Granite Sentence Examples
Other important granite quarries are near Williamstown, Dummerston, Berlin and Woodbury.
Lee, surmounting a lofty granite pedestal at the head of Franklin Street.
Ungava includes much of the lower portion of Labrador, with a rim of recent marine deposits along its western coast, but the interior has the usual character of low rocky hills of Archean rocks, especially granite and gneiss, with a long band of little disturbed iron-bearing rocks, resembling the Animikie, or Upper Huronian of the Lake Superior region, near its eastern side.
The houses, with very few exceptions, are built of wood, but the streets are paved with blocks of granite and marble.
The value of the building stone increased from $150,000 in 1892 to $800,177 (of which $764,272 was the value of granite) in 1908.Advertisement
It is built entirely of granite.
For the commoner grades of dark-coloured bottles the glass mixture is cheapened by substituting common salt for part of the sulphate of soda, and by the addition of felspar, granite, granulite, furnace slag and other substances fusible at a high temperature.
There is considerable agricultural trade, and iron founding is carried on; while in the neighbourhood some copper, lead, granite and slate are worked and exported in small vessels; coal, timber and general merchandise being imported.
Most of the island is occupied by the band of the old rocks, which include mica, glaucophane and sericite-schists and slates; there are small intrusions of granite, and numerous dikes and masses of basic eruptive rocks.
The oldest rocks consist of granite and schist, penetrated by intrusive dykes, and upon this foundation rest the flat-lying sedimentary deposits, beginning with a sandstone like the Nubian sandstone of Egypt.Advertisement
The Cordillera, which bounds them on the west, is formed of folded beds, while the Sierras which rise in their midst, consist mainly of gneiss, granite and schist.
In New South Wales lode tin occurs principally in the granite and stream tin under the basaltic country in the extreme north of the state, at Tenterfield, Emmaville, Tingha, and in other districts of New England.
The state house, built of granite quarried in the vicinity, occupies a commanding site along the south border of the city, and in it is the state library.
A range of granite mountains forms a backbone which divides the peninsula into two unequal portions, the larger of which lies to the east and the smaller to the west of the chain.
Granite is the most widely spread of the crystalline rocks; but dikes of various kinds occur, and gneiss, schist and marble are also met with.Advertisement
These rocks form the greater part of the central range, and they are often - especially the granite - decomposed and rotten to a considerable depth.
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
The first marble quarry was opened in Dorset in 1785 and a second at Middlebury in 1805; and the first granite was quarried in 1812.
Many inscriptions and ancient fragments may be seen built into the houses; in front of the Madonna delle Grazie is a bull in red Egyptian granite, and in the Piazza Papiniano the fragments of two Egyptian obelisks erected in A.D.
The shaft is of red granite and is beautifully polished.Advertisement
Various types of granite are the predominant variety.
The granite contains two varieties.
Over both sandstone and granite great sheets of lava have been poured, and these, protecting the softer beds beneath from further denudation, now stand up as the high plateaus and hills called harra.
Near Scalasaig a granite obelisk has been erected to the memory of Sir Duncan M`Neill (1794-1874), a distinguished Scottish lawyer, who took the title of Lord Colonsay when he became a lord of appeal.
The hills, which are mainly composed of granite, serpentine and syenite, rise in irregular masses to considerable heights, the loftiest point, Victoria Peak, reaching an altitude of 1825 ft.Advertisement
Granite is quarried in the peninsula.
Granite quarries are worked.
Among the principal goods dealt with are tea, silk, opium, sugar, flax, salt, earthenware, oil, amber, cotton and cotton goods, sandal-wood, ivory, betel, vegetables, live stock and granite.
These granite domes, lacking a harbour, lie about a mile apart, and the boundary line between the possessions of Russia and the United States passes between them.
In the neighbourhood granite of a fine quality is quarried, and the town possesses rope and sail works, breweries, distilleries, flour-mills and tanneries.
Numerous broken granite columns in the gardens and vineyards that surround the town, with the number of ruined houses within the walls, testify to its former importance.
The total value 1 of all the mineral products of the state in 1907 was $937,3 8 4, and in 1908, $708,694, and of these totals granite systems, causing the formation of numerous lakes and of the waterfalls which determined the situation of many of the manufacturing cities of the state.
Quartz porphyry, quartzless porphyry, and granite are largely developed.
They are, first, plutonic rocks, especially granite; secondly, volcanic rocks, chiefly trachyte and dolerite; and thirdly, palaeozoic schists.
The basis of the islands consist of granite, syenite, diorite, diabase and related kinds of rock, porphyry appearing comparatively seldonr.
The granite forms the prevailing rock in valleys of erosion.
In the composition of many mountains in Hondo (the main island) granite plays a prominent part.
In the province of Settsu granite everywhere predominates, which may be observed also in the railway cuttings between Hiogo and Osaka, as well as in the temples and walls of these towns.
In the hill country on the borders of Ise, Owari, Mikawa and TOtmi, on the one side, and Omi, Mino and Shinano, on the other, granite frequently forms dark grey and much disintegrated rock-projections above schist and diluvial quartz pebbles.
The once flourishing cloth and woollen trades have declined, but there are large breweries, roperies, potteries, and, in the neighbourhood, marble, granite, asphalt and lime works.
The wild and barren west of this county, including the great hills on Achill Island, is formed of "Dalradian" rocks, schists and quartzites, highly folded and metamorphosed, with intrusions of granite near Belmullet.
The clay resulting from the weathering of the Dartmoor granite has formed marshes and peat bogs, and the desolation of the district has been emphasized by the establishment in its midst of a great convict prison, and in its northern portion of a range for artillery practice.
China clay from the decomposing granites; tin and copper ore, once abounding at the contacts between the granite and the rocks it pierced, were the former staples of wealth, and the mining largely accounts for the exceptional density of population in Cornwall.
A few small outcrops occur where still more ancient strata have been raised to the surface, as, for instance, in Charnwood Forest, where the Archaean rocks, with intrusions of granite, create a patch of highland scenery in the very heart of the English plain; and in the Lickey Hills, near Birmingham, where the prominent features are due to volcanic rocks of very ancient date.
