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grand-duchy

grand-duchy

grand-duchy Sentence Examples

  • In 1820 he retired with a pension his estate at Hornau, near Hochst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country.

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  • In 1821 he began his official career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 was elected to the second chamber.

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  • It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.

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  • With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.

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  • There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia, &c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar belonging to the Rhine Province.

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  • Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.

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  • BREISGAU, a district of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden.

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  • Acting as lieutenant for the Spaniards, he subsequently (1555) subdued Siena, and bequeathed to his descendants the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.

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  • ruled the grand-duchy of Tuscany by lieutenants until his death in 1765, when it was given, as an.

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  • A wealthy publisher of European reputation attended the court of his native town, the capital of a small grand-duchy, in virtue of the honorary title Hofrat; his wife, not being noble, did not accompany him.

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  • The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.

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  • Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.

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  • The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.

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  • The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.

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  • FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB WELCKER (1784-1868), German philologist and archaeologist, was born at Griinberg in the grand duchy of Hesse.

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  • In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.

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  • HESSE-DARMSTADT, a grand-duchy in Germany, the history of which begins with the partition of Hesse in 1567.

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  • Many reforms in ecclesiastical, educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls the Hessian railway system.

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  • Since the annexation of Hesse-Cassel by Prussia in 1866 the grand-duchy has been known simply as Hesse.

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  • He studied law and from 1871 to 1882 held various administrative offices in the Grand Duchy of Baden.

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  • Hessen), a grand duchy forming a state of the German empire.

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  • The area and population of the three provinces of Hesse are as follow: The chief towns of the grand duchy are Darmstadt (the capital) and Offenbach in Starkenburg, Mainz and Worms in Rheinhessen and Giessen in Oberhessen.

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  • The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.

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  • In 1794 it was bombarded by the French under General Vandamme, and in 1806 it was assigned to the grand-duchy of Berg.

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  • by the grand-duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena.

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  • Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • In 1810, after the peace of Vienna (Schonbrunn), the grand-duchy of Frankfort was created for his benefit out of his territories, which, in spite of the cession of Regensburg to Bavaria, were greatly augmented.

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  • Thus Florence lost her liberty, and came to be the capital of the duchy (afterwards grand-duchy) of Tuscany (see Tuscany).

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  • The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.

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  • In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.

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  • Some of those on the right bank of the river were given to Prussia and to Hesse; others were formed into a grand duchy for Dalberg.

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  • DELMENHORST, a town of Germany, grand duchy of Oldenburg, on the Delme, 8 m.

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  • by the kingdom of Bavaria and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; W.

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  • During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.

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  • In the hurry of the winding-up of the congress, however, the vexed question of the succession to the grand-duchy had not been settled.

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  • In order to secure popular support for the Hochberg heir, Charles in 1818 granted to the grand-duchy, under article xiii.

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  • It was he who after Austerlitz aggrandized the margravate at the expense of Austria; transformed it into a sovereign principality and raised it to a grand-duchy.

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  • He then retired to his estate in the Posen province, and occupied himself in writing pamphlets, memoirs, &c. When his estates passed into the grand duchy of Warsaw, he chose to remain a Prussian subject, and on the outbreak of the war of liberation he asked in vain for a post on the Prussian staff.

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  • The union between the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania was brought about on Feb.

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  • This category contains places located in the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.

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  • JEVER, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, 13 m.

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  • PARCHIM (PARCHEM), a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the Elde, which flows through it in two arms, 23 m.

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  • LUXEMBURG, a district in the European low countries, of which the eastern part forms the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the western is the Belgian province of that name (for map, see Belgium).

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  • The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.

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  • In 1830 when the Belgian provinces separated from Holland, an effort was made to include Luxemburg in the new kingdom of the Belgians; but in November 1831 the powers decided that part of the grand-duchy should be retained by the king of Holland, who refused to accept this arrangement.

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  • The grand-duchy of Luxemburg, the portion under the rule of William I.

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  • In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.

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  • proposed to sell his rights over the grand-duchy to France.

