On the 22nd of October 1715 Alexius' consort, the princess Charlotte, died, after giving birth to a son, the grand-duke Peter, afterwards Peter II.
On the 18th of February a "confession" was extorted from Alexius which implicated most of his friends, and he then publicly renounced the succession to the throne in favour of the baby grand-duke Peter Petrovich.
These decrees were issued together with a pastoral letter of Bishop de' Ricci, and were warmly approved by the grand-duke, at whose instance a national synod of the Tuscan bishops met at Florence on the 23rd of April 1787.
On being liberated he returned to Tuscany, and the grand duke Leopold II, knowing that he was popular with the masses, sent him to Leghorn to quell the disturbances.
He accepted, and on the Toth of January 1849, induced the grand duke to establish a national constituent assembly.
In 1803 it was assigned to the grand duke of Baden, who caused the fortifications to be razed.
Ivanovich, grand duke of Muscovy, by his second wife, Helena Glinska.
Born on the 25th of August 1530, he was proclaimed grand duke on the death of his father (1533), and took the government into his own hands in 1544, being then fourteen years old.
The duke Antonio Farnese acreS died ill 1731; the grand-duke Gian Gastone de Medici died in 737.
The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized the French republic, early in 1795.
Tuscany was restored to the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
The grand-duke, fearing an excommunication from the pope, refused the request, and left Florence for Siena and S.
After Novara the chief question was iow to avoid an Austrian occupation, and owing to the prevailing ~onfusion the town council of Flor~nce took matters into its)Wfl hands and declared the grand-duke reinstated, but on a ~onstitutional basis and without foreign help (April 12).
Thus in 1910 the honorary president of the council was the grand-duke Michael Nicolaievich, the actual president M.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
Dubrovin, president of the Union of the Russian People and organizer of pogroms, having written a letter of congratulation to the tsar on the occasion of the coup d'etat, received a gracious reply; the hideous reign of terror of the " Black Hundred " in Odessa did not prevent the Grand-duke Constantine from accepting the badge of membership of the Union.
The Duma endorsed this all but unanimously, and as the result the Grand-dukes Peter and Sergius resigned their posts of inspector-general of Engineers and Ordnance respectively, and the Grand-duke Nicholas his chairmanship of the Committee of National Defence.
However, he found a friend in Bestuzhev's supplanter, Michael Vorontsov, and when in 1760 he was unexpectedly appointed the governor of the little grand duke Paul, his influence was assured.
He was on Catherine's side during the revolution of 1762, but his jealousy of the influence which the Orlovs seemed likely to obtain ovlr the new empress predisposed him to favour the proclamation of his ward the grand duke Paul as emperor, with Catherine as regent only.
Panin further incensed Catherine by meddling with the marriage arrangements of the grand duke Paul and by advocating a closer alliance with Prussia, whereas the empress was beginning to incline more and more towards Austria.
Another sister, Princess Dagmar, subsequently married the grand duke Alexander Alexandrovitch, afterwards Emperor Alexander III.
1876), who married in 1900 the grand duke George Michailovich of Russia.
He strengthened his position by giving his daughter Sophia in marriage to Vasily, grand-duke of Muscovy; but he never felt secure beneath the wing of the Teutonic Order, and when Jagiello removed Skirgiello from the government of Lithuania and offered it to Witowt, the compact of Ostrow (5th of August 1392) settled all differences between them.
Witowt was to reign over Lithuania as an independent grand-duke, but the two states were to be indissolubly united by a common policy.
The result was a whole series of wars with the Teutonic Order, which now acknowledged Swidrygiello, another brother of Jagiello, as grand-duke of Lithuania; and though Swidrygiello was defeated and driven out by Witowt, the Order retained possession of Samogitia, and their barbarous methods of "converting" the wretched inhabitants finally induced Witowt to rescue his fellow-countrymen at any cost from the tender mercies of the knights.
However, his title of grand-duke was confirmed, and as grandduke of Hesse and of the Rhine he entered the Germanic confederation.
This grand-duke had some trouble with his Landlag, but, dying on the 16th of June 1848, he left his son, Louis III.
Dalwigk was one of Prussia's enemies, and during the war of 1866 the grand-duke fought on the Austrian side, the result being that he was compelled to pay a heavy indemnity and to cede certain districts, including Hesse-Homburg, which he had only just acquired, to Prussia.
This grand-duke's marriage with Victoria (b.
1863), the representative of the family which ruled Hesse-Cassel until 1866, was declared the heir to Hesse in case the grand-duke died without sons.
On the 8th, 9th and 10th of December 1870 the German army, commanded by the grand-duke of Mecklenburg, defeated the French army of the Loire, under General Chanzy, in the battle of Beaugency (or Villorceau-Josnes), which was fought on the left bank of the Loire to the N.W.
12 1842, his father - Augustus, Baron Marschall von Biebersteinbeing chamberlain to the Grand Duke of Baden, and his mother before her marriage Baroness von Falkenstein.
The grand duke is head of the Protestant church.
The upper consists of princes of the grand-ducal family, heads of mediatized houses, the head of the Roman Catholic and the superintendent of the Protestant church, the chancellor of the university, two elected representatives of the land-owning nobility, and twelve members nominated by the grand duke.
On the 12th of February 1736 she was married to her cousin Francis of Lorraine, then grand duke of Tuscany, and afterwards emperor.
