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grammatical

grammatical

grammatical Sentence Examples

  • It is confirmed by grammatical considerations.

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  • He translated the works of Bahya, Halevi, Saadiah and the grammatical treatises of Janah.

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  • Roger Bacon's reference to Neckam as a grammatical writer (in multis vera et utilia scripsit: sed.

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  • This piece, called in Irish the Faed Fiada or "Cry of the Deer," contains a number of remarkable grammatical forms, and the latest editors are of opinion that it may very well be genuine.

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  • The criticism of Malherbe, followed by the establishment of the Academy, the minute grammatical censures of Claude Favre Vaugelas, and the severe literary censorship of Boileau, turned French in less than three-quarters of a century from one of the freest languages in Europe to one of the most restricted.

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  • Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.

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  • The best edition of the grammatical works is by Hertz and Keil, in Keil's Grammatici latini, vols.

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  • The best edition of the grammatical works is by Hertz and Keil, in Keil's Grammatici latini, vols.

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  • But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.

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  • His Commentarii grammatici in at least 29 books was an ill-arranged collection of linguistic, grammatical and antiquarian notes.

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  • With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.

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  • The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.

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  • Logical in its derivatives and in its grammatical structure, the Magyar language is, moreover, copious in idiomatic expressions, rich in its store of words, and almost musical in its harmonious intonation.

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  • Owing to the peculiar character of the Tables no grammatical statement about Umbrian is free from difficulty; and these bare outlines of its phonology must be supplemented by reference to the lucid discussion in C. D.

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  • It was the history, the realia of the literature, that always interested him; he did not care for Arabic poetry as such, and the then much praised Hariri seemed to him a grammatical pedant.

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  • Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.

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  • Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.

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  • He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.

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  • He admits in the sacred writings as in the classics only one acceptation, and that the grammatical, convertible into and the same with the logical and historical.

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  • The cuneiform system of writing Semitic. w as still in process of growth when it was borrowed influence p g and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older language of the country, borrowing its words and even its grammatical usages.

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  • The cuneiform system of writing Semitic. w as still in process of growth when it was borrowed influence p g and adapted by the new comers, and the Semitic Babylonian language was profoundly influenced by the older language of the country, borrowing its words and even its grammatical usages.

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  • - Arab tradition ascribes the first grammatical treatment of the language to Abu-l-Aswad ud-Du'ali (latter half of the 7th century), but the certain beginnings of Arabic grammar are found a hundred years later.

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  • These two tractates, with which `Ilayyuj had laid the foundations of scientific Hebrew grammar, were recognized by Abulwalid as the basis of his own grammatical investigations, and Abraham Ibn Daud, when enumerating the great Spanish Jews in his history, sums up the significance of R.

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  • Hartford was the birthplace of Noah Webster, who here published his Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783-1785), and of Henry Barnard, John Fiske and Frederick Law Olmsted, and has been the home of Samuel P. Goodrich (Peter Parley), George D.

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  • His most famous pupil was Varro (116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on analogy and anomaly - a controversy which also engaged the attention of Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian.

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  • 323), the author of an encyclopaedic work in three parts, lexicographical, grammatical and antiquarian, the main value of which lies in its quotations from early Latin literature.

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  • His most famous pupil was Varro (116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on analogy and anomaly - a controversy which also engaged the attention of Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian.

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  • The grammatical structure of some north Australian languages has a considerable degree of refinement.

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  • Geiger in his Mahavamsa and Dipavarrtsa, and the earlier grammatical works by Professor O.

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  • The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.

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  • Till 1815 the only extant works ascribed (erroneously) to Fronto were two grammatical treatises, De nominum verborumque diferentiis and Exempla elocutionum (the last being really by Arusianus Messius).

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  • The reign of Claudius was a time in which antiquarian learning, grammatical studies, and jurisprudence were cultivated, but no important additions were made to literature.

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  • He also interested himself in grammatical questions, distinguished the two sounds R and S in writing, and did away with the letter Z.

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  • The grammatical structure of some north Australian languages has a considerable degree of refinement.

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  • He detected grammatical niceties in Latin, in regard to the consecution of tenses which had escaped preceding critics.

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  • A more directly religious element, it is true, was introduced by the practice of attending the synagogue service; but it is to be The grammatical inflexions of the word "Sabbath" would show that it is a feminine form, properly shabbat-t for shabbat-t.

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  • They are divided into Scholia (o-mua)vet, short annotations, mostly grammatical), Homilies (edifying expositions grounded on exegesis), and Commentaries (r6pot).

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  • It is not necessary that one should be able to define every word and give it its principal parts and its grammatical position in the sentence in order to understand and appreciate a fine poem.

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  • The decline of literature proper was attended by an increased output of grammatical and critical studies.

