Even Greek can be embossed in it, as you know.
It is an antique style, older than Greek or Egyptian.
You must remember, dear teacher, that Greek parents were very particular with their children, and they used to let them listen to wise words, and I think they understood some of them.
She wore headgear and boxing gloves and faced off against a man with the chiseled features of a Greek god, blond hair and sharp blue eyes.
He's about 19 years old and built like a Greek god.
Come tuck me in, my Greek goddess.
To this chair was soon added that of Greek and politics.
Some days after this the Spartans heard strange news: "Aristomenes is again at the head of the Greek army."
My Greek progresses finely.
In the ancient world, it was Greek in the European arena.
I was familiar with the story of Troy before I read it in the original, and consequently I had little difficulty in making the Greek words surrender their treasures after I had passed the borderland of grammar.
I don't however intend to give up Latin and Greek entirely.
If it is true that the violin is the most perfect of musical instruments, then Greek is the violin of human thought.
The first day I had Elementary Greek and Advanced Latin, and the second day Geometry, Algebra and Advanced Greek.
He bumped into this guy who said he had a friend who couldn't make the tour and the Greek god could take the friend's place.
Mtvciravpos, from Mivws, and Taupos, bull), in Greek mythology, a fabulous Cretan monster with the body of a man and the head of a bull.
Se agapo is Greek, and it means I love thee.
Why all the cities of Greece dispute the honour of being his birthplace is because the Iliad and the Odyssey are not the work of one, but of many popular poets, and a true creation of the Greek people which is in every city of Greece.
DANAE, in Greek legend, daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos.
In the following year he was appointed successor to the celebrated Perizonius, who had held the chair of history, Greek language and eloquence at Leiden.
The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
From February to July, 1898, Mr. Keith came out to Wrentham twice a week, and taught me algebra, geometry, Greek and Latin.
Curiously enough, it never occurred to me to call Greek patronymics "queer."
Leo treated the Uniate Greeks with great loyalty, and by bull of the 18th of May 1521 forbade Latin clergy to celebrate mass in Greek churches and Latin bishops to ordain Greek clergy.
The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was frequently represented in Greek art.
The crowds of men who merely spoke the Greek and Latin tongues in the Middle Ages were not entitled by the accident of birth to read the works of genius written in those languages; for these were not written in that Greek or Latin which they knew, but in the select language of literature.
The man looked like an ancient Greek prince with blond hair and chiseled features.
Please give my love to your good Greek friends, and tell them that I shall come to Athens some day.
With this machine movable type shuttles can be used, and one can have several shuttles, each with a different set of characters--Greek, French, or mathematical, according to the kind of writing one wishes to do on the typewriter.
Liberty is a gigantic figure of a woman in Greek draperies, holding in her right hand a torch....
The subjects I offered were elementary and advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman History.
The student may read Homer or Ã†schylus in the Greek without danger of dissipation or luxuriousness, for it implies that he in some measure emulate their heroes, and consecrate morning hours to their pages.
The Greek prince withdrew the gun at the small of his back, whipping it towards her.
It was famous in Greek mythology, and is frequently mentioned by the great poets, especially by Sophocles.
NEREUS, in Greek mythology, the eldest son of Pontus and Gaea, and father of the fifty Nereids.
MARSYAS, in Greek mythology, a Phrygian god or Silenus, son of Hyagnis.
The contest and punishment of Marsyas were favourite subjects in Greek art, both painting and sculpture.
Leo called Theodore Lascaris to Rome to give instruction in Greek, and established a Greek printing-press from which the first Greek book printed at Rome appeared in 1515.
Fairbanks, A Study of the Greek Paean," No.
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States.
- The editio princeps of the works of Archimedes, with the commentary of Eutocius, is that printed at Basel, in 1544, in Greek and Latin, by Hervagius.
Torelli's monumental edition of the works with the commentaries of Eutocius, published at Oxford in 1792, folio, remained the best Greek text until the definitive text edited, with Eutocius' commentaries, Latin translation, &c., by J.
This is only one of the many Greek legends adopted by the Romans for the purpose of connecting places in Italy with others of likesounding name in Greece.
The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the abolition of such sacrifice by the advance of Greek civilization.
Thus the ancient Greek religion was especially disposed to belief in heroes and demigods.
of Macedon, occurred sporadically even before Alexander's conquests brought Greek life into contact with oriental traditions.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
He explained each time what I did not understand in the previous lesson, assigned new work, and took home with him the Greek exercises which I had written during the week on my typewriter, corrected them fully, and returned them to me.
I think Greek is the loveliest language that I know anything about.
I really believe he knows more Latin and Greek Grammar than Cicero or Homer ever dreamed of!
MEROPE, the name of several figures in Greek mythology.
HERMAGORAS, of Temnos, Greek rhetorician of the Rhodian school and teacher of oratory in Rome, flourished during the first half of the 1st century B.C. He obtained a great reputation among a certain section and founded a special school, the members of which called themselves Hermagorei.
Under Greek influence, he was identified with Hippolytus, who after he had been trampled to death by the horses of Poseidon was restored to life by Asclepius and removed by Artemis to the grove at Aricia, which horses were not allowed to enter.
ARCHIMEDES (c. 287 -212 B.C.), Greek mathematician and inventor, was born at Syracuse, in Sicily.
Great poetry, whether written in Greek or in English, needs no other interpreter than a responsive heart.
She also felt a Greek chariot, and the charioteer would have liked to take her round the ring; but she was afraid of "many swift horses."
Or suppose he comes from reading a Greek or Latin classic in the original, whose praises are familiar even to the so-called illiterate; he will find nobody at all to speak to, but must keep silence about it.
If it comes down to it and we need an ID later in the week, I can locate the Greek god guy and show him the picture, but I didn't want to take the chance this early.
From "Greek Heroes" to the Iliad was no day's journey, nor was it altogether pleasant.
For about a year he studied at Leiden, paying special attention to philosophy and Greek.
She was a considerable linguist and knew English, Italian and some Latin, though she never tackled Greek.
The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i.
Propertius's poems bear evident marks of the study of his predecessors, both Greek and Latin, and of the influence of his contemporaries.
A likeness of him has possibly been preserved in a double Hermes in the Villa Albani and the Vatican, which represents a young beardless Roman, of a nervous and somewhat sickly appearance, together with a Greek poet (Visconti, Iconograph.
It is worn girdled by bishops and priests in all rites, by subdeacons in the Greek and Coptic rites.
Gaining his freedom at the instance of Hungarian magnates, he visited Melanchthon at Wittenberg, and in 152 4 became professor of Greek at the university of Heidelberg, being in addition professor of Latin from 1526.
while holding the chair of Greek, was appointed extraordinary professor of theology, and gave exegetical lectures on the New Testament.
178), they were for a time very troublesome, as wreckers and pirates, to the reopened commerce between Egypt and the East, till they were chastised by the Greek sovereigns of Alexandria.
The site is one of great natural strength and remarkable beauty, though quite unlike that of other Greek cities in Sicily.
He had a share in an attempt made towards union with the Greek Church.
It is thus clear that in the Bronze Age Sardinia was fairly thickly populated over by far the greater part of its extent; this may explain the lack of Greek colonies, except for Olbia, the modern Terranova, and Neapolis on the cians.
- p west coast, which must from their names have been Greek, though we do not know when or by whom they were founded.
There were salt-works in Sardinia too as early as about 150 B.C., as is attested by an inscription assigned to this date in Latin, Greek and Punic, being a dedication by one Cleon salari(us) soc(iorum) s(ervus) (Corp. Inscr.
The Greek language occurs in their official seals down to the 13th century.
In 1834 he became a fellow of Trinity, in 1853 professor of Greek (to which a canonry in Ely Cathedral was then for the first time attached), and in 1866 master of his college.