Of this body the grand-duke Constantine was an energetic member.
Those with France were also renewed (July 6, 1581); and capitulations were signed for the first time with the grand duke of Tuscany (1578) and with England (1580).
Marshal Moncey with a corps occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had been brought up. There were now about ioo,000 French soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as "lieutenant for the emperor," entered Madrid.
In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years.
which Dutch and Belgian troops fought side by side under his command, the congress of Vienna further aggrandized him by making him sovereign of the territory of Luxemburg with the title of grand duke.
A visit to the Russian capital in November still further established his influence, and in 1862 he was appointed adjutant to the grand-duke Constantine.
He left for Rome, where, after a short imprisonment on suspicion of being a spy, he gained the favour of Pope Paul V., through whose influence with Cosimo II., grand duke of Tuscany, he was appointed to the professorship of the Pandects at Pisa.
Nevertheless it retained a separate administration for more than two centuries, until the general reforms of the grand-duke Pietro Leopoldo, the French domination, and finally the restoration swept away all differences between the Sienese and Florentine systems of government.
15, 1384) and subsequently compelled to marry Jagiello, grand-duke of Lithuania.
Assigned to the grand duke of Wurzburg in 1810, it was restored to Bavaria in 1814.
Karl Theodor Anton Maria Von Dalberg (1744-1817), archbishop-elector of Mainz, arch-chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, and afterwards primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and grand-duke of Frankfort.
A Prussian reserve corps under the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, formed at Leipzig, had meanwhile overrun eastern Bavaria up to Nuremberg.
During the Napoleonic wars the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
Still his position was most delicate, especially when the betrothal between the grand-duke Peter and Sophia of AnhaltZerbst (afterwards Catharine II.) was carried through against his will, and Elizabeth of Holstein, the mother of the bride, arrived in the Prussian interests to spy upon him.
in 1822, he left Erlangen - where he subsequently complained that the contagion of the "greatest philosopher and metaphysician of the century" (Schelling), in a period "rich in words and ideas, but poor in true knowledge and genuine studies," had cost him two precious years of his life - and by the liberality of Louis I., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, was enabled to go to Paris.
The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.
Under the house of Lorraine, or more correctly during the reign of that enlightened reformer the grand duke Peter Leopold (1765-1790), Pisa shared in the general prosperity of Tuscany, and its population constantly increased.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
The last serious attempt of the allies in the centre led to some of the hardest fighting of the day; the Russian Imperial Guard under the grand-duke Constantine pressed closely upon St Hilaire and Vandamme on the plateau, and only gave way when the French Guard and the Grenadiers came into action.
Among the other principal buildings are the palace of the grand duke of Hesse, built in1731-1739as a lodge of the Teutonic order, the theatre, the arsenal, and the government buildings.
In 1814 it was restored to Germany and in 1816 it was handed over to the grand duke of Hesse; it remained, however, a fortress of the German confederation and was garrisoned by Prussian and Austrian troops.
The grand-duke is a Protestant; under him the Evangelical Church is governed by a nominated council and a synod consisting of the " prelate," 48 elected, and 7 nominated lay and clerical members.
The government of Baden is an hereditary monarchy, with the executive power vested in the grand-duke, while the legislative authority is shared by him with a representative assembly (Landtag) consisting of two chambers.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
1806 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine, declared himself a sovereign prince, became a grand-duke, and received other additions of territory.
On the other hand, the new grand-duke Louis, who had succeeded in 1818, was unpopular, and the administration was in the hands of hide-bound and inefficient bureaucrats.
The result was a deadlock; and, even before the promulgation of the Carlsbad decrees in October 1819 the grand-duke had prorogued the chambers, after three months of sterile debate.
1823, when, on the refusal of the chambers to vote the military budget, the grand-duke dissolved them and levied the taxes on his own authority.
In 1830 Louis was succeeded as grand-duke by his half-brother Leopold, the first of the Hochberg line.
The July Revolution led to no disturbances in Baden; but the new grand-duke from the first showed liberal tendencies.
On the same day (13th of May) a mutiny at Karlsruhe forced the grand-duke to take to flight, and the next day he wis followed by the ministers, while a committee of the diet under Lorenz Brentano (1813-1891), who represented the more moderate Radicals as against the republicans, established itself in the capital to attempt to direct affairs pending the establishment of a provisional government.
It had little chance of doing more than make speeches; the country was in the hands of an armed mob of civilians and mutinous soldiers; and, meanwhile, the grand-duke of Baden had joined with Bavaria in requesting the armed intervention of Prussia, which was granted on the condition that Baden should join the League of the Three Kings.
The grand-duke returned on the 19th of August, and at once dissolved the diet.
The grand-duke Leopold died on the 24th of April 1852, and was succeeded by his second son, Frederick, as regent, the eldest, Louis (d.
Two days before the affair of Werbach (24th of July), however, the second chamber had petitioned the grand-duke to end the war and enter into an offensive and defensive alliance with Prussia.
The grand-duke had from the first been opposed to the war with Prussia, but had been forced to yield owing to popular resentment at the policy of Prussia in the Schleswig-Holstein question.
The troops of Baden took a conspicuous share in the war of 1870; and it was the grand-duke of Baden, who, in the historic assembly of the German princes at Versailles, was the first to hail the king "of Prussia as German emperor.
