Gradual sentence example

gradual
  • In this gradual way every practical advantage on the part of the patricians was taken away.
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  • A gradual refrigeration proceeded through the Pliocene period.
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  • Its polity has been of gradual growth, and still retains some features peculiar to itself.
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  • All these processes are regarded as a series of manifestations of a vital principle in higher and higher forms. Oken, again, who carries Schelling's ideas into the region of biological science, seeks to reconstruct the gradual evolution of the material world out of original matter, which is the first immediate appearance of God, or the absolute.
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  • The inclusion of other books in the Canon was gradual, and was effected only after centuries of debate.
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  • Yet while thus placing himself at a point of view opposed to that of a gradual evolution of the organic world, Locke prepared the way for this doctrine in more ways than one.
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  • To prevent shock from such a major change, the school made the abolishment of junk food gradual.
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  • These steps may be traced in the gradual specification of the term.
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  • The rest of the story is probably the result of gradual expansion and accretion.
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  • It is only by a gradual process that social science in its whole complexity can be evolved.
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  • It thus appears that each successive invasion had a more easterly western limit, and that the gradual narrowing of the range of plague, which began in the 17th century, was still going on.
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  • On the other side he was involved in a quarrel with Volmar and his school, who desired to put aside from immediate consideration the complete attainment of the Socialist ideal, and proposed that the party should aim at bringing about, not a complete overthrow of society, but a gradual amelioration.
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  • Taking the average elevation of the central axial line of snowy peaks as 19,000 ft., the average height of the passes is not more than 10,000 owing to this process of cutting down by erosion and gradual encroachment into the northern basin.
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  • The condensation of vapour from the ascending currents and their gradual exhaustion as they are precipitated on successive ranges is very obvious in the cloud effects produced during the monsoon, the southern or windward face of each range being clothed day after day with a white crest of cloud whilst the northern slopes are often left entirely free.
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  • He arranges a selection from his observations on the nebulae in such a way as to give great plausibility to his view of the gradual transmutation of nebulae into stars Herschel begins by showing us that there are regions in the heavens where a faint diffused nebulosity is all that can be detected by the telescope.
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  • He reported the gradual formation of an anticlinal or ridge extending longitudinally through the great Balkh plain of Afghan Turkestan, which effectually shuts off the northern affluents of that basin from actual junction with the river.
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  • This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
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  • This epoch is marked by the renaissance of Sanskrit literature and the gradual revival of Hinduism at the expense of Buddhism.
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  • A few vases of the first period were found, but practically all the tombs explored in 1898 belonged to the fourth period (70050o B.C.) and show the gradual process of Hellenization among the Sicels.
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  • The immediate result was, as pointed out above, a reconstruction of the classification of animals upon a genealogical basis, and an investigation of the individual development of animals in relation to the steps of their gradual building up by cell-division, with a view to obtaining evidence of their genetic relationships.
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  • In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively.
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  • Its remoteness from the ports and harbours of the country, combined with the extreme unhealthiness of its situation, have led to its gradual decay subsequently to the formation of the comparatively recent settlement of Akyab, which place is now the chief town of the province.
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  • The change from Slavonic to Rumanian was very gradual.
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  • The interval of years witnessed the growth of a river trade and its gradual decline as point after point on the river - Kansas City, St Joseph, Council Bluffs (Iowa), Sioux Falls (South Dakota) and Helena (Montana) - was reached and commanded by the railways.
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  • In 1862 the convention rejected the President's suggestion of gradual emancipation, disfranchised Secessionists, and prepared a strong oath of allegiance.
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  • Sombart (Der moderne Kapitalismus, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1902), have propounded the doctrine of one gradual progression from an agricultural state to modern capitalistic conditions.
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  • At the same time, apart from the gradual evolution of religious and other conceptions there are the more incidental and artificial influences which have shaped them.
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  • These four elements show a great resemblance to one another in their general chemical behaviour, and in that of their compounds, whilst their physical properties show a gradual transition.
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  • Their conquests were rapid, but the extension of their permanent settlements was gradual and slow.
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  • These characteristics were naturally emphasized in the Aramaic writing on papyrus which, beginning about 500 B.C., during the Persian sovereignty in Egypt, lasted on there till about zoo B.C. The gradual development of this script into the square Hebrew, and the more ornamental writing of Palmyra, may be traced in the works of Berger and Lidzbarski.'
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  • There was not merely a gradual withdrawal eastwards lasting nearly two hundred years, but the outbreaks which occurred during that period, violent as some of them were, showed a constantly diminishing power of diffusion and an increasing tendency to localization.
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  • The floors, mostly of mud covered with dung, are fouled with spittle, vomit, and urine, and, being seldom or never cleaned out, foster a gradual accumulation of poison, to which infected rats and the concealment of illness contribute.
