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guiana

guiana

guiana Sentence Examples

  • These institutions are under the super- In America-vision of a branch of the ministry of the Guiana interior.

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  • In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.

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  • In return the state receives the produce of convict labor in Guiana and New Caledonia.

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  • Opisthocomus hoatzin, Guiana, Venezuela and Amazon countries.

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  • Beebe, Our Search for a Wilderness (New York, 1910) which deals with the birds of Venezuela and British Guiana, while Central America is fully treated in the comprehensive and beautiful Biologia CentraliAmericana of F.

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  • British Guiana, Ord.

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  • Sir Walter Raleigh, who resumed the search in 1595, described Manoa as a city on Lake Parima in Guiana.

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  • America was obtained, whilst a little later Fresnau and Aublet described the Euphorbiaceous trees which furnished the rubber of Guiana.

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  • " Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.

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  • America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.

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  • Africa also furnish good rubber, as do the Forsteronia gracilis of British Guiana and Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica.

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  • The Sapiums of Colombia and Guiana are large trees resembling Hevea, and certain species furnish good rubber, especially the Sapium Jenmani of Guiana.

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  • Forsteronia gracilis of Guiana is a climbing plant which also belongs to the Apocynaceae.

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  • In 1838 he resumed his editorial duties on the Atlas, but in 1840 removed, on account of his health, to British Guiana, where he lived for three years and was editor of two weekly newspapers in succession at Georgetown.

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  • Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).

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  • The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.

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  • to enclose the basin of the Essequibo and its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.

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  • Negotiations were initiated in 1905 for the definite location of the boundary with Dutch Guiana.

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  • Running north-east and south-east to enclose the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2° 10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the divisional line to the Atlantic coast.

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  • The ranges gradually diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600 ft.

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  • In general, Brazilian Guiana, as this plateau region is sometimes called, is one of the least attractive parts of the republic.

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  • In the extreme north-east corner of the republic where the Brazilian Guiana plateau slopes toward the Atlantic there is a small area lying outside the drainage basin of the Amazon.

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  • The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana under the arbitration award of 1900.

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  • Similar rocks cover a large area in the province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form, also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines of Venezuela and Guiana.

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  • The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert.

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  • Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is essentially distinct from the Amazon.

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  • In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.

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  • Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence distributed.

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  • The same principle which dictated the conquest of French Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain.

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  • There had for a long period been difficulties with France with regard to the territory which lay between the mouth of the Amazon and Cayenne or French Guiana.

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  • Napoleon had forced the Portuguese government to cede to him the northernmost arm of the mouth of the Amazon as the southern boundary of French Guiana with a large slice of the unexplored interior westwards.

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  • A few years later the Portuguese had in their turn conquered French Guiana, but had been compelled to restore it at the peace of Paris.

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  • A still more interesting boundary dispute was that between Great Britain and Brazil, as to the southern frontier line of British Guiana.

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  • The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.

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  • The question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.

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  • Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.

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  • by British Guiana and Brazil, S.

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  • The boundary dispute with British Guiana was settled in October 1899 by an arbitration court in Paris.

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  • and S.W.; and (3) the Guiana highlands.

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  • When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.

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  • This region, together with that of the Guiana frontier, is heavily forested.

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  • Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.

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  • The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.

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  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

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  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

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  • There are six species of monkey corresponding to those of Guiana and the Amazon valley, the sloth and ant-eater, 12 known genera of rodents, including many species of Mures, the cavy, the capybara, the paca, the nutria, the agouti, the tree porcupine, Loncheres cristata, Echimys cayen and the Brazilian hare.

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  • The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.

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  • of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.

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  • In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of their subordinates, on the Cuyuni river, the charge being that they were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Venezuelan territory.

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  • The Guiana boundary question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles of the Monroe doctrine.

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  • On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.

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  • Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.

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  • P. leucilla, one of the best known, has a wide distribution from the isthmus of Panama to Guiana and the valley of the Amazon; but it is one of the most plainly coloured of the family, being black with a white head.