TYPHON (TYPHAON, TYPHOEUS), in Greek mythology, youngest son of Gaea and Tartarus.
This is confirmed by the employment in Byzantine Greek of the term thTros or ioirra to designate domesticated cats brought from Egypt.
A form nearer to the Greek original, "anachoret," is sometimes used of the early Christian recluses in the East.
MEGARA, an ancient Greek town on the road from Attica to Corinth.
pioneers of Greek commerce.
The story of his disgust when he found that Queen Christina devoted some time every day to the study of Greek under the tuition of Vossius is at least true in substance.'
No traces of Jewish worship have been found at Ostia, but at Portus a considerable number of Jewish inscriptions in Greek have come to light.
EREBUS, in Greek mythology, son (according to Hesiod, Theog.
His fathers took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
See ATHENS: History; GREECE: Ancient History; and GREEK ART.
From the time of its foundation as a Greek colony to the present day it has always been a considerable emporium of commerce, and it was for two centuries and a half the capital of an empire.
of Coins of Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India, Brit.
We find the office mentioned in a Corcyraean inscription dating probably from the 7th century B.C., and it continued to grow more important and frequent throughout Greek history.
von Jhering, Die Gastfreundschaft im Altertum (1887); see also Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1890).
Macedon to the headship of the Greek states, and the air was charged with great ideas.
The coming and going of envoys from many states, Greek and Oriental, taught him something of the actual conditions of the world.
of Epirus in the presence of a great concourse from all the Greek world.
Philip's removal had made all the hill-peoples of the north and west raise their heads and set the Greek states free from their fears.
In the spring of 334, Alexander crossed with an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, Macedonians, Illyrians, Thracians and the contingents of the Greek states, into Asia.
And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
Only where the cities were held by garrisons in the Persian service, garrisons composed mainly of Greek mercenaries, was the liberator likely to meet with any resistance.
Ostensibly a solemn revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes, it has been justified as a symbolical act calculated to impress usefully the imagination of the East, and condemned as a senseless and vainglorious work of destruction.
Till the spring of 327 Alexander was moving to and fro in Bactria and Sogdiana, beating down the recurrent rebellions and planting Greek cities.
A great part of the land-forces had been already sent off under Craterus in the earlier summer to return west by Kandahar and Seistan; the fleet was to sail under the Greek Nearchus from the Indus mouth with the winter monsoon; Alexander himself with the rest of the land-forces set out in October to go by the 2 Beside V.
The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.
It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original.
Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent.
The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
Greek singing octave; we may therefore regard it as a tone lower than that to which we are accustomed.
Ellis used this indication to have an organ pipe made which with one-sixteenth diameter and a wind-pressure of 34 in., at one-fourth Schlick's length, gave f' 301.6, from which he derived a just major third of a' 377, which would compare very well with an old Greek a'.
Till 1881 it was the seat of a pasha in the vilayet of Jannina; it is now the capital of the Greek province and the seat of a nomarch.
Larissa was the headquarters of Ali Pasha during the Greek War of Independence, and of the crown prince Constantine during the Greco-Turkish War; the flight of the Greek army from this place to Pharsala took place on the 23rd of April 1897.
Greek ' Bvri, tribes, races, the word used for the "Gentiles" in the New Testament.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
Of these cognate races, which are described by the Greek writers as barbarous or non-Hellenic, the Illyrians and Epirots, he thinks, were respectively the progenitors of the Ghegs, or northern, and the Tosks, or southern, Albanians.
They played a brilliant part in the War of Independence (1821-1829), and to-day supply the Greek army with its best soldiers.
A large number still speak the Albanian language; many of the older men, and a considerable proportion of the women, even in the neighbourhood of Athens, are ignorant of Greek.
Of the Albanians in Sicily the great majority (4479 1) remain faithful to the Greek Church; in Italy 116,482 follow the Latin ritual, and 38,192 the Greek.
In southern Albania there are Greek schools in the towns and a large Greek gymnasium at Iannina.
The priests of the Greek Church, on whom the rural population depend for instruction, are often deplorably ignorant.
The merchant families of Iannina are well educated; the dialect spoken in that town is the purest specimen of colloquial Greek.
The groundwork, so far as it can be ascertained, and the grammar are Indo-European, but a large number of words have been borrowed from the Latin or Italian and Greek, and it is not always easy to decide whether the mutilated and curtailed forms now in use represent adopted words or belong to the original vocabulary.
Notwithstanding certain points of resemblance in structure and phonetics, Albanian is entirely distinct from the neighbouring languages; in its relation to early Latin and Greek it may be regarded as a co-ordinate member of the Aryan stock.
There are two conjugations; the passive formation, now wanting inmost Indo-European languages, has been retained, as in Greek; thus kerko-iy, " I seek," forms kerko-n -em, " I am sought."
The infinitive is not found; as in Greek, Rumanian and Bulgarian, it is replaced by the subjunctive with a particle.
The Tosks generally use the Greek language for written communications.
In general, the remains of the classical epoch attest the influence of Roman rather than of Greek civilization.
At Khimara (anc. Chimaera) the remains of an old Greek city may still be seen; at Santi Quaranta (anc. Onchesmos) the walls and towers of a later town are in good preservation.
IDUMAEA ('160v saia), the Greek equivalent of Edom (aip), a territory which, in the works of the Biblical writers, is considered to lie S.E.
It is the seat of a Greek bishop, an Armenian archbishop and a Roman Catholic bishop, and there is a Jesuit school.
But Sulla in Greece and Fimbria in Asia defeated his armies in several battles; the Greek cities were disgusted by his severity, and in 84 he concluded peace, abandoning all his conquests, surrendering his fleet and paying a fine of 2000 talents.
He collected curiosities and works of art; he assembled Greek men of letters round him; he gave prizes to the greatest poets and the best eaters.
Classified according to religion, the various denominations were, in 1901, as follows: Presbyterians, 65,310; Episcopalians, 44,874; Methodists, 49,909; Roman Catholics, 35, 622; Baptists, 9098; Lutherans, 16,473; Mennonites, 15,222; Greek Catholics, 7898; other denominations, 9903; not specified, 638.
The first Greek writer, so far as we know, who does so is Heraclitus (c. 500 B.C.).
An important effect of these books was the grecizing of Roman religion by the introduction of foreign deities and rites (worshipped and practised in the Troad) and the amalgamation of national Italian deities with the corresponding Greek ones (fully discussed in J.
He was appointed to the Greek professorship in the autumn of that year.
It culminated in 1864, when the country clergy, provoked by the final acquittal of the essayists, had voted in convocation against the endowment of the Greek chair.
In connexion with the Greek professorship Jowett had undertaken a work on Plato which grew into a complete translation of the Dialogues, with introductory essays.
He died on the 23rd of June 1707, just a fortnight after the publication of his Greek Testament.
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
The Madonna della Steccata (Our Lady of the Palisade), a fine church in the form of a Greek cross, erected between 1521 and 1539 after Zaccagni's designs, contains the tombs and monuments of many of the Bourbon and Farnese dukes of Parma, and preserves its pictures, Parmigiano's "Moses Breaking the Tables of the Law" and Anselmi's "Coronation of the Virgin."
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Greek mythology.
The name Varuna may be Indo-European, identifiable, some believe, with the Greek ofpavos (Uranus), and ultimately referable to a root var, " to cover," Varuna thus meaning "the Encompasser."
During the second period the pupil has a choice of four courses: (1) Latin and Greek; (2) Latin and sciences; (3) Latin and modern languages; (4) sciences and modern languages.
(I) it is a corruption of the ancient name, Egeopelago; (2) it is from the modern Greek, `Ayco iraayo, the Holy Sea; (3) it arose at the time of the Latin empire, and means the Sea of the Kingdom (Arche); (4) it is a translation of the Turkish name, Ak Denghiz, Argon Pelagos, the White Sea; (5) it is simply Archipelagus, Italian, arcipelago, the chief sea.