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  • For the Gymnasium the aim of the new scheme is, in Latin, " to supply boys with a sound basis of grammatical training, with a view to their understanding the more important classical writers of Rome, and being thus introduced to the intellectual life and culture of the ancient world "; and, in Greek, " to give them a sufficient knowledge of the language with a view to their obtaining an acquaintance with some of the Greek classical works which are distinguished both in matter and in style, and thus gaining an insight into the intellectual life and culture of Ancient Greece."

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  • Many even of these readings merely relate to variations of spelling, pronunciation or grammatical forms; others substitute a more decent expression for the coarser phrase of the text, but in some instances the suggested reading really affects the sense of the passage.

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  • Certain lapses from grammatical correctness and metrical regularity that we find in the poems of Shelley are undoubtedly due to the author, though the number of these has been reduced (as Mr Buxton Forman has pointed out) with our improved knowledge of the sources of the text.

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  • It was certainly by Aristotle, because it contained the triple grammatical division of words into noun, verb and conjunction, which the history of grammar recognized as his discovery.

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  • The grammatical form of shabbath suggests a transitive sense, "the divider," and apparently indicates the Sabbath as dividing the month.

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  • Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.

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  • James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.

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  • But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.

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  • The aim of the grammatical studies of the Spanish school was ultimately exegesis.

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  • When he is left to himself and not merely transcribing, he is sometimes scarcely grammatical.

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  • His works are (I) historical and political, (2) theological and grammatical.

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  • Under his name two fragments are extant - the longer from his work on orthography (De orthographia), the shorter (chiefly on the use of prepositions) from another grammatical work.

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  • In neither, however, are they a grammatical classification of words by their structure; and in neither are they a psychological classification of notions or general conceptions (voi uara), such as they afterwards became in Kant's Critique and the post-Kantian idealism.

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  • But in spite of this great logical achievement, he continued throughout the discourse to accept Plato's grammatical analysis of all sentences into noun and verb, which indeed applies to the proposition as a sentence but does not give its particular elements.

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  • Moreover we can make a history of Aristotle's thought and gradual composition thus: (s) Earlier acceptance in the De Interpretatione of Plato's grammatical analysis of the sentence into noun and verb (secundi adjacentis) but gradually disengaging the proposition, and after wards introducing the verb of being as a third thing added (tertium adjacens) to the predicated verb, for the purpose of opposition.

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  • In the grammatical interpretation of his author's language, Servius does not rise above the stiff and overwrought subtleties of his time; while his etymologies, as is natural, violate every law of sound and sense.

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  • Lodge, 1894 and 1899) and a Latin Series for use in secondary schools (1875), both marked by lucidity of order and mastery of grammatical theory and methods.

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  • This naturally encouraged grammatical study.

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  • Hodgson, and grammatical notices of Tibetan (according to Csoma's grammar).

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  • By means of agglutination, that is, by adding to the bases form-words as prefixes, suffixes or infixes, the Tibetan language has developed a considerable grammatical system and is now agglutinating rather than isolating.

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  • on account of its bearing on the history of the mono syllabic languages of eastern Asia, with their so-called " isolation " or absence of form-words and consequently of grammatical forms. Is the Tibetan a monosyllabic language passing to agglutination, or the reverse?

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  • Rabbinic learning moreover was cultivated at Basel by the elder Buxtorf who was the author of grammatical works and a lexicon.

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  • 2 It is significant that all phonetic and grammatical work in Sumerian tends to confirm nearly every one of Haupt's views.

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  • On the other hand, grammatical and constructional examples may be cited from other more modern agglutinative idioms, in order to establish the truly linguistic character of the Sumerian peculiarities and to disprove the Halevyan contentions that Sumerian is really not a language at a11.4 It is not surprising that Halevy's view as to the cryptographic nature of Sumerian should have arisen.

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  • Sumerian is quite devoid of grammatical gender.

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  • Semitic, on the other hand, has grammatical gender as one of its basic principles.

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  • Also in the curious tinker's " Thary " spoken still on the English roads and lanes, we find merely an often inaccurately inverted Irish Gaelic. But in none of these nor in any other artificial jargons can any grammatical development be found other than that of the language on which they are based.

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  • Thus, we find Sumerian ab, " dwelling," " sea "; ab, " road," and -ab, a grammatical suffix, which words, with many others of a similar character, were perhaps originally uttered with different voice-tones.

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  • His grammatical textbook, Sefer Ha-Zikkaron, "Book of Remembrance" (ed.

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  • Under the title Et Sofer, " Pen of the Writer" (Lyk, 1864), David Kimhi composed a sort of grammatical compendium as a guide to the correct punctuation of the biblical manuscripts; it consists, for the most part, of extracts from the Miklol.

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  • The Mazurs are distinguished from the Poles by their lower stature, broad shoulders and massive frame, and still more by their national dress, which has nothing of the smartness of that of the southern Poles, and by their ancient customs; they have also a dialect of their own, containing many words now obsolete in Poland, and several grammatical forms bearing witness to Lithuanian influence.