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  • These are the universality of the Gospel, the jealousy of national Judaism, and the Divine initiative manifest in the gradual stages by which men of Jewish birth were led to recognize the Divine will in the setting aside of national restrictions, alien to the universal destiny of the Church.
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  • Though " some at least of the alterations in Codex Bezae arose through a gradual process, and not through the action of an individual reviser," the revision in question was the work of a single reviser, who in his changes and additions expressed the local interpretation put upon Acts in his own time.
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  • These are not, speaking generally, the differences that are produced by the gradual divergence of dialects in a language.
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  • Now, it was precisely in this part of India that mainly arose the body of literature which records the gradual rise of the Brahmanical hierarchy and the early development of the castesystem.
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  • To the same tendency doubtless is due the gradual decline and ultimate discontinuance of animal sacrifices by all sects except the extreme branch of Sakti-worshippers.
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  • The age-constitution of a community does indeed vary, and to a considerable extent, in course of time, but the changes are usually gradual, and often spread over a generation or more.
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  • But Falk retired in 1879; various mutual concessions were made which led to a gradual abrogation of the May laws.
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  • The gradual way in which the several provinces were brought under the general tax system, and the equally gradual extension of Roman citizenship, account further for the irregularity and increased weight of the taxes; as the absence of publicity and the growth of autocracy explain the sense of oppression and the hopelessness of resistance so vividly indicated in the literature of the later Empire.
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  • The gradual unification operates on all the branches of finance, - expenditure, revenue, debt and methods of control.
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  • After 1885 there was a gradual decline in the output, whose bullion value in 1908 was $250,986.
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  • It contains a brief and somewhat obscure outline of the first two parts in the Instauratio, and is of importance as affording us some insight into the gradual development of the system in Bacon's own mind.
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  • As regards the latent process (latens processes) which goes on in all cases of generation and continuous development or motion, we examine carefully, and by quantitative measurements, the gradual growth and change from the first elements to the completed thing.
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  • The question of the gradual desiccation of the Volga, and its causes, has often been discussed, and in 1838 a committee which included Karl Baer among its members was appointed by the Russian academy of sciences to investigate the subject.
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  • The gradual elevation of the whole of northern Russia and Siberia, and the consequent draining of the marshes, is one of these deeper-seated, ampler causes; another is the desiccation of the lakes all over the northern hemisphere.
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  • Indeed it was freely admitted by the most learned men of the middle ages and Renaissance that celibacy had been no rule of the apostolic church; and, though writers of ability have attempted to maintain the contrary even in modern times, their contentions are unhesitatingly rejected by the latest Roman Catholic authority.3 The gradual growth of clerical celibacy, first as a custom and then as a rule of discipline, can be traced clearly enough even through the scanty records of the first few centuries.
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  • At the same time there is a gradual substitution of other metals for copper in the solution, because although copper plus other (more electro-positive) metals are constantly dissolving at the anode, only copper is deposited at the cathode.
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  • Anterior to Kant the gradual advance of idealism had been the most conspicuous feature in philo sophic speculation.
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  • Continuing southward into the province of Coquimbo a gradual change in the arid conditions may be observed.
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  • The Indians within the limits of the Spanish colony were treated like slaves, and horribly mutilated to prevent their escape; but at the same time a gradual fusion of races was taking place, and the Chilean peasant (peon) of to-day is as much of Indian as of Spanish descent.
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  • Some democratic changes were made in the constitution, notably a law forbidding the re-election of a president, and the gradual and peaceful transition to a Liberal policy was a proof of the progress which the nation had made in political training.
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  • This gradual Iranianization of the Parthian Empire is shown by the fact that the subsequent Iranian traditions, and Firdousi in particular, apply the name of the Parthian magnates (Pahiavan) to the glorious heroes of the legendary epoch.
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  • The blind kings gradual revelation, under horrible torture, of the place of concealment of his several jewels and treasures, and his deportation and death (of the injuries thus received, at Damghan, en route to Mazandaran), must be classed among the darkest records of Oriental history.
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  • The language of the other parts of the Avesta is more modern, it not all of one date, so that we can follow the gradual decline Z Zend in the Avesta itself.
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  • To trace the gradual elaboration of the symbolism and use of ceremonial lights in the Church, until its full development and systematization in the middle ages, would be impossible here.
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  • This task, on the economic side, was rendered easier by the gradual return of commercial prosperity.
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  • Henceforth we observe a determination on his part to rule without a parliament; a passage, cautious and gradual, yet unflinching, from semi-constitutionalism to semi-absolutism.
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  • Being fed by tributaries which for the most part drain narrow valleys where gradual denudation has washed bare the flat-backed slopes of limestone ridges, and which consequently send down torrents of rapidly accumulating rainfall, both these central lines of water-course are liable to terrific floods.