The signing on the 28th of June 1859 of a concordat with the Holy See, by which education was placed under the oversight of the clergy;and the establishment of religious orders was facilitated, led° to a constitutional struggle, which ended in 1863 with the victory ' Frederick assumed the title of grand-duke on the 5th of :September 1856.
Amid all these contests the wise and statesmanlike moderation of the grand-duke Frederick won him universal esteem.
When, on the 10th of September 1906, the grand-duke celebrated at once the jubilee of his reign and his golden wedding, all Europe combined to do him honour.
It was he too who, by the secularization on the one hand and by the dismemberment of Wurttemberg on the other, gave the grand-duke 50o,000 new subjects.
The grand-duke Frederick, grand-duke by the will of Napoleon, has done France all the harm he could.
He died at Mainau on the 28th of September 1907, and was succeeded by his son, the grand-duke Frederick II.
1377), grand-duke of Lithuania, was one of the seven sons of Gedymin, grand-duke of Lithuania, among whom on his death in 1341 he divided his domains, leaving the youngest, Yavnuty, in possession of the capital, Wilna, with a nominal priority.
14 1386 by the marriage of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Jogaila (Jagello) to the Polish Queen Jadviga and confirmed by the subsequent pacts of Vilna in 1401 and 1432, of Horodlo in 1413, of Grodno in 1501 and 1512 and, parliamentarily, of Lublin in 1569.
In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.
(1797-1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany, was born on the 3rd of October 1797, the son of the grand-duke Ferdinand III., whom he succeeded in 1824.
But at the same time the Austrians occupied Lucca and Leghorn, and although Leopold simulated surprise at their action it has since been proved, as the Austrian general d'Aspre declared at the time, that Austrian intervention was due to the request of the grand-duke.
A part of the Liberals, however, still believed in the possibility of a constitutional grand-duke who could be induced for a second time to join Piedmont in a war against Austria, whereas the popular party headed by F.
Finally an agreement was arrived at between the aristocratic constitutionalists and the popular party, as a result of which the grand-duke's participation in the war was formally demanded.
On the 27th of April there was great excitement in Florence, Italian colours appeared everywhere, but order was maintained, and the grand-duke and his family departed for Bologna undisturbed.
The government is in the hands of the grand-duke, who sanctions and promulgates the laws.
Bills are introduced by the grand-duke, but the house has also the right of initiative.
Pressure was put by the German powers on Charles Augustus, grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, in whose dominions Jena university was situated, to reprove and dismiss the offenders.
Zeitschrift, 1799), though masterly, did not make it easier for the liberal-minded grand-duke to pass the matter over, and an unfortunate letter, in which he threatened to resign in case of reprimand, turned the scale against him.
But the king was piqued by Austria's interference, and as both the grand-duke of Tuscany and the duke of Wellington supported him, Charles Albert's claims were respected.
The house, which had been left to the grand-duke for the nation, was then found to be so structurally rotten that the interior had to be largely reconstructed.
The traditions of Charles Augustus were well maintained by his grandson, the grand-duke Charles Alexander (1818-1901), whose statue now stands in the Karlsplatz.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
He received commissions from the cathedral of Cadiz, from the grand duke Paul, from the king of Prussia, from the directors of the Concert Spirituel at Paris; beside his transactions with Breitkopf and Hertel, and with La Chevardiere, he sold to one English firm the copyright of no less than 129 compositions.
1819), was created a peer of France in 1814, and was the father of Stephanie de Beauharnais, who married the grand-duke of Baden.
In 1894 the queen stayed for some weeks at Florence, and on her return she stopped at Coburg to witness the marriage between two of her grandchildren, the grand duke of Hesse and the Princess Victoria Melita of Coburg.
He became governor of Paris, marshal of France (1804), grand duke of Berg and of Cleves (1806), lieutenant of the emperor in Spain (1808), and early in the summer of that year king of Naples.
When he died on the 24th of March 1866, Hesse-Homburg was inherited by Louis III., grand-duke of Hesse-Darmstadt, while Meisenheim fell to Prussia.
Adam had already met the grand duke Alexander at a ball at the princess Golitsuin's, and the youths at once conceived a strong "intellectual friendship" for each other.
By an agreement with the queen mother of Hungary at Kassa in 1383, the Poles finally accepted Jadwiga as their queen, and, on the 18th of February 1386, greatly against her will, the young princess, already betrothed to William of Austria, was wedded to Jagiello, grand duke of Lithuania, who had been crowned king of Poland at Cracow, three days previously, under the title of Wladislaus II.
Olgierd was succeeded by his son Jagiello as grand duke in 1377, while Kiejstut was left in possession of Samogitia, Troki and Grodno; but the Teutonic Order, alarmed at the growth of Lithuania, succeeded in estranging uncle and nephew, and Kiejstut was treacherously assassinated by Jagiello's orders, at Krewo, on the 15th of August 1382.
The power of the grand-duke was also greatly increased.
The first symptom of this lawlessness was the separation of Poland and Lithuania, the Lithuanians proceeding to elect Alexander, Casimir's fourth son, as their grand-duke, without even consulting the Polish senate, in flagrant violation of the union of Horodlo.