He then definitely resigned public employment and devoted himself to the study of Greek.
In 1809 he was appointed deputy professor of Greek at the faculty of letters at Paris, and titular professor in 1813 on the death of P. H.
Gail in the chair of Greek at the College de France.
Boissonade chiefly devoted his attention to later Greek literature: Philostratus, Heroica (1806) and Epistolae (1842); Marinus, Vita procli (1814); Tiberius Rhetor, De Figuris (1815); Nicetas Eugenianus, Drosilla et Charicles (1819); Herodian, Partitiones (1819); Aristaenetus, Epistolae (1822); Eunapius, Vitae Sophisiarum (1822); Babrius, Fables (1844); Tzetzes, Allegoriae Iliados (1851); and a Collection of Greek Poets in 24 vols.
The Anecdota Graeca (1829-1833) and Anecdota Nova (1844) are important for Byzantine history and the Greek grammarians.
He lectured in the schools on natural philosophy, and on Greek in his own rooms. In 1540 Smith went abroad, and, after studying in France and Italy and taking a degree of law at Padua, returned to Cambridge in 1542.
He now took the lead in the reform of the pronunciation of Greek, his views after considerable controversy being universally adopted.
As an editor of the Greek classics, Ernesti hardly deserves to be named beside his Dutch contemporaries, Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685-1766), L.
For the character of the sculptures see Greek Art.
The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
There are other indications, too, of the importance of the Aeginetan fleet in the Greek scheme of defence.
At this point in the Haram enclosure there is an enormous underground cistern, known as the Great Sea, and this may possibly have been the source of water supply for the Greek garrison.
TIMOCREON, of Ialysus in Rhodes, Greek lyric poet, flourished about 480 B.C. During the Persian wars he had been banished on suspicion of "medism."
The date of the evidence, however, has not been fixed with unanimity, and this very The musical service of the temple has no place in the Pentateuch, but was considerably developed under the second temple and attracted the special attention of Greek observers (Theophrastus, apud Porphyry, de Abstin.
PHEIDIAS, son of Charmides, universally regarded as the greatest of Greek sculptors, was born at Athens about 500 B.C. We have varying accounts of his training.
yvvacKE70v, from yvvi i, woman), that part in a Greek house which was specially reserved for the women, in contradistinction to the "andron," the men's quarters; in the larger houses there was an open court with peristyles round, and as a rule all the rooms were on the same level; in smaller houses the servants were placed in an upper storey, and this seems to have been the case to a certain extent in the Homeric house of the Odyssey.
Its colonies extended not only eastward along the southern coast of Asia Minor, but also linked up the island with the westernmost parts of the Greek world.
of Syria on behalf of the minor Greek states.
It was formerly the seat of a Greek bishopric, removed to Czernowitz in 1786, and possesses a cathedral (1402) with the tombs of several Moldavian princes.
We learn that he intervened in the Greek city Seleucia in favour of the oligarchs (Tac. Ann.
He was for a few years a successful "coach" at Oxford, but in 1838 Was bitterly disappointed at not being elected to the professorship of Greek at Glasgow.
AMPHILOCHUS, in Greek legend, a famous seer, son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle and brother of Alcmaeon.
The island was perhaps occupied by Greek settlers even before Cumae; its Eretrian and Chalcidian inhabitants abandoned it about Soo B.C. owing to an eruption, and it is said to have been deserted almost at once by the greater part of the garrison which Hiero I.
The pre-Socratics may be classed as naïve materialists in this sense; though, as at that early period the contrast between matter and spirit had not been' fully realized and matter was credited with properties that belong to life, it is usual to apply the term hylozoism to the earliest stage of Greek metaphysical theory.
GOLDEN FLEECE, in Greek mythology, the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle escaped, for which see Argonauts.
Khosrev was executed in Asia Minor by his orders; a plot of the spahis to depose him was frustrated by the loyalty of Koes Mahommed, aga of the janissaries, and of the spahi Rum Mahommed (Mahommed the Greek); and on the 29th of May 1632, by a successful personal appeal to the loyalty of the janissaries, Murad crushed the rebels, whom he surrounded in the Hippodrome.
Crete indeed profited by the grant of extended privileges, but these did not satisfy its turbulent population, and early in 1897 a Greek expedition sailed to unite the island to Greece.
He published Lives of Foreign Statesmen (1830), The Greek and the Turk (1853), and Reigns of Louis X VIII.
In 1546 he accepted a professorial chair at Lucca, which he exchanged in 1555 for that of Greek and Latin literature at Milan.
The New Mosque (Jamaa-el-Jedid), dating from the 17th century, is in the form of a Greek cross, surmounted by a large white cupola, with four small cupolas at the corners.
SARPEDON, in Greek legend, son of Zeus and Laodameia, Lycian prince and hero of the Trojan war.
According to Edmund Waller he was "very well read in the Greek and Roman story."
He founded a new readership in Divinity, and presented Greek MSS.
The history of Gregory by Agathangelus is a compilation of about 450, which was rendered into Greek 550.
He in effect turned his country into a province of the Greek see of Cappadocia.
In 1833 he was appointed professor of Greek and Roman philosophy at the college of France and a member of the Academy of Sciences; he then published the Mélanges philosophiques (4th ed.
He early developed a gift for languages, becoming familiar not only with Latin and Greek but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other Eastern tongues.
The plays of Plautus are all based on Greek originals.'
5-20, may in most cases have formed part of the Greek original.
285) - names which stand in remarkable contrast to the more commonplace Greek names employed by Terence.
Nonnus, the Greek poet, was born at Panopolis at the end of the 4th century.
In Greek mythology he is the son of Hermes (or Pan) and a nymph.
The law and custom which preceded the Code we shall call " early," that of the New Babylonian empire (as well as the Persian, Greek, &c.) " late.
Elba was famous for its mines in early times, and the smelting furnaces gave it its Greek name of A' OaNia ("soot island").
The men are hardy, well built and handsome; and the women are noted for their beauty, the ancient Greek type being well preserved.
The Cyclades and Northern Sporades, with Euboea and small islands under the Greek shore, belong to Greece; the other islands to Turkey.
Unfortunately several of these fertile tracts suffer severely from malaria (q.v.), and especially the great plain adjoining the Gulf of Tarentum, which in the early ages of history was surrounded by a girdle of Greek cities—some of which attained to almost unexampled prosperity—has for centuries past been given up to almost complete desolation.
The Albanians of the southern provinces still employ the Greek rite and the Greek language in their public worship, and their priests, like those of the Greek Church, are allowed to marry.
There are, besides, in Italy some 2500 members of the Greek Orthodox Church.
In 488 Theodoric, king of the East Goths, received commission from the Greek emperor, Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
Ravenna, entrenched within her lagoons, remained a Greek city.
Liudprand pressed hard, not only upon the Greek dominions of the exarchate, but also upon Rome.
Not to mention Venice, which has not yet entered the Italian community, and remains a Greek free city, Genoa and Pisa were rapidly rising into ill-defined autonomy.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
The Venetians, who contracted for the transport of the crusaders, and whose blind doge Dandolo was first to land in Constantinople, received one-half and onefourth of the divided Greek empire for their spoils.
The extension of the Italian zone excited the suspicions of John, negus of Abyssinia, whose apprehensions were assiduously fomented by Alula, ras of Tigr, and by French and Greek adventurers.
At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin versions were probably published as well.
Like Fabius Pictor, he wrote in Greek.
For instance, he asserts the number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly 527; again, in a certain year when no Greek or Latin writers mention any important campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle with enormous casualties.