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  • Passing to the westward, and viewing the flora of Kumaon, which province holds a central position on the chain, on the 80th meridian, we find that the gradual decrease of moisture and increase of high summer heat are accompanied by a marked change of the vegetation.
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  • The tension which has been relaxed will again be tightened; there will be a gradual resolution of things into elements, and of elements into the primary substance, to be consummated in a general conflagration when once more the world will be absorbed in God.
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  • From the extreme north to Cape Mondego and thence onward to Cape Carvoeiro the outline of the coast is a long and gradual curve; farther south is the prominent mass of rock and mountain terminating westward in Capes Roca and Espichel; south of this, again, there is another wide curve, broken by the headland of Sines, and extending to Cape St Vincent, the southeastern extremity of the country.
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  • Like other collections the group of laws on leprosy easily betrays its composite character and exhibits unmistakable evidence of its gradual growth.
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  • The motion of small pieces of camphor floating on water arises from the gradual solution of the camphor.
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  • When the stream consists of drops following one another in single file, no such increase of section is possible; and then the constancy of the total stream requires a gradual approximation of the drops, which in the case of a nearly vertical direction of motion cannot stop short of actual contact.
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  • Moreover, the influence of the deistic writers had an incalculable influence in the gradual progress towards tolerance, and in the spread of a broader attitude towards intellectual problems, and this too, though, as we have seen, the original deists devoted themselves mainly to a crusade against the doctrine of revelation.
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  • Upon the departure of the French troops from Rome at the end of 1866 he again attempted to conciliate the Vatican with a convention, in virtue of which Italy would have restored to the Church the property of the suppressed religious orders in return for the gradual payment of £24,coo,000.
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  • Armorial devices of the gentry first appear on seals at the close of the 12th century; and from that time there is a gradual development of the heraldic seal, which in the 14th century was often a work of fine decorative sculpture.
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  • The laws against them were immediately increased in severity, and the gradual advance towards religious toleration was put back for centuries.
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  • On the eastern side the slope is so abrupt as to make ascent difficult and at places impossible, but the western slope, on account of a dip of the rock to the N.W., is more gradual.
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  • Further, the gradual appearance and differentiation of the successive somites and appendages may be accelerated, so that comparatively great advances take place at a single moult.
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  • The discovery of ether brought with it a reconstruction of our ideas of the physical universe, transferring the emphasis from the mathematical expression of static relationships to a dynamic conception of a universe in constant transformation; matter in equipoise became energy in gradual readjustment.
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  • Low shores correspond to the plains of Cheshire, Lancashire and the Solway, while the intervening coast is of no great elevation, as only the foothills of the Lake District approach it with a gradual slope.
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  • Further acts followed in the same direction, leading to the gradual extinction, by due compensation of the persons interested, of the old system, the maintenance of the roads being vested in " turnpike trusts and highway boards," empowered to levy local rates.
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  • The clearing of land for agricultural purposes, the use of wood for the prosecution of the industries of an increasing population, and other causes, have led to the gradual disforesting of large tracts.
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  • The Association was provided with a nominal capital of 40,000, but from the first its funds were largely supplemented from the private purse of King Leopold; and by a gradual process of evolution the work, which was originally, in name at least, international in character, became a purely Belgian enterprise.
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  • In fact we can clearly trace this gradual process of decay in certain portions of the Avesta during the last few centuries.'
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  • Since Wood first discovered a source of the Oxus in Lake Victoria in 1837, and left us a somewhat erroneous conception of the physiography of the Pamirs, the gradual approach of Russia from the north stimulated the processes of exploration from the side of India.
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  • The name of Parthenope became lost, and the city of Palaeopolis fell into gradual decadence.
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  • By the gradual sifting out of the special sciences philosophy thus came to embrace primarily the inquiries grouped as "metaphysics" or "first philosophy."
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  • The philosophy of religion also traces in the different historical forms of religious belief and practice the gradual evolution of what it takes to be the truth of the matter.
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  • The reforms of Stein and Hardenberg in Prussia, of the French and of their clients in South Germany, opened the way for a gradual redemption of the peasantry.
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  • The grief which the gradual decay of her health evidently occasioned Swift is sufficient proof of the sincerity of his attachment, as he understood it.
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  • At the litaniae majores and minores and other penitential processions, joyful hymns are not allowed, but the litanies are sung, and, if the length of the procession requires, the penitential and gradual psalms.
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  • But the fact of the gradual development of Apollo as a god of light and heaven, and his identification with foreign sun-gods, is no proof of an original Greek solar conception of him.
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  • If, on the other hand, water is suddenly drawn off from a cistern supplied through a ball-cock, the flow through the ball-cock will be recorded, and will be represented by a sudden rise to a maximum, followed by a gradual decrease as the ball rises and the cistern fills; the result being a curve having its asymptote in the original horizontal line.