3, 1501) the senates of both countries agreed that, in future, the king of Poland should always be grand-duke of Lithuania; but this was the sole benefit which the Republic derived from the reign of Alexander, under whom the Polish government has been well described as a rudderless ship in a stormy sea, with nothing but the grace of God between it and destruction.
But the diet, with almost incredible short-sightedness, refused to waste a penny on an undertaking which, they argued, concerned only Lithuania, and it was not as king of Poland, but as grand-duke of Lithuania, and with purely Lithuanian troops, that Sigismund, in 1561, occupied Livonia.
The king of Saxony, as grand-duke, took the initiative in all legislative matters; but the administration was practically controlled by the French.
On the death of Zajonczek in 1$26, the grand duke Constantine became Imperial lieutenant, and his administration, The Grand though erratic, was not unfavourable to displays nuke Con- of Polish nationality.
The extraordinary weakness of the grand duke allowed the rising to gather strength.
The weakness of the Russian governor, General Gorchakov, in 1861 was a repetition of the feebleness of the Grand Duke Constantine in 1830.
(1769-1824), grand duke of Tuscany, and archduke of Austria, second son of the emperor Leopold II., was born on the 6th of May 1769.
On his father becoming emperor in 1790, he succeeded him as grand duke of Tuscany.
In 1806 he was admitted as grand duke of Wiirzburg to the confederation of the Rhine.
It is formed out of the former lordships of Dachstuhl and Oberstein, of part of the ancient countship of Sponheim, and sections of the duchy of Jiilich, which were granted to the grand-duke of Oldenburg by the congress of Vienna in 1815.
On his return to Poland in 1814, he entered the Russian army with the rank of a general officer, but a personal insult from the grand duke Constantine resulted in his retiring into private life.
He began life at the bar, where he obtained considerable practice; but the loss of an important suit, in which he was counsel for a Neapolitan noble against the grand duke of Tuscany, and in which he had entirely mistaken the force of a leading document, so mortified him that he withdrew from the legal world.
The 16th-century Fortezza Vecchia, guarding the harbour, is picturesque, and there is a good bronze statue of the grand duke Ferdinand I.
He now entered the service of the grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and remained at the head of the grand-ducal government until 1867, when he became plenipotentiary for the two Mecklenburg duchies in the council of the German Confederation (Bundesrat), where he distinguished himself by his successful defence of the medieval constitution of the duchies against Liberal attacks.
In 1841 he married the daughter of the grand-duke Louis II.
Among the other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall, the theatre, the Kaufhaus or merchants' hall, a 16th-century building with a handsome façade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-hall, completed 1901, in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the church of the abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839.
The rightful heir, in the natural order of primogeniture, was the little grand duke Peter, son of the Tsarevich Alexius, a child of six; but Peter decided to pass him over in favour of his own beloved consort Catherine.
By Marie he left a daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier; and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (1645-1721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Francoise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy.
There he remained till the visit to that city of the hereditary grand-duke (afterwards Alexander II.), accompanied by the poet Joukofsky, led to his being allowed to quit Viatka for Vladimir, where he was appointed editor of the official gazette of that city.
pledged himself as grand duke of Finland to maintain the constitutions and liberties of the grand duchy.
The girl had spared no effort to ingratiate herself, not only with the empress, but with the grand-duke and the Russian people.
The grand duke succeeded without opposition as Peter III.
The Order of Louis, founded by the grand duke Louis I.
in the centre, the ribbon is black with red borders; the Order of Philip the Magnanimous, founded by the grand duke Louis II.
The Order of Duke Peter Frederick Louis, a family order and order of merit, was founded by the grand duke Paul Frederick Augustus in memory of his father in 1838.
On the death of William in 1890 it passed to the grand duke of Luxemburg; it has only one class.
At the peace of Adrianople (1829) the place was definitely assigned to Walachia; but before giving it up, the grand-duke Michael of Russia razed the citadel, and in this ruinous condition it was handed over to the Walachians.
and Elizabeth of Austria, was elected grand-duke of Lithuania on the 21st of Ootober 1505 and king of Poland on the 8th of January 1506.
By his tact, equity, and Christian charity, Sigismund endeared himself even to those who differed most from him, as witness the readiness of the Lithuanians to elect his infant son grand-duke of Lithuania in 1522, and to crown him in 1529.
Internally one change of government succeeded another; after the States-General came a The Hun- became grand duke.
DMITREVICH (1371-1425), son of Dmitri (Demetrius) Donskoi, whom he succeeded in 1389, married Sophia, the daughter of Vitovt, grand-duke of Lithuania.
The most important ecclesiastical event of the reign was the elevation of the Bulgarian, Gregory Tsamblak, to the metropolitan see of Kiev (1425) by Vitovt, grand-duke of Lithuania; the immediate political consequence of which was the weakening of the hold of Muscovy on the south-western Russian states.
Three years later he brought his three great achievements together in compendious form, Quadratura circuli, Cubatio sphaerae, Duplicatio cubi, and as soon as they were once more refuted by Wallis, reprinted them with an answer to the objections, in compliment to the grand-duke of Tuscany, who paid him attentions on a visit to England in 1669 (L.W.
Among these was the grand-duke of Tuscany (Ferdinand II.), who took away some works and a portrait to adorn the Medicean library.
After the death of CharlesVll., Francis, grand duke of Tuscany, Maria Theresas husband, was elected emperor.
