Two parties had developed with the growth of the Church.
After 1890 growth was slower but continuous.
It can take growth for granted and thus overtax.
The fifth Lambeth conference, following as it did close on the great Pan-Anglican congress, is remarkable mainly as a proof of the growth of the influence and many-sided activity of the Anglican Church, and as a conspicuous manifestation of her characteristic principles.
But even as capital its growth was slow.
It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living mind; this privilege is mine; and moreover, it is given me to rouse and guide this bright intelligence.
His hair was tied back, his jaw and chin scruffy from a couple days' growth of hair.
From the dhjan nishani comes growth, birth, restoration.
Its polity has been of gradual growth, and still retains some features peculiar to itself.
His face was more handsome than she remembered, more rugged with a two days' growth covering his neck and jaw.
This method did not give very certain results, for it could not be guaranteed that the growth in the inoculated flask was necessarily derived from a single bacterium.
Helen Keller's letters are important, not only as a supplementary story of her life, but as a demonstration of her growth in thought and expression--the growth which in itself has made her distinguished.
She would say, when speaking of the growth of a plant, "Mother Nature sends the sunshine and the rain to make the trees and the grass and the flowers grow."
"Young dragons, of course; but we are not allowed to call ourselves real dragons until we get our full growth," was the reply.
Many instances are on record where mushroom-beds have been invaded by a growth of strange fungi and the true mushrooms have been ousted to the advantage of the new-comers.
The tree has a remarkable appearance, due to shedding its primary branches for about five-sixths of its height and replacing them by a small bushy growth, the whole resembling a tall column crowned with foliage, suggesting to its discoverer, Captain Cook, a tall column of basalt.
1 Since the union the growth of the Church has been considerable.
The growth of the plant is slow, and its durability proportionately great, its death being determined generally by that of the tree on which it has established itself.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Their growth or decrease from 1886 to 1906 is shown in the following table:
At a further stage of their growth the particles disperse in the perpendicular direction a light which is no longer fully polarized.
This episcopacy was at first rather congregational than diocesan; but the tendency of its growth was undoubtedly towards the latter.
As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
Although entirely naked in summer, these cats developed in winter a slight growth of hair on the back and the ridge of the tail.
The greater part of Patagonia is comparatively barren and has no arboreal growth, except in the well-watered valleys of the Andean foothills.
Hansen showed that the microscopic appearance of film cells of the same species of Saccharomycetes varies according to the temperature of growth; the limiting temperatures of film formation, as well as the time of its appearance for the different species, also vary.
Lemstrbm believed atmospheric electricity to play an important part in the natural growth of vegetation, and he assigned a special role to the needles of fir and pine trees.
foetidus, are in all stages of growth highly foetid.
The growth of legends and traditional identifications can be traced in the writings of the pilgrims who have visited the town from Jerome's time till our own.
extent, covered in summer with an exuberant vegetable growth, which dies every year.
The growth of cereals is the largest department of agriculture followed.
How can he remember well his ignorance--which his growth requires--who has so often to use his knowledge?
The growth of the two cities has been rapid since 1900.
With the rapid growth of extreme democratic ideas the Feuillants soon began to be looked upon as reactionaries, and to be classed with "aristocrats."
The water-courses and depressions of the shingly steppes afford pasturage sufficient for the guanaco, and in places support a thorny vegetation of low growth and starved appearance.
The surrounding country produces tobacco of a very superior quality, and to the tobacco industry, introduced in 1872, the growth of Winston is chiefly due; the manufacture of flat plug tobacco here is especially important.
To the growth of this tendency the excellent results of the agricultural schools have especially contributed.
Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."
Its importance, however, is of comparatively modern growth and in the early history of Wurttemberg it was overshadowed by Cannstatt, the central situation of which on the Neckar seemed to mark it out as the natural capital of the country.
On the addition, well stirred, of a small quantity of dilute sulphuric acid, a precipitate of sulphur slowly forms, and during its growth manifests exceedingly well the phenomena under consideration.
The following table shows the rapid growth of the state revenue of France during the period 1875-1905, the figures for the specified years representing millions of pounds.
Under the system of grazing practised throughout Australia it is customary to allow sheep, cattle and horses to run at large all the year round within enormous enclosures and to depend entirely upon the natural growth of grass for their subsistence.
Joplin is the trade centre of a rich agricultural and fruit-growing district, but its growth has been chiefly due to its situation in one of the must productive zinc and lead regions in the country, for which it is the commercial centre.
With the growth of the central power and of that of the municipalities the vidames gradually lost all importance, and the title became merely honorary See A.
The growth of a wider patriotic sentiment must depend on the spread of popular education; certainly up to 1908 no appreciable progress had been made in this direction.
It has more than one advantage over the meadow mushroom in its extreme commonness, its profuse growth, the length of the season in which it may be gathered, the total absence of varietal forms, its adaptability for being dried and preserved for years, and its persistent delicious taste.
The following tables, showing the growth of the largest towns in France, are drawn up on the basis of the fourth classification, which is used throughout this work in the articles on French towns, except where otherwise stated.
The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
The herbage for the most part grows with marvellous rapidity after a spring or autumn shower and forms a natural shelter for the more stable growth of nutritious grasses.
In Tucuman and eastern Salta the same division into forests and open plains exists, but the former are of denser growth and contain walnut, cedar, laurel, tipa (Machaerium fertile) and quebracho-colorado (Loxopterygium Lorentzii).
In the winter coat the hair is long and pendent, elongated into a short beard on the sides of the lower jaw behind the chin; and it is also longer than elsewhere on the neck and the chest; at the base of the long hair is a thick growth of short and woolly under-fur.
However, at present—and for the future as far as we can see—growth in technology outpaces growth in wealth.
Taken together, those findings suggest that almost all economic growth in the last 120-plus years was from technology.
If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.
Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson.
The growth has been chiefly towards the north and north-west; but there are large suburbs on the west, and on the southwest near the railway station on the plain of Rephaim.
As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
His eyes flashed silver, his rugged features covered in a few days' growth.
His silver eyes were molten, his rugged jaw line shaded by two days. growth.
I hear they stunt your growth.
Of late years many experiments have been made on the influence of electric fields or currents on plant growth.
Much the same might be said of a score of cities in the new West, but none is a more striking example than Denver of marvellous growth.
Below this region, where the Andean barrier is low and broken, the moist westerly winds sweep over the land freely and give it a large rainfall, good pastures and a vigorous forest growth.
Climate and a fertile soil have been important elements in this growth.
Evergreens predominate in the south, where grow subtropical plants such as the myrtle, arbutus, laurel, holm-oak, olive and fig; varieties of the same kind are also found on the Atlantic coast (as far north as the Cotentin), where the humidity and mildness of the climate favor their growth.
AMADOU, a soft tough substance used as tinder, derived from Polyporus fomentarius, a fungus belonging to the group Basidiomycetes and somewhat resembling a mushroom in manner of growth.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
The country was mostly poor and barren, sandy hillocks, with scanty growth of spinifex.
Such was the growth of infant Victoria in five years; that of Adelaide or South Australia, in the same period, was nearly equal to it.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
But the growth and development of the northern communal movement, though strong and instinct with life, was slower and less tempestuous than the Flemish.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
The British oak is one of the largest trees of the genus, though old specimens are often more remarkable for the great size of the trunk and main boughs than for very lofty growth.
The spreading branches have a tendency to assume a tortuous form, owing to the central shoots becoming abortive, and the growth thus being continued laterally, causing a zigzag development, more exaggerated in old trees and those standing in From Kotschy, op. cit.
Many of the ancient oaks that remain in England may date from Saxon times, and some perhaps from an earlier period; the growth of trees after the trunk has become hollow is extremely slow, and the age of such venerable giants only matter of vague surmise.
the growth is extremely slow and the trees small, but the wood is generally very hard and durable.
The oak requires shelter in the early stages of growth; in England the Scotch pine is thought best for this purpose, though Norway spruce answers as well on suitable ground, and larch and other trees are sometimes substituted.
The distance between the oaks depends upon the growth intended before thinning the young wood; usually they are placed from 8 to 12 ft.