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  • If, for example, in the case of a hundred such districts we watch the result of leaving them alone, a gradual growth of leakage common to most of the districts, but not to all, is observed, while here and there a sudden increase occurs, often doubling or trebling the total supply to the district.
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  • One face of these mountains is usually in the form of a steep palisade, while the other has a very gradual slope.
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  • They are the last stage and climax of a gradual process of compilation and crystallization, so to speak, of unwritten church custom; and a short account of this process will show their real importance and value.
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  • In the Church, as in other societies, it has happened that the unwritten customary law has undergone a gradual diminution in importance, as a consequence of centralization and the accumulation of written laws; nowadays it need not be reckoned with, save in cases where local customs are involved.
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  • This custom was only of gradual growth.
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  • From gradual changes in the living tongue through a long expanse of time many words, phrases and idioms in the Bearla Feini became obsolete, and are so difficult to translate that the official translations are to some extent confessedly conjectural.
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  • The gradual linking up of these will manifest the true genealogy of each class, and reconstruct its ancestral forms by proof instead of conjecture.
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  • Minute anatomical research has also aided to establish the Pelmatozoic theory by the gradual recognition in other classes of features formerly supposed to be confined to Pelmatozoa.
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  • These two types are, in the main, correlated with two gradual differentiations in the minute structure of the thecal plates.
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  • Before the latter plates arose, the stem had developed by the elongation and constriction of the fixed end of the theca, the gradual regularization of the plates involved, and their coalescence into rings.
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  • However, in the earliest period of Anglo-Saxon history it is very much a case of history's gradual emergence from darkness.
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  • It is true that in the lower Crustacea (Apus, &c.) we have evidence of the gradual movement forward of the nerve-ganglia belonging to these FIG.
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  • It breaks down less abruptly toward the Atlantic, the slopes in Bahia being long and gradual.
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  • The former reach the coastal plain over long and gradual descents, and are navigable for considerable distances.
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  • The more northern rivers are subject to periodical variations in volume caused by wet and dry seasons, but the greater distance of the coast range and the more gradual breaking down of the plateau toward the sea, give them longer courses and a greater extent of navigable water.
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  • South of Bahia there is a gradual increase in the rainfall, that of Rio de Janeiro exceeding 43 in.
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  • The planters, the principal possessors of wealth, regarded the measure as unnecessary in view of the act which had been passed in 1885 providing for the gradual freeing of all slaves.
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  • Very different is the medieval theory, which arose from the gradual acceptance of the belief that the Jewish was the prototype of the Christian priest.
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  • But each system is a fresh recognition of the rights of reason, and Scholasticism as a whole may be regarded as the history of the growth and gradual emancipation of reason which was completed in the movements of the Renaissance and the Reformation.
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  • What Abelard combats is the substantiation of these resembling qualities, which leads to their being regarded as identical in all the separate individuals, and thus paves the way for the gradual undermining of the individual, the only true and indivisible substance.
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  • The violent political commotions of the next few years allowed but little opportunity for the prosecution of serious studies; the subsequent quieter state of the country, and gradual re-establishment of the language as a means of education, were, however, more favourable to the development of scientific knowledge.
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  • Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
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  • A more instructive subdivision must be one which corresponds to the separate currents of thought and mental preoccupation which have been historically manifested in western Europe in the gradual evolution of what is to-day the great river of zoological doctrine to which they have all been rendered contributory.
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  • The first post-Darwinian systematists naturally and without reflexion accepted of' the idea that existing simpler forms represent stages i n the gradual progress of development - are in fact survivors from past ages which have retained the exact grade of development which their ancestors had reached in past ages.
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  • In places, as between Mafeking and Johannesburg, the descent is in terracelike steps, each step marked by a line of hills; in other places there is a gradual slope and elsewhere the descent is abrupt, with outlying hills and deep well-wooded valleys.
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  • Apart from this movement the most notable events in the Transvaal at this period were the development of agriculture,' the gradual revival of trade (the output of the gold mines in 1909 totalled f 30,925,000, and at the end of the year 156,000 native labourers were employed), and the continued difficulty with regard to British Indians.
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  • The kingdom of Assyria, which was the outgrowth of the primitive settlement on the site of the city of Assur, was developed by a probably gradual process of colonization in the rich vales of the middle Tigris region, a district watered by the Tigris itself and also by several tributary streams, the chief of which was the lower Zab.'
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  • The gradual replacement of Syriac by Arabic as the vernacular language of Mesopotamia by degrees transformed the Syriac from a living to a dead language.
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  • Then we have the property of adaptation, in which the negative reaction may be changed into a positive; a given toxin may at first repel the cell, but by a gradual process the cell becomes accustomed to such a toxin and will move towards it.