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  • On the 9th of February 1792, he succeeded in having a law passed sequestrating the possessions of the émigrés, and demanded, though in vain, the deportation of refractory priests to French Guiana.

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  • It is a native of Panama, Venezuela, Guiana and northern Brazil.

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  • By 1782 he was a captain, and in this year took part in an expedition to Guiana.

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  • Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.

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  • The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.

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  • The cedar-wood of Guiana, used for making canoes, is a species of the natural order Bur seraceae, Icica altissima.

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  • It is found in Brazil, Guiana and Paraguay, and extends its range to the Rio del Norte, but is rare north of the isthmus of Panama.

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  • The West Indian Quarterly was published at Georgetown, British Guiana, from 1885 to 1888.

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  • BIBIRINE, or Bebeerine, C19H21N03, an alkaloid obtained from the bark and fruit of the greenheart tree, Nectandra rodiaei, called bibiru or sipiri in Guiana, where the tree grows.

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  • They surrendered Louisiana to Spain, which had suffered much in an attempt to help them, and their possessions in America were reduced to their islands in the West Indies and French Guiana.

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  • So long as Spain retained her colonies on the mainland, while England held Canada, and the English, Dutch and French had possessions in Guiana, the New World must have remained in political dependence on the Old.

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  • Europe is still possessed of some measure of sovereign power in the New World, in Canada, in Guiana and in the West Indian islands.

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  • But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.

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  • The tribes of Venezuela and Guiana, according to Im Thurn, had both the dugout and the built-up hull.

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  • Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.

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  • Im Thurn, Among the Indians of British Guiana (London, 1883); A.

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  • On the 17th of December 1895 President Cleveland sent to Congress a special message calling attention to Great Britain's action in regard to the disputed boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela, and declaring the necessity of action by the United States to prevent an infringement of the Monroe Doctrine.

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  • In other parts of the British empire there are some 1045 churches and mission stations (many native), South Africa, 385; Australia, 311, and Tasmania, 49; British North America, 151; British Guiana, 50, and Jamaica, 48; New Zealand, 35; India, 15; Hongkong, 1.

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  • Beginnings had already been made - partly by help of the London Missionary Society - in British North America (from New England), South Africa, Australia and British Guiana.

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  • JAGUARONDI, or YAGUARONDI (Felis jaguarondi), a South American wild cat, found in Brazil, Paraguay and Guiana, ranging to north-eastern Mexico.

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  • He was arrested, and as a result of the insurrection of the 12th Germinal of the year 3 (the ist of April 1795), the Convention decreed his immediate deportation to French Guiana.

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  • In 1816 he left Guiana and took refuge in Port-au-Prince (Haiti), where he died of dysentery.

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  • Their geographical range extends from Guiana to the river Plate.

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  • Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.

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  • Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.

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  • _ The principal affluent of the Orinoco from the Guiana district is the Ventuari, the head-waters of which are also unknown.

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  • Two other large tributaries of the Orinoco flow north from the interior of this mysterious Guiana region, the Caura and the Caroni.

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  • through a granite spur of the Guiana highlands for a length of about.

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  • The Galibis of Guiana, when asked the meaning of their curious funeral ceremony, which consists in dancing on the grave, replied that they did it to stamp down the earth.

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  • In South America there is considerable superficial resemblance between the little bush dog (Speothos venaticus) of Guiana and Brazil and the large weasel-like animal of the same countries - the tayra (Galera barbara).

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  • It is a somewhat widely distributed mineral, being met with in Styria, Austria, Hesse, French Guiana, India and Italy; but the most important beds are in the south of France, the north of Ireland, and in Alabama, Georgia and Arkansas in North America.

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  • Finding no better response, he went himself as a missionary to Dutch Guiana.

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  • Africa), Zambezia, Jamaica, British Guiana, British Honduras, Alaska.

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  • Missions: Dutch Guiana.

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  • The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has an important mission in British Guiana.

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  • in length, and has a wide range throughout Guiana and a great part of Brazil.

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  • The toucans are limited to the new world, and by far the greater number inhabit the north of South America, especially Guiana and the valley of the Amazons.