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  • At the same time the great powers guaranteed the neutrality of the grand-duchy, and although a member of the German Zollverein, Luxemburg now forms a sovereign and independent state.

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  • The Grand-Duchy lies S.E.

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  • Its capital is Arlon, which lies near the borders of the grand-duchy.

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  • JADE, or JAIME, a deep bay and estuary of the North Sea, belonging to the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, Germany.

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  • WEIMAR, a city of Germany, the capital of the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

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  • In 1806 it was annexed to the grand-duchy of Frankfort; and in 1814 was transferred to Bavaria, in virtue of a treaty concluded on the 19th of June between that power and Austria.

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  • In 1805, after the foundation of the French empire, Napoleon bestowed upon her the principality of Piombino and shortly afterwards Lucca; in 1808 her importunities gained for her the grand duchy of Tuscany.

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  • The Belgian Ardennes may be said now to extend from the Meuse above Dinant on the west to the grand duchy of Luxemburg and Rhenish Prussia as far north as the Baraque de Michel on the east, and from a line drawn eastward from Dinant through Marche, Durbuy and Stavelot to the Hautes Fagnes on the north, to the French frontier roughly marked by the Semois valley in the south.

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  • In the grand duchy the forest has almost entirely disappeared, but owing to the compulsory law of replanting in Belgium this fate does not seem likely to attend the Belgian Ardennes.

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  • By this time, however, the prudent Jagiello had become convinced that Lithuania was too strong to be ruled by or from Poland, and yet not strong enough to stand alone, and by the compact of Vilna (January 18, 1401,1401, confirmed by the compact of Radowo, March 10) he surrendered the whole grand duchy to Witowt, on the understanding that the two states should have a common policy, and that neither of them should elect a new prince without the consent of the other.

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  • The great obstacle in the way of this, the only true solution of the difficulty, was the opposition of the Lithuanian magnates, who feared to lose the absolute dominancy they possessed in the grand-duchy if they were merged in the szlachta of the kingdom.

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  • Henceforth the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania were to constitute one inseparable and indivisible body politic, under one1569.

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  • Even when, after the peace of Tilsit, the independent grand-duchy of Warsaw was constructed out of the central provinces of Prussian Poland, his distrust of Napoleon proved to be invincible.

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  • The grand-duchy of Warsaw originally consisted of about 1850 sq.

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  • The grand-duchy was, from first to last, a mere recruiting-ground for the French emperor.

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  • - The Grand Duchy of Warsaw perished with the Grand Army in the retreat from Moscow in 1812.

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  • The final overthrow of the French supremacy at the battle of Waterloo secured him, however, in the undisturbed possession of his grand duchy during the remainder of his life.

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  • This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

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  • Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.

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  • BADENWEILER, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, 28 m.

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  • He contributed more than any one else to the erection of the grand-duchy into an autonomous state, and was its first and best governor-general.

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  • m., of which about twothirds lie in the grand duchy of Baden and the remaining third in the kingdom of 'Wurttemberg.

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  • These boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg and the free state of Bremen, the former stretching southward from the North Sea nearly to the southern boundary of Hanover.

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  • FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal see and city of Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m.

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  • HEPPENHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Bergstrasse, between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, 21 m.

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  • NIERSTEIN, a village of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the left bank of the Rhine, 8 m.

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  • At the end of 1810 he became French resident at Warsaw and was for a couple of years supreme in the affairs of the grand duchy.

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  • BORGA (Finnish Porvoo), a seaport in the province of Nyland, grand duchy of Finland, situated at the entrance of the river Borga into the Gulf of Finland, about 33 m.

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  • pledged himself as grand duke of Finland to maintain the constitutions and liberties of the grand duchy.

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  • The submission of the whole grand duchy would be the natural consequence of such a success, and, Finland once secured, Sprengtporten proposed at the head of his Finns to embark for Sweden, meet the king and his friends near Stockholm, and surprise the capital by a night attack.

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  • Of the various orders founded by the houses of HesseCassel and Hesse-Darmstadt the following are still bestowed in the grand duchy of Hesse.