The growth of the oak is slow, though it varies greatly in different trees; Loudon states that an oak, raised from the acorn in a garden at Sheffield Place, Sussex, became in seventy years 12 ft.
The most valuable kind is that obtained from young trees of twenty to thirty years' growth, but the trunks and boughs of timber trees also furnish a large supply; it is separated from the tree most easily when the sap is rising in the spring.
The value of oak bark depends upon the amount of tannin contained in it, which varies much, depending not only on the growth of the tree but on the care bestowed on the preparation of the bark itself, as it soon ferments and spoils by exposure to wet, while too much sun-heat is injurious.
The comparatively rapid growth of the tree is its great recommendation to the planter; it is best raised from acorns sown on the spot, as they are very bitter and little liable to the attacks of vermin; the tree sends down a long tap-root, which should be curtailed by cutting or early transplanting, if the young trees are to be removed.
The wood is variable in quality and, though hard in texture, is less durable than the best oak of British growth; the heart-wood is of a light reddish brown varying to an olive tint; a Canadian specimen weighs 524 lb the cubic foot.
Prinus, a beautiful tree of large growth, and its subspecies castanea and montana, yield good timber.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
In some cases (many species of Ascaris) the metamorphosis is reduced to a simple process of growth.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
high, but does not reach its full growth till its sixteenth or seventeenth year; it lives from forty to fifty years.
The district is by no means devoid of fertility, the steep slopes facing the south enjoying so fine a climate as to render them very favorable for the growth of fruit trees, especially the olive, which is cultivated in terraces to a considerable height up the face of the mountains, while the openings of the valleys are generally occupied by towns or villages, some of which have become favorite winter resorts.
The depression was probably formed during the later stages of the growth of the Alps.
But the strip of coast between the Apennines and the sea, known as the Riviera of Genoa, is not only extremely favourable to the growth of olives, but produces oranges and lemons in abundance, while even the aloe, the cactus and the palm flourish in many places.
The principal causes are the growth of population, and the over-supply of and low rates of remuneration for manual labor in various Italian provinces.
The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.
the years 1900 and 1901 strikes were increasingly numerous, chiefly on account of the growth of Socialist and working-class organizations.
Prefixed to this are two sections dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
As regards their common opposition to the Turk, this appeal led to nothing; but it marked the growth of a new Italian consciousness.
The growth of Clerical influence in France engendered a belief that Italy would soon have to defend with the sword her newly-won unity, while the tremendous lesson of the Franco-Prussian War convinced the military authorities of the need for thorough military reform.
The chief timber of indigenous growth is padouk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) used for buildings, boats, furniture, fine joinery and all purposes to which teak, mahogany, hickory, oak and ash are applied.
They are agglutinative in nature, show hardly any signs of syntactical growth though every indication of long etymological growth, give expression to only the most direct and the simplest thought, and are purely colloquial and wanting in the modifications always necessary for communication by writing.
In the sympodial method of budding, on the other hand, the founder-polyp is of limited growth, and forms a bud from its side, which is also of limited growth, and forms a bud in its turn, and so on (figs.
In this way we may distinguish, first, vegetative reproduction, the result of discontinuous growth of the tissues and cell-layers of the body as a whole, leading to (I) fission, (2) autotomy, or (3) vegetative budding; secondly, germinal reproduction, the result of the reproductive activity of the archaeocytes or germinal tissue.
By budding is understood the formation of a new individual from a fresh growth of undifferentiated material.
growth; in the third tical section.
43, A); in this the mouth is formed distally as a perforation (B); next the sides of the tube so formed bulge out laterally near the attachment to form the umbrella, while the distal undilated portion of the tube represents the manubrium (C); the umbrella now grows out into a number of lobes or lappets, and the tentacles and tentaculocysts grow out, the former in a notch between two lappets, the latter on the apex of each lappet (D, E); finally, the velum arises as a growth of the ectoderm alone, the whole bud shapes itself, so to speak, and the little medusa is separated off by rupture of the thin stalk connecting it with the parent (F).
The polyps may be solitary, or form colonies, which may be of the spreading or encrusting type, or arborescent, and then always of monopodial growth and budding.
In the biserial type the polyps on the two sides of the stem have primitively an alternating, zigzag arrangement; but, by a process of differential growth, quickened in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, &c., members of the stem, and retarded in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, &c., members, the polyps may assume secondarily positions opposite to one another on the two sides of the stem.
Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.
The coenosteum increases in size by new growth at the surface; and in the deeper, older portions of massive forms the tissues die off after a certain time, only the superficial region retaining its vitality down to a certain depth.
If the coenosteum of Millepora be broken across, each pore-canal (perhaps better termed a polypcanal) is seen to be interrupted by a series of transverse partitions, representing successive periods of growth with separation from the underlying dead portions.
4 Philosophy of History (1893), p. 103, where an interesting sketch of the growth of the idea of progress is to be found.
Huxley, who in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia traced the history of the growth of the biological idea of evolution from its philosophical beginnings to its efflorescence in Charles Darwin.
The consequence of this intussusceptive growth is the " development " or " evolution " of the germ into the visible bird.
The growth of an organic being is simply a process of enlargement, as a particle of dry gelatine may be swelled up by the intussusception of water; its death is a shrinkage, such as the swelled jelly might undergo on desiccation.
The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.
It is impossible here to give even a list of the names of the many observers who in recent times have made empirical study of the effects of growth-forces and of the symmetrical limitations and definitions of growth.
It is to be noticed, however, that, even after such phenomena have been properly grouped and designated under Greek names as laws of organic growth, they have not become explanations of the series of facts they correlate.
The growth of a special " original " jurisdiction at Constantinople, which perhaps developed earlier than the corresponding institution at Rome, may be traced to the fact that bishops from all parts were constantly in Constantinople.
Round most of the islands there is a luxuriant coral growth; but, as the reefs lie at no great distance, and follow the line of the coast, the inter-island channels are comparatively safe.
With the growth of the Oxford Movement in the English Church, the practice of observing Lent was revived; and, though no rules for fasting are authoritatively laid down, the duty of abstinence is now very generally inculcated by bishops and clergy, either as a discipline or as an exercise in self-denial.
Many of the species attain a large size, and all are of very rapid growth.
or more, but rarely continue to form sound timber beyond the first halfcentury of growth, though the trunk will sometimes endure for a hundred and fifty years.
A closely related form is the well-known Lombardy poplar, P. fastigiata, remarkable for its tall, cypress-like shape, caused by the nearly vertical growth of the branches.
The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an ornamental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to grow.
It is a tree of rather large growth, sometimes too ft.
The cotton-wood timber, though soft and perishable, is of value in its prairie habitats, where it is frequently the only available wood either for carpentry or fuel; it has been planted to a considerable extent in some parts of Europe, but in England a form of this species known as P. monilifera is generally preferred from its larger and more rapid growth.
This tree is of extremely rapid growth, and has been known to attain a height of 70 ft.
In America it seldom attains the large size it often acquires in England, and it is there of less rapid growth than the prevailing form of the western plains; the name of "cotton-wood" is locally given to other species.
long; it is found in New England and the milder parts of Canada, and is frequently planted in Britain; its growth is extremely rapid in moist land; the buds are covered with a balsamic secretion.
The true balsam poplar, or tacamahac, P. balsamifera, abundant in most parts of Canada and the northern States, is a tree of rather large growth, often of somewhat fastigiate habit, with round shoots and oblong-ovate sharp-pointed leaves, the base never cordate, the petioles round, and the disk deep glossy green above but somewhat downy below.
To no town has the memory of one famous son brought wider notoriety than that which the memory of William Shakespeare has brought to Stratford; yet this notoriety sprang into strong growth only towards the end of the 18th century.
The climate is exceptionally moist and warm (annual rainfall 52.79 in.; mean temperature in summer 75° F., in winter 40°), and fosters the growth of even Indian species of vegetation.
The cells belonging to any given thread may be recognized at an early stage of growth, because each cell is connected with its neighbors belonging to the same thread by two depressions or pits, one at each end.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
Similar modes of growth occur among the Siphoneous Green Algae and also among the Red Seaweeds.