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  • For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting of translations from Greek into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the Fathers) and original essays in Greek (chiefly theological) and Latin (grammatical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed.

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  • In the case of the grammatical writings, it has been suggested that there may have been some confusion between Moses of Khor`ni and a Moses of Siunich, who lived in the 7th century.

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  • The literary schools of Alexandria and Pergamum built up grammatical science, and brought literary and artistic criticism to a fine point.

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  • There was also a dialectic licence in grammatical forms, which had not as yet been greatly restricted.

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  • The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes is generally inferior in grammatical correctness and pronunciation to that of the Bedouins of Arabia, but is purer than that of Syria or the dialect spoken by the Western Arabs.

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  • 1872) in France was a brilliant translator of hieroglyphic texts and the author of an important grammatical work.

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  • Yet, while the values of the signs were for the most part well ascertained, and the meanings of most works fixed with some degree of accuracy, few grammatical rules had as yet been established, the varieties of the language at different periods had not been.

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  • In 1880 Ludwig Stern (Koptische Grammatik) admirably classified the grammatical forms of Coptic. The much more difficult task of recovering the grammar of Egyptian has occupied thirty years of special study by Adolf Erman and his school at Berlin, and has now reached an advanced stage.

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  • The death of Heinrich Brugsch in 1895 was a very severe blow to demotie studies; but it must be admitted that his brilliant gifts lay in other directions than exact grammatical analysis.

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  • Apart from their philological interest, as giving the history of a remarkable language during a period of several thousand years, the grammatical studies of the last quarter of the I9th century and afterwards are beginning to bear fruit in regard to the exact interpretation of historical documents on Egyptian monuments and papyri.

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  • It is only by the most careful scrutiny, or the exercise of the most piercing insight, that the imperfectly spelled Egyptian has been made to yield up one grammatical secret after another in the light brought to bear upon it from Coptic. Demotic grammar ought soon to be thoroughly comprehensible in its forms, and the study of Late Egyptian should not stand far behind that of demotic. On the other hand, Middle Egyptian, and still mote Old Egyptian, which is separated from Middle Egyptian by a wide gap, will perhaps always be to us little more than consonantal skeletons, the flesh and blood of their vocalization being for the most part irretrievably lost.

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  • In common with the Semitic languages, the Berber languages of North Africa, and the Cushite languages of North-East Africa, Egyptian of all periods possesses grammatical gender,- expressing masculine and feminine.

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  • Portions of this text are printed in Henry Sweet's First Middle English Primer (Oxford, 2nd ed., 1895), which contains a grammatical introduction.

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  • His grammatical works were mostly written in Italian.

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  • In exegesis he is a pure Antiochene, basing his expositions upon thorough grammatical study, and proceeding from a knowledge of the original circumstances of composition to a forceful and practical application to the needs of his day and of all time.

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  • propositions express in the last resort the relation of predicate or predicates to a subject, and this Leibnitz holds after considering the case of relational propositions where either term may hold the position of grammatical subject, A = B and the like.

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  • He was, however, the first whose analysis was sufficiently convincing to exorcise the tyranny of grammatical forms. The categorical and disjunctive judgment reduce to the hypothetical.

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  • The act of judgment " which refers an ideal content (recognized as such) to a reality beyond the act " is the unit for logic. Grammatical subject and predicate necessarily both fall under the rubric of the adjectival, that is, within the logical idea or ideal content asserted.

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  • The Dusun language, it is interesting to note, presents very curious grammatical complications and refinements such as are not to be found among the tongues spoken by any of the other peoples of the Malayan Archipelago or the mainland of south-eastern Asia.

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  • Just as modern poetical Italian uses many older grammatical forms peculiar to itself, so the language of poetry, even in Homeric times, had formed a deposit (so to speak) of archaic grammar.

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  • The next writers on Homer of the " grammatical " type were Stesimbrotus of Thasos (contemporary with Cimon) and Antimachus of Colophon, himself an epic poet of mark.

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  • All earlier learning either passed into his writings, or was lost; all subsequent research turned upon his critical and grammatical work.

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  • This manuscript, written in the 10th century, contains (1) the best text of the Iliad, (2) the critical marks of Aristarchus and (3) Scholia, consisting mainly of extracts from four grammatical works, viz.

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  • The ancient Chorizontes observed that the messenger of Zeus is Iris in the Iliad, but Hermes in the Odyssey; that the wife of Hephaestus is one of the Charites in the Iliad, but Aphrodite in the Odyssey; that the heroes in the Iliad do not eat fish; that Crete has a hundred cities according to the Iliad, and only ninety according to the Odyssey; that 7rpoirapotOe is used in the Iliad of place, in the Odyssey of time, &c. Modern scholars have added to the list, especially by making careful comparisons of the two poems in respect of vocabulary and grammatical forms. Nothing is more difficult than to assign the degree of weight to be given to such facts.