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  • The collar is composed of three members alternately, the imperial eagle bearing on a red medallion a figure of St George slaying the Dragon, the badge of the grand duchy of Moskow, the cipher of the emperor Paul I.

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  • LUDWIGSLUST, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 22 m.

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  • by the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the S.E.

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  • and N.E., by Prussia and the grand duchy of Luxemburg on the E.

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  • Its land frontiers measure 793 m., divided as follows: - with Holland 269 m., with Prussia 60 m., with the grand duchy 80 m.

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  • The limits of Belgium are fixed by the London protocol of the 15th of October 1831 - also called the twenty-four articles - which cut off what is now termed the grand duchy of Luxemburg, and also a good portion of the duchy of Limburg.

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  • By these articles the grand-duchy reforms. The election of 1847 gave a majority to the Liberals and a purely Liberal ministry was formed, and from this date onwards it has been the constitutional practice in Belgium to choose a homogeneous ministry from the party which possesses a working majority in the chamber.

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  • In his reign the grand-duchy of Muscovy became practically hereditary, and asserted its supremacy over all the surrounding principalities.

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  • He annexed the principality of Suzdal to Moscovy, together with Murom, Kozelsk Peremyshl, and other places; reduced the grand-duchy of Rostov to a state of vassalage; and acquired territory from the republic of Great Novgorod by treaty.

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  • ALZEY, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of HesseDarmstadt, 18 m.

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  • Annexed to France during the Napoleonic wars, it passed in 1815 to the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

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  • Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemnde, Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier.

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  • the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, and the grand-duchy of Baden, as well as the southern provinces of the grand-duchy of Hesse, were added to the North German Confederation.

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  • Henceforward all the German states that had survived the struggle of 1866, with the exception of the empire of Austria, the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the principality of Liechtenstein, were incorporated in a permanent federal state under the leadership of Prussia.

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  • William was grand duke of Luxemburg by a personal title, and his death severed the dynastic relation between the kingdom of the Netherlands and the grand duchy.

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  • In Italy the influence of the House of Austria had been strengthened by the marriage of the archduke Ferdinand with the heiress of the d'Estes of Modena, and the establishment of the archduke Leopold in the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • He had, it is true, been unable to prevent the retention of the grand-duchy of Warsaw by Alexander of Russia; but with the aid of Great Britain and France (secret treaty of January 3, 1815) he had frustrated the efforts of Prussia to absorb the whole of Saxony, Bavaria was forced to disgorge the territories gained for her by Napoleon at Austria's expense, Illyria and Dalmatia were regained, and Lombardy was added to Venetia to constitute a kingdom under the Habsburg crown; while in the whole Italian peninsula French was replaced by Austrian influence.

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  • ODENWALD, a wooded mountainous region of Germany, almost entirely in the grand duchy of Hesse, with small portions in Bavaria and Baden.

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  • ROSTOCK, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, one of the most important commercial cities on the Baltic. It is situated on the left bank of the estuary of the Warnow, 8 m.

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  • OPPENHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse, picturesquely situated on the slope of vine-clad hills, on the left bank of the Rhine, 20 m.

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  • 1 The treaty of Vienna, which added largely to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, he complained had " ill requited him for his loyalty," and he was only mollified for the time by Napoleon's public declaration that he had no intention of restoring Poland, and by a convention, signed on the 4th of January 1810 but not ratified, abolishing the Polish name and orders of chivalry.

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  • MITSCHERLICH, EILHARDT (1794-1863), German chemist, was born on the 7th of January 1794 at Neuende near Jever, in the grand duchy of Oldenburg, where his father was pastor.

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  • This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Westphalia, Rhineland, and Hesse-Nassau, in the Bavarian Palatinate, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, and in the Principalities of Birkenfeld, Waldeck-Pyrmont, Lippe, and Schaumburg-Lippe.

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  • BRUCHSAL, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, prettily situated on the Saalbach, 14 m.

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  • The principality of Lubeck, lying north of the state, is a constituent of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg.

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  • WORMS, a city of Germany, in the grand-duchy of HesseDarmstadt, situated in a fertile plain called the Wonnegau, on the left bank of the Rhine, 25 m.