Charles Augustus, the enlightened grand duke of Weimar, set the example, from the best of motives.
cane and an uhlans stays, was magnified into a rebellion; drew down upon the grand duke of Weimar a collective protest of the powers; and set in motion the whole machinery of reaction.
William was grand duke of Luxemburg by a personal title, and his death severed the dynastic relation between the kingdom of the Netherlands and the grand duchy.
After graduating as a staff officer at St Petersburg he was sent to Turkestan in 1868 and, with the exception of an interval of two years, during which he was on the staff of the grand duke Michael in the Caucasus, remained in Central Asia until 1877.
Basil was the first grand-duke of Moscow who adopted the title of tsar and the double-headed eagle of the East Roman empire.
m.) was purchased by Prussia from the grand-duke of Oldenburg in 1853, when the Prussian navy was being formed.
As grand-duke of Tuscany Leopold had won the reputation lI.
Among other interesting buildings are the curious 14th-century Gothic town hall, the façade of which is concealed by a Renaissance addition; the palace of the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, built in 1702; the law courts, built in 1878-79; the university buildings, erected in 1867-70; and an assembly hall of the estates of Mecklenburg (Standehaus), a handsome Gothic building erected in 1889-93.
(ALEKSANDER PAVLOVIC) (1777-1825), emperor of Russia, son of the grand-duke Paul Petrovich, afterwards Paul and Maria Fedorovna, daughter of Frederick Eugene of Wurttemberg, was born on the 28th of December 1777.
A party too in Russia itself, headed by the tsar's brother the grand-duke Constantine, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon as the enemy of the orthodox faith.
The French occupied it in 1806, and in 1808 it was made over by Napoleon to the grand-duke of Berg, and became the chief town of the department of Ruhr.
Mainz Commission; the grand-duke of Weimar was compelled to deprive him of his professorship; and he was forbidden to lecture on philosophy.
The grand-duke, however, continued to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number of students.
Returning to Weimar in 1850, he was made a chamberlain by the grand-duke, and in 1852, his health being now somewhat restored, he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and went as attaché to Rome.
The few old friends, including the grand-duke Charles Alexander, who continued regularly to visit the house, were entertained with kindly hospitality by Baron Walther; Wolfgang refused to be drawn from his isolation even by the advent of royalty.
In 1828 he was commissioned to undertake the conduct of a scientific expedition to Egypt in company with Rosellini, who had received a similar appointment from Leopold II., grand duke of Tuscany.
On the 31st of October 1797 Gustavus married Frederica Dorothea, daughter of Charles Frederick, grand-duke of Baden, a marriage which might have led to a war with Russia but for the fanatical hatred of the French republic shared by the emperor Paul and Gustavus IV., which served as a bond of union between them.
Thence he penetrated by land to the court of the grand-duke of Moscow, and laid the foundation of the Russia Company for carrying on the overland trade with India through Persia, Bokhara and Moscow.
The king was at Gaeta, whither the grand-duke of Tuscany and Pius IX.
From his childhood the orphan grand duke was kept in the strictest seclusion.
His father, Captain Paul Ignatiev, had been taken into favour by the tsar Nicholas I., owing to his fidelity on the occasion of the military conspiracy in 1825; and the grand duke Alexander (afterwards tsar) stood sponsor at the boy's baptism.
In the war between Austria and Prussia in 1866, HesseDarmstadt was upon the side of the Austrians; Prince Louis accompanied his troops to the front, and was duly appointed by the grand-duke to the command of the Hessian division.
The death of the duke's father, Prince Charles of Hesse, on the 10th of March 1877, was followed by that of the grand-duke on the 13th of June, and Prince Louis succeeded to the throne as Grand Duke Louis IV.
In the summer of 1878 the grand-duke and duchess, with their family, came again to England, and went to Eastbourne, where the duchess remained for some time.
SAINT ALEXANDER NEVSKY (1220-1263), grand-duke of Vladimir, was the second son of the grand-duke Yarosla y.
He returned (1250) as grand-duke of Kiev and Novgorod, while to Andrew was given the far more important grandduchy of Vladimir.
But the men of Novgorod, in their semi-independent republic, continued (1255-1257) to give the grand-duke trouble, their chief grievance being the imposition of a Tatar tribute, which they only submitted to in 1259 on the rumour of an impending Tatar invasion.
Only one, however, the grand duke of Luxemburg, is now both sovereign and independent.
to its area and gave its ruler the title of grand-duke.
The next grand-duke, Charles Frederick, who succeeded in 1828, continued his father's work, but his reforms were not thorough enough nor rapid enough to avert disturbances in 1848, when power was given to a popular ministry and numerous reforms were carried through.
Reaction set in under Charles Alexander, who became grand-duke in 1853, and the union of the crown lands and the state lands was undone, although both remained under the same public management.
the grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar is landgrave of Thuringia.
Feodor's grandson, Sakhariya Ivanovich, was a boyar of Vasilii V., grand-duke of Moscow at intervals between 1425 and 1462, and the family took its name from his grandson Roman, whose daughter Anastasia Rornanovna married the tsar Ivan the Terrible.
While travelling with the grand-duke Lithold of Lithuania Jerome took part in the religious services of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Still, Joseph only touched the surface; his brother, the grand-duke Leopold of Tuscany, aspired to cut deeper, and provoke a religious revival on the lines of Jansenism.