The root differs from the shoot in the characters of its surface tissues, in the absence of the green assimilative pigment chlorophyll, in the arrangement of its vascular system and in the mode of growth at the apex, all features which are in direct relation to its normally subterranean life and its fixative and absorptive functions.
The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ.
Hence such tracheae are only laid down in organs whose growth in length has ceased.
The body of a vascular plant is developed in the first place by repeated division of the fertilized egg and the growth of Develop- the products of division.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
Further growth in length of the stem is thenceforward confined to the apical growing point situated between the cotyledons.
In most of the existing Pteridophytes, in the Monocotyledons and in annual plants among the Dicotyledons, there is n further growth of much structural importance in the ~ d ~
The fibrous bands are generally formed towards the end of the years growth in thickness.
In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.
In the latter event the cells of the primary rays are either merely stretched radially, or they divide to keep pace with the growth of the bundles.
This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.
Moreover, growth is essentially dependent upon water-supply.
The latter feature is the growth of the tree, the well-being of the protoplasts is its life and health.
If we examine the seat of active growth in a young root or twig, we find that the cells in which the organic substance, the protoplasm, of the plant is being formed and increased, are not supplied with carbon dioxide and mineral matter, but with such elaborated material as sugar and proteid substances, or others closely allied to them.
A great part again is utilized in that increase of the body of the plant which we call growth.
Growth, as usually spoken of, includes two essentially different processes.
The first of these, which may be regarded as growth proper, is the manufacture of additional quantities of living substance.
Growth is always going on in plants while they are alive.
In the lowliest plants growth may be co-extensive with the plantbody; in all plants of any considerable size, however, it is localized in particular regions, and in them it is associated with the formation of new protoplasts or cells.
In other words, as these growing regions consist of cells, the growth of the entire organ or plant will depend upon the behaviour of the cells or protoplasts of which the merismatic tissues are composed.
The growth of such a cell will be found to depend mainly upon five conditions: (I) There must be a supply of nutritive or plastic materials, at the expense of which the increase of its living substance can take place, and which supply the needed potential energy.
This is evident from the consideration that the growth of the cells is attended by the growth in surface of the cell wall, and as the latter is a secretion from the protoplasm, such a decomposition cannot readily take place unless oxygen is admitted to it.
When these conditions are present, the course of the growth of a cell appears to be the following: The young cell, immediately it is cut off from its fellow, absorbs water, in consequence of the presence in it of osmotically active substances.
The growth or increase of the protoplasm at the expense of the nutritive matter for a time keeps pace with the increased size of the cell, but by and by it becomes vacuolated as more and more water is attracted into the interior.
The growth of the protoplasm, though considerable, is therefore not commensurate with the increase in the size of the cell.
The rate of growth of a cell varies gradually throughout its course; it begins slowly, increases to a maximum, and then becomes slower till it stops.
The time during which these regular changes in the rate can be observed is generally spoken of as the grand period of growth.
If we consider the be~aviour of a growing organ such as a root, we find that, like a cell, it shows a grand period, of growth.
Growth is small, and consists mainly in an increase of the quantity of protoplasm, for the cells divide again as soon as they have reached a certain size.
They then gradually lose the power of growth, the oldest ones or those facthest from the apex parting with it first, and they pass gradually over into the condition of the permanent tissues.
The same order of events may be ascertained to take place in the stem; but in this region it is complicated by the occurrence of nodes and internodes, growth in length being confined to the latter, many of which may be growing simultaneously.
The region of growth in the stem is, as a rule, much longer than that of the root.
The growth of the leaf is at first apical, but this is not very prolonged, and the subsequent enlargement is due to an intercalary growing region near the base.
If the member is one which shows a difference of structure on two sides, such as a leaf, the two sides frequently show a difference of degree of turgidity, and consequently of rate of growth.
This is due to the fact that while young the turgidity and consequent growth are greater in the dorsal side of the leaf, so that it becomes rolled up. As it develops the maximum turgidity and growth change to its upper side, and so it becomes unfolded or expanded.
One side of a stem may be more turgid than the opposite one, and the maximum turgidity, with its consequent growth, may alternate between two opposite sides.
If a root is similarly illuminated, a similar change of direction of growth follows, but in this case the organ grows away from the light.
When a sensitive tendril comes into contact with a foreign body, its growth becomes so modified that it twines round it.
The responding part is situated some little distance farther back, being in fact the region where growth is active.
The response to the stimulus takes the form of increasing the permeability of particular cells of the growing structures, and so modifying the degree of the turgidity that is the precursor of growth in them.
Nor is it only in growing organs that the rhythm can be observed, for many plants exhibit it during a much longer period than that of growth.
If too closely packed, the soil particles present mechanical obstacles to growth; if too retentive of moisture, the root-hairs suffer, as already hinted; if too open or over-drained, the plant succumbs to drought.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
Many aphides, &c., puncture the leaves, suck out the sap, and induce va:ious local deformations, arrest of growth, pustular swellings, &c., and if numerous all the evils of defoliation may follow.
Various local hypertrophies, including galls, result from the increased growth of young tissues irritated by the punctures of insects, or by the presence of eggs or larvae left behind.
Such healing by cork formation is accompanied by a rise of temperature: the active growth of the dividing cells is accompanied by vigorous metabolism and respiration, and a state of wound fever supervenes until the healing is completed.
The now well-known fact that small doses of poisonous substances may act as stimuli to living protoplasm, and that respiratory activity and growth may be accelerated by chloroform, ether and even powerful mineral poisons, such as mercuric chloride, in minimal doses, offers some explanation of these phenomena of hypertrophy, wound fever, and other responses to the presence of irritating agents.
More indirect methods, such as the grafting of less resistant scions on more vigorous stocks, of raising special late or early varieties by crossing or selection, and so on, have also met with success; but it must be understood that resistant in such cases usually means that some peculiarity of quick growth, early ripening or other life-feature in the plant is for the time being taken advantage of.
This conception of,the plant as an aggregate or colony of independent vital units governing the nutrition, growth and reproduction of the whole cannot, however, be maintained.
If it is absent, the cell loses its power of assimilation and growth, and soon dies.
The growth of the cell-wall takes place by the addition of new layers to those already formed.
The growth of the cell-wall is very rarely uniform.
Besides the internal or centripetal growth, some cell-walls are thickened on the outside, such as pollen grains, oospores of Fungi, cells of Peridineae, &c. This centrifugal growth must apparently take place by the activity of protoplasm external to the cell.
The presence of these threads between all the cells of tfie plant shows that the plant body must be regarded as a connected whole; the threads themselves probably play an important part in the growth of the cell-wall, the conduction of food and water, the process of secretion and the transmission of impulses.
Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence .and utilized by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples differing in their ways of life, thought and speech.
The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical in- stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are other examples.
Similarly during the growth of the bird the posterior end of the ilium connects itself with the transverse processes of vertebrae which were originally free, thus transforming them from caudals into secondary post-sacrals.
25 sqq.) is quite in accordance with Oriental custom and explains the growth of the present extremely complex sources.
We must now turn back to a most difficult subject - the growth of the Liturgy.
The swamps are full of huge reeds, bordered with tamarisk jungles, and in its lower reaches, where the water stretches out into great marshes, the river is clogged with a growth of agrostis.
Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.
But the growth of a united Sicilian nation was impossible; the usual style to express the inhabitants of the island is "omnes" or "u n iversi Siciliae populi."
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
The town owed its origin and growth to its position on the shores of the Bristol Channel, and its good harbour developed an oversea trade with Bristol, South Wales and the Irish ports.
In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.
The size and manner of growth of the adult plant show a great variety, from the small herb lasting for one season only, to the forest tree living for centuries.
A similar growth occurs in the root.
Some impetus was given to the city's growth by the completion of the National Road, and later by the opening of railways, but until after the Civil War its advancement was slow.
The surface of the plateau is generally open campo and scrubby arboreal growth called caatingas, but the streams are generally bordered with forest, especially in the deeper valleys.
The old people of Rome thus grew, or rather shrank up, into a nobility by the growth of a new people by their side which they declined to admit to a share in their rights, powers, and possessions.
This was the growth of the new nobility of Rome, that body, partly patrician, partly plebeian, to whom the name nobilitas strictly belongs in Roman history.