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  • OBERSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the principality of Birkenfeld, belonging to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, on the river Nahe, 33m.

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  • BADEN, or Baden-Baden (to distinguish it from other places of the name), a town and fashionable watering-place of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 23 m.

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  • Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach), a grand duchy of Germany and a sovereign and constituent state of the German empire.

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  • The total area of the grand-duchy is 1397 sq.

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  • The district of Weimar, which is at once the largest division and the geographical and historical kernel of the grand-duchy, is a roughly circular territory, situated on the plateau to the north-east of the Thuringian Forest.

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  • Eisenach is the only town of importance in this division of the grand-duchy.

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  • The manufacturing industries in the grand-duchy are considerable; they employ 41% of the population.

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  • By a treaty with Prussia in 1867, which afterwards became the model for similar treaties between Prussia and other Thuringian states, the troops of the grand-duchy were incorporated with the Prussian army.

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  • In 1866 the grand-duchy joined Prussia against Austria, although its troops were then garrisoning towns in the interests of the latter power; afterwards it entered the North German Confederation and the new German empire.

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  • The history of the other Tuscan towns was equally tumultuous, all of them save Lucca, after many fitful changes finally passing under the sway of Florence, or the grand-duchy of Tuscany, as the state was now called.

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  • In 1752 the abbot was raised to the rank of a bishop, and Fulda ranked as a princebishopric. This was secularized in 1802, and in quick succession it belonged to the prince of Orange, the king of France and the grand-duchy of Frankfort.

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  • When, by the 4th article of the treaty of Fredrikshavn (Friedrichshamn), 5/17 September 1809, the islands were ceded to Russia, together with the territories forming the grand-duchy of Finland on the mainland, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified.

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  • Among the wines, however, which are well known may be mentioned the Franconian growths, amongst which the celebrated Stein wine, which is grown at the foot of the citadel of the town of Wurzburg, and in the grand duchy of Baden the celebrated growths of Affenthal (red) and Markgrafler.

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  • DARMSTADT, a city of Germany, capital of the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on a plain gently sloping from the Odenwald to the Rhine, 21 m.

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  • FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa), a grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland.

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  • The leading cities of Finland are: Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (Ian) of Nyland, principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); Abo, capital of the Abo-BjOrneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639); Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672); Ulea.- borg, capital of province (1 7,737); Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa Ian (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519); and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545).

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  • By the new constitution the grand-duchy was to be divided into not less than twelve and not more than eighteen constituencies, electing members in proportion to population.

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  • raised the country to the dignity of a grand-duchy.

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  • of Russia, she maintained her free constitution and fundamental laws, and became a semi-independent grand-duchy with the emperor as grand-duke.

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  • One of Alexander III.'s first acts was to confirm " the constitution which was granted to the grand-duchy of Finland by His Majesty the emperor Alexander Pavlovich of most glorious memory, and developed with the consent of the estates of Finland by our dearly beloved father of blessed memory the emperor Alexander Nicolaievich."

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  • The Hats eagerly caught at the opportunity of recovering the grand duchy and their own prestige along with it.

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  • against Russia, though, during the autumn of 1807, it was notorious that the tsar was preparing to attack the grand duchy.

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  • JENA, a university town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar, on the left bank of the Saale, 56 m.

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  • removed his court to Mannheim, and in 1803 the town became part of the grand-duchy of Baden.

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  • APOLDA, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of SaxeWeimar, near the river Ilm, 9 m.

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  • Napoleon incorporated Siegen in the grand-duchy of Berg in 1806; and in 1815 the congress of Vienna assigned it to Prussia, under whose rule it has nearly quintupled its population.

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  • NEU - BRANDENBURG, a town of, Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, is situated on a small lake called the Tollense See, 58 m.

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  • This category includes German places in the Prussian provinces of Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein, in the Duchy of Brunswick, in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, and in the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and Lübeck.

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  • TAUNUS, a wooded mountain range of Germany in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt.

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  • ILMENAU, a town and summer resort of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar, at the north foot of the Thuringian Forest, on the river Ertl, 30 m.