It is the residence of the grand-duke and the seat of government of the duchy.
(1790-1830), the first grand-duke, under whom the new town was built.
FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.
From the time of its union with Russia at the Diet of Borga in 1809 till the events of 1899 (see History) Finland was practically a separate state, the emperor of Russia as grand-duke governing by means of a nominated senate and a diet elected on a very narrow franchise, and meeting at distant and irregular intervals.
of Russia, she maintained her free constitution and fundamental laws, and became a semi-independent grand-duchy with the emperor as grand-duke.
The estates were summoned to a free diet at Borg& and accepted Alexander as grand-duke of Finland, he on his part solemnly recognizing the Finnish constitution and undertaking to preserve the religion, laws and liberties of the country.
A few years later he again visited Italy, when the grand-duke Ferdinand II.
By the ukaz of 1722 Catherine was proclaimed Peter's successor, to the exclusion of the grand-duke Peter, the only son of the tsarevich Alexius, and on the 7th of May 1724 was solemnly crowned empress-consort in the Uspensky cathedral at Moscow, on which occasion she wore a crown studded with no fewer than 2564 precious stones, surmounted by a ruby, as large as a pigeon's egg, supporting a cross of brilliants.
Such was the anger of the king that Ragnvald was forced to accompany Ingeger5 to Russia, where she was married to the grand-duke Jaroslav at Novgorod.
In 1803, however, Charles Frederick, grand-duke of Baden, raised it anew and reconstituted it under the name of "RupertoCarola."
According to a scandalous report his father was not her husband the grand duke Peter, afterwards emperor, but one Colonel Soltykov.
A correspondence which he carried on with Goethe and Charles August, grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, was collected and published at Weimar by Schade in 1856.
Left an orphan at eighteen, with an estate heavily encumbered, he was by special decree of the grand duke of Tuscany declared of age.
In 1847 he founded the journal La Patria, and addressed to the grand duke a memorial suggesting remedies for the difficulties of the state.
In 1848 he was elected Gonfaloniere of Florence, but resigned on account of the anti-Liberal tendencies of the grand duke.
It contains a picture-gallery and is now occupied by the grand-duke of Tuscany.
By the peace of Luneville (1802) the see was secularized and given to the archduke of Austria and grand-duke of Tuscany in exchange for Tuscany, its new owner being enrolled among the electoral princes.
The peace of Pressburg in 1805 transferred it, under the name of an electorate, to Ferdinand, formerly grand-duke of Tuscany, who joined the confederation of the Rhine and took the title of grand-duke of Wurzburg.
After a period of travel he settled in Italy (1666) at first as professor of anatomy at Padua, and then in Florence as house-physician to the grand-duke Ferdinand II.
In 1051 Henry married the Russian princess Anne, daughter of Yaroslav I., grand duke of Kiev.
Ivan was made to distribute beakers of wine to his sister's adherents with his own hands, but subsequently, beneath the influence of his uncle Prozorovsky, he openly declared that "even for his sister's 1 Ivan V., if we count from the first grand duke of that name, as most Russian historians do; Ivan II., if, with the minority, we reckon from Ivan the Terrible as the first Russian tsar.
When the Estates of Finland seceded from Sweden and accepted the Emperor Alexander of Russia as their grand duke at the Diet of Borg, in 1809, Abo became the capital of the new state, and so remained till 1819 when the seat of government was transferred to Helsingfors.
1862), daughter of Frederick William Louis, grand duke of Baden, and of Louise, princess of Prussia.
Peter the Great introduced the use of the style "Imperator," and the official designation is now "Emperor of all the Russias, Tsar of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland," though the term tsar is still popularly used in Russia.
On the 14th of November six Russian army corps were mobilized to form the army of the south under the grand duke Foreign and domestic politics, 1866-70.
On the 23rd of April Russia declared war against Turkey, and the grand duke Nicholas issued a proclamation to the Rumanian nation, announcing his intention of entering their territory in the hope of finding the same welcome as in former wars.
Berg was bestowed by Napoleon, along with the duchy of Cleves and other possessions, on Joachim Murat, who bore the title of grand-duke of Berg; and after Mura.t's elevation to the throne of Naples, it was transferred to Louis, the son of the king of Holland.
The heir to a throne is " crown prince " (Kronprinz), " hereditary grand duke " (Erbgrossherzog) or " hereditary prince " (Erbprinz).
In Italy he gained the grand duke of Tuscany - marrying his niece Marie de' Medici in 1600 - the duke of Mantua, the republic of Venice and Pope Paul V.
Barmen, although mentioned in chronicles in the 11th century, did not attain civic rights until 1808, when it was formed into a municipality by the grand-duke of Berg.
Karlsruhe has several fine public squares, the principal of which are the Schlosspiatz, with Schwanthaler's statue of the grand duke Karl Friedrich in the centre, and market square (Marktplatz), with a fountain and a statue of Louis, grand duke of Baden.
In the centre of the Rondelplatz is an obelisk in honour of the grand duke Karl Wilhelm.
The title was revived in 1851, when Alexander (1823888), a younger son of Louis II., grand-duke of Hesse, contracted a morganatic marriage with a Polish lady, Countess Julia Theresa von Haucke (1825-1895), who was then created countess of Battenberg.
The grand duke of Tuscany had been admitted to terms in February.