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  • In addition to the South American localities mentioned above, small diamonds have also been mined since their discovery in 1890 on the river Mazaruni in British Guiana, and finds have been reported in the gold washings of Dutch Guiana.

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  • TINAMOU, the name given in Guiana to a certain bird, as stated in 1741 by P. Barrere (France equinoxiale, p. 138), from whom it was taken and used in a more general sense by Buffon (Hist.

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  • The table, however, shows merely the general development of con British Guiana ....

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  • Nutmeg and mace are almost exclusively obtained from the Banda Islands, although the cultivation has been attempted with varying success in Singapore, Penang, Bengal, Reunion, Brazil, French Guiana and the West Indies.

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  • In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

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  • CANNON-BALL TREE (Couroupita guianensis), a native of tropical South America (French Guiana), which bears large spherical woody fruits, containing numerous seeds, as in the allied genus Bertholletia (Brazil nut).

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  • In consideration of retaining the Cape and the Dutch settlements now constituting British Guiana, Great Britain paid 6 000 000.

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  • Under the Roman-Dutch law as applied in British Guiana the writ was unknown and no similar process existed (2nd report of West Indian law commissioners).

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  • At the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Portugal was represented by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restoration of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had conquered in 1809.

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  • AGOUTI, or Aguti, the West Indian name of Dasyprocta aguti, a terrestrial rodent of the size of a rabbit, common to Trinidad and Guiana, and classed in the family Caviidae.

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  • The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium are, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption.

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  • CAYENNE, a seaport and the capital of French Guiana, on the N.W.

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  • Cayenne is the seat of the government of French Guiana, and was formerly a penal settlement for political offenders.

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  • (See GUIANA.)

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  • SCREAMER, a bird inhabiting Guiana and the Amazon valley, so called in 1781 by T.

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  • As we proceed southwards from the northern United States, deer of the white-tailed type decrease steadily in size, till in Central America, Peru and Guiana they are represented by animals not larger that a roebuck.

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  • Their northern slope, which is occupied by the three Guianas first named, is saturated and river-torn; but their southern one, Brazilian Guiana, is in general thirsty and semi-barren, and the driest region of the Amazon valley.

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  • From the divortium aquarum between French Guiana and Brazil, known as the Tumuc-humac range of highlands, two minor streams, the Yary and the Parou, reach the Amazon across the intervening broken and barren tableland.

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  • It has its sources in the Guiana highlands, but its long course is frequently interrupted by violent currents, rocky barriers, and rapids.

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  • along its Guiana margin up the Amazon, is a belt of half-submerged islands and shallow sandbanks.

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  • His name was, however, unknown to the general public till he was arrested on the 15th of October 1894 on a charge of selling military secrets to Germany, condemned, publicly degraded (January 4, 1895), and transported (March Io) to the Ile du Diable, French Guiana.

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  • This custom prevails in African mysteries, in Guiana, among Australians, Papuans, and Andaman Islanders.

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  • All these Cronus swallowed; and this " swallow-myth " occurs in Australia, among the Bushmen, in Guiana, in Brittany (where Gargantua did the swallow-trick) and elsewhere.

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  • To her colonial empire in America he added the greater part of Santo Domingo, Tobago and Dominica; he restored Guiana; prepared for the acquisition of Louisiana by supporting Cavelier de la Salle; extended the suzerainty of the king on the coast of Africa from the Bay of Arguin to the shores of Sierra Leone, and instituted the first commercial relations with India.

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  • whole army, stopped the elections in forty-nine ~~dOr departments, and deported to Guiana many deputies of both councils, journalists and non-juring priests, as well as the director Barthlemy, though Carnot escaped into Switzerland.

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  • The royalist plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (December 24, 1800) allowed him to make a clean sweep of the democratic republicans, who despite their innocence were depsrted to Guiana, and to annul Assemblies that were a mere show by making the senate omnipotent in constitutional matters; but it was necessary for him to transform this deceptive truce into the general pacification so ardently desired for the last eight years.