The granite and marble of Serdobol, and the sandstone of Putilovo, are much used for buildings at St Petersburg; copper and tin from the Pitkaranta mine are exported.
Steamers ply regularly in two directions from St Petersburg - to the monasteries of Konnevitz and Valamo, and to the mouth of the Svir, whence they go up that river to Lake Onega and Petrozavodsk; and small vessels transport timber, firewood, planks, iron, kaolin, granite, marble, fish, hay and various small wares from the northern shore to Schlusselburg, and thence to St Petersburg.
The principal mineral products are granite, limestone, slate, clay products and mineral waters.
In 1905 Maine held first rank among the states of the Union as a producer of granite, the value of the output being $2,713,795.
In 1907 Maine's granite was valued at $2,146,420, that of Massachusetts at $2,328,777, and that of Vermont at $2,693,889.
The Fox Island granite comes from the quarries on Vinalhaven Island and the surrounding islands, and on Vinalhaven were quarried monolithic columns 51.5 to 54 ft.
Black granite was quarried in 1907 at 12 quarries, in York, Lincoln, Waldo, Penobscot and Washington counties.
There are factories for naval equipments, galvanized metal goods, felt hats, canvas, leather and rice, and breweries and granite quarries.
The carboniferous and older stratified beds still cover the west half of the hills, while from the east half they have been removed, exposing the granite.
The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.
By the side of the sea in the piazzetta, on to which the west facade of the ducal palace faces, stand two ancient columns of Egyptian granite, one red and the other grey.
Whole forests, vast quarries of granite, and hills of gravel were used in fringing the water margins, constructing wharves, piers and causeways, redeeming flats, and furnishing piling and solid foundations for buildings.
On the 9th-1 oth of November 1872 a terrible fire swept the business part of the city, destroying hundreds of buildings of brick and granite, and inflicting a loss of some $75,000,000.
Tortosa is for the most part an old walled town on the left bank of the river, with narrow, crooked and ill-paved streets, in which the houses are lofty and massively built of granite.
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables and china clay.
The weaving and bleaching of cloth, which is of less importance than formerly, the manufacture of vehicles, and tanning are carried on; there is a large trade in the horses of the district, and granite is worked in the neighbourhood.
Granite and limestone are quarried in the vicinity.
The granite (biotite, biotite-muscovite and quartz-monzonite) is of fine quality, and has been used extensively in the United States for building and monumental purposes; and the burning of lime is by far the most important industry of the city.
Celts, of the usual late neolithic type, were generally of green jasper; hoe-blades (looking almost exactly like palaeolithic haches a main) of chert or coarse limestone; hammers of granite; mace-heads, of identical type with the early Egyptian, of diorite and limestone; nails of obsidian or smoky quartz, often beautifully made.
In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.
In some parts it rises into irregular uplands and elevated plains, interspersed with detached rocks of granite; in others it sinks into marshy lowlands, which frequently remain under water during the rainy season.
The chief public building is the state capitol (built in1868-1888at a cost of about $4,50o,000), in the form of a Greek cross, with porticoes of granite and a dome 361 ft.
Mead, and consists of a granite obelisk 121 ft.
Babingtonite is found as small black crystals on felspar in the granite of Baveno in Italy, and in the Haytor iron mine in Devonshire.
Nearly the whole of the Riesenkamm and the western portion of the southern chain are granite; the eastern extremity of the main ridge and several mountains to the south-east are formed of a species of gneiss; and the greater part of the Bohemian chain, especially its summits, consists of mica-slate.
At the base there is often an arkose, composed largely of fragments of serpentine and granite derived from the ancient floor.
The rocks of its lower half are mainly granite and gneiss; its upper half is composed of porphyritic greenstone, and a variety of minerals occur.
Along the whole northern rim of Bosnia, as also in the fluvial and Karst valleys (poljes), are found diluvial and alluvial formations, interrupted at one place by an isolated granite layer.
The rocks of which these various monuments are composed is the ordinary granite of the district, and most of them present a strange appearance from their coating of white lichens.
In the Public Square is a soldiers' and sailors' monument consisting of a granite shaft rising from a memorial room to a height of 125 ft., and surmounted with a figure of Liberty; in the same park, also, is a bronze statue of Moses Cleaveland, the founder of the city.
Besides huge masses of old schists and sandstones, the range contains extensive limestone, marble, diorite, basalt and porphyry formations, while granite prevails on its southern slopes.
An extensive water-parting in the north central part of the state, an elevation whose inclination is almost imperceptible, determines the course of three great continental river systems. From this central elevation the land slopes off in all directions, rising again in the extreme north-east corner, where the rugged granite uplift in Cook county, known as the Misquah Hills, reaches an altitude of 2230 ft., the highest point in the state; and in the south-west corner, where an altitude of 1800 ft.
The non-arable north-east portion of the state is covered with a coarse granite drift.
Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
Large sheets of muscovite, such as are of commercial value, are found only in the very coarsely crystallized pegmatite veins traversing granite, gneiss or micaschist.
Granite and wood-pulp are exported, and coal and grain imported.
Abeokuta lies in a beautiful and fertile country, the surface of which is broken by masses of grey granite.
Of the more recent erections in the town, mention may be made of the granite obelisk in memory of General Sir 'Thomas Picton (1758-1815) and the bronze statue of General Sir William Nott (1784-1846).
The industries embrace granite quarries, wood-pulp factories, and factories for sugar, tobacco, curtains, travelling-bags, boots, &c. There are railway communications with Gothenburg and all parts of Sweden and regular coastal and steamer services.
There are cloth, artificial flower, and cigar factories, glass-works, potteries, and in the neighbourhood large granite quarries.
The post office is a handsome sandstone building in Renaissance style; it is colonnaded on two sides with polished granite columns and surmounted by a clock tower, containing a peal of bells.