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  • It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought - that is, the grammatical form of the sentence - is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the grammar - the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses - produces a swift flowing movement, such as is rarely found when the periods have been constructed without direct reference to the metre.

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  • He was the son of William Airay, the favourite servant of Bernard Gilpin, "the apostle of the North," whose bounty showed itself in sending Henry and his brother Evan (or Ewan) to his own endowed school, where they were educated "in grammatical learning," and were in attendance at Oxford when Gilpin died.

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  • In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas, Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott languages.

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  • (2) Sopherim (" scribes "), on the writing of the scrolls of the Pentateuch, grammatical (Massoretic) rules, and (a later addition) on the liturgy (ed.

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  • The grammatical aids are modern.

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  • Ellicott (4th ed., 1867, strong in linguistic and grammatical material), Prof. Eadie (Edinburgh, 1869), J.

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  • In age it almost rivals Sanskrit; in primitiveness it surpasses that language in many points; it is inferior only in respect of its less extensive literature, and because it has not been made the subject of systematic grammatical treatment.

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  • In grammatical forms it is still poorer than Middle New Persian; except English, no Indo-European language Persian.

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  • Moreover, the services of the Church have always been conducted in grammatical though simple Dutch; and the clergy, in their intercourse with the people, have as a general rule abstained from conversing in the ordinary dialect.

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  • Some of their innovations in grammatical terminology have lasted until now: we still speak of oblique cases, genitive, dative, accusative, of verbs active (O p06), passive (157rTLa), neuter (ou&repa), by the names they gave.

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  • It yielded no materials of value for the emendation of the received text, and by disregarding the vowel points overlooked the one thing in which some result (grammatical if not critical) might have been derived from collation of Massoretic MSS.

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  • A primary mental similarity of all branches of the human race is evidenced by their common faculty of speech, while at the same time secondary diversities of race-character and history are marked by difference of grammatical structure and of vocabularies.

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  • There is, moreover, extreme difference in the grammatical structure both of words and sentences in various languages.

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  • The question then arises, how far the employment of different vocabularies, and that to a great extent on different grammatical principles, is compatible with similarity of the speakers' minds, or how far does diversity of speech indicate diversity of mental nature?

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  • At Pavia in 1494 we find him taking up literary and grammatical studies, both in Latin and the vernacular; the former, no doubt, in order the more easily to read those among the ancients who had laboured in the fields that were his own, as Euclid, Galen, Celsus, Ptolemy, Pliny, Vitruvius and, above all, Archimedes; the latter with a growing hope of some day getting into proper form and order the mass of materials he was daily accumulating for treatises on all his manifold subjects of enquiry.

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  • The oldest of these are direct translations from Slavonic texts, following the original word for word, even in its grammatical construction.

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  • It was written by the author for the benefit of his son Eustathius (or Eustachius), and contains a great variety of curious historical, mythological, critical and grammatical disquisitions.

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  • The grammatical treatise will be found in Jan's edition and H.

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  • "The Lapps," says Castren, "have had the misfortune to come into close contact with foreign races while their language was yet in its tenderest infancy, and consequently it has not only adopted an endless number of foreign words, but in many grammatical aspects fashioned itself after foreign models."

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  • There is some of Sturla's poetry in his Islendinga Saga, and verses of Snorri occur in the Grammatical Treatise on figures of speech, &c., of Olaf, which contains about one hundred and forty quotations from various authors, and was written about 1250.

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  • Herodianus also wrote numerous grammatical treatises, of which only one has come down to us in a complete form (IIepi µovr t pous Wews, on peculiar style), articles on exceptional or anomalous words.

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  • In grammatical structure there is considerable resemblance between these dialects, but the verbal differences have become great.

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  • Mention may also be made of a treatise on orthography, of which a fragment (on Quantity) has been preserved; a tract on prosody; commentaries on Hephaestion and Dionysius Thrax; and grammatical notes on the Psalms.

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  • Cousins have shown conclusively the close relationships between the language of the Malagasy and those of the Malayo-Polynesian regions; similar connexions exist, especially in grammatical construction, between the Malagasy and Melanesian languages.

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  • Rashi unites homily with grammatical exegesis in a manner which explains the charm of the commentary.

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  • His chief grammatical work is the Kitab ul-mufassal, written about 1120 and edited by J.

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  • His grammatical works are: a commentary on the Works and Days of Hesiod (incomplete); some scholia on Homer; an elementary treatise on the epistolary style, IIEpl E7rurroXLµaiov xapaKT17Aos (Characteres epistolici), attributed in some MSS.

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  • At GCSE, at least 20% of marks are given for grammatical accuracy.

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  • algorithm for computation of some kind of the minimal representation of grammatical features associated with the corresponding noun phrases is suggested.