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  • Portugal had to submit to far harsher terms, and could only purchase peace by the cession of territory in Guiana, by a disadvantageous treaty of commerce, and by payment of twenty-five million francs.

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  • Bourdon was arrested and deported to French Guiana, where he died soon after his arrival.

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  • Charters were given to companies trading to Guinea, Morocco, Guiana and the Canaries, but none of these enjoyed a very long or prosperous existence, principally owing to the difficulties caused by foreign competition.

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  • Kappler, "Die Tierwelt im hollandischen Guiana," Das Ausland, 1885, p. 358 G.

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  • " Description of a new Tree-frog of the genus Hyla, from British Guiana, carrying eggs on the back," op. cit., 1904, ii.

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  • He negotiated with the elector palatine for the establishment of factories at Mannheim; suggested to the elector of Bavaria the creation of German colonies in Guiana and the West Indies; and brought down upon himself the wrath of the Munich merchants by planning a government monopoly of cloth manufacture and of trade.

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  • These institutions are under the super- In America-vision of a branch of the ministry of the Guiana interior.

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  • In addition to Algeria, which sends three senators and six deputies to Paris and is treated in many respects not as a colony but as part of France, the colonies represented in the legislature are: Martinique, Guadeloupe and Reunion (each electing one senator and two deputies), French India (one senator and one deputy),Guiana, Senegal and Cochin-China (one deputy each).

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  • In Guiana and Cochin-China the franchise is restricted to citizens, in which category the natives (in those colonies) are not included.1 The inhabitants of Tahiti though accorded French citizenship have not been allotted a representative in parliament.

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  • In return the state receives the produce of convict labor in Guiana and New Caledonia.

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  • Opisthocomus hoatzin, Guiana, Venezuela and Amazon countries.

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  • Orange Colony Complete estimates for the balance of ' No accurate returns for Central America, Greater and Lesser Antilles and Dutch Guiana.

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  • Beebe, Our Search for a Wilderness (New York, 1910) which deals with the birds of Venezuela and British Guiana, while Central America is fully treated in the comprehensive and beautiful Biologia CentraliAmericana of F.

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  • British Guiana, Ord.

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  • Sir Walter Raleigh, who resumed the search in 1595, described Manoa as a city on Lake Parima in Guiana.

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  • America was obtained, whilst a little later Fresnau and Aublet described the Euphorbiaceous trees which furnished the rubber of Guiana.

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  • " Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.

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  • America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.

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  • Africa also furnish good rubber, as do the Forsteronia gracilis of British Guiana and Forsteronia floribunda of Jamaica.

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  • The Sapiums of Colombia and Guiana are large trees resembling Hevea, and certain species furnish good rubber, especially the Sapium Jenmani of Guiana.

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  • Forsteronia gracilis of Guiana is a climbing plant which also belongs to the Apocynaceae.

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  • In 1838 he resumed his editorial duties on the Atlas, but in 1840 removed, on account of his health, to British Guiana, where he lived for three years and was editor of two weekly newspapers in succession at Georgetown.

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  • Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).

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  • The most northerly point, the Serra Roraima on the Venezuela and British Guiana frontier (5° 10' N.), is 56 m.

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  • in 1903 and diminished slightly in the boundary adjustment with British Guiana (1904), is estimated to have been 3,228,452 sq.

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  • The disputed boundary between Brazil and British Guiana, which involved the possession of a territory having an estimated area of 12,741 sq.

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  • to enclose the basin of the Essequibo and its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.

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  • Negotiations were initiated in 1905 for the definite location of the boundary with Dutch Guiana.

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  • Running north-east and south-east to enclose the sources of the Rio Paru, it unites with the French Guiana line at 2° 10' N., 55° W., and thence runs easterly along the water-parting of the Serra Tumuc-Humac to the source of the Oyapok, which river is the divisional line to the Atlantic coast.

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  • The boundary with French Guiana '(see' Guiana), which had long been a subject of dispute, was settled by arbitration in 1900, the award being rendered by the government of Switzerland.