This memorial is built principally of Milford (Mass.) granite, with a bronze statue of the president, and with sarcophagi containing the bodies of the president and Mrs McKinley, and has a total height, from the first step of the approaches to its top, of 163 ft.
Colossal granite obelisks were erected by only a few kings, Senwosri I.
The material employed for the great obelisks was a pink granite from the quarries of Syene, and in these quarries there still remains,.
The rocks at the base of the slopes are granite, the upper escarpments are of sedimentary rocks.
One is a red granite intruded subsequently to the Waterberg sandstones; another is a grey variety considered to be older than the Black Reef series and possibly older than the Witwatersrand series.
The upper Rhenish valley is evidently the bed of an ancient lake, the shores of which were formed by the gneiss and granite of the Black Forest on the one side and the granite and sandstone of the Vosges on the other.
The granite quarries in the vicinity constitute the leading industry, the stone for the Liverpool docks and other public works having been obtained from them.
It stood just below the existing bridge, which was built of granite by John Rennie and his son Sir John Rennie, and completed in 1831.
The present Westminster Bridge, of iron on granite piers, was opened in 1862, but another preceded it, dating from 1750; the view from which was appreciated by Wordsworth in his sonnet beginning " Earth has not anything to show more fair."
Cleopatra's Needle, an ancient Egyptian monument, was presented to the government by Mehemet Ali in 1819, brought from Alexandria in 1878, and erected on the Victoria embankment on a pedestal of grey granite.
In the Mont Cenis tunnel a bed of soft granite was encountered that continued to swell with almost irresistible force for some months.
The pressure developed was sufficient to crush an arched lining of two-foot granite blocks.
It is built of white Maine granite, and cost about $25,000,000.
Gibson and begun in 1883; St Peter's Episcopal Church (French Gothic), of Hudson River bluestone; Emmanuel Baptist Church, of white granite; the Madison Avenue Reformed Church; and St Joseph's (Roman Catholic), of bluestone and Caen stone with marble trimmings.
Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein.
Imitations of porphyry, of serpentine, and of granite are also met with, but these were used chiefly in pavements, and for the decoration of walls, for which purposes the onyx-glass was likewise employed.
Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
The southern coast in particular is deeply indented; and there two bold peninsulas, extending for several miles into the sea, form two capacious natural harbours, namely, Deep Water Bay, with the village of Stanley to the east, and Tytam Bay, which has a safe, well-protected entrance showing a depth of 10 to 16 fathoms. An in-shore island on the west coast, called Aberdeen, or Taplishan, affords protection to the Shekpywan or Aberdeen harbour, an inlet provided with a granite graving dock, the caisson gate of which is 60 ft.
Granite, diorite and other plutonic rocks hem in the winding upper valleys of the Kisogawa, the Saigawa (Shinano river) and many other rivers of this province, their clear water running over granite.
Yet even here granite may be traced in many places.
Of course it is not always a pure granite; even hablit and graniteporphyry are found here and there.
In the south the granite core of this upland is revealed, and is quarried extensively about Bessbrook.
Barre is an important seat of the granite industry, and manufactures monuments and tombstones, stone-cutting implements and other machinery.
Granite is quarried in the neighbourhood and there is an extensive trade in grain.
The pedestal of red granite is 42 ft.
Granite and serpentine rocks predominate, but the shores of Amboyna Bay are of chalk, and contain stalactite caves.
The Camoens grotto, where the exiled poet found leisure to celebrate the achievements of his ungrateful country, lies in a secluded spot to the north of the town, which has been partly left in its native wildness strewn with huge granite boulders and partly transformed into a fine botanical garden.
It has various industries, including saw and planing mills, shipbuilding, glassworks and factories for wood-pulp, barrels and potato flour; and an active trade in exporting timber, ice, wood-pulp and granite, chiefly to Great Britain, and in importing from the same country coal and salt.
A granite obelisk commemorates the battle, but the religious meetings that used to take place on the anniversary are no longer held.
There are large quarries of granite of excellent quality.
Those of economic value are kaolin, mined chiefly in the vicinity of Hockessin, New Castle county, the static kaolin product being exceeded in 1903 only by that of Pennsylvania among the states of the United States; granite, used for road-making and rough construction work, found near Wilmington; and brick and tile clays; but the value of their total product in 1902 was less than $500,000.
Marble, granite and slate quarries are worked in different districts.
The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils - good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils - derived from Carboniferous rocks.
The central plateau consists almost entirely of metamorphic rocks with extensive tracts of granite in Unyamwezi.
Many of these buildings are of considerable architectural merit, the material chiefly used in their construction being granite from the Paarl and red brick.
Archean rocks - gneiss, schist and granite - cover large areas through which the Nile cuts its way in alternate narrow gorges and open reaches.
West of the volcanic region, nearer to Lake Victoria and the Eastern province, ironstone, granite, gneiss and schistose formations predominate, with phonolite in places.
In the Eastern province the rocks are mainly quartz, gneiss and granite, with sandstone in Busoga, basalt round Mt Elgon, slate (Busoga) and iron- g stone (Busoga and Bukedi).
Rift valley, overlying a formation of granite, gneiss and quartz.
Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.
It appears to consist in the main of a continuation of an axis of old schists and slates, with granite intrusions, and flanked by coastal plains with Cretaceous or Jurassic, and Miocene beds, with Pleistocene sands and reefs and volcanic rocks.
Near the spot where Gustavus fell a granite boulder was placed in position on the day after the battle.
It is entirely constructed of granite blocks, without cement, and consists of six arches of various sizes, with a total length of 616 feet and a height of about 1 9 0 ft.
In 1906 Massachusetts led all states in the value of its granite output, but in 1907 and 1908 it was second to Vermont.
Granite boulders were used for construction in Massachusetts as early as 1650.
Of the fourteen quarries of " Milford granite," twelve are in the township of that name, and two in Hopkinton township, Middlesex county.
The light flesh colour of the feldspar, and the blue of the quartz give it in some places a slight pinkish tint, and it is now much used as a building-stone under the name of ` pink granite.'
For monumental purposes this granite is classified as " medium," " dark," and " extra dark."
