Grinding Sentence Examples
A grinding noise jerked her attention back to the car.
Her knees hit the floor with a grinding jolt, and the fox seized the opportunity.
There wasn't any bumping and grinding and those beds are noisy.
The plates are compressed from before backwards, the anterior and posterior surfaces (as seen in the worn grinding face of the tooth) being nearly parallel.
Now, if CD is pressed by its weight or by a spring on the surface AB, the effect of wear will be to produce a symmetrical grinding away of both surfaces, which may be represented thus, fig.Advertisement
Glass stoppers are fitted to bottles by grinding.
Both the grinding and polishing tools are grooved, to obtain a uniform distribution of the emery used in the grinding process and of the rouge employed in polishing, as also to provide for the lateral expansion of the pitch with which the polisher is coated.
Such implements as have survived are of the rudest description, and include querns or stone handmills for grinding corn, stone worts and bone combs employed in primitive forms of woollen manufacture, and specimens of simple pottery ware.
There can be little doubt that before the AngloSaxons came to Britain they possessed no instrument for grinding corn except the quern (cweorn), and in remote districts this continued in use until quite late times.
The grinding seems to have been performed chiefly by female slaves, but occasionally we hear also of a donkey-mill (esolcweorn).Advertisement
Despite the harsh land-laws and grinding taxation which prevent them, with all their industry and thrift, from securing the freehold of the patch of ground cultivated by each peasant family, the Asturians regard themselves as the aristocracy of Spain.
Swaying upward with the roll of the ship the two foremost brows came down scraping and grinding along the mole.
Many fish inhabited the Carboniferous seas and most of these were Elasmobranchs, sharks with crushing pavement teeth (Psammodus), adapted for grinding the shells of brachiopods, crustaceans, &c. Other sharks had piercing teeth (Cladoselache and Cladodus); some, the petalodonts, had peculiar cycloid cutting teeth.
The consummate hardness of the diamond, in spite of its high price, has made it most useful for purposes of grinding, polishing and drilling.
In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.Advertisement
Over the dusty hood, the yawning valley beckoned, and then... the sound of metal grinding against rock.
Definitely not a virgin, not the way she was grinding up against Joe Jock.
His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain. He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.
In total loss of her temper, she marched over and stomped on the phone, grinding it under her boot heel.
The surface of this was brought by planing, grinding and other means to the highest possible pitch of smoothness and evenness.Advertisement
It is suggested that these teeth may have been employed for cracking nuts or hard seeds; although also used for grinding.
Owen's description showed this view to be groundless, and he attributed the extraordinary development of the toucan's beak to the need of compensating, by the additional power of mastication thus given, for the absence of any of the grinding structures that are so characteristic of the intestinal tract of vegetable-eating birds - its digestive organs possessing a general simplicity of formation.
The slag is used in agriculture with no further preparation, save very fine grinding.
Bakers' shops are also frequent, though arrangements for grinding and baking appear to have formed part of every large family establishment.
Her grip, it's crushing, grinding the broken bones in his hands together.Advertisement
The water from the stream originally provided the steam to power the workings for grinding the corn for local farmers.
They heard a crunching, grinding sound, a loud snap, and the turn-table came to a stop with its broadest surface shutting off the path from which they had come.
Other objects found in the graves are small flint knives, stone axes, flint and lumps of pyrites for obtaining fire, and, in the womens graves, hand-mills for grinding corn.
In the Roman period a larger stone was used, with a rectangular slab (96) sliding on it, in which a long trough held the grain and let it slip out below for grinding.
Probably the first lorming was done by chipping and hammer-dressing, as in later times; the final facing of the hard stones was doubtless by sieans of emery in block or powder, as emery grinding blocks tre found.
It shows no trace of grinding lines or attrition, nor yet of the blows of a hammer.
They are not usually manufactured by the careful grinding together of the pozzuolana and the lime, but are mixed roughly, a great excess of pozzuolana being employed.
Thorough grinding and mixing are of the utmost importance, as otherwise the cement ultimately produced will be unsound and of inferior quality.
The grinding of the hard rock-like masses of clinker is effected between millstones, or in modern plants in ball-mills, tube-mills and edge-runners.