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  • DURLACH, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, 22 m.

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  • KARLSRUHE, or Carlsruhe, a city of Germany, capital of the grand-duchy of Baden, 33 m.

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  • In 1807, after the peace of Tilsit, Posen was incorporated with the grand duchy of Warsaw, but in 1815 it reverted to Prussia under the style of the grand duchy of Posen.

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  • NEU-STRELITZ, a town of Germany, capital of the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, situated between two small lakes, the Zierker See and the Glambecker See, 60 m.

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  • GUSTROW, a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the Nebel and the railway from Lubeck to Stettin, 20 m.

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  • of Sweden for the moment swept the Polish state out of existence; the Muscovites, unopposed, quickly appropriated nearly everything which was not already occupied by the Swedes, and when at last the Poles offered to negotiate, the whole grand-duchy of Lithuania was the least of the demands of Alexius.

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  • WISMAR, a seaport town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, situated on the Bay of Wismar, one of the best harbours on the Baltic, 20 m.

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  • by the grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, on the N.

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  • It comprises the old kingdoms of Galicia and Lodomeria, the duchies of Auschwitz and Zator, and the grand duchy of Cracow.

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  • On the first partition of Poland, in 1772, the kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria came to Austria, and to this was added the district of New or West Galicia in 1795; but at the peace of Vienna in 1809 West Galicia and Cracow were surrendered to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, and in 1810 part of East Galicia, including Tarnopol, was made over to Russia.

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  • Francis, who had been elected emperor in 1745, died in 1765, and was succeeded on the throne of the grand duchy by his younger son, Leopold I.

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  • In 1847 Lucca was incorporated in the grand duchy.

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  • Gedymin also secured an alliance with the grand-duchy of Muscovy by marrying his daughter, Anastasia, to the grandduke Simeon.

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  • It is the centre of an active shipping trade with the Baltic ports and with England, and of a railway system connecting it with all parts of the grand duchy and with St Petersburg.

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  • EUTIN, a town of Germany, capital of the principality of Lubeck, which is an enclave in the Prussian province of SchleswigHolstein and belongs to the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, picturesquely situated on the Lake Eutin, 20 m.

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  • Oldenburg, Germany (Grand-Duchy) >>

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  • BINGEN (anc. Vincum or Bingium), a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, 15 m.

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  • Beginning in 1815, the grand duchy was presided over by the Netherlands, whose king was also grand duke of Luxembourg.

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  • In 1820 he retired with a pension his estate at Hornau, near Hochst, in Hesse-Darmstadt; but as a member of the first chamber of the states of the grand-duchy he continued to take an active share in the promotion of measures for the welfare of his country.

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  • In 1821 he began his official career as a lawyer in the grand-duchy of Hesse, and in 1832 was elected to the second chamber.

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  • It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.

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  • MANNHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Baden, lying on the right bank of the Rhine, at its confluence with the Neckar, 39 m.

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  • With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.

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  • There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia, &c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar belonging to the Rhine Province.

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  • Hesse-Nassau was formed in 1867-1868 out of the territories which accrued to Prussia after the war of 1866, namely, the landgraviate of Hesse-Cassel and the duchy of Nassau, in addition to the greater part of the territory of Frankfort-on-Main, parts of the grand-duchy of Hesse, the territory of Homburg and the countship of HesseHomburg, together with certain small districts which belonged to Bavaria.

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  • BREISGAU, a district of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden.

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  • Acting as lieutenant for the Spaniards, he subsequently (1555) subdued Siena, and bequeathed to his descendants the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.

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  • ruled the grand-duchy of Tuscany by lieutenants until his death in 1765, when it was given, as an.

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  • A wealthy publisher of European reputation attended the court of his native town, the capital of a small grand-duchy, in virtue of the honorary title Hofrat; his wife, not being noble, did not accompany him.