A dispute having arisen between the grand duke of Tuscany and the republic of Lucca with respect to the drainage of a lake, Boscovich was sent, in 1757, as agent of Lucca to Vienna, and succeeded in bringing about a satisfactory arrangement of the matter.
At the same time reports were reaching King Alexander that Russia was discussing with the leaders of the extreme Radicals the conditions under which a Russian grand-duke was to be proclaimed king of Servia.
The Venetian government made every effort to have Bianca arrested and brought back, but the grand duke Cosimo de' Medici intervened in her favour and she was left unmolested.
In October 1587 both the grand duke and his wife died of colic within a couple of days of each other.
He then turned his arms against Jaroslav, grand duke of Kiev, whom he routed on the banks of the Bug, then the boundary between Russia and Poland.
At Basel (April July 1795) republican France, having rejoined the of concert of Europe, signed the long-awaited peace with Prussia, Spain, Holland and the grand-duke of Tuscany.
This was an international coup de force, which presupposed that all these nations in whose eyes independence was flaunted would make no claim to enjoy it; that though they had been beaten and pillaged they would not learn to conquer in their turn; and that the king of Sardinia, dispossessed of Milan, the grand-duke of Tuscany who Md given refuge to the pope when driven from Rome, and the king of Naples, ~iho had opened his ports to Nelsons fleet, would not find allies to make a stand against this hypocritical system.
Joseph replaced the dispossessed Bourbons at Naples; Louis was installed on the throne of Holland; Murat became grand-duke of Berg, Jerome son-in-law to the king of Wiirttemberg, and Eug~ne de Beauharnais to the king of Bavaria; while StphaIlie de Beauharnais married the son of the grand-duke of Baden.
Here in the first half of the 19th century the grand duke Leopold II.
Siena was annexed (1559); the title of grand duke of Tuscany was conferred on that ruler in 1 567 by Pope Pius V.
After a brief regency he appointed his second son, Ferdinand III., who had been born and brought up in Tuscany, grand duke.
The grand duke was forced to fly, the "tree of liberty" was set up, and a provisional government on French lines established.
At last a compromise was arrived at and the grand duke was requested to abdicate in favour of his son, grant a constitution, and take part in the war against Austria.
Not content with being "the grand duke of the West," he conceived the project of forming a kingdom of Burgundy or Arles with himself as independent sovereign, and even persuaded the emperor Frederick to assent to crown him king at .Trier.
But the discovery which was at once perceived to be most important in itself, and most revolutionary in its effects, was that of Jupiter's satellites, first seen by Galileo on the 7th of January 1610, and by him named Sidera Medicea, in honour of the grand-duke of Tuscany, Cosmo II., who had been his pupil, and was about to become his employer.
His discovery of the "Medicean Stars" was acknowledged by his nomination (July 1610) as philosopher and mathematician extraordinary to the grand-duke of Tuscany.
Encouraged by the flattering reception accorded to him, he ventured, in his Letters on the Solar Spots, printed at Rome in 1613, to take up a more decided position towards that doctrine on the establishment of which, as he avowed in a letter to Belisario Vinta, secretary to the grand-duke, "all his life and being henceforward depended."
The pope admitted him to six long audiences in the course of two months, wrote an enthusiastic letter to the grand-duke praising the great astronomer, not only for his distinguished learning, but also for his exemplary piety, and granted a pension to his son Vincenzio, which was afterwards transferred to himself, and paid, with some irregularities, to the end of his life.
1342), grand-duke of Lithuania, was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the servant of Witen, prince of Lithuania, but more probably he was Witen's younger brother and the son of Lutuwer, another Lithuanian prince.
The ruins in and near the town include remains of a church supposed to have been built by Vladimir, grand duke of Kiev, in the loth-11th centuries, and of another built in 1160 by his descendant Mstisla y.
In 1810 Eugene received the title of grand-duke of Frankfort.
1054), grand duke of Kiev, came to the throne, when a child of eight, by the death of his father on the 4th of August 1060.
Though a colonel in his cradle and a general since 1808, the grand-duke Nicholas did not see any active service until 1814, when he was allowed to join the Russian head-quarters in France but not to take part in any fighting.
In 1819 the emperor Alexander first mentioned his intention to abdicate in favour of Nicholas, Constantine consenting to stand aside; but he took no steps to initiate his prospective heir in affairs of state, and the grand-duke continued to be confined to his military duties.
The second son of the latter, the grand-duke Michael Mikhazlovich (b.
Beginning in 1815, the grand duchy was presided over by the Netherlands, whose king was also grand duke of Luxembourg.
SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
On the 26th of January the grand-duke issued a circular letter to the Tuscan bishops suggesting certain reforms, especially in the matter of the restoration of the authority of diocesan synods, the purging of the missals and breviaries of legends, the assertion of episcopal as against papal authority, the curtailing of the privileges of the monastic orders, and the better education of the clergy.
De' Ricci, deprived of the personal support of the grand-duke (now the emperor Leopold I.), exposed to pressure from Rome, and threatened with mob violence as a suspected destroyer of holy relics, resigned his see in 1791, and lived in Florence as a private gentleman until his death in 1810.
ALEXANDER (1461-1506), king of Poland and grandduke of Lithuania, fourth son of Casimir IV., king of Poland, was elected grand-duke of Lithuania on the death of his father in 1492, and king of Poland on the death of his brother John Albert in 1501.