Indian Vedic henotheism (otherwise called kathenotheism); 3 Semitic monolatry, so important as the probable starting-point of religious development in Israel; the Greek use of " Zeus " almost as we say " God " - even the attempt to arrange deities in a monarchical pantheon, all show the tendency, though it so seldom attains a real victory.
Greek philosophy for our purpose begins with Socrates, who formulated the Design Argument.
With all its idealism, Greek thought had difficulty in regarding rational necessity as absolute master of the physical world.
He blends the tradition of the Old Testa ment with Greek philosophy, and, within the latter, exhibits that union of Platonism with Stoicism, especially in the doctrine of the Logos, which became dominant in the Christian apologists and the great theologians of the ancient church.
Caird (St Andrews: The Evolution of Religion; Glasgow: The Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophies) represent speculative treatment on a basis of Hegelianism.
It is also called the Simeonstor, after a Greek hermit who inhabited it.
The speculations of the fathers respecting the origin and course of the world seek to combine Christian ideas of the Deity with doctrines of Greek philosophy.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
An example of a return to early Greek speculation is to be met with in Bernardino Telesio.
It is to be noticed, however, that, even after such phenomena have been properly grouped and designated under Greek names as laws of organic growth, they have not become explanations of the series of facts they correlate.
Harrison, Prolegomena to Greek Religion (1908), p. 414; H.
During his reign the atmosphere of Roman society was heavily charged with the popular Greek philosophy to which, ethics apart, Christianity was diametrically opposed.
Davis, Greek and Roman Stoicism (1903); editions of the Meditations (5, below).
The Greek Lent begins on the Monday of Sexagesima, with a week of preparatory fasting, known as TvpoOl yca, or the "butter-week"; the actual fast, however, starts on the Monday of Quinquagesima (Estomihi), this week being known as "the first week of the fast" (050µas T&vv vriamtwv).
8), it is not necessary to take it in the technical Greek sense when the usage of Philo and Josephus permits a looser meaning.
PHARMACY, a term which in the original Greek form signified the use of any kind of drug (46p,uaKov), potion or spell, and hence also poison and witchcraft.
Neither of these could be called "small islands" or described as off the north-west coast of Spain, and so the Cassiterides were not identified with either by the Greek and Roman geographers.
ORPHEUS, in Greek legend, the chief representative of the art of song and playing on the lyre, and of great importance in the religious history of Greece.
Although by some he was held to be a Greek, the tradition of his Thracian origin was most generally accepted.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
Gruppe in Roscher's Lexikon der Mythologie and by P. Monceaux in Daremberg and Saglio's Dictionnaire des antiquites; " Orphia " in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities (3rd ed., 1891), by L.
Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (2nd ed., 1908, with a critical appendix by Gilbert Murray on the Orphic tablets); E.
Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, i.
Here he set fire to the cedar roof of the palace of Xerxes as a symbol that the Greek war of revenge against the Persians had come to an end.
Of Greek towns which they founded here we know Alexandria in Carmania (Plin.
The Greek hippodrome was usually set out on the slope of a hill, and the ground taken from one side served to form the embankment on the other side.
The natural su p position that the earth Greek .
Beyond the limits of his personal travels Herodotus applied the characteristically Greek theory of symmetry to complete, in the unknown, outlines The ides of lands and rivers analogous to those which had been of symexplored.
It was natural, if not strictly logical, that the ocean river should be extended from a narrow stream to a world-embracing sea, and here again Greek theory, or rather fancy, gave its modern name to the greatest feature of the globe.
150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
The Greco-Persian wars had made the remoter parts of Asia Minor more than a name to the Greek geographers before the time of Alexander the Great, but the campaigns of that conqueror from 329 to 325 B.C. opened up the greater Asia to the knowledge of Europe.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
iv., ch., 8, 9; Drumann, Geschichte Roms, 1 A short epigram on Aphrodite in the Greek Anthology (Anth.
ANTILOCHUS, in Greek legend, son of Nestor, king of Pylos.
He was distinguished for his beauty, swiftness of foot, and skill as a charioteer; though the youngest among the Greek princes, he commanded the Pylians in the war, and performed many deeds of valour.
high, the remains of a mosque dating from the Turkish occupation, other Roman Catholic churches, and an imposing Greek church.
DIOGENES APOLLONIATES (c. 460 B.C.), Greek natural philosopher, was a native of Apollonia in Crete.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); H.
c. 760) as the last of the fathers of the Greek Church.
1216), and his Greek patrology to the fall of Constantinople (1453); but, while this large extension of the field is much to the advantage of his readers, it undoubtedly stretches the meaning of patrologia far beyond its natural limits.
A second group, known as the "Greek Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers, Irenaeus and 4 In his book De viris illustribus.
The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventysix with the Latin fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.2 For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred to the articles which deal with them separately.
The contents of the volumes of Migne's patrologies are given in the Catalogue general des livres de l'abbe Migne, and a useful list in alphabetical order of the writers in the Greek Patrologia has been compiled by Dr J.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
Satisfactory lexicons of patristic Greek and Latin are still a desideratum: but assistance may be obtained in the study of the Greek fathers from Suicer's Thesaurus, the Lexicon of Byzantine Greek by E.
For a fuller list of books useful to the reader of the Greek and Latin'fathers see H.
about 1140), wrote in Arabic a philosophical work based on Greek and Arabic as well as Jewish authorities, known by the name of the Hebrew translation as Arugath ha-bosem, and the Kitab al-Mahadarah, of great value for literary history.
It shows considerable knowledge of Greek and Arabic thought (Avicenna).
HECTOR, in Greek mythology, son of Priam and Hecuba, the husband of Andromache.
His chief exploits during the war were his defence of the wounded Sarpedon, his fight with Ajax, son of Telamon (his particular enemy), and the storming of the Greek ramparts.
HYSTASPES (the Greek form of the Persian Vishtaspa).
According to him, history is philosophy teaching by examples, and this idea he has carried out from the point of view of the Greek rhetorician.
The island is now the seat of a Greek bishopric. There is communication with the mainland by occasional vessels.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
400), Greek geographer, was born at Heraclea in Pontus.
The Greek form of Gallia was FaXaria, but Galatia in Latin denoted another Celtic region in central Asia Minor, sometimes styled Gallograecia.
(b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek colony of Massilia was founded (?
Gradually the province was extended north of Massilia, up the Rhone, while the Greek town itself became weak and dependent on Rome.
LAMPSACUS, an ancient Greek colony in Mysia, Asia Minor, known as Pityusa or Pityussa before its colonization by Ionian Greeks from Phocaea and Miletus, was situated on the Hellespont, opposite Callipolis (Gallipoli) in Thrace.
The ancient name is preserved in that of the modern village of Lapsaki, but the Greek town possibly lay at Chardak immediately opposite Gallipoli.
But when Greek deities were introduced into Rome on the advice of the Sibylline books (in 495 B.C., on the occasion of a severe drought), Demeter, the Greek goddess of seed and harvest, whose worship was already common in Sicily and Lower Italy, usurped the place of Ceres in Rome, or rather, to Ceres were added the religious rites which the Greeks paid to Demeter, and the mythological incidents which originated with her.
The rites of Ceres were Greek in language and form.
Her priestesses were Italian Greeks and her temple was Greek in its architecture and built by Greek artists.
ELYSIUM, in Greek mythology, the Elysian fields, the abode of the righteous after their removal from earth.
In one place the Christians were in utter bondage, in another they were simply tributary; still, everywhere the Mussulman Saracen formed the ruling class, the Christian Greek formed the subject class.
Besides these two main races, Greek and Saracen, others came in through the Norman invasion itself.
The Normans in Sicily, so far as they did not die out, were merged, not in a Sicilian nation, for that did not exist, but in the common mass of settlers of Latin speech and rite, as distinguished from the older inhabitants, Greek and Saracen.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
The speech of the Lombards at last got the better of Greek, Arabic and French; how far its ascendancy can have been built on any survival of an earlier Latin speech which had lived on alongside of Greek and Arabic this is not the place to inquire.
