New Guinea.
The area of the various states is as follows: To the area of the Commonwealth shown in the table might be added that of New Guinea, 90,000 sq.
As early as 1597 the Dutch historian, Wytfliet, describes the Australis Terra as the most southern of all lands, and proceeds to give some circumstantial particulars respecting its geographical relation to New Guinea, venturing the opinion that, were it thoroughly explored, it would be regarded as a fifth part of the world.
His discovery was not, however, made known until 1792, when Dalrymple rescued his name from oblivion, bestowing it upon the passage which separates New Guinea from Australia.
Meteor- g P Y The tropical belt of high atmospheric pressure is very marked in winter; it is weaker during the summer months, and at that season the greater relative fall of pressure over the land cuts it off into an oval-shaped anticyclone, the centre of which rests on the coolest part of the sea surface in that latitude, near the Gulf of Guinea.
According to Pliny, the only authority on this point, the period of the voyage was that of the greatest prosperity of Carthage, which may be taken as somewhere between 570 and 480 B.C. The extent of this voyage is doubtful, but it seems probable that the farthest point reached was on the east-running coast which bounds the Gulf of Guinea on the north.
They are six in number: (1) Palaearctic, including Europe, Asia north of the Himalaya, and Africa north of the Sahara; (2) Ethiopian, consisting of Africa south of the Atlas range, and Madagascar; (3) Oriental, including India, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago north of Wallace's line, which runs between Bali and Lombok; (4) Australian, including Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and Pol y nesia; (5) Nearctic or North America, north of Mexico; and (6) Neotropical or South America.
Borneo, the most western and the largest of the northern group of islands which extends between 110Ã‚° and 150Ã‚° E., as far as New Guinea or Papua, is but little known.
They are: (I) Arabs from Tripoli, who export ostrich feathers, skins and ivory, and bring in burnouses, scents, sweets, tea, sugar, &c.; (2) Salaga merchants who import kola nuts from the hinterland of the Guinea Coast, taking in exchange cloth and live stock and leather and other goods; (3) the Asbenawa traders, who come from the oases of Asben or Air with camels laden with salt and "potash" (i.e.
This species is often considered as indigenous to India, but Dr Engler has pointed out that it is found wild in Upper Guinea, Abyssinia, Senegal, etc. It is the " tree cotton " of India and Africa, being typically a large shrub or small tree.
In 1884 attention was drawn in a special degree to the Queensland traffic in Pacific Islanders by the " Hopeful " trials, and a government commission was appointed to inquire into the methods followed by labour ships in recruiting the natives of New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, and the D'Entrecasteaux group of islands.
pine-apples, figs, sapodillas, bananas, sour-sops, melons, yams,, potatoes, gourds, cucumbers, pepper, cassava, prickly pears, sugar-cane, ginger, coffee, indigo, Guinea corn and pease.
LOS ISLANDS (ISLAS DE LOS IDOLOS), a group of islands off the coast of French Guinea, West Africa, lying south of Sangarea Bay, between 9Ã‚° 25' and 9Ã‚° 31' N.
of New Guinea, included in Micronesia, between 5Ã‚° and 10Ã‚° N., and 135Ã‚° and 165Ã‚° E., belonging to Germany.
'ANNOBON, or Anno Bons, an island in the Gulf of Guinea, in 1Ã‚° 24' S.
It is the chief port of Queensland for the New Guinea trade; and is also the seat of a Roman Catholic vicariate apostolic whose bishop has jurisdiction over the whole of Queensland north of lat.
ACCRA, a port on the Gulf of Guinea in 5Ã‚° 31' N., 0Ã‚° 12' W., since 1876 capital of the British Gold Coast colony.
ARU ISLANDS (Dutch Aroe), a group in the residency of Amboyna, Dutch East Indies; between 5Ã‚° 18' and 7Ã‚° 5' S., and 13 4 Ã‚° and 135Ã‚° E.; the member nearest to the south-west coast of New Guinea lying about 70 m.
NEW GUINEA, the largest island (excluding Australia) in the world, lying between the equator and 12Ã‚° S.
The New Guinea native is usually of a negroid type with fine physique, but in the Arfak mountains in the north-west, and at points on the west and north coasts and adjacent islands, the very degraded and stunted Karons are found, with hardly the elements of social organization (possibly the aboriginal race unmixed with foreign elements), and resembling the Aetas or Negritos of the Philippines, and other kindred tribes in the Malay Archipelago.
The result of this was the assignation to Great Britain of the portion now known as the Territory of Papua (British New Guinea), lying between the extreme limits of 5Ã‚° and 12Ã‚° S.