The pope, unable to resist the popular demand for war, allowed his army to depart (March 23) under the command of General Durando, with instructions to act in concert with Charles Albert, and he corresponded with the grand-duke of Tuscany and the king of Naples with a view to a military alliance.
In Tuscany disorder continued, and although Guerrazzi, who had been appointed dictator, saved the country from complete anarchy, a large part of the population, especially among the peasantry, was still oyal to the grand-duke.
WITOWT, or Witold (1350-1430), grand-duke of Lithuania, son of Kiejstut, prince of Samogitia, first appears prominently in 1382, when the Teutonic Order set him up as a candidate for the throne of Lithuania in opposition to his cousin Jagiello (see Wladislaus), who had treacherously murdered Witowt's father and seized his estates.
As a counterblast to this the grand-duke Charles issued in 181 a pragmatic sanction (Hausgesetz) declaring the counts of Hochberg, the issue of a morganatic marriage between the grand-duke Charles Frederick and Luise Geyer von Geyersberg (created Countess Hochberg), capable of succeeding to the crown.
On the other hand, the new grand-duke Louis, who had succeeded in 1818, was unpopular,, and the administration was in the hands of hide-bound and inefficient bureaucrats.
The signing on the 28th of June 1859 of a concordat with the Holy See, by which education was placed under the oversight of the clergy;and the establishment of religious orders was facilitated, ledÃ‚° to a constitutional struggle, which ended in 1863 with the victory ' Frederick assumed the title of grand-duke on the 5th of :September 1856.
There was talk of instituting a central Italian kingdom with Leopold as king, to form part of a larger Italian federation, but in the meanwhile the grand-duke, alarmed at the revolutionary and republican agitations in Tuscany and encouraged by the success of the Austrian arms, was, according to Montanelli, negotiating with Field-Marshal Radetzky and with Pius IX., who had now abandoned his Liberal tendencies, and fled to Gaeta.
The majority, while fearing an Austrian invasion, desired the return of the grand-duke who had never been unpopular, and in April 1849 the municipal council usurped the powers of the assembly and invited him to return, "to save us by means of the restoration of the constitutional monarchy surrounded by popular institutions, from the shame and ruin of a foreign invasion."
The grand-duke accepted his threat as a request to resign, passed censure, and extended to him permission to withdraw from his chair at Jena; nor would he alter his decision, even though Fichte himself endeavoured to explain away the unfortunate letter.
Among the other noteworthy buildings of Freiburg are the palaces of the grand duke and the archbishop, the old town-hall, the theatre, the Kaufhaus or merchants' hall, a 16th-century building with a handsome faÃ§ade, the church of St Martin, with a graceful spire restored 1880-1881, the new town-hall, completed 1901, in Renaissance style, and the Protestant church, formerly the church of the abbey of Thennenbach, removed hither in 1839.
His predecessor, Adolf Siegfried Osten, had been dismissed because he was not persona grata at St Petersburg, and Bernstorff's first official act was to conclude the negotiations which had long been pending with the grand-duke Paul as duke of Holstein-Gottorp. The result was the exchangetreaty of the 1st of June (May 21 O.S.) 1773, confirming the previous treaty of 1767 (see Bernstorff, H.
Among other interesting buildings are the curious 14th-century Gothic town hall, the faÃ§ade of which is concealed by a Renaissance addition; the palace of the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, built in 1702; the law courts, built in 1878-79; the university buildings, erected in 1867-70; and an assembly hall of the estates of Mecklenburg (Standehaus), a handsome Gothic building erected in 1889-93.
Returning to Weimar in 1850, he was made a chamberlain by the grand-duke, and in 1852, his health being now somewhat restored, he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and went as attachÃ© to Rome.
The Romanovs descended from Andrei, surnamed Kobyla, who is said to have come to Moscow from Prussia about 1341 to enter the service of the grand-duke Semen (d.
Her brother Nikita Romanovich married the princess Eudoxia Alexandrovna, a descendant of Andrei Jaroslavovich, grand-duke of Susdal-Vladimir (d.
It is built in the form of a star, the eight rays converging on a market-place adorned with a statue of the grand-duke George (d.
1879), daughter of Frederick Francis III., grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; and his second son, Charles (b.
(See Pistoia, Synod Of.) The grand duke also contemplated granting a form of constitution, but his Teutonic rigidity was not popular and many of his reforms were ahead of the times and not appreciated by the people.
(q.v.); (2) the grand-duchess Maria (1819-1876), duchess of Leuchtenberg; (3) the grand-duchess Olga (1822-1892), consort of King Charles of Wurttemberg; (4) the grandduchess Alexandra (1825-1844), married to Prince Frederick of Hesse-Cassel; (5) the grand-duke Constantine Nikolayevich (1827-1892); (6) the grand-duke Nicholas Nikolayevich (1831-1891); (7) the grand-duke Michael Nikolayevich (b.
She had opportunities of sending her letters to the Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich, who commanded the Guards.
And he went on to inquiries about the Grand Duke and the state of his health, and to reminiscences of the gay and amusing times he had spent with him in Naples.
The Grand Duke was there because it suited him to be.
But after Bennigsen's departure, the Grand Duke Tsarevich Constantine Pavlovich joined the army.
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