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  • conceived solely in terms of the grammatical possibilities which the system offered.

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  • The grammatical construction is supported by the fact that " joy " is connected to " heavenly bliss " .

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  • dative of interest when it comes to grammatical description.

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  • Then he may propose an emendation to obtain a grammatical form or sense more satisfactory to him.

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  • Pages are free from major spelling and grammatical errors.

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  • Our newest resource provides: - Maya pronunciations - English glosses - Grammatical usage - Thompson numbers, and more.

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  • glossary of Grammatical Terms revision 1.7 (by nodine) Changed single to double quotes.

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  • grammatical errors still present would detract from the overall content of the report.

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  • grammatical correctness.

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  • grammatical morphemes have a job rather than a meaning.

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  • grammatical terminology.

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  • grammatical mistakes.

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  • grammatical accuracy.

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  • These sentences are not grammatical because they have not followed the grammatical rules of syntax.

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  • The reason is purely grammatical; it did not make sense to use " best interests " .

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  • It doesn't make even grammatical sense in places.

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  • Being, existence, essentially grammatical terms, how we determine to use them decides what we are to allow to worry us.

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  • I have readily mixed the flats and the sharps and double sharps; so grammatical purists will have to hold their protestations.

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  • She spoke in rapid and fluent but very unconventional English, which, for the sake of clearness, I will make grammatical.

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  • All Spanish translations are undertaken by translators with Spanish as their mother tongue to ensure grammatical, lexical, stylistic and cultural accuracy.

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  • infelicitychildren up on their accent or pronunciation or on perceived grammatical infelicities - the oral equivalent of the red pen treatment!

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  • These words may, additionally, be nuanced by means of, for instance, grammatical inflection.

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  • intransitive sentences with independent adposition constructions, both grammatical and ungrammatical (note 3 ).

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  • Previous research focused on developing an effective, linguistically meaningful, grammatical query system.

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  • Make sure there are no spelling mistakes or grammatical errors.

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  • In all work importance is attached to clear, well structured work with a minimum of spelling, grammatical or punctuation mistakes.

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  • grammatical morphemes have a job rather than a meaning.

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  • Its grammatical structure is not dissimilar to German and it is also completely phonetic.

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  • replete with grammatical errors, typing errors, and in general, makes no sense.

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  • spelling mistakes or grammatical errors.

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  • Those unfamiliar with grammatical terminology should also attend the class in ' Background to language learning ' during their first term.

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  • unfamiliar with grammatical terminology should also attend the class in ' Background to language learning ' during their first term.

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  • He translated the works of Bahya, Halevi, Saadiah and the grammatical treatises of Janah.

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  • He detected grammatical niceties in Latin, in regard to the consecution of tenses which had escaped preceding critics.

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  • A more directly religious element, it is true, was introduced by the practice of attending the synagogue service; but it is to be The grammatical inflexions of the word "Sabbath" would show that it is a feminine form, properly shabbat-t for shabbat-t.

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  • The grammatical form of shabbath suggests a transitive sense, "the divider," and apparently indicates the Sabbath as dividing the month.

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  • Hunter states that the Dravidian tribes were driven southwards in Hindustan, and that the grammatical relations of their dialects are " expressed by suffixes," which is true as to the Australian languages.

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  • Even grammatical and lexicographical works, intended solely to facilitate the study of ancient literature, contain many extracts or short sentences bearing on law and custom.

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  • Owing to the peculiar character of the Tables no grammatical statement about Umbrian is free from difficulty; and these bare outlines of its phonology must be supplemented by reference to the lucid discussion in C. D.

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  • James Prinsep was then devoting his rare genius to the decipherment of the early inscriptions of northern India, especially those of Asoka in the 3rd century B.C. He derived the greatest assistance from Tumour's work not only in historical information, but also as regards the forms of words and grammatical inflexions.

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  • Geiger in his Mahavamsa and Dipavarrtsa, and the earlier grammatical works by Professor O.

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  • Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.

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  • His Commentarii grammatici in at least 29 books was an ill-arranged collection of linguistic, grammatical and antiquarian notes.

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  • Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.

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  • The aim of the grammatical studies of the Spanish school was ultimately exegesis.

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  • He also composed liturgical poems. At the end of the Ilth century Judah ibn Bal'am wrote grammatical works and commentaries (on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, &c.) in Arabic; the liturgist Isaac Gayyath (d.

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  • The main grammatical distinction between Syriac and all the west Aramaic dialects is that in Syriac the 3rd person of the imperfect (singular and plural) of the verb begins with n, but in west Aramaic, as in the other Semitic languages, it begins with y.

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  • When he is left to himself and not merely transcribing, he is sometimes scarcely grammatical.

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  • His writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacob Faber.

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  • They are divided into Scholia (o-mua)vet, short annotations, mostly grammatical), Homilies (edifying expositions grounded on exegesis), and Commentaries (r6pot).