The three tongues of Palermo are Greek, Arabic and Latin.
Documents were drawn up in such and so many of these tongues as was convenient for the parties concerned; not a few private documents add a fourth tongue, and are drawn up in Greek, Arabic, Latin and Hebrew.
In Sicily, Greek, Arabic, Latin and its children were the tongues of distinct nations; French might be the politest speech, but neither Greek nor Arabic could be set down as a vulgar tongue, Arabic even less than Greek.
The Greek had created the column; the Roman had developed it; the Roman Greek'or Greek Roman had taught the column to bear the cupola; the Saracen had taught it to bear arches of his own favourite pointed shape.
But, if the Saracen gave the lines of the building, the Greek gave the mosaic decorations of its walls.
They had simply to make Saracen and Greek work in partnership. In England, on the other hand, the Normans did really bring in a new style of their own, their own form of Romanesque, differing widely indeed from the Saracenic style of Sicily.
His name, in which the Greek Avbpovucos is combined with the gentile name of one of the great Roman houses, while indicative of his own position as a manumitted slave, is also significant of the influences by which Roman literature was fostered, viz.
The imitation of Greek comedy, tragedy and epic poetry, which produced great results in the hands of Naevius, Plautus, Ennius and their successors, received its first impulse from him.
We learn from Suetonius that, like Ennius after him, he obtained his living by teaching Greek and Latin; and it was probably as a school-book, rather than as a work of literary pretension, that his translation of the Odyssey into Latin Saturnian verse was executed.
1., 69), and, although faultily executed, satisfied a real want by introducing the Romans to a knowledge of Greek.
Such knowledge became essential to men in a high position as a means of intercourse with Greeks, while Greek literature stimulated the minds of leading Romans.
Moreover, southern Italy and Sicily afforded many opportunities for witnessing representations of Greek comedies and tragedies.
The Romans and Italians had an indigenous drama of their own, known by the name of Satura, which prepared them for the reception of the more regular Greek drama.
In 240, the year after the end of the first Punic War, he produced at the ludi Romani a translation of a Greek play (it is uncertain whether a comedy or tragedy or both), and this representation marks the beginning of Roman literature (Livy vii.
The Propylaea were approached in Greek times by a zig-zag path, terraced along the rock; this was superseded in Roman times by a broad flight of steps.
In the Greek Church the older form remains, usually placed at the side.
In the Uniate Greek Catholic Church the "ambo" has become a table, on which are placed a crucifix and lights, before the doors of the iconostasis; here baptisms, marriages and confirmations take place.
The case is again often misunderstood because the words "patrician" and "plebeian," like so many other technical Roman and Greek words, have come in modern language to be used in a way quite unlike their original sense.
The other old Greek cities, as well as those of medieval Italy and Germany, would supply us with endless examples of the various ways in which privileged orders arose.
FLORA, in Roman mythology, goddess of spring-time and flowers, later identified with the Greek Chloris.
The last name is commonly written Boethius, from the idea that it is connected with the Greek (30rtOos; but the best manuscripts agree in reading Boetius.
In his early years he was seized with a passionate enthusiasm for Greek literature, and this continued through life.
The idea laid hold of him of reviving the spirit of his countrymen by imbuing them with the thoughts of the great Greek writers.
Versions of it appeared in German, French, Italian, Spanish and Greek before the end of the 15th century.
The importance of these principles lies not only in their intrinsic value as an ethical system, but also in the fact that they form the link between Socrates and the Stoics, between the essentially Greek philosophy of the 4th century B.C. and a system of thought which has exercised a profound and far-reaching influence on medieval and modern ethics.
Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, Eng.
Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904), ii.
During the Crimean War he commanded the troops on the Greek frontier and distinguished himself by his bravery.
ALCMENE, in ancient Greek mythology, the daughter of Electryon, king of Mycenae, and wife of Amphitryon.
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
- In Greek, hiroXo yia is the defendant's reply (personally, not through a lawyer) to the speech for the prosecution - Kar?
Of course, defence easily passes into counterattack, as when early apologists denounce Greek and Roman religion.
The atmosphere is no longer Jewish but fully Greek.
Allied with this more empiricist stand-point is the assertion that Greek philosophy borrowed from Moses; but in studying the Fathers we constantly find that groundless assertion uttered in the same breath with the dominant Idealist view, according to which Greek philosophy was due to incomplete revelation from the divine Logos.
ADMETUS, in Greek legend, son of Pheres, king of Pherae in Thessaly.
AEACUS, in Greek legend, ancestor of the Aeacidae, was the son of Zeus and Aegina, daughter of the river-god Asopus.
Thus among those who became "tyrants" in the Greek world he gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of Sicyon, who had previously been a cook.
It is said that he gave a great impetus to the dramatic representations which belonged to the Dionysiac cult, and that it was under his encouragement that Thespis of Icaria, by impersonating character, laid the foundation of the great Greek drama of the 5th and 4th centuries.
It should be observed that the tyranny of Peisistratus is one of the many epochs of Greek history on which opinion has almost entirely changed since the age of Grote.
Further, his rule exemplifies what is characteristic of all the Greek tyrannies - the advantage which the ancient monarchy had over the republican form of government.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
ARETHUSA, in Greek mythology, a nymph who gave her name to a spring in Elis and to another in the island of Ortygia near Syracuse.
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, ii.
HERACLITUS (`HpaKActTos; c. 540-475 B.C.), Greek philo sopher, was born at Ephesus of distinguished parentage.
To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism.
A good deal of the information in regard to his doctrines has been gathered from the later Greek philosophy, which was deeply influenced by it.
Diels, Heraklit von Ephesus (2nd ed., 1909), Greek and German.
Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy (1892); A.
The state religion is that of the Orthodox Greek Church (Orthodox Catholic or Orthodox Eastern Church).
According to returns published in 1905 the adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows, though the heading Orthodox Greek includes a very great many Raskolniki or Dissenters.
The Mordvinians are nearly all Orthodox Greek, as also are the Votyaks, Voguls, Cheremisses and Chuvashes, but their religions are, in reality, modifications of Shamanism under the influence of some Christian and Moslem beliefs.
From that moment Ivan's subjects noticed a change in his attitude towards them, and attributed it to the evil influence of the Greek princess.
Ivan III., notwithstanding the influence of his Greek consort, showed some respect for the ancient traditions and the susceptibilities of those around him, but his successor Basil did not follow his father's example.
A boyar of Nizhniy-Novgorod who allowed himself to criticize the new order of things, and attributed the change to the influence of the Greek princess, had his tongue cut out.
By the peace of Jassy, signed in January 1792, she retained Ochakov and the coast between the Bug and the Dniester, and she secured certain privileges for the Danubian principalities, but the Turks remained in Constantinople, and the realization of the famous Greek project, as it was termed, had to be indefinitely postponed.
Akerman, by which the autonomy of Moldavia,Walachia and Servia was confirmed, free passage of the straits was secured for merchant ships and disputed territory on the Asiatic frontier was annexed, and in July 1827 he signed with England and France the treaty of London for the solution of the Greek question by the mediation of the Powers.
'This attempt of Russia to secure the sole prestige of liberating Greece was, however, frustrated by the action of the other Powers in putting forward the principle of the independence of the new Greek state, with a further extension of frontiers.
From it came the three archaic metopes now in the museum at Palermo, which are of great importance in the history of the development of art, showing Greek sculpture in its infancy.
GUARINO [GUARINUS] DA VERONA (1370-1460), one of the Italian restorers of classical learning, was born in 1370 at Verona, and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras.
When he set out on his return to Italy he was the happy possessor of two cases of precious Greek MSS.