By this method grinding the hard limestone is avoided, but there is an extra expenditure of fuel in the double burning.
Nothing is added during or after grinding save a small amount (I to 2%) of calcium sulphate in the form either of gypsum or of plaster of Paris, which is sometimes needed to make the cement slower-setting.
It is made by granulating blast furnace slag of suitable composition and finely grinding the product, either alone or with an admixture of about To% of Portland cement clinker.
The former needs only grinding to constitute the final product, ammoniasoda ash; the latter is again employed in the process of treating the ammoniacal salt solution with carbon dioxide.
Knowing the theory of his instrument, and possessed of much practical skill, coupled with unwearied patience, he conquered the difficulties of grinding and polishing the lenses, and soon succeeded in producing telescopes of greatly increased power.
After much experiment he selected an alloy of tin and copper as the most suitable material for his specula, and he devised means for grinding and polishing them.
The relative motion of the faces of contact of the ridges anc grooves is a rotatory slidiug or grinding motion, about the line 01 contact of the pitch-surfaces as an instantaneous axis.
Two of its chief causes probably are (r) improvement in cookery, whereby the harder and more irritating parts of the food are softened or removed; and (2) improvement in grinding machinery, whereby the harder and more stimulating parts of the grain are separated from the finer flour which is used for bread.
Rowland and Macfadyen for the same purpose introduced the method of grinding the bacilli in liquid air.
It consists in wet-stamping coarsely crushed ore, settling the sands and slimes produced, and grinding and amalgamating them in steam-heated iron pans with or without the use of chemicals (salt and copper sulphate).
This turns the grinding apparatus (driver with "muller"), which can be raised and lowered.
To the bottom and muller are attached grinding plates (shoes and dies), which are replaced when worn; and to the sides three wings to deflect the moving pulp towards the centre, and thus establish the necessary pulp current.
After grinding, the muller is raised and quicksilver added, and the silver up to 81.04% then amalgamated in 4 hours.
P. Boss has modified the ordinary plant by making the pulp flowing from the stamps pass through a grinding pan, then through a series of amalgamating pans followed by a row of settlers.
With the laudable object of releasing Danish trade from the grinding yoke of the Hansa, and making Copenhagen the great emporium of the north, Christian had arbitrarily raised the Sound tolls and seized a number of Dutch ships which presumed to evade the tax.
The stone hatchets are symmetrically shaped and edged by grinding, while the cutting flakes, scrapers, spear and arrow heads are of high finish.
Quartz is a valuable grinding and polishing material, and is used for making sandpaper and scouring-soap. It is also largely used in the manufacture of glass and porcelain, "silver sand" being a pure quartz sand.
But the rule of the Phanariotes could not but be productive of grinding oppression, and it was rendered doubly hateful by the swarms of Greek adventurers who accompanied them.
In a small commonplace book, bearing on the seventh page the date of January 1663/1664, there are several articles on angular sections, and the squaring of curves and " crooked lines that may be squared," several calculations about musical notes, geometrical propositions from Francis Vieta and Frans van Schooten, annotations out of Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities, together with observations on refraction, on the grinding of " spherical optic glasses," on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them, and on the extraction of all kinds of roots, particularly those " in affected powers."
Richards faithful ministers, despite of all their distractions, succeeded in raising the first instalment of his ransom by grinding taxationa fourth part of the revenue of all lay persons, a tithe from ecclesiastical land, was raised, and in addition much church plate was seized, though the officials who exacted it were themselves prelates.
Athens must never again seek "empire" in the sense which became odious under the influence of Cleon and Hyperbolus, - when, to use the image of Aristophanes, the allies were as Babylonian slaves grinding in the Athenian mill.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek appears to be the first to succeed in grinding and polishing lenses of such short focus and perfect figure as to render the simple microscope a better instrument for most purposes than any compound microscope then constructed.
The seeds and nuts are then decorticated (where required), the shells removed, and the kernels ("meats") converted into a pulpy mass or meal (in older establishments by crushing and grinding between stones in edge-runners) on passing through a hopper over rollers consisting of five chilled iron or steel cylinders mounted vertically like the bowls of a calendar.
The concept of Death being humanlike in form, that she was permanently bound to himâ€¦ "Nope. Can't handle that one yet," she said, grinding her teeth.