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  • With grammatical precision, antiquarian learning and critical discernment Origen combines the allegorical method of interpretation - the logical corollary of his conception of the inspiration of the Scriptures.

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  • The sophist Favorinus was more politic; when reproached for yielding too readily to the emperor in some grammatical discussion, he replied that it was unwise to contradict the master of thirty legions.

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  • Not only are new words employed, and old words in new significations, but the grammatical structure has a modern stamp - some phrases have the appearance of having been translated out of Aramaic into Hebrew.

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  • By the simplicity of its phonetic elements, the regularity of its grammatical structure, and the copiousness of its nautical vocabulary, the Malay language is singularly well fitted to be the lingua franca throughout the Indian archipelago.

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  • Nothing in the form of a root word indicates the grammatical category to which it belongs; thus, kasih, kindness, affectionate, to love; ganti, a proxy, to exchange, instead of.

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  • Luxorius also wrote on grammatical subjects (see R.

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  • This piece, called in Irish the Faed Fiada or "Cry of the Deer," contains a number of remarkable grammatical forms, and the latest editors are of opinion that it may very well be genuine.

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  • Reiske (1716-1774); and, though for many years the most famous teacher of Semitic languages in Europe, he had little of the higher philological faculty, and neither his grammatical nor his critical work has left a permanent mark, with the exception perhaps of his text-critical studies on the Peshitta.

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  • As aids to the study of logic, the doctors of this period, beside the commentaries and treatises of Boetius (q.v.), possessed two tracts attributed to St Augustine, the first of which, Principia dialecticae, is probably his, but is mainly grammatical in its import.

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  • The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.

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  • Logical in its derivatives and in its grammatical structure, the Magyar language is, moreover, copious in idiomatic expressions, rich in its store of words, and almost musical in its harmonious intonation.

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  • Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.

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  • Roger Bacon's reference to Neckam as a grammatical writer (in multis vera et utilia scripsit: sed.

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  • Till 1815 the only extant works ascribed (erroneously) to Fronto were two grammatical treatises, De nominum verborumque diferentiis and Exempla elocutionum (the last being really by Arusianus Messius).

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  • - Arab tradition ascribes the first grammatical treatment of the language to Abu-l-Aswad ud-Du'ali (latter half of the 7th century), but the certain beginnings of Arabic grammar are found a hundred years later.

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  • Its distinctly negro character is betrayed in the complete absence of grammatical gender, in its primitive vowel-system and highly-developed process of consonantal assimilation, softening all harsh combinations, lastly, in the peculiar infix j inserted between the verbal root and the plural pronominal object, as in ai tokki j-ir = I shake them.

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  • It is confirmed by grammatical considerations.

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  • These two tractates, with which `Ilayyuj had laid the foundations of scientific Hebrew grammar, were recognized by Abulwalid as the basis of his own grammatical investigations, and Abraham Ibn Daud, when enumerating the great Spanish Jews in his history, sums up the significance of R.

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  • The grammatical work of Rabbi Jonah extended, moreover, to the domain of rhetoric and biblical hermeneutics, and his lexicon contains many exegetical excursuses.

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  • For the JinkOshotO-ki, by its strong advocacy of the mikados administrative rights as against the ustirpations of military feudalism, may be said to have sowed the seeds of Japan~s modern polity; and the Taihei-ki, by its erudite diction, skilful rhetoric, simplification of old grammatical constructions and copious interpolation of Chinese words, furnished a model for many imitators and laid the foundations of Japans 19th-century style.

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  • It is doubtful whether he is the author of certain other extant treatises attributed to him on metrical and grammatical subjects, which will be found in Keil.

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  • aa4c oXia), in logic, a verbal fallacy arising from ambiguity in the grammatical structure of a sentence (Aristot., Organon, Soph., EL, chap. iv.).

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  • His works are (I) historical and political, (2) theological and grammatical.

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  • The general results of the last fifty years of the first period (130 to 80) may be thus summed up. In poetry we have the satires of Lucilius, the tragedies of Accius and of a few successors among the Roman aristocracy, who thus exemplified the affinity of the Roman stage to Roman oratory; various annalistic poems intended to serve as continuations of the great poem of Ennius; minor poems of an epigrammatic and erotic character, unimportant anticipations of the Alexandrian tendency operative in the following period; works of criticism in trochaic tetrameters by Porcius Licinus and others, forming part of the critical and grammatical movement which almost from the first accompanied the creative movement in Latin literature, and which may be regarded as rude precursors of the didactic epistles that Horace devoted to literary criticism.

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  • the advance of oratory and grammatical studies, H there must have been not only greater fluency of composition but the beginning of a richer and more ornate style.

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  • The reign of Claudius was a time in which antiquarian learning, grammatical studies, and jurisprudence were cultivated, but no important additions were made to literature.