Quincy granite takes a very high polish, owing to the absence of mica and to the coarser cleavage of its hornblende and augite.
The Rockport granite is found along or near the seashore, between Rockport and Bay View, and within about three-quarters of a mile of Cape Ann.
The granite is of two kinds, known commercially as " grey granite " and " green granite."
The Becker granite (known as " Chester dark " and " Chester light ") is a muscovite-biotite granite varying from medium grey to medium bluish grey colour, and fine in texture.
The Nahuatl lapidaries had at hand many varieties of workable and beautiful stone - onyx, marble, limestone, quartz and quartz crystal, granite, syenite, basalt, trachyte, rhyolite, diorite and obsidian, the best of material prepared for them by nature; while the Mayas had only limestone, and hard, tenacious rock with which to work it, and timber for burning lime.
Huge blocks of granite measuring 40 ft.
There a solitary pillar of granite rock rises to a great height out of the plain, and the top actually overhangs the sides.
Most of it was made, by bursting the rock by means of wooden wedges, through the solid granite, and its outside parapet was supported by walls of brick resting on ledges far below.
Two tablets at the mines of Wadi Maghara in the peninsula of Sinai, a granite block from Bubastis, and a beautiful ivory statuette found by Petrie in the temple at Abydos, are almost all that can be definitely assigned to Khufu outside the pyramid at Giza and its ruined accompaniments.
It consisted of a rectangular court surrounded by chambers on the outside and with a colonnade of thirty-six columns of cipollino (Carystian) marble and grey granite.
The view across the hills to Kinchinjunga discloses a glittering white wall of perpetual snow, surrounded by towering masses of granite.
Granite is found about Puget Sound and in the extreme eastern part of the state; it is largely used in riprap or rough foundations.
The copper is mostly a copper glance passing into chalcopyrite; it is found in fissure veins with granite.
To the south-east of this basin are the greatest mountain masses of the state; lofty and rugged ranges radiate in all directions, and in many instances rise to heights of 10,000-11,000 ft., the highest peak in the state being Granite Peak (12,834 ft.) in Carbon county.
They include the mandible of a mastodon and a portion of a vertebra of a large fish, both found in the Lower Madison Valley; the skull and other parts of a dog (Mesocyon drummondanus), found near Drummond, Granite county; the skull of a Poatrephes paludicola, found near New Chicago,.
Granite county; a portion of the skull of a Mesohippus latidens, found near the confluence of the three forks which form the Missouri river; and a portion of the skull of a Hyrachyus priscus, found near Lima, Beaverhead county.
Granite, sandstone and limestone are abundant in the state, but have been little developed.
Granite was quarried in 1907 to the value of $102,050.
Dr Bunge found Bolshoy to consist of granite protruding from beneath non-fossiliferous deposits; while the promontory of Svyatoy Nos Qonsists of basalt hills, 1400 ft.
A granite arch built in 1377 over the Adda at Trezzo had a span at low water of 251 ft.
The voussoirs of the centre arch (all of granite) are 4 ft.
The main towers consist of a skeleton of steel, enclosed in a facing of granite and Portland stone, backed with brickwork.
Silver follows gold in importance, but the other minerals met with, including gypsum, mica, petroleum, natural gas, granite, marble and tin are not found in paying quantities.
It forms a towering mass of granite about 3000 ft.
Among the rocks of economic importance may be mentioned granite of numerous kinds, syenite, serpentine, porphyry, marble, sandstones and marls.
It contains a "hall of a thousand pillars," one of numerous such halls in India, the exact number of pillars in this case being 984; each is a block of solid granite, and the roof of the principal temple is of copper-gilt.
Hard rock (mostly granite and crystalline schists, with red sandstone in places) appears only in the transverse glens, which are often choked with their debris in the form either of gravel-and-shingle or loose blocks of stone or both.
Like the Astin-tagh it stretches towards the E.N.E., and, like it, appears to be built up of granite and schists, but its crest is greatly denuded, so that it is a mere crumbling skeleton protruding above the deep mantle of disintegrated material which masks its flanks.
A granite column near the town marks the spot where Ferdinand I., in 1527, swore fidelity to the Bohemian states.
The country generally is of sandstone or granite formation, with occasional trachyte and basaltic ranges.
Its walls are of undressed granite, and it occupies a ground area of loo by 150 ft.
Farther away from the granite the slates are not so much altered, but generally show small rounded or ovoid spots, which may be darker or lighter in colour than the matrix.
A stone arch bridge, with nine arches, built of granite at a cost of $1,700,000 and dedicated in 1908, spans the Connecticut (replacing the old Connecticut river bridge built in 1818 and burned in 1895), and connects Hartford with the village of East Hartford in the township of East Hartford (pop. 1900, 6406), which has important paper-manufacturing and tobacco-growing interests.
A new state library and supreme court building and a new state armoury and arsenal, both of granite, have been (1910) erected upon lands recently added to the Capitol Grounds, thus forming a group of state buildings with the Capitol as the centre.
It has also been observed as a product of contact-metamorphism in carbonaceous clay-slates near their contact with granite, and where igneous rocks have been intruded into beds of coal; in these cases the mineral has clearly been derived from organic matter.
The graphite found in granite and in veins in gneiss, as well as that contained in meteoric irons, cannot have had such an origin.
The whole surrounding country is seamed with miles of tunnels in granite, and the hillsides are dotted everywhere with enormous dumps.
The Maryland building stone, of which there is an abundance of good quality, consists chiefly of granites, limestones, slate, marble and sandstones, the greater part of which is quarried in the east section of the Piedmont Plateau especially in Cecil county, though some limestones, including those from which hydraulic cement is manufactured, and some sandstones are obtained from the western part of the Piedmont Plateau and the east section of the Appalachian region; the value of stone quarried in the state in 1907 was $1,439,355, of which $1,183,753 was the value of granite, $142,825 that of limestone, $98,918 that of marble, and $13,859 that of sandstone.
There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.