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  • Where the material is too large to be taken up by an individual cell, the dissolution is brought about by the cells surrounding the material, to which they closely apply themselves, and by the secreting of the ferment, a gradual process of erosion is brought about with ultimate absorption.
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  • Not only is this true of epithelial cells, but - the connective tissuecells of the supporting structure of cancerous growth, after repeated transplantation, may become so altered that a gradual evolution of apparently normal connective tissue into sarcomatous elements takes place, these giving rise to " mixed tumours."
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  • In the West the period after Galen affords little evidence of anything but a gradual though unvarying decline in Roman medicine.
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  • Probably the Teutonic pressure began as early as the 4th century before Christ, and the history of the next few hundred years may be summed up as the gradual substitution of a Germanic for a Celtic population along the banks of the Rhine.
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  • The fifth book, which has the most general interest, professes to explain the process by which the earth, the sea, the sky, the sun, moon and stars, were formed, the origin of life, and the gradual advance of man from the most savage to the most civilized condition.
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  • The natural process of sedimentation assisted the gradual artificial drainage of the marshes by means of embankments confining the river.
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  • They are merely craters raised above the level of the surrounding country by the gradual accretion of the soft oily mud, which overflows at frequent intervals whenever a discharge of gas occurs.
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  • But it was evident that the gradual extension of the British and Burmese territories would in time bring the two powers into close contact along a more extended line of frontier, and in all probability lead to a war between them.
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  • While such minute and gradual variations are harmless for most optical purposes, sudden variations which generally take the form of striae or veins are fatal defects in all optical glass.
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  • Processes of annealing, or very gradual cooling, are intended to relieve these strains, but such processes are only completely effective when the cooling, particularly through those ranges of temperature where the glass is just losing the last traces of plasticity, is extremely gradual, a rate measured in hours per degree Centigrade being required.
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  • If the cooling is very gradual - occupying several weeks - it sometimes happens that the entire contents of a large crucible, weighing perhaps 1000 lb, are found intact as a single mass of glass, but more frequently the mass is found broken up into a number of fragments of various sizes.
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  • It is, however, equally important that the glass as a whole should be flat and remains flat during the process of gradual cooling (annealing), otherwise great thicknesses of glass would have to be ground away at the projecting parts of the sheet.
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  • After the guru's death the gradual rise of the Sikhs into the ruling power of northern India until they came in collision with the British arms belongs to the secular history of the Punjab (q.v.).
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  • On the other hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes its course towards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness in Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more and more stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and its infringements.
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  • This transference of the authority of the latter to a number of distinct bodies and the consequent disintegration of the old organization was a gradual spontaneous movement, - a process of slow displacement, or natural growth and decay, due to the play of economic forces, - which, generally speaking, may be assigned to the 14th and 15th centuries, the very period in which the craft gilds attained the zenith of their power.
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  • We have already called attention to the gradual displacement of the gild merchant by the craft organizations.
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  • Whatever power they did secure, whether as potent subsidiary organs of the municipal polity for the regulation of trade, or as the chief or sole medium for the acquisition of citizenship, or as integral parts of the common council, was, generally speaking, the logical sequence of a gradual economic development, and not the outgrowth of a revolutionary movement by which oppressed craftsmen endeavoured to throw off the yoke of an arrogant patrician gild merchant.
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  • They were built up by the gradual accumulation of mud deposits in a shallow bay, separated by dunes from the North Sea.
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  • Feudal history was always a becoming, always a gradual passing from one stage to another, so long as feudalism continued to form the main organization of society.
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  • The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
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  • The tree, as with the rest of the fir-tribe, except the larch, is evergreen; new leaves are developed every spring, but their fall is gradual.
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  • The curacas sorrowfully watched the gradual extinction of their people by the operation of the mita, protesting from time to time against the exactions and cruelty of the Spaniards.
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  • The process is gradual, and takes place in two directions, as heat or cold predominates.
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  • When distant vision remains unaltered, but, owing to gradual failure of the accommodative apparatus of the eye clear vision within 8 in.
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  • The closing years of the 17th century were characterized by a gradual transition from the agricultural to the commercial stage of civilization.
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  • Since the adoption of the constitution the conditions have become worse owing to the extensive immigration of foreigners into the large cities and the gradual decay of the rural towns.
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  • It was during the solitude of his voyage to France, when on deck at night, that he first shaped his idea of the genesis of primitive poetry, and of the gradual evolution of humanity.
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  • It thus stands in sharp contrast to the anthropology of Kant, which opposes human development conceived as the gradual manifestation of a growing faculty of rational free will to the operations of physical nature.
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  • The Hermus valley began to suffer from the inroads of the Seljuk Turks about the end of the 11th century; but the successes of the Greek general Philocales in 1118 relieved the district for the time, and the ability of the Comneni, together with the gradual decay of the Seljuk power, retained it in the Byzantine dominions.