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  • The decline of literature proper was attended by an increased output of grammatical and critical studies.

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  • Under his name two fragments are extant - the longer from his work on orthography (De orthographia), the shorter (chiefly on the use of prepositions) from another grammatical work.

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  • But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.

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  • It was the history, the realia of the literature, that always interested him; he did not care for Arabic poetry as such, and the then much praised Hariri seemed to him a grammatical pedant.

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  • The criticism of Malherbe, followed by the establishment of the Academy, the minute grammatical censures of Claude Favre Vaugelas, and the severe literary censorship of Boileau, turned French in less than three-quarters of a century from one of the freest languages in Europe to one of the most restricted.

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  • He also interested himself in grammatical questions, distinguished the two sounds R and S in writing, and did away with the letter Z.

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  • Hartford was the birthplace of Noah Webster, who here published his Grammatical Institute of the English Language (1783-1785), and of Henry Barnard, John Fiske and Frederick Law Olmsted, and has been the home of Samuel P. Goodrich (Peter Parley), George D.

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  • 323), the author of an encyclopaedic work in three parts, lexicographical, grammatical and antiquarian, the main value of which lies in its quotations from early Latin literature.

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  • In this age, grammatical learning was represented by Choeroboscus, and lexicography by Photius (d.

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  • A decline in grammatical learning is exemplified in the three Latin historians of the 6th century, Jordanes, Gildas and Gregory of Tours (d.

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  • In contrast with this school we have the critical and grammatical school of Gottfried Hermann (d.

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  • For the Gymnasium the aim of the new scheme is, in Latin, " to supply boys with a sound basis of grammatical training, with a view to their understanding the more important classical writers of Rome, and being thus introduced to the intellectual life and culture of the ancient world "; and, in Greek, " to give them a sufficient knowledge of the language with a view to their obtaining an acquaintance with some of the Greek classical works which are distinguished both in matter and in style, and thus gaining an insight into the intellectual life and culture of Ancient Greece."

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  • Many even of these readings merely relate to variations of spelling, pronunciation or grammatical forms; others substitute a more decent expression for the coarser phrase of the text, but in some instances the suggested reading really affects the sense of the passage.

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  • But this they could not do; and since the version, owing to the limitations of the translators, departs widely from the sense of the original, Christian scholars were on the whole kept much farther from the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries, who used the Hebrew text; and later, after Jewish grammatical and philological study had been stimulated by intercourse with the Arabs, the relative disadvantages under which Christian scholarship laboured increased.

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  • C. Haddon, Head-hunters, Black, White and Brown (London, 1902); D.Macdonald, The Oceanic Languages: their Grammatical Structure, Vocabulary and Origin (London, 1907); J.

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  • We have but few fragments of Caesar's other works, whether political pamphlets such as the Anticato, grammatical treatises (De Analogia) or poems. All authorities agree in describing him as a consummate orator.

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  • As an example of mispunctuation we may take Shelley's Triumph of Life, 188 sqq., "` If thou can'st, forbear To join the dance, which I had well forborne ' Said the grim Feature of my thought ` Aware I I will unfold,'" &c., for "said the grim Feature (of my thought aware) ` I will unfold.'" Grammatical Assimilations.

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  • Certain lapses from grammatical correctness and metrical regularity that we find in the poems of Shelley are undoubtedly due to the author, though the number of these has been reduced (as Mr Buxton Forman has pointed out) with our improved knowledge of the sources of the text.

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  • It was certainly by Aristotle, because it contained the triple grammatical division of words into noun, verb and conjunction, which the history of grammar recognized as his discovery.

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  • In neither, however, are they a grammatical classification of words by their structure; and in neither are they a psychological classification of notions or general conceptions (voi uara), such as they afterwards became in Kant's Critique and the post-Kantian idealism.

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  • But in spite of this great logical achievement, he continued throughout the discourse to accept Plato's grammatical analysis of all sentences into noun and verb, which indeed applies to the proposition as a sentence but does not give its particular elements.

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  • Moreover we can make a history of Aristotle's thought and gradual composition thus: (s) Earlier acceptance in the De Interpretatione of Plato's grammatical analysis of the sentence into noun and verb (secundi adjacentis) but gradually disengaging the proposition, and after wards introducing the verb of being as a third thing added (tertium adjacens) to the predicated verb, for the purpose of opposition.

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  • In the grammatical interpretation of his author's language, Servius does not rise above the stiff and overwrought subtleties of his time; while his etymologies, as is natural, violate every law of sound and sense.

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  • Lodge, 1894 and 1899) and a Latin Series for use in secondary schools (1875), both marked by lucidity of order and mastery of grammatical theory and methods.

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  • This naturally encouraged grammatical study.

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  • Hodgson, and grammatical notices of Tibetan (according to Csoma's grammar).