He was buried, according to his own wish, at Lexington, where a statue and a memorial hall commemorate his connexion with the place; and on the spot where he was mortally wounded stands a plain granite pillar.
The Concord granite is a medium bluish-grey coloured muscovitebiotite granite, with mica plates so abundant as to effect the durability of the polish of the stone; it is used for building-the outer walls of the Library of Congress at Washington, D.C., are made of this stone-to a less degree for monuments, for which the output of one quarry is used exclusively, and for paving blocks.
The value of granite quarried in the state increased from $195,000 in 1887 to $1,147,097 in 1902, when building stone was valued at $619,916, monumental stone at $346,735 and paving stone at $101,548.
In that year New Hampshire ranked fourth among the states in output of granite, with 6.3% of the total value of granite quarried in the entire country; in 1908 the value of granite ($867,028) was exceeded by that of each of seven other states but was more than one-half of the total value of all mineral products of the state.
It presents four fronts, that facing the river being of Portland stone, in the Doric order, while the rest are of granite.
His father died in 1792 from an accident in the granite quarries of which he was an overseer.
Monolithic columns of grey oriental granite (except one, which is of cipollino), evidently the spoils of older buildings, on each side support eight pointed arches much stilted.
The Sierra Nevada may be described, in a very general way, as a great mountain block, largely composed of granite and deformed metamorphosed rocks, reduced to moderate relief in an earlier (Cretaceous and Tertiary?) cycle of erosion, sub-recently elevated with a slant to the west, and in this position sub-maturely dissected.
Some of the western valleys have also in part of their length beeIi converted into U-shaped troughs; the famous Yosemite Vailey, eroded in massive granite, with side cliffs 1000 or 2000 ft.
Limestone is by far the largest element, and with granite makes up two-thirds of the total value.
Other important edifices and institutions are the university, with its schools of law and medicine, the mint, built in 1811, the modern national college and high schools, a public library of over 28,000 volumes, an episcopal seminary, an academy of fine arts, the Teatro Degollado, and the large modern granite building of the penitentiary.
This vast area, shaped like a broad-limbed V or U, with Hudson Bay in the centre, is made up chiefly of monotonous and barren Laurentian gneiss and granite; but scattered through it are important stretches of Keewatin and Huronian rocks intricately folded as synclines in the gneiss, as suggested earlier, the bases of ancient mountain ranges.
In every other part the surface is hilly or mammilated, the harder rocks, such as granite or greenstone, rising as rounded knobs, or in the case of schists forming narrow ridges, while the softer parts form valleys generally floored with lakes.
The several ranges of the Cordillera show very different types of structure and were formed at different ages, the Selkirks with their core of pre-Cambrian granite, gneiss and schists coming first, then the Coast Ranges, which seem to have been elevated in Cretaceous times, formed mainly by a great upwelling of granite and diorite as batholiths along the margin of the continent and sedimentary rocks lying as remnants on their flanks; and finally the Rocky Mountains in the Laramie or early Eocene, after the close of the Cretaceous.
The configuration of the hills is mainly conical and the geological formation consists of gneiss, granite (in the south) and red sandstone.
As in the neighbouring mainland of Caithness, these rocks rest upon the metamorphic rocks of the eastern schists, as may be seen on Pomona, where a narrow strip is exposed between Stromness and Inganess, and again in the small island of Graemsay; they are represented by grey gneiss and granite.
Red granite is the chief building material of the houses.
All these old streets, excepting the last, are narrow and paved with squared granite blocks, and have their vehicle traffic regulated to go in one direction only.
In the neighbourhood there are quarries of granite, which is exported chiefly to Germany.
The principal exports are granite, timber and hats; and butter through Helsingborg and Gothenburg.
At Blacksod Bay the granite has been quarried as an ornamental stone.
The Sphinx was bared to the rock-level, and the famous granite and alabaster monument miscalled the "Temple of the Sphinx" was discovered.
Thus the dressed stones of the ancient theatre served to build barracks; the material of the hippodrome went to build the church; while the portico of the hippodrome, supported by granite and marble columns, and approached by a fine flight of steps, was destroyed by Cardinal Lavigerie in a search for the tomb of St Marciana.
The site of the fort is marked by a granite shaft erected in 1905 by the Daughters of the Revolution.
These were cut out of great blocks of marble and granite, and have generally an overhanging lip. There is one in the Vatican of porphyry over 12 ft.
They are constructed of granite, and no expense has been spared in equipping them with hydraulic cranes, warehouses, &c.
On the east are remains of a race-course, the corners marked by granite shafts with Greek inscriptions on them.
The town is built of the red granite for which it is famous, and the quarrying of which for home and foreign use constitutes an important industry.
In addition to the granite quarrying a.nd polishing, the leading industries are shipand boat-building, agricultural implement works and woollen manufactures.
The sand obtained by crushing granite and hard stones is excellent.
Granolithic, globe granite and synthetic stone are examples of these.
In front is a beautiful quadrangular court (112 by 102 ft.), surrounded by arcades formed of twenty-eight ancient pillars mostly of granite from Paestum, and containing twelve sarcophagi of various periods; the middle entrance into the church is closed by remarkable bronze doors of 11th-century Byzantine work.
The river was enclosed between stone embankments; sewerage and pure water were supplied, gas and electric light installed; and horse or electric tramways laid down in the principal thoroughfares, which were paved with granite or wood.
But all routes are difficult, winding between granite and limestone rocks, and abounding in narrow defiles and rugged torrent beds.
The foreign boulders of granite, gneiss, &c., found in the coalmeasures of some districts, are quite as likely to have been dropped by rafts of vegetation as to have been carried by floating icebergs.
Here prevailing granite and diabase give rise to a complicated mountain system through which the rivers cleave their way in a curved and irregular course.
Just as a granite is a conglomerate or mechanical mixture of distinct crystalline grains of three perfectly definite minerals, mica, quartz, and felspar, so iron and steel in their usual slowly cooled state consist of a mixture of microscopic particles of such definite quasiminerals, diametrically unlike.
Belgium is particularly rich in quarries of marble, granite and slate.