But we see no sign of the growth of a body made up of patricians and leading plebeians who contrived to keep office to themselves by a social tradition only less strong than positive law.
He shows a tendency - a tendency whose growth will be more or less checked according to the strength of the central power - to grow into something of a lord or even a prince on his own account, a growth which may advance to the scale of a German elector or stop at that of an English lord of a manor.
The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
But perhaps no cause was more important than the growth of the peerage.
The claim of the heralds to make "gentry" depend on the bearing of coat-armour, and the right to this depend on grant or recognition by themselves as officers of the crown, is of comparatively late growth.
The truth of the matter is rather that the circumstances of most modern commonwealths have been unfavourable to the preservation, and still more to the growth, of privileged bodies.
The strictness of the principle of admission or exclusion differs at the various German courts, and has tended to be modified by the growth of a new aristocracy of wealth; but a single instance known to the present writer may serve to illustrate the fundamental divergence of German (a fortiori Austrian) ideas from English in this matter.
For the origin and growth of the nobility in France, see A.
The lower Cryptogams were contrasted as Amphigenae ("growing all over"), a misnomer, as apical growth is common among them.
Definition is merely a circuitous method of stating an identity: "a tree is a vegetable growth" is logically no more than "a tree is a tree."
The Nidi forest is noteworthy for its magnificent growth of Funtumia rubber trees.
The growth of the Brethren was rapid.
For a few years they took an active share in the Evangelical Revival (173817S5); but Zinzendorf's "ecclesiola" policy prevented their growth, and not till 1853 did the English Moravians resolve to aim at "the extension of the Brethren's Church."
Docks, wharves, piers, curing stations and warehouses have been provided or enlarged to cope with the growth of the trade, and an esplanade has been constructed along the front.
As regards growth after hatching, all beetles undergo a "complete" metamorphosis, the wing-rudiments developing beneath the cuticle throughout the larval stages, and a resting pupal stage intervening between the last larval instal1 and the imago.
The growth of the parasitic larva does not stop the development of the host-larva, and when the latter pupates and assumes the winged form, the stylopid, which has completed its transformation, is carried to the outer world.
The larvae of Lucanidae live within the wood of trees, and may take three or four years to attain their full growth.
The use of the name in its most comprehensive sense dates only from the expansion of the empire in the 19th century; to the historian who writes of the earlier growth of the empire, Russia means, at most, Russia in Europe, or Muscovy, as it was usually called until the 18th century, from Moscow, its ancient capital.
Those under the latter body are of recent growth, the policy of the last twenty years of the 19th century having been to hand over the budget allowances for primary instruction to the Holy Synod, which opened parish schools under the local priests.
Closer akin to certain Western forms of dissidence from traditional Catholicism, though of native growth, are the Molokani or Molokans, so called popularly because they continue to drink milk (moloko) during fasts.
The serfdom which had sprung up in Russia in the 16th century, and became consecrated by law in 1609, taking, however, nearly one hundred and fifty years to attain its full growth, was abolished in 1861.
The growth of the sugar industry is shown by the fact that in 1888-93 the average annual production of sugar was 444,520 tons, in 1902-3 it was 1,180,293 tons.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
Marillier further argues that if, on the other hand, there was no bond between god and people but that of the common meal, it does not appear that the god is a totem god; there is no reason why the animal should have been a totem; and in any case this idea of sacrifice can hardly have been anything but a slow growth and consequently not the origin of the practice.
It is of beautiful appearance, and the almost tropical profusion of its growth may have led to the early erroneous reports of the densely-wooded nature of these islands.
Its growth was accelerated by the establishment here, in 1863, of the shops of the railway from Pittston to Hawley built in 1849-1850 by the Pennsylvania Coal Company.
In the following pages we shall not attempt to do more than to sketch in very succinct outline the general results of investigation into the origins and growth of Hebrew religion.
The next notable contribution to the permanent growth of Hebrew prophetic religion was made about a century after the lifetime of Isaiah by Jeremiah and Ezekiel.
In the climate of the south of England its rate of growth when young is between 1 and 12 ft.
Of 1748 he says, " This year, the twelfth of my age, I shall note as the most propitious to the growth of my intellectual stature."
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
The trees, except in the Washoe Mountains, are of very slow growth and therefore knotty and ill-adapted for timber.
During 1905 the town of Goldfield had a period of mushroom growth, then quieted, and finally revived to a healthy development.
The condensation of a nebula could be followed in the same manner as we can study the growth of the trees in the forest, by comparing the trees of various ages which the forest contains at the same time.
The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.
It is at least necessary to distinguish provisionally between a possibly historical framework and narratives which may be of later growth - between the general outlines which only external evidence can test and details which cannot be tested and appear isolated without any cause or devoid of any effect.
Its monarchy traced its origin to Hebron in the south, and its growth is contemporary with a decline in Israel (§ 7).
(the literary growth of legislation).
A development of ideals and a growth of spirituality can be traced which render the biblical writings with their series of prophecies a unique 1 This is philosophically handled by the Arabian historian Ibn Khaldun, whose Prolegomena is well worthy of attention; see De Slane, Not.
The fall of Samaria, Sennacherib's devastation of Judah, and the growth of Jerusalem as the capital, had tended to raise the position of the Temple, although Israel itself, as also Judah, had famous sanctuaries of its own.
2 - The course of events from the middle of the 6th century B.C. to the close of the Persian period is lamentably obscure, although much indirect evidence indicates that this age holds the key to the growth of written biblical history.
The growth of the Old Testament into its present form, and its preservation despite hostile forces, are the two remarkable phenomena which most arrest the attention of the historian; it is for the theologian to interpret their bearing upon the history of religious thought.
These men often rendered great services to their fellow-Jews, and one of the results was the growth in Jewish society of an aristocracy of wealth, where previously there had been an aristocracy of learning.
The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.
Originally Mississippi was almost entirely covered with a growth of forest trees of large size, mostly deciduous; and in 1900 about seven-tenths of its area was still classed as timber-land.
The greatest relative advance between 1889 and 1899 in any branch of agriculture was made in the growth of market-garden produce and small fruits; for old pine lands, formerly considered useless, had been found valuable for the purpose.
The destruction of pine forests to meet the demands for naval stores, and the introduction and increased use of the refrigerator car, resulted in much attention to the growth of garden produce for Northern markets.
During the quarter of a century between 1880 and 1905 a great change was wrought in the industrial life of the state by a phenomenal growth of cotton manufacturing.
The rapid extension of tobacco culture was accompanied by a corresponding growth in the manufacture of chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff, and some of the brands have a wide reputation.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
The greatest testimony to the work that earned for him the title of the "Father of American Methodism" was the growth of the denomination from a few scattered bands of about 300 converts and 4 preachers in 1771, to a thoroughly organized church of 214,000 members and more than 2000 ministers at his death, which occurred at Spottsylvania, Virginia, on the 31st of March 1816.
The maggots are tended by these nurses with the greatest care, and carried to those parts of the nest most favourable for their health and growth.
The main distinguishing features consist in the fact that one of the inner pieces of the perianth becomes in course of its growth much larger than the rest, and usually different in colour, texture and form.
nearest to the supporting stem, becomes in course of growth turned to the anterior or lower part of the flower nearest to the bract, from whose axil it arises.
If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
That they have been affected by the growth of popular tradition is patent from the traces of duplicate narratives, from the difficulty caused, for example, by the story of Goliath, and from a closer study of the chapters.
Vezhdovsky's figures of Rhynchelmis agree with those of Bergh in showing the backward growth of the nephridium from the funnel cell.
A growth both of the funnel, which becomes multicellular, and of the rest of the nephridium produces the adult nephridia of the genera mentioned.
In any case they have been shown in three genera to develop by the growth and splitting into a series of original paired pronephridia.
These cavities communicate with the exterior through the gonad ducts, which have nothing to do with them, but whose coelomic funnels are taken up by them in the course of their growth.
In the Oligochaeta, on the other hand, there is growth of new segments.
It is important to notice that the metameric plan of growth of Chaetopods is still preserved.
The purely hereditary principle was of comparatively late growth, the outcome of obvious convenience, exalted under the influence of various forces into a religious or quasi-religious dogma.