His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain. He couldn't answer â€“ that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.
Instantly the grinding of his teeth stopped, and his ragged breathing began to slow. He uncurled, and she withdrew her hand before he disappeared from the dream again. Even so, she wasn't able to shake the warmth of his magic flying up her arm and through her, reminding her of what it was like being near him when she was alive. Even the skin of a half-demon was smooth and warm. She used to resent the way his touch made her feel like she belonged to him, until she'd walked into the Caribbean knowing he might never touch her again.
Once we got the cylinder going down the studs we found the casings required some grinding to allow the piston down!
It was originally built for grinding cement clinker the cement made from the chalky mud dredged from the river bed.
Part of Joe's work involved handling pieces of metal which were covered in a chemical coolant used in the metal grinding process.
When I'm satisfied, I very gently rub the inside of each tine to remove the dross from the grinding of the outside.
An optional grain mill attachment is available for grinding grains into flour.
Yorkshire Machine Tools hold one of the largest stocks of used grinding machines in the UK, including cylindrical grinders over 5ft between centers.
Ipswich Journal - 13th July 1778 Another story goes... An old miller called Lock was grinding grist for the farmers around.
The grinding action of the upper incisors over the lower incisors keep their length under control.
Before this acquisition its services already included nickel and hard chrome plating, machining, grinding and honing.
The middle part is like a funnel in which you put the peppercorns and holds the lower grinding plate.
We found pestle and mortars for grinding spices and herbs, decorated stones and a beautiful bowl and stone for refining other natural herbs.
He could see the women busily grinding the days corn in the heavy granite querns.
High in the moorland to the right, saddle querns once used for grinding grain have been found recently.
They make a constant noise, like beating flax or grinding barley in a hollow stone quern.
On that day, a workman was engaged in cutting and grinding the aft top-deck guard rails and stanchions of the Northern Challenger.
A sudden, grinding needle-sharp metal riff ushers the song in.
In order to keep costs for drying and grinding low, dry sawdust and wood shavings are used predominantly.
I made one out of a flat head screwdriver by grinding a channel in the middle of the bit.
The Bhandary's Mate might be observed grinding spices on a stone for the morrow's curry.
Early wood pulps were made by grinding logs between two slowly spinning stones.
The boat began to move in short spurts with a nasty grinding sound.
The effect is to cause sudden binding or grinding down of worm teeth.
Grinding things and shaking vials is the most trendy approach to biology.
The company had by now also built a windmill close by to supplement grinding power whenever necessary.
While approving the repeal in regard to minor cereals, the Senate (24th January 1880) again rejected the repeal of the tax on grinding wheat as prejudicial to national finance.
But the difficulties interposed by spherical and chromatic aberration had arrested progress in that direction until, in 1655, Huygens, working with his brother Constantijn, hit upon a new method of grinding and polishing lenses.
These indicate unusual capacity for crushing or grinding; while the last premolar is a crushing implement, which has reached the highest degree of specialization known in Rodentia.
Cast iron railroad carwheels, the tread or rim of which must be intensely hard so as to endure the grinding action of the brakeshoe while their central parts must have good shock-resisting power, are given such moderate silicon-content, preferably between o 50 and o 80%, as in and by itself leaves the tendencies toward graphite-forming and toward cementite-forming nearly in balance, so that they are easily controlled by the rate of cooling.
Spelt wheats are grown in the colder mountainous districts of Europe; their flour is very fine, and is used especially for pastrymaking; but, owing to the construction of the grain,.it requires special machinery for grinding (see Flour).
Hand querns The Mill has a set of hand querns for groups of children to experiment with grinding flour by hand.
And as the grinding gears of the plot push us ever further into a corner, we can feel the sap rising around us.
The picture on the right is of Mr Wang 's son making tofu by grinding soy beans in a really clever stone mill.
From grinding her own pigments to dressing up in Tudor costume to associating with historical re-enactors she will strive for the greatest authenticity possible.
Getting stuck in corners, hanging upside down on rails but still grinding them and other small hassles are still present.
Amplifier (Barfly Stage) More grinding, power chords and thundering rhythm from the Manchester 3 piece.
The hip area may be tender, and the grinding may lead to osteoarthritis.