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  • He opposed the removal of Jewish disabilities, arguing, we are told by a contemporary, " on the part of the Evangelicals," and pleaded for the gradual extinction, in preference to the immediate abolition, of slavery.
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  • But it makes some difference to the future of a democratic state whether its leading men are eagerly on the look-out for something to revolutionize, or approach a constitutional change by the gradual processes of conviction and conversion.
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  • Against this blemishwhich is in process of gradual correction the fact has to be set that the better class of merchants, the whole of the artisans and the laboring classes in general, obey canons of probity fully on a level with the best to be found elsewhere.
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  • But the evidence of old documents seems to show that these syllabaries had a gradual evolution and that neither was the outcome of a single scholars inventive genius.
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  • There followed then a period of gradual decline, and the enamels exported to Europe showed so much inferiority that they were supposed to be the products of a widely different era and of different makers.
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  • At first he seems to have meant by the word only the belief that progress is real, and that the existing order of nature is the result of a gradual process and not of a "special creation."
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  • Similarly, the formation of organic halogen products may be effected by electrolytic chlorine, as, for example, in the production of chloral by the gradual introduction of alcohol into an anode cell in which the electrolyte is a strong solution of potassium chloride.
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  • The political history of the Eupatridae is that of a gradual curtailment of privilege.
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  • Their dispersal, therefore, must have been extremely slow and gradual.
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  • A group of bodies may, however, be yet discovered between alloys and electrolytes in which evidence may be found of some gradual change from wholly metallic to electrolytic conduction.
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  • Feudalism is practically extinct among them and with the decline of the Druses, and the great stake they have acquired in agriculture, they have laid aside much of their warlike habit together with their arms. Even their instinct of nationality is being sensibly impaired by their gradual assimilation to the Papal Church, whose agents exercise from Beirut an increasing influence on their ecclesiastical elections and church government.
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  • Pausanias, however (following Sosibius), interprets a long series of conflicts in Arcadia as stages in a gradual advance southward, ending with the conquest of Amyclae by King Teleclus (c. 800 B.C.) and of Helos by King Alcamenes (c. 770 B.C.).
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  • This conception of the nature of the numina and man's relation to them is the root notion of the old Roman religion, and the fully-formed state cult of the di indigetes even at the earliest historical period, must have been the result of long and gradual development, of which we can to a certain extent trace the stages.
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  • The whole history of the Jewish religion is centred in the gradual purification of the idea of God.
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  • The gradual supplanting of sail by steamships has made Malta a coaling station of primary importance.
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  • About 1880 it was running strongly, but about this time a gradual fall in the lake-level set in, and was continued, with occasional pauses, for some twenty years, the amount being estimated by Wissmann at 2 feet annually.
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  • A minute fraction is always separating out of the water, and as a prodigious length of time may be accepted for the accomplishment of all the chemical and physical processes in the deep sea, we must take account of the gradual accumulation of even this infinitesimal precipitation.
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  • In view of this opinion and of the exhaustion of the shallower collieries we look forward to a time, not far distant, when the rate of increase of output will be slower, to be followed by a period of stationary output, and then a gradual decline."
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  • As regards the gradual specialization and development of the modern types, the following features are noteworthy.
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  • The loss of active lifer consequent on this gradual dissolution, was much increased when Alexandria fell under Roman sway.
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  • The rise of London as a port, the prohibition of the export of wool, the loss of the Winchester market after the suppression of the monastic institutions, and the withdrawal of the court led to the gradual decline of trade from the 16th century onwards until railway facilities and the opening of new dockyards gave Southampton the position it holds to-day.
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  • The Reformation was, fundamentally, then, but one phase, if the most conspicuous, in the gradual decline of the majestic medieval ecclesiastical State, for this decline has gone on in France, Austria, Spain and Italy, countries in which the Protestant revolt against the ancient Church ended in failure.
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  • The whole body of freemen composed the General Court until other towns than Plymouth had been organized, the first of which were Scituate in 1636 and Duxbury in 1637, and then the representative form of government was adopted and there was a gradual differentiation between Plymouth the town and Plymouth the 1882 the assessment of realty increased nearly twelve times as much as personalty.
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  • Its gradual acquisition of civic rights followed the same line of development as in the German episcopal cities.
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  • A very important manuscript unknown to Gerbert (the Codex bibliothecae Uticensis, in the Paris library) contains, besides minor treatises, an antiphonarium and gradual undoubtedly belonging to Guido.
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  • Still, the development of congregational churches proper was gradual, the result of constant study of " the Word of God " in the light of experience.