At this time the state had been brought to the brink of ruin by the growth of avarice and luxury; there was a glaring inequality in the distribution of land and wealth, and the number of full citizens had sunk to 700, of whom about roc practically monopolized the land.
made Wolsey his almoner immediately on his accession, and the receipt of some half-dozen further ecclesiastical preferments in the first two years of the reign marks his growth in royal favour.
But the prestige he secured by 1521 was delusive; its decline was as rapid as its growth, and the expense of the policy involved taxation which seriously weakened the loyalty of the people.
For he proved that the various changes occurring in the several processes of fermentation - as, for example, in the vinous, where alcohol is the chief product; in the acetous, where vinegar appears; and in the lactic, where milk turns sour - are invariably due to the presence and' growth of minute organisms called ferments.
4 There can be little doubt that this is a mythological expression for the growth of vegetation in spring and its disappearance in autumn.
The seventh year's fallow prevented the exhaustion of the soil, which was further enriched by the burning of the weeds and spontaneous growth of the Sabbatical year.
The drought of 1898 was interrupted by copious rains in June, and these falling on a warm soil led to a rapid growth of grass and, as measured by yield per acre, an exceedingly heavy crop of hay.
Mangels are sown earlier and have a longer period of growth than turnips; if they become well established in the summer they are less susceptible to autumn drought.
crop is shrinking in area the tendency is to withdraw from it first the land least suited to its growth.
Experiments upon the growth of barley for fifty years in succession on rather heavy ordinary arable soil resulted in showing that the produce by mineral manures alone is larger than that without manure; that nitrogenous manures alone give more produce than mineral manures alone; and that mixtures of mineral and nitrogenous manure give much more than either used alone - generally twice, or more than twice, as much as mineral manures alone.
But the average produce over forty years of continuous growth of barley was, in all cases where nitrogenous and mineral manures (containing phosphates) were used together, much higher than the average produce of the crop grown in ordinary rotation in the United Kingdom, and very much higher than the average in most other countries when so grown.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
It is, in fact, fully established that these leguminous crops acquire a considerable amount of nitrogen by the fixation of the free nitrogen of the atmosphere under the influence of the symbiotic growth of their root-nodule-microbes and the higher plant.
The field experiments on leguminous plants at Rothamsted have shown that land which is, so to speak, exhausted so far as the growth of one leguminous crop is concerned, may still grow very luxuriant crops of another plant of the same natural order, but of different habits of growth, and especially of different character and range of roots.
It seems certain that success in any system involving a more extended growth of leguminous crops in rotations must be dependent on a considerable variation in the description grown.
It seems obvious that the lighter and poorer soils would benefit more than the heavier or richer soils by the extended growth of leguminous crops.
In Canada and the United States this rational employment of a leguminous crop for ploughing in green is largely resorted to for the amelioration of worn-out wheat lands and other soils, the condition of which has been lowered to an unremunerative level by the repeated growth year after year of a cereal crop. The well-known paper of Lawes, Gilbert and Pugh (1861), " On the Sources of the Nitrogen of Vegetation,.
The growth, year after year, on the same soil of one kind of plant unfits it for bearing further crops of the kind which has exhausted it, and renders them:_less vigorous and more liable to disease.
It is not only the conditions of growth, but the uses to which the different crops are put, that have to be considered in the case of rotation.
Thus the cereal crops, when grown in rotation, yield more produce for sale in the season of growth than when grown continuously.
They are effected chiefly by some alteration in the description of the root-crop, and perhaps by the introduction of the potato crop; by growing a different cereal, or it may be more than one cereal consecutively; by the growth of some other leguminous crop than clover, since " clover-sickness " may result if that crop is grown at too short intervals, or the intermixture of grass seeds with the clover, and perhaps by the extension by one or more years of the period allotted to this member of the rotation.
This result is partly due to their period of accumulation and growth extending even months after the period of collection by the ripening cereals has terminated, and at the season when nitrification within the soil is most active, and the accumulation of nitrates in it is the greatest.
It is the leguminous fodder crops-especially clover, which has a much more extended period of growth, and much wider range of collection within the soil and subsoil, than any of the other crops of the rotation-that yield in their produce the largest amount of nitrogen per acre.
Much of this is doubtless taken up as nitrate, yet the direct application of nitrate of soda has comparatively little beneficial influence on their growth.
These beetles, characterized by their skipping movements and enlarged hind femora, also attack the hop (Haltica concinna), the vine in America (Graptodera chalybea, Illig.), and numerous other species of plants, being specially harmful to seedlings and young growth.
Aphides often ruin whole crops of fruit, corn, hops, &c., by sucking out the sap, and not only check growth, but may even entail the death of the plant.
Her insular position, continuity of political development and freedom from domestic broils played an important part in bringing about a steady and continuous growth of industry and manufactures for several generations before the modern era.
The great wars of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, which arrested the growth of continental nations, gave England the control of the markets of the world.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
The growth of a science is much like the growth of a constitution.
By comparing England with other countries we may be able in the distant future to reach conclusions of some generality as to the laws of growth, maturity and decay of industrial nations.
If our view is correct that, broadly speaking, the two ways of regarding economic questions are complementary rather than mutually exclusive, there does not seem to be any reason why the growth of the historical school should have been destructive of the " old Political Economy " if it had been well founded.
Cunningham's Growth of Industry and Commerce, and W.
Ashley's Economic History, while Vinogradoff's Villenage in England and The Growth of the Manor, as well as Maitland's Domesday Studies, are of great importance to the student of early economic institutions.
The present town of Milford Haven, originally a hamlet in the parish of Steynton, is of modern growth, and was first called into existence by the exertions of the Hon.
The growth of the town was further checked twenty years later by the development of Neyland, or New Milford, further east on the Haven, whither the Irish packet service was transferred; but towards the close of the 19th century the town recovered much of its former prosperity.
The trees have usually a straight trunk, and a tendency to a conical or pyramidal growth, throwing out each year a more or less regular whorl of branches from the foot of the leading shoot, while the buds of the lateral boughs extend horizontally.
Under favourable conditions of growth it is a lofty tree, with a nearly straight, tapering trunk, throwing out in somewhat irregular whorls its widespreading branches, densely clothed with dark, clear green foliage.
It everywhere shows a preference for a moist but well-drained soil, and never attains its full stature or luxuriance of growth upon arid ground, whether on plain or mountain - a peculiarity that should be remembered by the planter.
Its growth is rapid, the straight leading shoot, in the vigorous period of the tree, often extending 22 or even 3 ft.
The best poles are obtained in Norway from small, slender, drawn-up trees, growing under the shade of the larger ones in the thick woods, these being freer from knots, and tougher from their slower growth.
The black spruce (Picea nigra) is a tree of more formal growth than the preceding.
The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.
In the subsequent growth of ergc- pl.y- i ln b a.
It is probable that the limpet takes several years to attain full growth, and during that period it frequents the same spot, which becomes gradually sunk below the surrounding surface, especially if the rock be carbonate of lime.
A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere becomes a veliger.
(After Spengel.) being formed afresh on the surface of the visceral hump. It is, then, in this sense that we may speak of primary, secondary and tertiary shells in Mollusca, recognizing the fact that they may be merely phases fused by continuity of growth so as to form but one shell, or that in other cases they may be presented to us as separate individual things, in virtue of the non-development of the later phases, or in virtue of sudden changes in the activity of the mantle-surface causing the shedding FIG.
Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.
This great disaster, which cleared the ground for a new growth of local art, was probably due to yet another incursion of northern tribes, more barbarous than their predecessors, but possessed of superior iron weapons - those tribes which later Greek tradition and Homer knew as the Dorians.
At any rate, he spoke at Guildhall on Lord Mayor's Day in a worthy manner; admitting that the growth of the German navy was a main factor in British construction, and pointing out that no power was better able to bear the strain or less likely to fail than Great Britain.
Exoskeleton The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or " hypodermis ") of insects as of other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal.
In moths and certain saw-flies there is no rupture of the membranes; the Russian zoologists Tichomirov and Kovalevsky have described the growth of both amnion and embryonic ectoderm around the yolk, the embryo being thus completely enclosed until hatching time by both amnion and serosa.