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  • The ranges gradually diminish in elevation towards the east, the highest point of the Tumuc-Humac range, on the frontier of French Guiana, being about 2600 ft.

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  • In general, Brazilian Guiana, as this plateau region is sometimes called, is one of the least attractive parts of the republic.

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  • In the extreme north-east corner of the republic where the Brazilian Guiana plateau slopes toward the Atlantic there is a small area lying outside the drainage basin of the Amazon.

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  • The Oyapok, or Vicente Pinzon, is the best-known of the group and forms the boundary line between Brazil and French Guiana under the arbitration award of 1900.

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  • Similar rocks cover a large area in the province of Goyaz and in the south of the Matto Grosso, and they form, also, the hills which border the basin of the Amazon on the confines of Venezuela and Guiana.

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  • The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert.

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  • Besides these, the flora of the Paraguay basin varies widely from that of the inland plateau, and that of the Brazilian Guiana region is essentially distinct from the Amazon.

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  • In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.

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  • Now, however, many plants were imported not only from Guiana but from India and Africa, cultivated in the Royal Botanic Garden, and thence distributed.

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  • The same principle which dictated the conquest of French Guiana originated attempts to seize the Spanish colonies of Montevideo and Buenos Aires, Portugal being also at war with Spain.

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  • There had for a long period been difficulties with France with regard to the territory which lay between the mouth of the Amazon and Cayenne or French Guiana.

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  • Napoleon had forced the Portuguese government to cede to him the northernmost arm of the mouth of the Amazon as the southern boundary of French Guiana with a large slice of the unexplored interior westwards.

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  • A few years later the Portuguese had in their turn conquered French Guiana, but had been compelled to restore it at the peace of Paris.

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  • A still more interesting boundary dispute was that between Great Britain and Brazil, as to the southern frontier line of British Guiana.

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  • The dispute was of very old standing, and the settlement by arbitration in 1899 of the acute misunderstanding between Great Britain and Venezuela regarding the western boundary of British Guiana, and the reference to arbitration in that same year of the FrancoBrazilian dispute, led to an agreement being made in 1901 between Brazil and Great Britain for the submission of their differences to the arbitration of the king of Italy.

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  • The question was a complicated one involving the historical survey of Dutch and Portuguese exploration and control in the far interior of Guiana during two centuries; and it was not until 1904 that the king of Italy gave his award, which was largely in favour of the British claim, and grants to British Guiana access to the northern affluents of the Amazon.

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  • Grains of metallic tin occur intermingled with the gold ores of Siberia, Guiana and Bolivia, and in a few other localities.

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  • by British Guiana and Brazil, S.

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  • The boundary dispute with British Guiana was settled in October 1899 by an arbitration court in Paris.

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  • and S.W.; and (3) the Guiana highlands.

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  • When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.

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  • This region, together with that of the Guiana frontier, is heavily forested.

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  • Some of the culminating points in these ranges are the Cerros Yaparana (7175 ft.) and Duida (8120 ft.) in the Parima sierras near the upper Orinoco, the Sierra de Maraguaca (8228 ft.), and the celebrated flat-topped Mt Roraima (8530 ft.) in the Pacaraima sierras on the boundary line with Brazil and British Guiana.

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  • The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.

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  • - Geologically Venezuela consists of three distinct regions: (1) South of the Orinoco a great mass of granite, gneiss, pyroxenite and other crystalline rocks, continuous with that of Guiana and probably of Archean age.

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  • The fauna and flora of Venezuela are similar in nearly all respects to those of the neighbouring regions of Guiana, Brazil and Colombia, the open llanos of the Orinoco being something of ' See G.

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  • There are six species of monkey corresponding to those of Guiana and the Amazon valley, the sloth and ant-eater, 12 known genera of rodents, including many species of Mures, the cavy, the capybara, the paca, the nutria, the agouti, the tree porcupine, Loncheres cristata, Echimys cayen and the Brazilian hare.

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  • The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.

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  • of the principal mouth of the Orinoco and near the borders of British Guiana, where the famous El Callao mines are.