He supported himself as a teacher of Greek, first at Verona and afterwards in Venice and Florence; in 1436 he became, through the patronage of Lionel, marquis of Este, professor of Greek at Ferrara; and in 1438 and following years he acted as interpreter for the Greeks at the councils of Ferrara and Florence.
Both the mainland of Greece and the Greek colonies practised human sacrifice, usually as a means towards expulsion of evil.
Important features of Greek sacrifice, though not necessarily found in every rite, were the putting of wreaths and pieces of wool on the victim, the gilding of its horns, the lustration of the officiant and the sprinkling of those present with holy water.
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, especially i.
and li., and in Greek literature the striking words which Porphyry quotes from an earlier writer, "We ought, then, having been united and made like to God, to offer our own conduct as a holy sacrifice to Him, the same being also a hymn and our salvation in passionless excellence of soul" (Euseb.
In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.
In Armenia the Greek word agape has been used ever since the 4th century to indicate these sacrificial meals, which either began or ended with a eucharistic celebration.
of the Greek Euchologion contain numerous prayers to be offered over animals sacrificed; and in the form of agape such sacrifices were common in Italy and Gaul on the natalis dies of a saint, and Paulinus of Nola, the friend of Augustine, in his Latin poems, describes them (c. 400) in detail.
C. Conybeare, Rituale Armenorum, (Oxford, 1905; it contains the oldest Latin and Greek forms), The Key of Truth (Oxford, 1898), and art.
9 (4, 5), on the relation of Greek sacrifices and festivals to Kou'wviac and politics: al yap apxaiac Ovotac Kai vuvoSoa 4aivovrac yiyveo-Oat uera rhs Kaplrcov crvyKoptSas olov airapxai; cf.
(b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.
But now as we enter the Greek period (320 B.C. and onwards) there is a gradual change from prophecy to apocalyptic. " It may be asserted in general terms that whereas prophecy foretells a definite future which has its foundation in the present, apoca lyptic directs its anticipations solely and simply to the future, to a new world-period which stands sharply contrasted with the present.
The added conception of the resurrection of the righteous does not appear in the world of Jewish thought till the early Greek period in Isa.
Gomperz, Greek Thinkers (Eng.
FAVORINUS (2nd century A.D.), Greek sophist and philosopher, flourished during the reign of Hadrian.
The same zeal for union induced him, during the residence of Peter the Great in France, and at that monarch's request, to draw up a plan for uniting the Greek and Roman churches.
suggests that Citium was the administrative centre of Cyprus during the Assyrian protectorate (709-668 B.C.).5 During the Greek revolts of 500, 386 foll.
and 352 B.C., Citium led the side loyal to Persia and was besieged by an Athenian force in 449 B.C.; its extensive necropolis proves that it remained a considerable city even after the Greek cause triumphed with Alexander.
TIMON (c. 320-230), of Phlius, Greek sceptic philosopher and satirical poet, a pupil of Stilpo the Megarian and Pyrrho of Elis.
HESPERIDES, in Greek mythology, maidens who guarded the golden apples which Earth gave Hera on her marriage to Zeus.
Here in the course of two years (1749-1750), interrupted by danger and debility, he " painfully climbed into the third form "; but it was left to his riper age to " acquire the beauties of the Latin and the rudiments of the Greek tongue."
With the systematic study of the Latin, and to a slight extent also of the Greek classics, he conjoined that of logic in the prolix system of Crousaz; and he further invigorated his reasoning powers, as well as enlarged his knowledge of metaphysics and jurisprudence, by the perusal of Locke, Grotius and Montesquieu.
- Last year and this I read St John's Gospel, with part of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, the Iliad, and Herodotus; but, upon the whole, I rather neglected my Greek."
It was during this period that he read Homer and Longinus, having for the first time acquired some real mastery of Greek; and after the publication of the Essai, his mind was full of projects for a new literary effort.
He now " plunged into the ocean of the Augustan history," and " with pen almost always in hand," pored over all the original records, Greek and Latin, between Trajan and the last of the Western Caesars.
He deepened and extended his acquaintance with Greek, particularly with his favourite authors Homer and Xenophon; and, to crown all, he succeeded in achieving the third perusal of Blackstone's Commentaries.
This chapter has also appeared in Polish (Cracow, 1844) and Greek (Athens, 1840).
At the outbreak of the Second Punic War (219 B.C.) it was a large and commercially prosperous town of native - not Greek - origin.
He also carried on fruitless negotiations for church unity with the Armenians and with the Greek emperor, John Cantacuzenus.
The Madonna della Ghiara, built in 1597 in the form of a Greek cross, and restored in 1900, is beautifully proportioned and finely decorated in stucco and with frescoes of the Bolognese school of the early 17th century.
Wiegand and Schrader in 1895-1898 have laid bare the site of the Greek Priene, and the same has been done for the remains of Magnesia ad Maeandrum by French excavators in 1842-1843 and the German expedition under K.
In the Persian epoch, native dynasts established themselves in Caria and even extended their rule over the Greek cities.
DEMETER, in Greek mythology, daughter of Cronus and Rhea and sister of Zeus, goddess of agriculture and civilized life.
Farnell (Cults of the Greek States, iii.
In this wider sense Demeter is akin to Ge, with whom she has several epithets in common, and is sometimes identified with Rhea-Cybele; thus Pindar speaks of Demeter xaXKoKparos (" brass-rattling "), an epithet obviously more suitable to the Asiatic than to the Greek earth-goddess.
Kuhn, is the etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of the two Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri, the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical.
In Greek art, Demeter is made to resemble Hera, only more matronly and of milder expression; her form is broader and fuller.
The article Greek Art, fig.
Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion (1903); L.
Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, iii.
ANTIGONE, (I) in Greek legend, daughter of Oedipus and Iocaste (Jocasta), or, according to the older story, of Euryganeia.
Her character and these incidents of her life presented an attractive subject to the Greek tragic poets, especially Sophocles in the Antigone and Oedipus at Colonus, and Euripides, whose Antigone, though now lost, is partly known from extracts incidentally preserved in later writers, and from passages in his Phoenissae.
(1281), who recommenced persecuting the Ghibellines, excommunicated the Greek emperor, Michael Palaeologus, proclaimed a crusade against the Greeks, filled every appointment in the papal states with Charles's vassals, and reappointed the Angevin king senator of Rome.
His boyhood was spent with a grandmother in Middletown, Connecticut; and prior to his entering college he had read widely in English literature and history, had surpassed most boys in the extent of his Greek and Latin work, and had studied several modern languages.
The archives of the cathedral were plundered by Magyars and Moslems, but several inscriptions, Greek, Slav and Ruman, are left.
These names are almost certainly Greek; Damia is found worshipped at several places in Greece, and also at Tarentum, where there was a festival called Dameia.
It is thus highly probable that on the cult of the original Roman goddess was engrafted the Greek C one of Damia, perhaps after the conquest of Tarentum (272 B.C.).
It is no longer possible to distinguish clearly the Greek and Roman elements in this curious cult, though it is itself quite intelligible as that of an Earth-goddess with mysteries attached.
After so many years the commentators had lost the key to this unusual term, and only knew that in common Greek "myrmex" meant an ant.
The Greek text of the Physiologus exists only in late MSS., and has to be corrected from the translations.
ANDREAS METAXAS (1786-1860), Greek politician, was born in the island of Cephalonia.
Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
Under Darius Codomannus (336-330) the advancing Greek power brought matters to a head, and at the battle of Issus in 333 Alexander settled its fate.
The overthrow of Tyre and Gaza secured the possession of the coast and the Jewish state entered upon the Greek period.
And if the work of criticism has brought a fuller appreciation of the value of these facts, the debt which is owed to the Jews is enhanced when one proceeds to realize the immense difficulties against which those who transmitted the Old Testament had to contend in the period of Greek domination.