The growth of an insect is usually rapid, and as the cuticle does not share therein, it is from time to time cast off by moulting or ecdysis.
As to the nature of histogenesis, nothing more can be said than that it appears to be a phenomenon similar to embryonic growth, though limited to certain spots.
Hence we are inclined to look on the imaginal disks as cellular areas that possess in a latent condition the powers of growth and development that exist in the embryo, powers that only become evident in certain special conditions of the organism.
It is, in short, a peculiar mode of growth and adolescence.
Among the Hexapoda generally there is no subsequent ecdysis nor any further growth after the assumption of the winged state.
It cannot but suggest itself that this transference was induced by some peculiarity as to formation of cuticle, causing the growth of the wings to be directed inwards instead of outwards.
The post-embryonic growth of Hexapods with or without metamorphosis is accompanied in most cases by the acquisition of wings.
The two modes of growth are directly opposed, and at first sight it appears that this fact negatives the view that Endopterygota have been derived from Exopterygota.
It is almost impossible to believe that any species of insect that has for a long period developed the wings outside the body could change this mode of growth suddenly for an internal mode of development of the organs in question, for, as we have already explained, the two modes of growth are directly opposed.
We are therefore entitled to assume that the suppressed wings of Exopterygota tend to reappear; and, speaking of the past, we may say that if after a period of suppression the wings began to reappear as hypodermal buds while a more rigid pressure was exerted by the cuticle, the growth of the buds would necessarily be inwards, and we should have incipient endopterygotism.
The change from an exopterygote to an endopterygote development could, therefore, be brought about by the gradual postponement to a later and later instar of the appearance of the wing-rudiments outside the body, and their correlated growth inwards as imaginal disks.
Growth and Metamorphosis.
The absence of preparations came to be felt more strongly with the rapid growth of the submarine menace, for the depth and number of the entrances made it a serious problem to establish adequate defences.
The points at issue between Cuvier and Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire before mentioned naturally attracted the attention of L'Herminier, who in 1836 presented to the French Academy the results of his researches into the mode Isidore of growth of that bone which in the adult bird he had already studied to such good purpose.
The difficulty of communication between the valleys has resulted in the growth of a great number of dialects.
It would be difficult to imagine a site less adapted for the foundation and growth of a great community.
Some of the islets were still uninhabited, covered with a dense low growth which served as cover for game and even for wolves.
We can trace the continuous growth of Venice through the successive styles of Byzantine, Gothic, early Renaissance and late Renaissance architecture.
The present magnificent building was a slow growth extending over three centuries and expanding gradually as the republic grew in riches.
The history of Venice during the next two hundred years is marked externally by the growth of the city, thanks to an ever-expanding trade, both down the Adriatic, which brought the republic into collision with the Dalmatian pirates and led to their final conquest, in 1000, by the doge Pietro Orseolo II., and also on the mainland, where Venice gradually acquired trading rights, partly by imperial diploma, partly by the establishment and the supply of markets on the mainland rivers, the Sile and the Brenta.
The growth of Venetian trade and wealth in the Levant roused the jealousy of Genoa and the hostility of the imperial court at Constantinople, where the Venetians are said to have numbered 200,000 and to have held a large quarter of the city in terror by their brawls.
P. Goodwin, The Growth of Ohio (Cincinnati, 1907) and R.
But the tenacity with which it was clung to, proved that it was suited to the community; and whether helpful or harmful to, it was not inconsistent with, the continuance of growth and prosperity.
The years from 1776 to the end of " town " government in 1822 were marked by slow growth and prosperity.
1630-1880 (4 vols., Boston, 1880-1881), a work that covers every phase of the city's growth, history and life; S.
Growth is accompanied by a succession of moults, the spider emerging from its old skins by means of a fracture which extends along the front and sides of the cephalothorax just beneath the edge of the carapace.
It is only at the final moult that the sexual organs are mature, the two sexes being alike in the earlier stages of growth.
Rapidity of growth and longevity vary greatly according to circumstances and to the species.
Weismann (1863-1864) traced details of the growth of embryo and of pupa among the Diptera, and A.
During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.
During June and the first fortnight in July plenty of sunshine is necessary, accompanied by sufficient rain to promote healthy, but not excessive, growth; the normal rainfall in the cotton belt for this period is about 42 in.
In either case an adequate but not excessive rainfall, increasing from the time of sowing to the period of active growth, and then decreasing as the bolls ripen, with a dry picking season, combined with sunny days and warm nights, provide the ideal conditions for successful cotton cultivation.
Sudden variations in the amount of water supplied are injurious: a sandy soil cannot retain water; on the other hand a clay soil often maintains too great a supply, and rank growth with excess of foliage ensues.
Examination showed that although the weevil attacked the young buds these did not drop off, but that a special growth of tissue inside the bud frequently killed the grub.
Also, inside the young bolls which had been pierced a similar poliferation or growth of the tissue was set up, which enveloped and killed the pest.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
A powerful stimulus was thus given to the growth of cotton in all directions; a degree of activity and enterprise never witnessed before was seen in India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Africa, the West Indies, Queensland, New South Wales, Peru, Brazil, and in short wherever cotton could be produced; and there seemed no room to doubt that in a short time there would be abundant supplies independently of America.
with a fibre of about 4 in.) and of the worst growth.
When the spinner has informed the dealer exactly what quality of cotton he needs, the dealer quotes so many " points on or off " the " future " quotations prevailing in Liverpool at the time of the purchase, which refer to Upland cotton of " middling grade," of " no staple " and of the worst growth.
Considerations of growth determine to a great extent the hardness or softness, and strength or weakness, of the fibre, and thus, indirectly, whether the cotton is suitable for warp or weft.
(3) Desirable variations in the raw material might conceivably eventuate from the introduction of cotton to spots in the globe where its growth was previously unknown or little regarded.
Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade.
In the decade of1890-1900the increase in the value of manufactures (165.9%) was almost five times as great in St Joseph as in any other of the largest four cities of the state, and this was due almost entirely to the growth of the slaughtering and meat-packing business, which is for the most part located outside the municipal limits.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
Nor were any great difficulties with the Church to hamper the growth of this kingdom.
The growth of Baldwin's kingdom, as it was suggested above, owed more to the interests of Italian traders than it did to crusading zeal.
During this process of growth the kingdom stood in relation to two sects of powers - the three Frankish principalities in northern Syria, and the Mahommedan powers both of the Euphrates and the Nile - whose action affected its growth and character.
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
The development of the art of war, and the growth of a systematic taxation, are two debts which medieval Europe also owed to the Crusades.
(c) The growth of a legend, or perhaps better, a saga of the First Crusade began, according to von Sybel, even during the Crusade itself.
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
At the tip of the tail, where the growth of the animal takes place, the.
The removal to London was proof that the leaders were alive to the necessity of grappling with the rapid growth of towns and cities, and that the Connexion, at first mainly a rural movement, had also urban work to accomplish.
In the United States there had been a quiet but steady growth since the first agents went out in 1829 and Hugh Bourne's advisory visit in 1844.
But it is more probable that we have it in the form in which it grew up - a series of observations by the original author with interspersed editorial remarks; and it is better to preserve the existing form as giving a record of the process of growth.
He is the patron of all growth and fertility, and, by the "uncontrolled use of analogy characteristic of early thought," the Baal is the god of the productive element in its widest sense.
The natural situation of Athens was such as to favour the growth of a powerful community.
g g of Themistocles, Cimon and Pericles, while the rapid growth of the Athenian empire provided the state with the necessary means for the execution of these sumptuous projects.
The growth of the anti-Masonic movement was due to the political and social conditions of the time rather than to the Morgan episode, which was merely the torch that ignited the train.
This would leave no time for the growth of his myth.; and his myth was, as is evident from what we have already said and quoted, full-grown in the first half of the 14th century.
The first settlers came in 1838; but the city's early growth was slow, and it was not incorporated until 1856.
Rockland was settled in 1769, but its growth began only with the establishment of the lime industry in 1795.
Next, the long and narrow valley of the Nerbudda from Jubbulpore to Hoshangabad is formed of deep alluvial deposits of extreme richness and excellently suited to the growth of wheat.