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  • Province Or Government European Russia - Archangel Astrakhan Bessarabia Chernigov Courland Don Cossacks' territory Ekaterinoslav Esthonia Grodno Kaluga Kazan Kiev Kostroma Kovno Kursk Kharkov Kherson Poland Kalisz Kielce Lomza Lublin Grand-Duchy of Finland- Abo-Bjbrneborg Kuopio Nyland Caucasia- Kuban Baku Black Sea territory Daghestan Russia in Asia- Turkestan- Transcaspia Western Siberia- Tobolsk Tomsk Eastern Siberia Irkutsk Yakutsk Transbaikalia Yeniseisk Amur Region Amur Maritime Province Sakhalin It has been found, from a comparison of the densities of population of the various provinces in 1859 with the distribution in 1897, that the centre of density has distinctly moved S., towards the shores of the Black Sea, and W., the greatest increase having taken place in the E.

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  • The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.

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  • Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.

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  • INGELHEIM (Ober-Ingelheim and Nieder-Ingelheim), the name of two contiguous market-towns of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Selz, near its confluence with the Rhine, 9 m.

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  • In central Italy the influence of the First Consul was paramount; for in 1801 he transformed the grand duchy of Tuscany into the kingdom of Etruria for the duke of Parma; and, seeing that that promotion added lustre to the fortunes of the duchess of Parma (a Spanish infanta), Spain consented lamely enough to the cession of Louisiana to France.

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  • The House of Habsburg now ceded Salzburg and the Inn-Viertel to Napoleon (for his ally, the king of Bavaria); a great portion of the spoils which Austria had torn from Poland in 1795 went to the grand duchy of Warsaw, or Russia; and the cession of her provinces Carinthia, Carniola and Istria to the French empire cut her off from all access to the sea.

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  • The addition of large territories to the grand duchy of Warsaw after the war of 1809 aroused the fears of the tsar respecting the Poles; and he regarded all Napoleon's actions as inspired by hostility to Russia.

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  • The Austrian demands, first presented to him on the 16th of May, shortly after his victory of Liitzen, were (1) the dissolution of the grand duchy of Warsaw, (2) the withdrawal of France from the lands of north-west Germany annexed in 1810 and (3) the cession to Austria of the Illyrian provinces wrested from her in 1809.

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  • FRIEDRICH GOTTLIEB WELCKER (1784-1868), German philologist and archaeologist, was born at Griinberg in the grand duchy of Hesse.

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  • In 1810 it was divided by Napoleon between the grand duchy of Berg and France, but was, in 1815, restored to the duke of Arenberg as a fief under Prussian sovereignty.

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  • HESSE-DARMSTADT, a grand-duchy in Germany, the history of which begins with the partition of Hesse in 1567.

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  • Many reforms in ecclesiastical, educational, financial and administrative matters were introduced, and in general the grand-duchy may be said to have passed largely under the influence of Prussia, which, by an arrangement made in 1896, controls the Hessian railway system.

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  • Since the annexation of Hesse-Cassel by Prussia in 1866 the grand-duchy has been known simply as Hesse.

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  • He studied law and from 1871 to 1882 held various administrative offices in the Grand Duchy of Baden.

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  • Hessen), a grand duchy forming a state of the German empire.

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  • The area and population of the three provinces of Hesse are as follow: The chief towns of the grand duchy are Darmstadt (the capital) and Offenbach in Starkenburg, Mainz and Worms in Rheinhessen and Giessen in Oberhessen.

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  • The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.

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  • In 1794 it was bombarded by the French under General Vandamme, and in 1806 it was assigned to the grand-duchy of Berg.

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  • by the grand-duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena.

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  • Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.

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  • In 1810, after the peace of Vienna (Schonbrunn), the grand-duchy of Frankfort was created for his benefit out of his territories, which, in spite of the cession of Regensburg to Bavaria, were greatly augmented.

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  • Thus Florence lost her liberty, and came to be the capital of the duchy (afterwards grand-duchy) of Tuscany (see Tuscany).

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  • The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.

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  • In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.

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  • Some of those on the right bank of the river were given to Prussia and to Hesse; others were formed into a grand duchy for Dalberg.

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  • The independence of Frankfort was brought to an end in 1806, on the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine; and in 1810 it was made the capital of the grand-duchy of Frankfort, which had an area of 3215 sq.m.