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  • In April 1895 the long-standing dispute as to the boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela was brought to a crisis by the action of the Venezuelan authorities in arresting Inspectors Barnes and Baker, of the British Guiana police, with a few of their subordinates, on the Cuyuni river, the charge being that they were illegally exercising the functions of British officials in Venezuelan territory.

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  • The Guiana boundary question began now to assume an acute stage, the Venezuelan minister in Washington having persuaded President Cleveland to take up the cause of Venezuela in vindication of the principles of the Monroe doctrine.

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  • On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.

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  • Strickland, Documents and Maps of the Boundary Question between Venezuela and British Guiana (London, 1896); S.

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  • P. leucilla, one of the best known, has a wide distribution from the isthmus of Panama to Guiana and the valley of the Amazon; but it is one of the most plainly coloured of the family, being black with a white head.

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  • On the 9th of February 1792, he succeeded in having a law passed sequestrating the possessions of the émigrés, and demanded, though in vain, the deportation of refractory priests to French Guiana.

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  • It is a native of Panama, Venezuela, Guiana and northern Brazil.

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  • By 1782 he was a captain, and in this year took part in an expedition to Guiana.

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  • Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.

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  • The British Guiana Planters' Association appointed a sub-committee to report to the West India Commission on the manufacture of sugar, who stated the following: With canes containing 12% fibre the following percentages of sugar are extracted from the canes in the form of juice: Single crushing 76% Double crushing 85% Double crushing with 12% dilution 88% Triple crushing with Io% dilution.

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  • The cedar-wood of Guiana, used for making canoes, is a species of the natural order Bur seraceae, Icica altissima.

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  • It is found in Brazil, Guiana and Paraguay, and extends its range to the Rio del Norte, but is rare north of the isthmus of Panama.

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  • The West Indian Quarterly was published at Georgetown, British Guiana, from 1885 to 1888.

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  • BIBIRINE, or Bebeerine, C19H21N03, an alkaloid obtained from the bark and fruit of the greenheart tree, Nectandra rodiaei, called bibiru or sipiri in Guiana, where the tree grows.

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  • The chief points of correspondence between these two great land masses, besides the southward tapering, are as follows: - (i) The areas of ancient fundamental rocks of the north-east (Laurentian highlands of North America, uplands of Guiana in South America), which have remained without significant deformation, although suffering various oscillations of level, since ancient geological times; (2) the highlands of the southeast (Appalachians and Brazilian highlands) with a north-east south-west crystalline axis near the ocean, followed by a belt of deformed and metamorphosed early Palaeozoic strata, and adjoined farther inland by a dissected plateau of nearly horizontal later Palaeozoic formations - all greatly denuded since the ancient deformation of the mountain axis, and seeming to owe their present altitude to broad uplifts of comparatively modern geological date; (3) the complex of younger mountains along the western side of the continents (Western highlands, or Cordilleras, of North America; Andean Cordilleras of South America) of geologically modern deformation and upheaval, with enclosed basins and abundant volcanic action, but each a system in itself, disconnected and not standing in alignment; (4) confluent lower lands between the highlands, giving river drainage to the north (Mackenzie, Orinoco), east (St Lawrence, Amazon), and south (Mississippi, La Plata).

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  • They surrendered Louisiana to Spain, which had suffered much in an attempt to help them, and their possessions in America were reduced to their islands in the West Indies and French Guiana.

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  • So long as Spain retained her colonies on the mainland, while England held Canada, and the English, Dutch and French had possessions in Guiana, the New World must have remained in political dependence on the Old.

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  • Europe is still possessed of some measure of sovereign power in the New World, in Canada, in Guiana and in the West Indian islands.

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  • But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.

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  • The tribes of Venezuela and Guiana, according to Im Thurn, had both the dugout and the built-up hull.

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  • Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.

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  • Im Thurn, Among the Indians of British Guiana (London, 1883); A.

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  • On the 17th of December 1895 President Cleveland sent to Congress a special message calling attention to Great Britain's action in regard to the disputed boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela, and declaring the necessity of action by the United States to prevent an infringement of the Monroe Doctrine.