The eastern part of the Nagpur country and the Chhattisgarh plain, comprising the Mahanadi basin, form the great rice tract of the province, its heavy rainfall and hard yellowish soil rendering it excellently adapted for the growth of this crop.
To the physicist matter is presented in three leading forms - solids, liquids and gases; and although further subdivisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification based on properties having no relation to composition.
The growth of chemical literature since the publication of Lavoisier's famous Traite de chimie in 1789, and of Berzelius' Lehrbuch der Chemie in 1808-1818, has been enormous.
in the immediate neighbourhood, and much of the volcanic soil supports a rich growth of forest or "bush."
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
It is coming to be recognized that the growth of religious toleration owed much to the early Quakers who, with the exception of a few Baptists at the first, stood almost alone among Dissenters in holding their public meetings openly and regularly.
Finally, the cave became a resort of bears; the remains of 354 specimens, in all stages of growth, including even sucking cubs, being discovered.
The growth of the latifundia made the slaves more and more numerous and formidable.
The acquisition of Louisiana in 1803, which gave a new field for the growth of the slave power, though not made in its interest, the Missouri Compromise (1820), the annexation of Texas (1845), the Fugitive Slave Law (1850), the Kansas-Nebraska bill (1854), the Dred Scott decision (1857), the attempts to acquire Cuba (especially in 1854) and to reopen the foreign slave trade (1859-1860), were the principal steps - only some of them successful - in its career of aggression.
He preached the doctrine of conscious acceptance with God and daily growth in holiness.
The modern growth of the town is attributable to the valuable collieries of the neighbourhood, and to manufactures of nails and chains.
The importance of his work in organizing and building up the American Lutheran Church, of which he has been called the Patriarch, can hardly be exaggerated; but his example in preaching in English as well as in German was, unfortunately for the growth of the Lutheran Church, not followed by his immediate successors.
In 18 To, owing to the growth of Methodism and the lack of ordained ministers, he led the Connexion in the movement for connexionally ordained ministers, and his influence was the chief factor in the success of that important step. From 1811 to 1814 his energy was mainly devoted to establishing auxiliary Bible Societies.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
The short-leaf growth is especially heavy in the north-western portion of the state, while the long-leaf is found mainly in large masses N.
In the original formation of the island volcanic disturbances and coral growth played some part; but there are only very slight superficial evidences in the island of former volcanic activity.
In recent years the growth of the leaf under cloth tents has greatly increased, as it has been abundantly proved that the product thus secured is much more valuable - lighter in colour and weight, finer in texture, with an increased proportion of wrapper leaves, and more uniform qualities, and with lesser amounts of cellulose, nicotine, gums and resins.
Despite superficial decentralization after 1878 any real growth of local self-government was rendered impossible.
The period between the downfall of Roman power, late in the 5th century, and the growth of a Bosnian state, in the i ith, is poorer in antiquities.
From 1299 to 1322 the country was ruled by the Croatian princes, Paul and Mladen Subic, who, though vassals of Hungary, reunited the provinces of Upper and Lower Bosnia, created by the Hungarians in order to prevent the growth of a dangerous national unity.
Judged by its influence on Bosnian politics, the Orthodox community was relatively unimportant at the Turkish conquest; and its subsequent growth is perhaps due to the official recognition of the Greek Church, as the representative of Christianity in Turkey.
Pine forests surround the town, and oaks and elms of more than a century's growth shade its streets.
In that scheme the rise and growth of capitalism was considered to be a necessary preliminary to social revolution, and it was thought that Russia had hardly entered that stage: therefore it was not ripe for a social upheaval.
Fortunately the industry and ability of the military history section of the French General Staff have rendered available, by the publication of the original orders issued during the course of his campaigns, a mass of information which, taken in conjunction with his own voluminous correspondence, renders it possible to trace the growth of his military genius with a reasonable approach to accuracy.
Though privateering was carried on by the French with daring and a considerable measure of success, it did not put an appreciable check on the growth of British merchant shipping.
If it was due to Livius that the forms of Latin literature were, from the first, moulded on those of Greek literature, it was due to Naevius that much of its spirit and substance was of native growth.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
Cleveland's growth was, however, very slow until the opening of the Ohio canal as far as Akron in 1827; about the same time the improvement of the harbour was begun, and by 1832 the canal was opened to the Ohio river.
The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
As the war went on the naval power of the Greeks diminished, partly owing to the penury of their treasury, and partly to the growth of piracy in the general anarchy of the Eastern Mediterranean.
In general terms the peach may be said to be a medium-sized tree, with lanceolate, stipulate leaves, borne on long, slender, relatively unbranched shoots, and with the flowers arranged singly, or in groups of two or more, at intervals along the shoots of the previous year's growth.
a shoot d, the growth of which is favoured by destroying the useless spray e above the blossoms, and pinching off the points of those which are necessary to perfect the fruit.
The trees must be got to start growth very C - ---- - gradually, and at first the house should be merely kept closed at a temperature of about 45°, but the heat should gradually increase to 50° at night by the time the trees are in flower, and to 60° when the fruit is set, after which the house should be kept moist by sprinkling the walls and paths, or by placing water troughs on the return pipes, and the temperature should range from 65° by day to 70° or more with sun heat.
In the northern part of the state the great pine belt stretches from the head of Lake Superior westward to the confines of the Red River Valley, while along the north border and in the north-east the forest growth is almost exclusively tamarack and dwarf pine.
Furthermore, in order to encourage the growth and preservation of the forests, and to create systematically forest reserves, the legislature established in 1899 a State Forestry Board.
In all sections about as much, or even more, rain falls in summer as in both autumn and winter, and the summer rains, together with the long summer days, are very favourable to a rapid growth and early maturity of crops.
It consists largely of a dark brown or black sandy loam, finely comminuted, the richness of which in organic matter and mineral salts induces rapidity of growth, and the strength and durability of which render it capable of a long succession of crops.
The growth and development of the university have been almost entirely under the administration of Cyrus Northrop (b.
The state was admitted to the Union with its present boundaries on the 12th of May 1858, and the federal census of 1860 showed that the population had increased to 172,023, despite the fact that the financial panic of 18J7 had severely checked the state's growth.
The opening of the Chippewa lands in the northwest and the coming of peace marked the beginning of a new period of rapid growth, the Federal census of 1870 showing a population of 439,706, or a gain of 75.8% in five years.
For a period of five years after the financial panic of 1873 the growth was comparatively slow, but in the succeeding two years the recuperation was rapid.
When the aquatic insect has reached its full growth it emerges from the water or seeks its surface; the thorax splits down the back and the winged form appears.
Deeper than this, microscopic life is scanty; there is practically no reproduction and growth.
In Pleistocene times, then, when there were prolonged glacial ages, the sea-level was lowered and at the same time there was a reduction in sea temperature, so that the rate of reproduction of the coral polypes, and so the growth of reefs, was diminished.
It is of modern growth, possessing a town hall, market hall, free library, technical school, pleasant park and recreation grounds, and an extensive system of electric tramways and light railways, connecting with Burnley and Colne.
Often bands of spherulites alternate with bands of pure glass, a fact which seems to indicate that the growth of these bodies took place before the rock ceased to flow.
The first settlement was made here in 1849; rich deposits of gold were soon afterwards found on or near the surface, and the settlement had the characteristic growth of a western mining town; its output of gold reached its maximum in 1850-1851.
and over, although at higher altitudes the growth of these trees appears to be slower.
It is improbable, except in the early stages of the rubber tree, that this procedure will succeed; the rubber will ultimately dominate the position to the detriment and ultimate extinction of the other crop, whilst the growth of the rubber tree will be retarded.
In the case of a tree from seven to ten years old, tapping is so arranged that by the time the last incisions on the original growth are made, the new growths on other portions are at least four years old, and ready for new incisions to be made.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
The rapid growth of the actual population is chiefly due to immigration.
It is wholly of modern growth, and contains several handsome churches and other buildings, while among institutions the chief is themechanics' institute and library.
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
The importance of storage reservoirs is manifest under such conditions of flow, especially bearing in mind the growth of population in the London district and of its increasing needs.
The town is almost entirely a growth of the second half of the 19th century.