- Greek Domination 25.
Whether the master of the provinces, in which there were Jews, be an Alexander, a Ptolemy, a Seleucid or a Roman, the force by which he rules is the force of Greek culture.
These four centuries are the Greek period of Jewish history.
His death prevented the achievement of his designs; but he had broken down the barrier, he had planted the seed of the Greek's influence in the four quarters of the Persian Empire.
The priests deserted the Temple for the palaestra and the young nobles wore the Greek cap. The Jews of Jerusalem were enrolled as citizens of Antioch.
All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.
Thus Antigonus succeeded his uncle as " King Antigonus " in the Greek and " Mattathiah the high priest " in the Hebrew by grace of the Parthians.
But that ability was largely due to his whole-hearted Hellenism, which was shown by the Greek cities which he founded in Palestine and the buildings he erected in Jerusalem.
Their rivalry led to streetfighting: the Jews had the advantage in respect of wealth and bodily strength, but the Greek party had the assistance of the soldiers who were stationed there.
Towards the end of Trajan's reign (114-117) the Jews of Egypt and Cyrene rose against their Greek neighbours and set up a king.
The Greek constitution admits no religious disabilities, but anti-Semitic riots in Corfu and Zante in 1891 caused much distress and emigration.
This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and Bpirrtot on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occupied the south-western peninsula of Italy in historical times, the ager Bruttius (wrongly called Bruttium) corresponding almost exactly to the modern Calabria.
At this time they were speaking Oscan as well as Greek, and two of three Oscan inscriptions in Greek alphabet still testify to the language spoken in the town in the 3rd century B.C. We know, however, that the Bruttians, though at this date speaking the same language (Oscan) as the Samnite tribe of the Lucani, were not actually akin to them.
Sila=Latin silva, Greek i Xi; Temesa, cf.
The influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius).
Greek and Latin, shows: the Sila was state domain, and most of the rest in the hands of large proprietors.
Bunbury in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; R.
The origin is to be found in the initial letters of the names and titles of Jesus in Greek, viz.
'Invous X ptar6s, Oeou `Tuffs, 16 y TIJp, Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour, which together spell the Greek word for "fish," ix9vs.
After the Turkish conquest it greatly diminished, but afterwards gradually rose, till it was supposed to have attained to about 260,000, of whom about half were Mahommedans, at the time of the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821.
The Moslems, as well as the Christians, are of Greek origin and speak Greek.
Public order is maintained by a force of gendarmerie (xcopoc19vXaKii) organized and at first commanded by Italian officers, who were replaced by Greek officers in December 1906.
The Greek penal code has been adopted with some modifications.
The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law.
The vast majority of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia.
There were in 1907 3500 Greek churches in the island with 53 monasteries and 3 nunneries; S5 mosques, 4 Roman Catholic churches and 4 synagogues.
It thus appears that a highly developed system of writing existed in Minoan Crete some two thousand years earlier than the first introduction under Phoenician influence of Greek letters.
In the easternmost district of Crete, where the aboriginal " Eteocretan " element survived to historic times (Praesus, Palaikastro), later inscriptions have been discovered belonging to the 5th and succeeding centuries B.C., written in Greek letters but in the indigenous language (Comparetti, Mon.
We can hardly any longer hesitate to recognize in this vast building, with its winding corridors and subterranean ducts, the Labyrinth of later tradition; and as a matter of fact a maze pattern recalling the conventional representation of the Labyrinth in Greek art actually formed the decoration of one of the corridors of the palace.
Greek About the same time the evidences of imports of settle- Late Minoan or " Mycenaean " fabrics in Egypt ments in definitely cease.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
Milchhdfer (Anfdnge der Kunst) had called attention to certain remarkable examples of archaic Greek bronze-work, and the subsequent discovery of the votive bronzes in the cave of Zeus on Mount Ida, and notably the shields with their fine embossed designs, shows that by the 8th century B.C. Cretan technique in metal not only held its own beside imported Cypro-Phoenician work, but was distinctly ahead of that of the rest of Greece (Halbherr, Bronzi del antro di Zeus Ideo).
The recent excavations by the British School on the site of the Dictaean temple at Palaikastro bear out this conclusion, and an archaic marble head of Apollo found at Eleutherna shows that classical tradition was not at fault in recording the existence of a very early school of Greek sculpture in the island, illustrated by the names of Dipoenos and Scyllis.
The great monument of Gortyna discovered by Halbherr and Fabricius (Monumenti antichi, iii.) is the most important monument of early law hitherto brought to light in any part of the Greek world.
Among other Greek remains in the island may be mentioned, besides the great inscription, the archaic temple of the Pythian Apollo at Gortyna, a plain square building with a pronaos added in later times, excavated by Halbherr G 3' ?
Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.
Even in the Homeric poems, which belong to an age when the great Minoan civilization was already decadent, the Cretans appear as the only Greek people who attempted to compete with the Phoenicians as bold and adventurous navigators.
It is certain that at a very early period the Cretan cities were celebrated for their laws and system of government, and the most extensive monument of early Greek law is the great Gortyna inscription, discovered in 1884.
It was owing to the want of this that the Cretans scarcely figure in Greek history as a people, though the island, as observed by Aristotle, would seem from its natural position calculated to exercise a preponderating influence over Greek affairs.
In the partition of the Greek empire after the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 1204, Crete fell to the lot of Boniface, marquis of Montferrat, but was sold by him to the Venetians, and thus passed under the dominion of that great republic, to which it continued subject for more than four centuries.
From this time Crete continued subject to Ottoman rule without interruption till the outbreak of the Greek revolution.
The Christians were ready for another outbreak, when, in 1878, the Greek government, finding Hellenic aspirations ignored by the treaty of San Stefano, gave the signal for agitation in the island.
Since the outbreak in May 1896 the Greek government had loyally co-operated with the powers in their efforts for the pacification of the island, but towards the close of the year a secret society known as the Ethnike Hetaeria began to arrogate to itself the direction of Greek foreign policy.
On the 21st of January the Greek fleet was mobilized.
The Greek government now despatched an ironclad and a cruiser to Canea, which were followed a few days later by a torpedo flotilla commanded by Prince George.
The prince soon retired to Melos, but on the night of the 14th of February a Greek expeditionary force under Colonel Vassos landed at Kolymbari, near Canea, and its commander issued a proclamation announcing the occupation of the island in the name of King George.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
The cabinet of Athens, however, declined to recall the expeditionary force, which remained in the interior till the 9th of May, when, after the Greek reverses in Thessaly and Epirus, an order was given for its return.
After the departure of the Greek troops the Cretan leaders, who had hitherto demanded annexation to Greece, readily acquiesced in the decision of the powers, and the insurgent Assembly, under its president Dr Sphakianakis, a man of good sense and moderation, co-operated with the international commanders in the maintenance of order.
The powers, however, reiterated their decision to maintain the status quo, and increased their military and naval forces; the Greek flag was hauled down at Canea and Candia, and some desultory engagements with the insurgents took place, the international troops co-operating with the native gendarmerie.
Zaimis had made a further advance towards the annexation of the island to Greece by a visit to Athens, where he arranged for a loan with the Greek National Bank and engaged Greek officers for the new gendarmerie.
The efforts of diplomacy were directed to allaying the resentment of the " Young Turks " on the one hand and the ardour of the Greek unionists on the other; and meanwhile the Cretan administration was carried on peaceably in the name of King George.
An erroneous derivation of the word pascha from the Greek ircthx iv, " to suffer," thus connected with the sufferings or passion of the Lord, is given by some of the Fathers of the Church, as Irenaeus, Tertullian and others, who were ignorant of Hebrew.
EUTYCHIDES, of Sicyon in Achaea, Greek sculptor of the latter part of the 4th century B.C., was a pupil of Lysippus.