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  • DELMENHORST, a town of Germany, grand duchy of Oldenburg, on the Delme, 8 m.

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  • by the kingdom of Bavaria and the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt; W.

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  • During the middle ages the district which now forms the grand-duchy of Baden was ruled by various counts, prominent among whom were the counts and dukes of Zahringen.

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  • In the hurry of the winding-up of the congress, however, the vexed question of the succession to the grand-duchy had not been settled.

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  • In order to secure popular support for the Hochberg heir, Charles in 1818 granted to the grand-duchy, under article xiii.

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  • " Nothing more clearly demonstrates the sterile paradox of the Napoleonic work," it wrote, " than the history of the grand-duchy.

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  • It was he who after Austerlitz aggrandized the margravate at the expense of Austria; transformed it into a sovereign principality and raised it to a grand-duchy.

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  • The principal efforts of this eminent empire-maker were directed to securing those of the Russian lands which had formed part of the ancient grand-duchy of Kiev.

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  • He then retired to his estate in the Posen province, and occupied himself in writing pamphlets, memoirs, &c. When his estates passed into the grand duchy of Warsaw, he chose to remain a Prussian subject, and on the outbreak of the war of liberation he asked in vain for a post on the Prussian staff.

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  • The union between the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania was brought about on Feb.

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  • This category contains places located in the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Grand Duchy of Baden, the Prussian province of Hohenzollern, and the Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine.

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  • JEVER, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, 13 m.

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  • PARCHIM (PARCHEM), a town of Germany, in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, on the Elde, which flows through it in two arms, 23 m.

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  • LUXEMBURG, a district in the European low countries, of which the eastern part forms the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, and the western is the Belgian province of that name (for map, see Belgium).

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  • The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.

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  • In 1830 when the Belgian provinces separated from Holland, an effort was made to include Luxemburg in the new kingdom of the Belgians; but in November 1831 the powers decided that part of the grand-duchy should be retained by the king of Holland, who refused to accept this arrangement.

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  • The grand-duchy of Luxemburg, the portion under the rule of William I.

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  • William's daughter, Wilhelmina, succeeded to the throne of Holland, but under the Salic law' the grand-duchy passed to his kinsman, Adolphus, duke of Nassau, who died in 1905, and was succeeded by his son William (b.

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  • In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.

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  • proposed to sell his rights over the grand-duchy to France.

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  • At the same time the great powers guaranteed the neutrality of the grand-duchy, and although a member of the German Zollverein, Luxemburg now forms a sovereign and independent state.

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  • The Grand-Duchy lies S.E.

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  • Its capital is Arlon, which lies near the borders of the grand-duchy.

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  • JADE, or JAIME, a deep bay and estuary of the North Sea, belonging to the grand-duchy of Oldenburg, Germany.

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  • WEIMAR, a city of Germany, the capital of the grand-duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.

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  • In 1806 it was annexed to the grand-duchy of Frankfort; and in 1814 was transferred to Bavaria, in virtue of a treaty concluded on the 19th of June between that power and Austria.

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  • In 1805, after the foundation of the French empire, Napoleon bestowed upon her the principality of Piombino and shortly afterwards Lucca; in 1808 her importunities gained for her the grand duchy of Tuscany.

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  • The Belgian Ardennes may be said now to extend from the Meuse above Dinant on the west to the grand duchy of Luxemburg and Rhenish Prussia as far north as the Baraque de Michel on the east, and from a line drawn eastward from Dinant through Marche, Durbuy and Stavelot to the Hautes Fagnes on the north, to the French frontier roughly marked by the Semois valley in the south.

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  • In the grand duchy the forest has almost entirely disappeared, but owing to the compulsory law of replanting in Belgium this fate does not seem likely to attend the Belgian Ardennes.

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  • By this time, however, the prudent Jagiello had become convinced that Lithuania was too strong to be ruled by or from Poland, and yet not strong enough to stand alone, and by the compact of Vilna (January 18, 1401,1401, confirmed by the compact of Radowo, March 10) he surrendered the whole grand duchy to Witowt, on the understanding that the two states should have a common policy, and that neither of them should elect a new prince without the consent of the other.