In the same year he published Banks, Banking, and Paper Currencies, a work which helped to promote the growth of the free banking system in America.
It is found that in embryological growth the retinal layer of the central eyes forms as a separate pouch, which is pushed in laterally beneath the corneagen layer from the epidermic cell layer.
- Portion of a similar embryo at a later stage of growth.
Further, it is pointed out by Korschelt and Heider that the hinder portion of the gut frequently acts in Arthropoda as an organ of nitrogenous excretion in the absence of any special excretory tubules, and that the production of such caeca from its surface in separate lines of descent does not involve any elaborate or unlikely process of growth.
From the front of this region new segments are produced in the first instance, and are added during growth to the existing series.
This telson may enlarge, it may possibly even become internally and sternally developed as partially separate somites, and the tergum may remain without trace of somite formation, or, as appears to be the case in Limulus, the telson gives rise to a few well-marked somites (mesosoma and two others) and then enlarges without further trace of segmentation, whilst the chitinous integument which develops in increasing thickness on the terga as growth advances welds together the unsegmented telson and the somites in front of it, which were previ ously marked by separate tergal thickenings.
On the other hand, an unusually large tergal plate, whether terminal or in the series, is not always due to fusion of the dorsal plates of once-separate somites, but is of ten a case of growth and enlargement of a single somite without formation of any trace of a new somite.
- The primitive distinction between the mesosoma and the metasoma retained, the latter consisting of six somites and the former of six somites in the adult, each of which is furnished during growth with a pair of appendages.
Occupations.-The pre-war growth of industries, especially in Riga and Libau, tended to reduce the percentage of the agricultural population, but agriculture is still the chief occupation, and the redivision of the rural population was the outstanding feature after 1918.
Its growth was slow, but the choice of the place by the emperor as a summer residence drew thither many of the wealthy residents of the capital.
The flora includes mangroves, Rubiaceae, Sapotaceae and other forms requiring more than pure coralline material for their growth.
The rapid growth of international arbitration in recent times may be gathered from the following figures.
In the northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of species - palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias, malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas, malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and between the Amazon and its principal tributaries.
This is especially true of the flood plains where the annual inundations prevent the formation of humus and retard forest growth.
This dry, thinly-wooded region extends south to the states of Parahyba, where a more regular rainfall favours forest growth nearer the coast.
Then come the catinga tracts, and, beyond these, the open campos of the elevated plateau, dotted with clumps of low growing bushes and broken by tracts of carrasco, a thick, matted, bushy growth 10 to 12 ft.
In general, the carrasco growth extends over the whole central plateau, and heavy forests are found only in the deep river valleys.
The pastoral industries, which date from early colonial times, have suffered many vicissitudes, and their development has failed to keep pace with the country's growth in population.
The settlement of the place, then called the Grand Traverse of the Flint, began in 1820, but Flint's growth was very slow until 1831, when it was platted as a village; it was chartered as a city in 1855.
It continued to be a royal residence during the reigns of her three sons, and hence the first rapid growth of the upper town may be referred to the 12th century.
The growth of sacerdotal theories, which were fully developed in Cyprian's time, fixed attention on the bishop as a sacrificing priest, and on the deacon 3 as his assistant at the altar.
The chief concern of the Natal government was to remodel their native policy where it proved inadequate, especially in view of the growth of the movement for the federation of the South African colonies.
Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence.
The rapid growth of the Indian population from about 1890 caused much disquiet among the majority of the white inhabitants, who viewed with especial anxiety the activities 1 The causes, both local and general, are set forth in a despatch by the governor of the 21st of June 1906 and printed in the Blue Book, Cd.
But each system is a fresh recognition of the rights of reason, and Scholasticism as a whole may be regarded as the history of the growth and gradual emancipation of reason which was completed in the movements of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Its favourite situation is the outlet (pyloric cancer), where a hard, fibrous growth forms a contracting ring of the scirrhous variety.
But later the vomited matter is blackened by blood which has escaped into the stomach from the ulcerated growth.
A characteristic feature of cancer is the carrying of the epithelial cells (which are the essential element of the growth) to the nearest lymphatic glands, and in cancer of the stomach the secondary implication of the glands may cause the formation of large masses between the stomach and the liver, which may press upon the large veins and give rise to dropsy.
The invasion of the lymphatic glands and the spreading of the growth into neighbouring organs, render the successful operative treatment of gastric cancer hazardous and disappointing.
And sometimes the surgeon is enabled by operation to give great relief, though the removal of the growth itself is impracticable.
When the growth is at the cardiac end of the stomach, blocking the gullet and causing slow starvation, the abdomen may advisedly be opened, and, the stomach having been fixed to the surface-wound, a permanent opening may be arranged for the introduction of an adequate amount of food.
The agricultural census taken in 1895 shows the great progress made in agriculture by Hungary, manifested by the increase in arable lands and the growth of the average production.
But the improved quality of the live stock is more worthy of notice than the growth in numbers.
The following table shows the growth of the total debt, due chiefly to expenditure on public works, in millions sterling: 1880.1890.1900.1905.
For philological and ethnographical research into the origin and growth of the language none excels Paul Hunfalvy.
Moreover the High Command viewed with alarm the growth of " Septembrist " doctrine among the troops - i.e.
All such single-fact systems have proved to be departures from the true line of o€ growth of the zoological system which was shaping itself year by year - unknown to those who so shaped it - as a genealogical tree.
The efforts of the best minds in zoology had been directed for thirty years or more to ascertaining with increased accuracy and minuteness the structure, microscopic and gross, of all possible forms of animals, and not only of the adult structure but of the steps of development of that structure in the growth of each kind of organism from the egg to maturity.
Haeckel himself, with his pupil MikluchoMaclay, had in the meantime made studies on the growth from the egg of Sponges - studies which resulted in the complete separation of the unicellular or equicellular Protozoa from the Sponges, hitherto confounded with them.
To the primitive two-cell-layered form, the hypothetical ancestor of all Metazoa or Enterozoa, Haeckel gave the name Gastraea; the em- bryonic form which represents in the individual growth from the egg this ancestral condition he called a " gastrula."
Weismann has also ingeniously argued from the structure of the egg-cell and sperm-cell, and from the way in which, and the period at which, they are derived in the course of the growth of the embryo from the egg - from the fertilized egg-cell - that it is impossible (it would be better to say highly improbable) that an alteration in parental structure could produce any exactly representative change in the substance of the germ or sperm-cells.
But with the development of the power of inter-communication by the use of language, the Record rapidly acquired an increased development, which was enormously extended by the continuous growth in mankind of the faculty of memory.
The plants are admirably adapted for climates in which a season favourable to growth alternates with a hot or dry season;.
At the beginning of the new season of growth, new flowerand leaf-bearing shoots are developed from the corm at the expense of the food-stuff stored within it.
But the increase of size which constitutes growth is the result of a process of molecular intussusception, and therefore differs altogether from the process of growth by accretion, which may be observed in crystals and is effected purely by the external addition of new matter - so that, in the well-known aphorism of Linnaeus, the word "grow" as applied to stones signifies a totally different process from what is called "growth" in plants and animals.
Kennett's Schweich Lecture (1909), The Composition of the Book of Isaiah in thelLight of Archaeology and History, an interesting attempt at a synthesis of results, is a brightly written b'ut scholarly sketch of the growth of the book of Isaiah, which went on till thegreat success of the Jews under Judas Maccabaeus.
Its growth was slow until the opening of the National Road, which entered Indiana near the city, and the construction of railways.
Its wild grasses are luxuriant and a shrubby growth is found along many of its streams. The decline in stock-breeding resulted in a considerable growth of trees and chaparral over the greater part of the plain.
The growth of Wisbech depended on its position and episcopal patronage.
The growth of traffic up and down the Elbe has of late years become very considerable.
In the first stages of growth, they are completely enveloped by an outer covering called the veil.
Organization and healing have been keenly inquired into, with results which seem to point the lesson that all methods of healing are to be regarded as extensions of the natural phenomena of growth.
Tumours Or New Growths The various definitions of the term " new growth " leave us with a definite conception of it as a new formation of tissue which appears to originate and to grow independently.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.