JOCASTA, or Iocasta ('IoKaarn; in Homer, 'E7rLKao-rn), in Greek legend, wife of Laius, mother (afterwards wife) of Oedipus, daughter of Menoeceus, sister (or daughter) of Creon.
After the expulsion of King Otho in 1862, the Greek nation, by a plebiscite, elected the British prince, Alfred, duke of Edinburgh (subsequently duke of Coburg), to the vacant throne, and on his refusal the national assembly requested Great Britain to nominate a candidate.
Hermonymus of Sparta was his master in Greek.
DEUCALION, in Greek legend, son of Prometheus, king of Phthia in Thessaly, husband of Pyrrha, and father of Hellen, the mythical ancestor of the Hellenic race.
But about the time when it began to be supplanted by Arabic, two systems of vowel-signs were invented, one for the West Syrians, who borrowed the forms of Greek vowels, and the other more elaborate for the East Syrians, who used combinations of dots.
The mitre was only introduced into the Greek rite in comparatively modern times.
For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
It is only with the exhaustion of Greek and Jewish civilization that mysticism becomes a prominent factor in Western thought.
Accordingly, the last age of Greek philosophy is theosophical in character, and its ultimate end is a practical satisfaction.
St Maximus represents, almost the last speculative activity of the Greek Church, but.
He was educated at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1809 was elected professor of Greek in succession to Porson.
Even in imperial times Greek was largely spoken there, for about as many Greek as Latin inscriptions have been found.
Some of the earliest Greek geographers divided their known world into two portions only, Europe and Asia, in which last Libya (the Greek name for Africa) was included.
The influence of Greek culture in northern India is fully recognized, and the distribution of Greek colonies previous to Alexander's time is attested by practical knowledge of the districts they were said to occupy.
The Urals indicate no real division of races, and in both Greek and Turkish times Asia Minor has been connected with the opposite shores of Europe rather than with the lands lying to the east.
It is true that Greek philosophy advanced far beyond this stage, but it produced nothing sufficiently popular to be called a religion.
Much of this art is Greek in origin, being derived from the Perso-Greek states on the north-west frontiers.
They were Buddhists, and it is probable that the Mahayana or northern form of Buddhism was due to an amalgamation of Gotama's doctrines with the ideas (largely Greek and Persian) which they brought with them.
Darius and Xerxes were repulsed in their efforts to subjugate the Greek Peninsula, and Alexander the Great conquered their successor Darius III.
But the greater part of the empire continued to exist under new masters, the Seleucids, as a Hellenistic power which was of great importance for the dissemination of Greek culture in the East.
Bactria soon became independent under an IndoGreek dynasty, and the blending of Greek, Persian, central Asiatic and Hindu influences had an important effect on the art and religion of India, and through India on all eastern Asia.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
Egyptian influence within the Aegean area seems certain, and the theory that Greek writing and systems for reckoning time are Babylonian in origin has not been disproved, though the history of the alphabet is more complex than was supposed.
It even appears from a study of the Greek text that some copies of the books of Samuel incorporated narratives which other copies did not acknowledge.
There is, indeed, a flat contradiction between the two accounts, but a family of Greek MSS.
Io sqq., is wanting in the Greek, and in the light of subsequent events is improbable.
He repaired to Vienna, and was thence summoned to Buda by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, for the purpose of collating Greek manuscripts at a handsome salary.
" the swollen-footed") 1 in Greek legend, son of Laius, king of Thebes, and Jocasta (Iocaste).
The works of the ancient tragedians (especially Seneca, in preference to the Greek) came into vogue, and were slavishly followed by French and Italian imitators down to the 17th century.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
By dexterous management and large promises he overcame the scruples of the Greek troops against the length and danger of the war; a Spartan fleet of thirty-five triremes sent to Cilicia opened the passes of the Amanus into Syria and conveyed to him a Spartan detachment of 700 men under Cheirisophus.
Cyrus had 10,400 Greek hoplites and 2500 peltasts, and besides an Asiatic army under the command of Ariaeus, for which Xenophon gives the absurd number of ioo,000 men; the army of Artaxerxes he puts down at 900,000.
By this achievement they had demonstrated the internal weakness of the Persian empire and the absolute superiority of the Greek arms.
There is much uncertainty about the early theological history of the sect, but it is probable that Mack and his followers were influenced by both the Greek Catholics and the Waldensians.
During Alexander's Asiatic campaign he revolted against Macedonia (333 B.C.) and, with the aid of Persian money and ships and a force of 8000 Greek mercenaries, gained considerable successes in Crete.
Taganrog is an episcopal see of the Orthodox Greek Church, and has tanneries, tallow works and tobacco manufactures.
Eski Stambul), an ancient Greek city of the Troad, situated on the west coast at nearly its middle point, a little south of Tenedos.
While his patroness lived in a convent of her own in Jerusalem, Rufinus, at her expense, gathered together a number of monks in a monastery on the Mount of Olives, devoting himself at the same time to the study of Greek theology.
and Rom.); (5) Opuscula of Gregory of Nazianzus; (6) the Sententiae of Sixtus, an unknown Greek philosopher; (7) the Sententiae of Evagrius; (8) the Clementine Recognitions (the only form in which that work is now extant); (9) the Canon Paschalis of Anatolius Alexandrinus.
We can hardly overestimate the influence which Rufinus exerted on Western theologians by thus putting the great Greek fathers into the Latin tongue.
COLOMAN (1070-1116), king of Hungary, was the son of King Geza of Hungary by a Greek concubine.
On the death of Ladislaus (1095), he returned to Hungary and seized the crown, passing over his legitimately born younger brother Almos, the son of the Greek princess Sinadene.
It was he who, in 1776, sketched the plan for the conquest of the Crimea which was subsequently realized; and about the same period he was busy with the socalled "Greek project," which aimed at restoring the Byzantine Empire under one of Catherine's grandsons.
Whether he was a Greek, a Roman or a Goth we do not know; nor can we say when he wrote, though his work may be dated conjecturally in the early part of the reign of Theodoric the Great.
We can only say that he wrote on the origin and history of the Goths, using both Gothic saga and Greek sources; and that if Jordanes used Cassiodorus, Cassiodorus used, if to a less extent, the work of Ablabius.
He quotes, as if he were familiarly acquainted with their writings, a number of Greek and Roman writers, of whom it is almost certain that he had not read more than one or two.
DIOPHANTUS, of Alexandria, Greek algebraist, probably flourished about the middle of the 3rd century.
The Arithmetica, the greatest treatise on which the fame of Diophantus rests, purports to be in thirteen Books, but none of the Greek MSS.
interspersing them with his own problems. Next Xylander (Wilhelm I-Iolzmann) published a Latin translation (Basel, 1575), an altogether meritorious work, especially having regard to the difficulties he had with the text of his MS. The Greek text was first edited by C. G.
A reprint of 1670 is only valuable because it contains P. de Fermat's notes; as far as the Greek text is concerned it is much inferior to the other.
Heath, Diophantos of Alexandria: A Study in the History of Greek Algebra (Cambridge, 1885).
This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east.
Religion.-Most of the Russians and the Georgians belong to the Orthodox Greek Church (over 4,000,000 in all); but considerable numbers (estimated at nearly 122,000, though in reality probably a good many more) are Nonconformists of different denominations.
His father, who was a wealthy man and possessed at any rate a smattering of Greek, Latin and French, was thought to have demeaned himself by marrying the daughter of an Andover tradesman, who afterwards retired to a country house near Reading, where young Jeremy spent many happy days.
At Westminster school he obtained a reputation for Greek and Latin verse writing; and he was only thirteen when he was matriculated at Queen's College, Oxford, where his most important acquisition seems to have been a thorough acquaintance with Sanderson's logic. He became a B.A.
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