The city has four parks, in one of which is a soldiers' and sailors' monument of granite and bronze, and not far away, along the shore of lake and bay, are several attractive summer resorts.
The workings at De Beers had extended into the still more deeply seated granite in 1906.
African locality must be mentioned.; considerable finds were reported in 1905 and 1906 from gravels at Somabula near Gwelo in Rhodesia where the diamond is associated with chrysoberyl, corundum (both sapphire and ruby), topaz, garnet, ilmenite, staurolite, rutile, with pebbles of quartz, granite, vIII.
Among the commonest associates of the diamond are quartz, topaz, tourmaline, rutile, zircon, magnetite, garnet, spinel and other minerals which are common accessory constituents of granite, gneiss and the crystalline schists.
At Inverell in New South Wales a diamond (1906) has been found embedded in a hornblende diabase which is described as a dyke intersecting the granite.
The chief exports are iron and other ores, china clay, granite, fish and grain.
The Ramesseum contains the remains of a stupendous seated colossus, in black granite, of its builder Rameses II., thrown on its face.
Fine granite is quarried at Grafversfors, 71 m.
The ruins of the ancient city, including granite columns and traces of a sea-wall with towers, stretch southwards a mile beyond the modern town.
The city has various manufactures, including flour and grist mill products, silver ware, cotton and woollen goods, carriages, harnesses and leather belting, furniture, wooden ware, pianos and clothing; the Boston & Maine Railroad has a large repair shop in the city, and there are valuable granite quarries in the vicinity.
The digue or parade, constructed of solid granite, extends for over 2 m.
The western boundary of this valley is formed in the first instance by the Vosges, where granite summits rise from under the surrounding red Triassic rocks (Suizer Belchen, 4669 ft.).
They consist chiefly of gneiss and schist, with granite and other eruptive rocks.
Besides the statue of Khyan, blocks of granite with the name of Apopi have been found in Upper Egypt at Gebelen and in Lower Egypt at Bubastis.
There are three court-houses, one of granite (1839-1841) with great monolithic Corinthian pillars, another (1862), adjoining it, of brick, and a third (1908-1909) of granite, for the probate court.
Between the Palaeozoic area near Ottawa, and Georgian Bay to the north of the region just referred to, there is a southward projection of the Archaean protaxis consisting of granite and gneiss of the Laurentian, enclosing bands of crystalline limestone and schists, which are of interest as furnishing the only mines of "Old Ontario."
From these rocks in the Ottawa valley are quarried or mined granite, marble, magnificent blue sodalite, felspar, talc, actinolite, mica, apatite, graphite and corundum; the latter mineral, which occurs on a larger scale here than elsewhere, is rapidly replacing emery as an abrasive.
In the centre of the city, marking the spot where Washington planted his guns at the battle of Trenton, stands the Battle monument, a RomanDoric column of granite, 150 ft.
In Perry Street, mounted on a granite pedestal, is the "Swamp Angel," the great gun used by Federal troops in the marshes near Charleston, South Carolina, during their attack on that city in August 1863.
The chief varieties of this ware are vitrified china, belleek china, semi-porcelain, white granite and c. c. ware, vitrified porcelain for electrical supplies, porcelain bath tubs and tiles, and terra-cotta.
In 1859 the manufacture of white granite and creamcoloured ware was successfully established.
A considerable export trade in copper, tin and granite was formerly carried on, and the last is still exported, hut the chief trade is in grain; while timber, coal and limestone are imported.
The Public Library with walls of white limestone and Texas granite, contained (1908) 95,000 volumes.
The surface is generally undulating, with isolated " table mountains " of granite and sandstone often rising abruptly from the plain.
The oldest rocks, consisting of crystalline schists with numerous intrusions of granite, porphyry and diorite, occupy the eastern portion of the country between the Nilesouth of Assuan and the Red Sea.
It is, however, a hornblende granite and does not possess the mineralogical composition of the syenites of modern petrology.
At Jebel ed-Dukhan are porphyry quarries, extensively worked under the Romans, and at Jebel el-Fatira are granite quarries.
Granite and other hard stones, having but a limited use (for millstones and the like), have the best chance of survival.
Red granite was obtained from the First Cataract, breccia and diorite were quarried from very early times in the Wadi Hammamat, on the road from Coptos to the Red Sea, and porphyry was brought, chiefly in Roman times but also in the prehistoric age, from the same region at Jebel Dokhn.
The red granite school of Assuan comes lower, the work being usually clumsy and with unfinished corners and details.
But the secret of the black granite school, and its excellence, is the main problem unsolved in the history of the art.
Spherical hard stone hammers (6) were held in the hand for dressing down granite.
The large circular millstones of Roman age worked by horse-power are usually made from slices of granite columns.
The materials are quartz crystal, basalt, porphyry, syenite, granite, volcanic ash, various metamorphics, serpentine, slate, dolomite marble, alabaster, many colored marbles, saccharine marble, grey and white limestones.
The earliest use of stone in buildings is in the tomb of King Den (1st Dynasty), where some large flat blocks of red granite seem to have been part of the construction.
The same king also wrought granite with inscriptions in.
The blocks of granite for the roofing are 56 in number, of an average weight of 54 tons each.
In shallower masses a groove was run, and then holes, apparently for wedges, were sunk deeper in the course of it; whether wetted wood was used for the expansive force is not known, but it is probable, as no signs are visible of crushing the granite by hard wedges.
The flatness of faces of stone or rock (both granite and limestone) was tested by placing a true-plane trial plate, smeared with red ochre, against the dressed surface, as in modern engineer.
In the latter age granite surfaces were ground, hieroglyphs were chipped out and polished by copper tools fed with emery; outlines were graved by a thick sheet of copper held in the hand, and sawed to and fro with emery.
In the XIIth Dynasty there is the celebrated red granite obelisk of Heliopolis, one of a pair erected by Senwosri (Senusert) I.
The obeisks are exquisitely cut in red granite, each sign.
Nekhtharheb built the temple of Behbt, now a ruinous heap of immense blocks of granite.