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  • Partly owing to its own faults and partly owing to the stress of political excitement which followed it, the Edwardean revival was followed by nearly half a century of lethargy, during which the chief interest centred in the gradual growth of doctrinal controversy.
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  • In later times the measure of authority conceded to a pastor as the shepherd of a flock has been much diminished in consequence of the gradual development of democratic feeling in both minister and congregation.
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  • There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
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  • There was only a cautious and gradual extension of the right to vote in Diet and municipal elections in the several territories; and it was not till Jan.
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  • West of the Mu river, in the centre of the district, there is a gradual ascent to the hills which divide Sagaing from the Upper Chindwin.
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  • This lasts into February, when the northerly current begins to lose strength, and the gradual heating of the land produces local sea breezes from the gulf along the coast-line.
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  • The gradual evolution of the Siamese (Thai) from the fusion of Lao-Tai and Khmer races has been mentioned above.
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  • They also prepared the way for further legislation tending towards the gradual emancipation of the natives from the culture system, and from semi-feudal servitude to their native rulers.
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  • A gradual severance took place between him and his old chief, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, until in later years he became obsessed with the idea that Laurier's policy was fatal to the best interests of Canada and especially to Quebec. A speaker of extraordinary power and fascination, both in Parliament and on the platform, even Laurier himself could not sway the French Canadians as Bourassa could; and in spite of his extreme views he was heard with respect even in the strongholds of his opponents in Toronto.
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  • Before hibernating the adults grow very fat, and it is by the gradual consumption of this fat - known in commerce as bear's grease - that such vital action as is necessary to the continuance of life is sustained.
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  • The inland slope is gradual, but on the northern shore the range terminates in abrupt and almost perpendicular declivities, and here, consequently, some of the finest coast scenery in the island is found, widely differing, with its unbroken lines of cliffs, from the indented coast-line of the west.
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  • This great advance, which is the result of the gradual focussing of a century's work in the minute exploration of the exact laws of optical and electric phenomena, clearly carries with it deeper insight into the physical nature of matter itself and its modes of inanimate interaction.
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  • The middle ages were far more disastrous for the Monophysites than for the Nestorians; in their case there was no alternation of rise and decline, and we have only a long period of gradual exhaustion to chronicle.
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  • Hence, by gradual steps, the customs policy of France has become more and more strongly restrictive.
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  • Finally, by gradual steps between 1831 and 1834, the complete Zollverein was formed, notwithstanding popular opposition.
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  • This result in the United States came about by gradual steps and without premeditation.
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  • In 1870 some rearrangements were made, Gradual consoli- the duties on iron and on some other articles being re dation duced.
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  • On the other hand, the maintenance of the protective duties, and the gradual consolidation of feeling in favour of a permanent policy of strong protection, led to other revisions and rearrangements in the direction of protection.
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  • Thus the ten years immediately following the close of the war brought about the gradual transformation of the high duties levied on all commodities for revenue purposes into a system of high duties almost wholly on protective commodities.
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  • He, however, much regretted the gradual and very natural trend of his new English allies towards extreme Ultramontane views, of which Archdeacon, afterwards Cardinal, Manning ultimately became an enthusiastic advocate.
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  • The purpose of this excellent law, which would have laid firmly the basis for gradual change, was defeated by the impatience of the French colonists.
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  • In this gradual manner were the French led to conquer Algeria.
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  • The Ascidicolidae have variable characters, showing a gradual adaptation to parasitic life in Tunicates.
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  • The writings of the canonical prophets form another important element in the Old Testament, also, like the historical books, of gradual growth.
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  • And because the process before us is the gradual assimilation of New Testament and Old Testament, we shall have to include at each step all that bears upon this.
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  • The development of doctrine in St Paul's epistles is due in part to the gradual subsiding of the eschatological temper, but even more to the growth of controversy.
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  • Within the southern monsoon region there is a gradual transition to the northwest monsoon of New Guinea in low latitudes, and in higher latitudes to the north-east wind of the Queensland coast.
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  • The soil in the valleys is volcanic and fertile, but the gradual utilization of natural timber increases the liability to drought, as there are no streams. The climate is variable and rainy.
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  • That period was one of gradual transition to the conditions of Stuart times; during it practically every claim was put forward that was made under the first two Stuarts either on behalf of parliament or the prerogative, and Elizabeth's attitude towards the Puritans was hardly distinguishable from James I.'s.
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  • From Irazu (11,200), the culminating point of the range, both oceans and the whole of Costa Rica are visible; its altitude exceeds that of Aneto, the highest point in the Pyrenees, but so gradual is its acclivity that the summit can easily be reached by a man on horseback.
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  • From 1850 to 1880 there was a gradual reduction except during the years of the war.
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  • The second stage is occupied with the gradual rise and ultimate ascendancy of another system founded on the idea of the right of the individual to an unimpeded sphere for the exercise of his economic activity.