You will need a grinder that is capable of grinding not muscle meat, organs and small bones.
This costs a little more than grinding your own, but is much more convenient and less messy.
Prior to the 19th century, wind energy was primarily used for the purposes of boat propulsion, grinding grains to make bread and other food items, and to pump water for irrigation and consumption.
The most common way milk thistle supplements are made is by grinding the seeds of the plant and extracting the silymarin.
One form is made by taking the dried root, grinding it into a powder and then taking as a capsule.
A fun, modern finishing technique seen in many of these commercial settings is reflective metal sheets decorated with a round grinding pattern which is randomly etched into the surface.
It has a steel edge and stone grinding and comes with a Sintec base and BCX binding.
They have a number of grinding cones which when turned, trap the grains and crush them into a flour.
It is also possible to purchase wheat grinding attachments for standard food processors.
This can be a convenient way to grind wheat, however it should be noted that grinding wheat is a tough job and the motors of some food processors might not be up to the job.
Before purchasing a grinding attachment for a food processor it is a good idea to take specific advice.
Instead of grinding grains to a fine flour, try using the grinder to crack grains.
It is both tasty and nutritious and a wheat grinder makes grinding wheat at home a realistic option.
Try grinding nibs in a mortar and pestle or spice grinder, mixing them with chili powder, cumin, paprika, pepper, salt, or other spices, rubbing the combination onto veggies, and grilling or roasting them.
This includes the grinding at the hem and pockets which provide a rugged look, which little boys look adorable in.
Plus, you will be participating in the sailing and grinding of the sails.
Electric nail grinders are also available that will use a grinding stone to wear away your dog's nail tips, and they do not leave behind the sharp edges that the previous two trimmers may leave.
Meal is made by grinding the remains of a carcass after the choice meats have been butchered out for human consumption.
Using a dog nail grinder solves these problems by gradually grinding the tip of the nail down so it is smooth and comfortable.
The grinding wheel is covered by a protective cap that serves a dual purpose - to control the amount of nail that gets filed away and to catch and hold the filings so you're not left with a dusty mess once you're finished.
The biggest drawback of the dog nail grinder as seen on TV is that the grinding wheel is loud, and the dog may initially be uncomfortable around it, especially if he's a skittish dog to begin with.
Electronic nail trimmers offer features, such as grinding the nail away and cauterizing the quick.
It is still an evocative word, bringing to mind the lurid image of a busty, 1950s performer bumping and grinding in tasseled pasties and a sequined g-string.
This is the preferred process when the area being insulated is not easily accessible.Cellulose loose fill is made by recycling old newspapers and grinding them into small pieces.
Grinding up the raw bones will make it easier for your cat to chew and digest.
Scientists believe that the 15th and 16th century skeletal remains reveal a significant grinding down of the teeth due to eating foodstuffs made from stone-ground flour.
Teeth grinding products may be a surprising solution to some sleep problems.
Bruxism is teeth grinding, and the problem can lead to pain and discomfort.
Grinding your teeth during sleep can disrupt your sleeping patterns, and the behavior is associated with a number of sleep disorders.
A study from the Nippon Dental University in Tokyo, Japan found that participants with bruxism experienced shallow, unstable sleep patterns, and they had sleep disorders associated with teeth grinding.
Teeth grinding products include mouthpieces that prevent teeth from connecting during sleep.
This product for bruxism can keep you from grinding your teeth, and it can reduce jaw tension as well.
The SleepRight Adjustable Night Guard protects teeth from grinding and clenching during sleep.
This usually requires a visit to a dentist, but you can find products for teeth grinding that offer custom professional fit with the convenience of staying home.
The Custom Professional Night Teeth Grinding Guard is made of soft laminate material.
Teeth grinding and jaw tension are often associated with stress and anxiety, which may be brewing in the subconscious mind.
Treating obstructive sleep apnea with CPAP can stop teeth grinding, according to a study from the Sleep Disorders Unit, Loewenstein Hospital-Rehabilitation Center.
Snoring and bruxism are closely related, but more research is necessary to determine whether products for snoring can alleviate teeth grinding during sleep.
Teeth grinding products may alleviate the sleep problem in many cases.