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  • By means of agglutination, that is, by adding to the bases form-words as prefixes, suffixes or infixes, the Tibetan language has developed a considerable grammatical system and is now agglutinating rather than isolating.

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  • The chief differences between the classical language of the Tibetan translators of the 9th century and the vernacular, as well as the language of native words, existed in vocabulary, phraseology and grammatical structure, and arose from the influence of the translated texts.

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  • on account of its bearing on the history of the mono syllabic languages of eastern Asia, with their so-called " isolation " or absence of form-words and consequently of grammatical forms. Is the Tibetan a monosyllabic language passing to agglutination, or the reverse?

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  • A comparison between Phoenician and Hebrew reveals close resemblances both in grammatical forms and in vocabulary; in some respects older features have been preserved in Phoenician, others are later, others again are peculiar to the dialect; many words poetic or rare or late in Hebrew are common in Phoenician.

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  • Rabbinic learning moreover was cultivated at Basel by the elder Buxtorf who was the author of grammatical works and a lexicon.

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  • This etymological study of Sumerian is attended with incalculable difficulties, because nearly all the Sumerian texts which we possess are written in an idiom which is quite evidently under the influence of Semitic. With the exception of some very ancient texts, the Sumerian literature, consisting largely of religious material such as hymns and incantations, shows a number of Semitic loanwords and grammatical Semitisms, and in many cases, although not always, is quite patently a translation of Semitic ideas by Semitic priests into the formal religious Sumerian language.

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  • 2 It is significant that all phonetic and grammatical work in Sumerian tends to confirm nearly every one of Haupt's views.

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  • On the other hand, grammatical and constructional examples may be cited from other more modern agglutinative idioms, in order to establish the truly linguistic character of the Sumerian peculiarities and to disprove the Halevyan contentions that Sumerian is really not a language at a11.4 It is not surprising that Halevy's view as to the cryptographic nature of Sumerian should have arisen.

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  • Sumerian is quite devoid of grammatical gender.

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  • Semitic, on the other hand, has grammatical gender as one of its basic principles.

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  • Also in the curious tinker's " Thary " spoken still on the English roads and lanes, we find merely an often inaccurately inverted Irish Gaelic. But in none of these nor in any other artificial jargons can any grammatical development be found other than that of the language on which they are based.

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  • Thus, we find Sumerian ab, " dwelling," " sea "; ab, " road," and -ab, a grammatical suffix, which words, with many others of a similar character, were perhaps originally uttered with different voice-tones.

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  • His grammatical textbook, Sefer Ha-Zikkaron, "Book of Remembrance" (ed.

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  • Under the title Et Sofer, " Pen of the Writer" (Lyk, 1864), David Kimhi composed a sort of grammatical compendium as a guide to the correct punctuation of the biblical manuscripts; it consists, for the most part, of extracts from the Miklol.

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  • The Mazurs are distinguished from the Poles by their lower stature, broad shoulders and massive frame, and still more by their national dress, which has nothing of the smartness of that of the southern Poles, and by their ancient customs; they have also a dialect of their own, containing many words now obsolete in Poland, and several grammatical forms bearing witness to Lithuanian influence.

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  • For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting of translations from Greek into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the Fathers) and original essays in Greek (chiefly theological) and Latin (grammatical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed.

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  • In the case of the grammatical writings, it has been suggested that there may have been some confusion between Moses of Khor`ni and a Moses of Siunich, who lived in the 7th century.

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  • The literary schools of Alexandria and Pergamum built up grammatical science, and brought literary and artistic criticism to a fine point.

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  • There was also a dialectic licence in grammatical forms, which had not as yet been greatly restricted.

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  • The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes is generally inferior in grammatical correctness and pronunciation to that of the Bedouins of Arabia, but is purer than that of Syria or the dialect spoken by the Western Arabs.

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  • Its professors teach grammatical inflexion and syntax, rhetoric, versification, logic, theology, the exposition of the Koran, the traditions of the Prophet, the complete science of jurisprudence, or rather of religious, moral, civil and criminal law, which is chiefly founded on the Koran and the traditions, together with arithmetic as far as it is useful in matters of law.

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  • 1872) in France was a brilliant translator of hieroglyphic texts and the author of an important grammatical work.

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  • Yet, while the values of the signs were for the most part well ascertained, and the meanings of most works fixed with some degree of accuracy, few grammatical rules had as yet been established, the varieties of the language at different periods had not been.

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  • In 1880 Ludwig Stern (Koptische Grammatik) admirably classified the grammatical forms of Coptic. The much more difficult task of recovering the grammar of Egyptian has occupied thirty years of special study by Adolf Erman and his school at Berlin, and has now reached an advanced stage.

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  • The death of Heinrich Brugsch in 1895 was a very severe blow to demotie studies; but it must be admitted that his brilliant gifts lay in other directions than exact grammatical analysis.

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