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  • The great obstacle in the way of this, the only true solution of the difficulty, was the opposition of the Lithuanian magnates, who feared to lose the absolute dominancy they possessed in the grand-duchy if they were merged in the szlachta of the kingdom.

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  • Henceforth the kingdom of Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania were to constitute one inseparable and indivisible body politic, under one1569.

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  • Even when, after the peace of Tilsit, the independent grand-duchy of Warsaw was constructed out of the central provinces of Prussian Poland, his distrust of Napoleon proved to be invincible.

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  • The grand-duchy of Warsaw originally consisted of about 1850 sq.

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  • The grand-duchy was, from first to last, a mere recruiting-ground for the French emperor.

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  • - The Grand Duchy of Warsaw perished with the Grand Army in the retreat from Moscow in 1812.

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  • The final overthrow of the French supremacy at the battle of Waterloo secured him, however, in the undisturbed possession of his grand duchy during the remainder of his life.

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  • This category includes German places in the Kingdom of Saxony, in the Prussian province of Saxony, in the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, in the Duchies of Anhalt, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Altenburg, and Saxe-Meiningen, and in the Principalities of Reuss, Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.

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  • Under the Empire, Roederer, whose public influence was very considerable, was Joseph Bonaparte's minister of finance at Naples (1806),(1806), administrator of the grand duchy of Berg (181o), and imperial commissary in the south of France.

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  • BADENWEILER, a health resort and watering place of the grand-duchy of Baden, Germany, 28 m.

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  • He contributed more than any one else to the erection of the grand-duchy into an autonomous state, and was its first and best governor-general.

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  • m., of which about twothirds lie in the grand duchy of Baden and the remaining third in the kingdom of 'Wurttemberg.

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  • These boundaries include the grand-duchy of Oldenburg and the free state of Bremen, the former stretching southward from the North Sea nearly to the southern boundary of Hanover.

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  • FREIBURG IM BREISGAU, an archiepiscopal see and city of Germany in the grand duchy of Baden, 12 m.

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  • HEPPENHEIM, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the Bergstrasse, between Darmstadt and Heidelberg, 21 m.

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  • NIERSTEIN, a village of Germany, in the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the left bank of the Rhine, 8 m.

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  • At the end of 1810 he became French resident at Warsaw and was for a couple of years supreme in the affairs of the grand duchy.

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  • BORGA (Finnish Porvoo), a seaport in the province of Nyland, grand duchy of Finland, situated at the entrance of the river Borga into the Gulf of Finland, about 33 m.

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  • pledged himself as grand duke of Finland to maintain the constitutions and liberties of the grand duchy.

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  • The submission of the whole grand duchy would be the natural consequence of such a success, and, Finland once secured, Sprengtporten proposed at the head of his Finns to embark for Sweden, meet the king and his friends near Stockholm, and surprise the capital by a night attack.

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  • Of the various orders founded by the houses of HesseCassel and Hesse-Darmstadt the following are still bestowed in the grand duchy of Hesse.

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  • The family Order of the Golden Lion of Nassau passed in 1890 to the grand duchy of Luxembourg (see under Luxemburg).

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  • The collar is composed of three members alternately, the imperial eagle bearing on a red medallion a figure of St George slaying the Dragon, the badge of the grand duchy of Moskow, the cipher of the emperor Paul I.

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  • LUDWIGSLUST, a town of Germany, in the grand-duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, 22 m.

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  • by the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and Hesse-Nassau, and the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt, on the S.E.

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  • and N.E., by Prussia and the grand duchy of Luxemburg on the E.

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  • Its land frontiers measure 793 m., divided as follows: - with Holland 269 m., with Prussia 60 m., with the grand duchy 80 m.

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  • The limits of Belgium are fixed by the London protocol of the 15th of October 1831 - also called the twenty-four articles - which cut off what is now termed the grand duchy of Luxemburg, and also a good portion of the duchy of Limburg.

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