Possible contributors run the gamut from anxiety to medication, and dealing with these problems may stop you from gnashing your teeth automatically, just as treating sleep apnea can stop teeth grinding from occurring.
If you clench or grind your teeth while sleeping, using teeth grinding protection can help prevent complications.
Fortunately, teeth grinding protection can help prevent the complications of bruxism and keep the teeth, jaw, and mouth healthy.
This provides tooth and enamel protection and can eliminate the problems with teeth grinding.
But with a little work, they could make one hell of a 3-D fighter, a genre which has been in demand and under produced as of late.Still, if you can get past the grinding solo mode and have friends to multiplay with, this is a winner.
Medal Events are exclusive to racing and slopestyle competitions, but Shred Challenges include everything from grinding rails to knocking down tourists and you can replay them all to earn more cash.
Boards and skis (yes, I said skis,) sound different on ice than on snow and you'll hear it when you finally start grinding that rail.
Molars-The teeth behind the primary canines or the permanent premolars, with large crowns and broad chewing surfaces for grinding food.
Localized juvenile periodontitis usually affects the molars (back grinding teeth) and incisors.
For the patient with oscillopsia, grinding prism into the spectacles may move the visual field to a point of decreased oscillopsia.
Night guards are sometimes recommended to ease the strain on the jaw and to limit teeth grinding.
When you purchase this attachment, you will receive that actual grinder and two grinding plates.
One metal plate is for coarse grinding and the second plate is for thinner, finer grinding.
If you already own a mixer and you are interested in grinding meat for your own ground beef or to grind or shred other types of food items, then the meat grinder attachment is a worthwhile purchase.
As an avid coffee drinker can attest, one of the disadvantages to grinding beans in most machines is that the grinding produces a lot of static cling which in turn makes for a big mess.
It is one of the quietest machines on the market which of course is great if you're grinding coffee first thing in the morning.
Glass does keep coffee beans fresher than plastic; however, most people who go through the trouble of grinding coffee want freshly ground coffee for each pot brewed, making a glass receptacle unnecessary.
Most cheaper coffee grinders use a blade for grinding the coffee similar to a blender.
They are easy to clean, but they do have the tendency to add static to the beans during grinding, which can make the finished coffee taste a little burnt.
Flat wheel grinders work by grinding the beans between a rotating and stationary wheel.
They use a cone shaped grinding surface, eliminate the static created by blade grinders.
It is versatile, having sixteen different options for grinding and retails for between $150 and $100.
The food grinder includes a food pusher and wrench combo, and two plates for coarse or fine grinding.
After the vegetables and fruit go through a grinding and cutting mechanism, the strong pressing forces squeeze out the last bit of juice.
Juicers have come a long way since your grandmother squeezed her morning juice by grinding an orange by hand.
If further grinding is needed, simply close it up again and twist it a few more times.
There are a number of different types of hand-held herb grinders available although all types incorporate the same two-part grinding component.
It doesn't include a filtering stage so all of the ground material remains in the grinding area.
Five-piece herb grinder - This herb grinder consists of the standard grinding components and three filtering stages which allow the user to produce very fine powders.
Grinding, brewing, frothing, and steaming are all fully automated.
Common parts in need of replacement on the Rival food grinder include the food platform, the grinding chute, the feed screw, the rotary knife and the chopping cutter.
The Magic Bullet has a super powerful motor that makes it possible to do a range of tasks from chopping to pureeing to even grinding coffee beans.
It is this technology of grinding that is the key to the new innovation of juicing.
The Jay Kordich PowerGrind Pro claims to be revolutionary in that it will produce more juice and nutrients by grinding and extracting fruits, vegetables and even nuts.
You may experience more issues with freshness by grinding your own flour, as some methods can easily invite mold growth into the process.
Your method of rice grinding will depend on your time, tastes, and prudence.
A weak coffee grinder will simply break from the pressure of the task and for this reason, some individuals employ a more "wet" method of grinding rice flour.
Still, hand grinding is a far more arduous task that pouring rice into an electrical model and one must be up to the job.
Likewise, teeth grinding could be a dental issue.
Otherwise, you'll just be grinding them into the leather.
Demonstrating repetitive and obsessive behavior (stimming), such as rocking back and forth, hand flapping, skin picking or teeth grinding excessively.