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  • On the other hand, considerable detail is included regarding the indentured labourers recruited from India, and those of this class who are permanently settled on the land in Guiana and Trinidad.

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  • In other parts of the British empire there are some 1045 churches and mission stations (many native), South Africa, 385; Australia, 311, and Tasmania, 49; British North America, 151; British Guiana, 50, and Jamaica, 48; New Zealand, 35; India, 15; Hongkong, 1.

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  • Beginnings had already been made - partly by help of the London Missionary Society - in British North America (from New England), South Africa, Australia and British Guiana.

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  • JAGUARONDI, or YAGUARONDI (Felis jaguarondi), a South American wild cat, found in Brazil, Paraguay and Guiana, ranging to north-eastern Mexico.

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  • He was arrested, and as a result of the insurrection of the 12th Germinal of the year 3 (the ist of April 1795), the Convention decreed his immediate deportation to French Guiana.

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  • In 1816 he left Guiana and took refuge in Port-au-Prince (Haiti), where he died of dysentery.

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  • Their geographical range extends from Guiana to the river Plate.

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  • Different states had adjusted their frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an outstanding question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had removed time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in Canada others with the United States of America, and now the most difficult kind of international questions which can arise,.

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  • Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.

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  • _ The principal affluent of the Orinoco from the Guiana district is the Ventuari, the head-waters of which are also unknown.

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  • Two other large tributaries of the Orinoco flow north from the interior of this mysterious Guiana region, the Caura and the Caroni.

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  • through a granite spur of the Guiana highlands for a length of about.

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  • The Galibis of Guiana, when asked the meaning of their curious funeral ceremony, which consists in dancing on the grave, replied that they did it to stamp down the earth.

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  • In South America there is considerable superficial resemblance between the little bush dog (Speothos venaticus) of Guiana and Brazil and the large weasel-like animal of the same countries - the tayra (Galera barbara).

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  • It is a somewhat widely distributed mineral, being met with in Styria, Austria, Hesse, French Guiana, India and Italy; but the most important beds are in the south of France, the north of Ireland, and in Alabama, Georgia and Arkansas in North America.

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  • Finding no better response, he went himself as a missionary to Dutch Guiana.

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  • Africa), Zambezia, Jamaica, British Guiana, British Honduras, Alaska.

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  • Missions: Dutch Guiana.

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  • Von Weitz did something in Dutch Guiana (c. 1670), and the Moravians among the Arrawak Indians of Surinam (1.738-1808).

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  • The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel has an important mission in British Guiana.

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  • in length, and has a wide range throughout Guiana and a great part of Brazil.

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  • The toucans are limited to the new world, and by far the greater number inhabit the north of South America, especially Guiana and the valley of the Amazons.

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  • The West Indian possessions of Holland include Dutch Guiana or the government of Surinam, and the Dutch Antilles or the government of Curagoa and its dependencies (St Eustatius, Saba, the southern half of St Martin, Curagoa, Bonaire and Aruba), a total area of 60,000 sq.

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  • In addition to the South American localities mentioned above, small diamonds have also been mined since their discovery in 1890 on the river Mazaruni in British Guiana, and finds have been reported in the gold washings of Dutch Guiana.

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  • TINAMOU, the name given in Guiana to a certain bird, as stated in 1741 by P. Barrere (France equinoxiale, p. 138), from whom it was taken and used in a more general sense by Buffon (Hist.

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  • The table, however, shows merely the general development of con British Guiana ....

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  • Nutmeg and mace are almost exclusively obtained from the Banda Islands, although the cultivation has been attempted with varying success in Singapore, Penang, Bengal, Reunion, Brazil, French Guiana and the West Indies.

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  • In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).

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  • CANNON-BALL TREE (Couroupita guianensis), a native of tropical South America (French Guiana), which bears large spherical woody fruits, containing numerous seeds, as in the allied genus Bertholletia (Brazil nut).

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  • In consideration of retaining the Cape and the Dutch settlements now constituting British Guiana, Great Britain paid 6 000 000.