Karnak was largely decorated; a granite celia was built under Philip Arrhidaeus, covered with elaborate carving; a great pylon was added to the temple of Khonsu by Ptolemy III.; the inner pylon of the Ammon-temple was carved by Ptolemy VI.
Amongst the kings of the XIIIth Dynasty (including perhaps the XIVth), not a few are represented by granite statues of colossal size and fine workmanship, especially at Thebes and Tanis, some by architectural fragments, some by graffiti on the rocks about the First Cataract.
Amenophis reigned twenty-six years and left his throne to his son Tethmosis IV., who is best remembered by a granite tablet recording his clearance of the Great Sphinx.
A granite gateway to the temple of Khnflm at Elephantine bears his name in hieroglyphic, and demotic documents are found dated in his reign.
The piles of granite rocks somewhat in the shape of cromlechs which are found scattered about this province, and especially along the western edge of the Hondsrug, have long been named Hunebedden, from a popular superstition that they were "Huns' beds."
Feldspar, quartz and granite are quarried in the environs.
The hills are composed principally of granite and syenite, and have little vegetation.
Spanning the Wepowaug river near a gorge and not far from its mouth is a granite bridge and tower, built, as a memorial to the first settlers, in 1889, in connexion with the celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of the town.
Besides the fisheries there is fish-curing and a distillery; and the quarrying of a pink-coloured variety of granite and of Portsoy marble is carried on.
Granite is quarried and exported.
Antoninus Pius paved the great east to west artery with granite.
He made also a processional way past the side of the temple to the cemetery beyond, with a great gateway of granite.
The city has important interests in lumber, besides foundries, machine shops, granite works - there are several granite (notably red granite) quarries in the vicinity - a tannery, and manufactories of shoes and calcined plaster.
In that region the Silurian rocks have been invaded by large bosses of granite and have undergone a variable amount of metamorphism which has in some places altered them into hard crystalline schists.
The highest summit in the south of Scotland - Merrick (2764 ft.) - consists of Silurian strata much altered by proximity to the granite, while the rest of the more prominent heights (all in Kirkcudbrightshire) - Rinns of Kells (2668 ft.), Cairnsmuir of Carsphairn (2612), and Cairnsmore of Fleet (2331) - are formed of granite.
The most familiar example perhaps is the top of Lochnagar, where, at the level of 3500 ft., the traveller finds himself on a broad undulating moor, more than a mile and a half long, sloping gently towards Glen Muick and terminating on the north in a range of granite precipices.
These mountains lie within granite areas; but not less striking examples may be found among the schists.
That these high plateaus are planes of erosion is shown by their independence of geological structure, the upturned edges of the vertical and contorted schists having been abruptly shorn off and the granite having been wasted and levelled along its exposed surface.
The various stages in this kind of demolition are best seen where the underlying rock is of granite or similarly tough material, which at the same time is apt to be split and splintered by means of its numerous transverse joints.
In the Southern Uplands, owing to the greater softness and uniformity of texture of the rocks, rock-tarns are comparatively infrequent, except in Galloway, where the protrusion of granite and its associated metamorphism have reproduced Highland conditions of rock-structure.
With the exception of the counties of Orkney, Shetland, Caithness, Sutherland and Inverness, granite is quarried in every shire in Scotland, but the industry predominates in Aberdeenshire, and is of considerable importance in Kirkcudbrightshire; limestone is quarried in half of the counties, but especially in Midlothian and Fife; large quantities of paving-stones are exported from Caithness and Forfarshire, and there are extensive slate quarries at Ballachulish and other places in Argyllshire, which furnishes three-fourths of the total supply.
It lies on the north side of a huge isolated mass of granite (the Rocca di Cavour) which rises from the plain.
The castle is built of granite in the Scots baronial style, with an eastern tower loo ft.
Laconia is served by two divisions of the Boston & Maine railway, which has a very handsome granite passenger station (1892) and repair shops here.
The oldest rocks consist of gneiss and schist, penetrated by dikes and bosses of granite, syenite, porphyry and other intrusive rocks.
These mountains, consisting of various sorts of gneiss, intrusive granite and gabbro, have been formed partly by faulting but mainly by erosion, the lines of which have been determined by the presence of faults or the presence of relatively soft rocks.
The church of St Mary Magdalen, built of granite, and richly ornamented without, was erected early in the 16th century, but possesses a detached tower dated 1380.
But the most important igneous masses are the great intrusions of syenitic granite and of basic rock which penetrate the Cretaceous beds.
It lies in a basin among granite hills, nowhere exceeding 2627 ft., remarkable for their denudation and their abrupt black crags and pinnacles.
The southernmost portion of Bundelkhand is much cut up by spurs of sandstone and granite hills, running down from the Vindhyan system; but the northern half near the Jumna has a somewhat richer soil, and comes nearer in character to the plain of Doab.
Two blocks to the north (on Washington Street) is the postoffice, a fine granite Romanesque building.
On its western flank lies a coalfield, with Coalville and other mining towns, and granite and honestones are worked.
The manufacture of white ware, begun in 1872, is the most important branch of the industry - almost half of the "creamcoloured," white granite ware and semivitreous porcelain produced in the United States in 1905 (in value, $4,344,468 out of $9, 1 95,7 0 3) being manufactured in East Liverpool.
Of the mountain scenery the granite pinnacles and domes of the highest Sierra opposite Owen's Lake - where there is a drop eastward into the valley of about 10,000 ft.
California was the fourth state of the Union in 1899 in the production of granite.
It is a fine headland of granite, pierced by a natural arch, on a coast renowned for its cliff scenery.
The Land's End is the westernmost of the granite masses which rise at intervals through Cornwall from Dartmoor.
The oldest rocks, consisting of slate, mica-schists and grits, which have been correlated with the metamorphic series of the eastern Highlands, form an incomplete ring round the granite in the north of the island and occupy the whole of the west coast from Loch Ranza south to Dougrie.
Consisting of red sandstones, mudstones and conglomerates, they are inclined at high angles usually away from the granite massif and the encircling metamorphic rocks.