If drivers don't hear this sign, a grinding sound will eventually become impossible to ignore.
This grinding indicates that irreparable damage may be happening to the rotors as the bare metal of the used-up brake pads scrapes over their carefully-calibrated surface.
If you hear a grinding sound, get your car in for service as soon as possible.
If you attempt to brake and you notice that there's a low grumbling or grinding noise coming from your wheels, you should try to take your car to the nearest auto mechanic as soon as possible.
Also, grinding oatmeal to a powder in a blender or food processor creates a nutritious supplement to the flour.
And if you're in the market for roasting, grinding or brewing equipment, they offer a good selection for coffee lovers.
After grinding, some of the cocoa butter is mixed back in with the liquor to add creaminess, and sugar and vanilla are added.
Grinding the beans is a special process.
The final product at the end of the grinding process is cocoa powder.
In addition, the 6-13 ADC has a grinding mode.
With Alex, the relationship seemed to be either grinding up a long hill or plunging perilously toward the depths of despair.
By this time he had ceased to devote himself to pure mathematics, and in company with his friends Mersenne and Mydorge was deeply interested in the theory of the refraction of light, and in the practical work of grinding glasses of the best shape suitable for optical instruments.
A part of the helium contained in minerals can be extracted by heat or by grinding.
The short period of this evolution is at least one factor in the primitive grade of even the most specialized members of the group. In the advance of their molar teeth from a tritubercular to a grinding type, the author traces a curious parallelism between marsupials and placentals.
Sulphur mining M h 1 supplies large industries of sulphur-refining and grinding, - in spite of American competition.
They are rich in grinding stone, and in phosphatic deposits.
On the one side was the grinding poverty of the poor; on the other the abuses of the governors.
The most profitable unit is calculated to be a daily consumption of 1500 tons of cane, or 150,000 in a grinding season of loo days, which implies a feeding area not above 6000 acres.
The freshness of the new field which was opened up to the imagination - so full of vivid lights and shadows, light-hearted fun, grinding hardship, stirring adventure, heroic action, warm friendships, bitter hatreds - was in exhilarating contrast to the world of the historical romancer and the fashionable novelist, to which the mind of the general reader was at that date given over.
Another process depends upon the formation of lead chloride by grinding together litharge with salt and water, and then treating the alkaline fluid with carbon dioxide until it is neutral.
The action of this mill is really more nearly analogous to that of a centrifugal pump, as no grinding action takes place in it.
In the Knox and Boss mills, which are also employed for the amalgamation of silver ores, the grinding is effected between flat horizontal surfaces instead of conical or curved surfaces as in the previously described forms.
He attacked Leon of Modena's anti-Kabbalistic treatises, and as a result of his conflict with the Venetian Rabbinate left Italy for Amsterdam, where, like Spinoza, he maintained himself by grinding lenses.
The object of this ordinance was to secure revenue, but it led to the institution of serfdom in its most grinding form.
This independence of adaptation applies to every detail of structure; the six cusps of a grinding tooth may all evolve alike, or each may evolve independently and differently.
The maize was ground with a stone roller on the grinding stone or metlatl, still known over Spanish America as the metate, and the meal baked into thin oval cakes called by Aztecs tlaxcalli, and by Spaniards tortilla, which resemble the chapati of India and the oatcake of Scotland.
The Bhandary 's Mate might be observed grinding spices on a stone for the morrow 's curry.
The most serious drain on the population is caused by emigration, due partly to the grinding poverty of the mass of the peasants, partly to the resentment of the subject races against the process of " Magyarization " to which they have long been subjected by the government.
For the latter purpose the hard, somewhat flinty grains are preferable, and they are prepared by grinding off the outer cuticle which forms " pot barley."
Guncotton in an air-dry state, whether in the original form or after grinding to pulp and compressing, burns with very great rapidity but does not detonate unless confined.
When the glass is cold the surplus is removed either by grinding, or by applying heat to a line scratched with a diamond round the bowl.
The first step in this process is that of grinding the surface down until all projections are removed and a close approximation to a perfect plane is obtained.
This term is applied to blown sheet-glass, whose surface has been rendered plane and brilliant by a process of grinding and polishing.