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  • Under the Roman-Dutch law as applied in British Guiana the writ was unknown and no similar process existed (2nd report of West Indian law commissioners).

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  • At the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Portugal was represented by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restoration of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had conquered in 1809.

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  • AGOUTI, or Aguti, the West Indian name of Dasyprocta aguti, a terrestrial rodent of the size of a rabbit, common to Trinidad and Guiana, and classed in the family Caviidae.

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  • The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium are, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption.

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  • CAYENNE, a seaport and the capital of French Guiana, on the N.W.

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  • Cayenne is the seat of the government of French Guiana, and was formerly a penal settlement for political offenders.

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  • (See GUIANA.)

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  • SCREAMER, a bird inhabiting Guiana and the Amazon valley, so called in 1781 by T.

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  • As we proceed southwards from the northern United States, deer of the white-tailed type decrease steadily in size, till in Central America, Peru and Guiana they are represented by animals not larger that a roebuck.

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  • Their northern slope, which is occupied by the three Guianas first named, is saturated and river-torn; but their southern one, Brazilian Guiana, is in general thirsty and semi-barren, and the driest region of the Amazon valley.

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  • From the divortium aquarum between French Guiana and Brazil, known as the Tumuc-humac range of highlands, two minor streams, the Yary and the Parou, reach the Amazon across the intervening broken and barren tableland.

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  • It has its sources in the Guiana highlands, but its long course is frequently interrupted by violent currents, rocky barriers, and rapids.

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  • along its Guiana margin up the Amazon, is a belt of half-submerged islands and shallow sandbanks.

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  • PARAMARIBO, the capital of Dutch Guiana or Surinam (see Guiana), in 5° 44' 3 0 "N., 55 ° 12' 54" W., 20 M.

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  • His name was, however, unknown to the general public till he was arrested on the 15th of October 1894 on a charge of selling military secrets to Germany, condemned, publicly degraded (January 4, 1895), and transported (March Io) to the Ile du Diable, French Guiana.

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  • This custom prevails in African mysteries, in Guiana, among Australians, Papuans, and Andaman Islanders.

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  • All these Cronus swallowed; and this " swallow-myth " occurs in Australia, among the Bushmen, in Guiana, in Brittany (where Gargantua did the swallow-trick) and elsewhere.

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  • To her colonial empire in America he added the greater part of Santo Domingo, Tobago and Dominica; he restored Guiana; prepared for the acquisition of Louisiana by supporting Cavelier de la Salle; extended the suzerainty of the king on the coast of Africa from the Bay of Arguin to the shores of Sierra Leone, and instituted the first commercial relations with India.

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  • whole army, stopped the elections in forty-nine ~~dOr departments, and deported to Guiana many deputies of both councils, journalists and non-juring priests, as well as the director Barthlemy, though Carnot escaped into Switzerland.

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  • The royalist plot of the Rue Saint-Nicaise (December 24, 1800) allowed him to make a clean sweep of the democratic republicans, who despite their innocence were depsrted to Guiana, and to annul Assemblies that were a mere show by making the senate omnipotent in constitutional matters; but it was necessary for him to transform this deceptive truce into the general pacification so ardently desired for the last eight years.

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  • Portugal had to submit to far harsher terms, and could only purchase peace by the cession of territory in Guiana, by a disadvantageous treaty of commerce, and by payment of twenty-five million francs.

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  • Bourdon was arrested and deported to French Guiana, where he died soon after his arrival.

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  • Charters were given to companies trading to Guinea, Morocco, Guiana and the Canaries, but none of these enjoyed a very long or prosperous existence, principally owing to the difficulties caused by foreign competition.

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  • Kappler, "Die Tierwelt im hollandischen Guiana," Das Ausland, 1885, p. 358 G.

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  • " Description of a new Tree-frog of the genus Hyla, from British Guiana, carrying eggs on the back," op. cit., 1904, ii.

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  • Overseas departments and territories--such as French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, New Caledonia and Reunion, also fly the tricolour, although they also have their own flags.

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