Of these the most important is the great oval mass of granite in the North, composed of two varieties; one, coarse-grained and older, forms the outside rim, while the fine-grained and newer type occurs in the interior.
Another granite area appears on the south side of the road between Brodick and Shiskine, where it is associated with granophyre and quartz-diorite and traverses the volcanic vent of post-Cretaceous or Tertiary age already described.
Finally the basic dykes of dolerite, basalt and augite-andesite are abundant and traverse the various sedimentary formations and the granite.
Of this range the central feature is the mountain of Kinabalu, which is composed of porphyritic granite and igneous rocks and attains to a height of 13,698 ft.
Igneous rocks are not extensively developed; in Wales they form an important feature and occur in considerable thickness; they are represented by lavas of olivine-diabase and by contemporaneous tuffs which are traversed by later granite and quartz felsite.
Erratic blocks are scattered throughout the island, and the roads are made with granite.
These islands form a continuation of a dangerous granite reef extending along the south coast of Finland.
East of the White House and obstructing the view from it to the Capitol stands the oldest of the departmental buildings, the Treasury Building (architect, Robert Mills (1781-1855), then U.S. architect), an imposing edifice mainly of granite, 510 ft.
On the opposite side of the White House is a massive granite building of the State, War and Navy Departments, 567 ft.
The exterior walls are of white New Hampshire granite, and the walls of the See Glenn Brown, The History of the United States Capitol (2 vols., 1900-1903).
Two squares north of the Senate officebuilding is the Union Railway Station (1908; 343 by 760 ft.; cost, $4,000,000), designed by Daniel Hudson Burnham, consisting of a main building of white granite (from Bethel, Vermont) and two wings, and facing a beautiful plaza.
The granite rocks forming the core of the dome appear at the surface on the Red Sea coast, at the western end of the transverse line of heights crossing Nejd.
The soil is a peculiar clay-schist, on or alternating with granite, and it is to the peculiar conditions of climate and soil that port owes its remarkable qualities of colour, body and high flavour.
The shores of the Bosporus are composed in the northern portion of different volcanic rocks, such as dolerite, granite and trachyte; but along the remaining course of the channel the prevailing formations are Devonian, consisting of sandstones, marls, quartzose conglomerates, and calcareous deposits of various kinds.
The former (the name is used a little loosely) consists of almost a solid mass of granite, has an average elevation of probably 13,000 ft., presents a broad and massive outline, and has a mean breadth of 15 to 20 m.
In districts like that of Cripple Creek their enormous ore "dumps" dot the mountain flanks like scores of vast ant-hills; and in Eagle River canyon their mouths, like dormer windows into the granite mountain roof, may be seen 2000 ft.
It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs.
They occur both in the " killas " or clay-slate, and in the " growan " or granite.
The city occupies a hilly isthmus about a mile wide between Lakes Mendota and Monona, bodies of water of great clearness and beauty, with bottoms of white sand and granite.
It rises from the surrounding plains of Marwar like a precipitous granite island, its various peaks ranging from 4000 to 5653 feet.
On the top of the hill is a small round platform containing a cavern, with a block of granite, bearing the impression of the feet of Data-Bhrigu, an incarnation of Vishnu.
Large masses of granite are found in many parts of Sweden, in Kronoberg, Orebro, Goteborg, Stockholm, &c. Sometimes the granite graduates into gneiss; sometimes (as north of Stockholm) it encloses large angular pieces of gneiss.
Along the coast lies a belt of granite and schist overlaid unconformably by Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits; inland the mountains are formed chiefly of folded Mesozoic beds, together with volcanic rocks of later date.
Lithologically they are crystalline schists, together with granite, diorite, gabbro and other igneous rocks.
The hills consist of a kind of granite and of beds of red sandstone, the disintegration of which has given a darkcoloured ferruginous soil of moderate fertility.
Granite is quarried and silicious sand, employed in glass-making is found.
The Cintra granite sends veins into the base of the Upper Jurassic, and is very probably of Tertiary age.
Common salt (chiefly from Alcacer do Sal near Setubal), gypsum, lime and marble are exported; marble and granite of fine quality abound in the southern provinces.
The Post Office, which withstood the fire and has since undergone repairs, is a massive modern building of granite (original cost $5,000,000).
It is characteristic of the vagaries of Californian commerce in the early years that dressed granite for some buildings was imported from China.
It is a rugged mass of granite, about 3 m.
Other noteworthy objects in the castle are the fountain in the courtyard, decorated with four granite columns from Charlemagne's palace at Ingelheim; the Elisabethentor, a beautiful gateway named after the English princess; the beautiful octagonal bell-tower at the N.E.
In the neighbourhood are several valuable granite quarries.
The less important thoroughfares are mostly paved with the so-called Vienna paving, granite bricks of medium size, while the principal streets, and especially those upon which the traffic is heavy, have either asphalt or wood paving.
Minerals developed slightly, or not at all, are granite, valued at $1500 in 1905; surface salt, in the arid and semiarid regions; nickel and cobalt, in Lemhi county; tungsten, near Murray, Shoshone county; monazite and zircon, in certain sands; and some pumice.
The Altai, seen from this valley, presents the most romantic scenes, including the small but deep Kolyvan lake (altitude, 1180 ft.), which is surrounded by fantastic granite domes and towers.
There is no axial zone of gneiss, but intrusions of granite and other plutonic rocks occur, and the famous ore deposits are found chiefly near the contact of these intrusions with the schists.
On Captain's Hill is the Standish Monument (begun in 1872), a circular tower, on an octagonal base, of rough Hallowell granite, surmounted by a statue of Miles Standish, 124 ft.
Haugesund is the reputed death-place of Harald Haarfager, to whom an obelisk of red granite was erected in 1872 on the thousandth anniversary of his victory at the Hafsfjord (near Stavanger) whereby he won the sovereignty of Norway.
The only open spaces are the market-place and two other squares, one of which, facing the citadel, is adorned with a granite column erected (1818) in commemoration of the defeat of Napoleon I.