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  • Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.
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  • This conception of the science and its possibilities is the result of very gradual advances since the beginning of the 19th century in what is known as the method of palaeontology.
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  • Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817), the famous exponent of the aqueous theory of earth formation, observed in successive geological formations the gradual approach to the forms of existing species.
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  • After a long period of gradual revelation of the ancient life of Europe, extending eastward to Greece, eastern Asia and to Australia, attention became centred on North America, especially on Rocky Mountain exploration.
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  • But besides the innumerable characters which are visible and measurable, there are probably thousands which we cannot measure or which have not been discovered, since every part of the organism enjoys its gradual and independent evolution.
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  • Thus we observe persistent organs and persistent types of animals, analogous organs and analogous types of animals, and this analogy applies still further to the rival and more or less contradictory hypotheses of the sudden as distinguished from the gradual appearance of new parts or organs of animals, and the sudden appearance of new types of animals.
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  • The essence of Waagen's law is orthogenesis, or evolution in a definite direction, and, if there does exist an internal hereditary principle controlling such orthogenetic evolution, there does not appear to be any essential contradiction between its gradual operation in the " mutations of Waagen " and its occasional hurried operation in the " mutations of de Vries," which are by their definition discontinuous or saltatory (Osborn, 1907).
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  • It is certainly a very striking fact that wherever we have been able to trace genetic series, either of invertebrates or vertebrates, in closely sequent geological horizons, or life zones, we find strong proof of evolution through extremely gradual mutation simultaneously affecting many parts of each organism, as set forth above.
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  • The inference is almost irresistible that the law of gradual transformation through minute continuous change is by far the most universal; but many palaeontologists as well as zoologists and botanists hold a contrary opinion.
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  • It by no means follows, however, from this incontrovertible evidence that the acquisition either of the jaw or of the lateral fins had not been in itself an extremely gradual process.
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  • A succession of devout but incapable generals, after the death of Acquaviva, saw the gradual secularization of tone by the flocking in of recruits of rank and wealth desirous to share in the glories and influence of the Society, but not well adapted to increase them.
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  • How, with this pope's support throughout his long reign, the gradual filling of nearly all the sees of Latin Christendom with bishops of their own selection, and their practical capture, directly or indirectly, of the education of the clergy in seminaries, they contrived to stamp out the last remains of independence everywhere, and to crown the Ultramontane triumph with the Vatican Decrees, is matter of familiar knowledge.
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  • Much work was done with the gradual introduction of improved methods during the last forty years of the century.
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  • For the gradual growth of Venetian supremacy over the whole territory, and for its subsequent history, see Venice.
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  • Its obvious inconvenience for celebrating the holy mysteries, however, caused its gradual modification.
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  • This policy was accompanied by a gradual decay of civic feeling and municipal enterprise, which showed itself mainly in the unwillingness of the townsmen to become candidates for local magistracies, or to take up the burdens entailed in membership of the municipal senate.
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  • The whole plain has a gradual slope from the low range of Jebel Maqtub and the hill of Ain-es-safra on the N.E.
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  • Such a theory, like its modern rival of the sun-myth, may of course be pushed till it becomes absurd; yet in India critical observers, like Sir Alfred C. Lyall, attest innumerable examples of the gradual elevation into gods of human beings, the process even beginning in their lifetime.
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  • It has a relatively rapid descent toward the inner lowland, and a very gradual descent to the coast prairies, which become very low, flat and marshy before dipping under the Gulf waters, where they are generally fringed by off-shore reefs.
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  • The surface is shown to be a plain of degradation by a gradual ascent here and there to the crest of a ragged escarpment, the cuesta-remnant of a resistant stratum; and by the presence of lava-capped mesas and dike-ridges, surmounting the general level by 500 ft.
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  • The mountains descend by a much more gradual slope to the coastal plain of the Gulf of Tarentum.
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  • The first blow towards its gradual contraction was struck when Napoleon ordered 22,000 oaks to be cut down in it to build the celebrated Boulogne flotilla for the invasion of England.
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  • The Lower Old Red Sandstone is represented by well-bedded flagstones over most of the islands; in the south of Pomona these are faulted against an overlying series of massive red sandstones, but a gradual passage from the flagstones to the sandstones may be followed from Westray S.E.
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  • There is a curious characteristic connected with this gradual composition.
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  • The Metaphysics is clearly a compilation formed from essays or discourses; and it illustrates another characteristic of Aristotle's gradual method of composition.
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  • There is still another point which would facilitate Aristotle's gradual composition of discourses into treatises and treatises into a system; there was no occasion for him to publish his manuscripts beyond his school.
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  • At present the Politics will supply us with a conspicuous example of the imperfect arrangement of some, as well as of the gradual composition of all, of Aristotle's extant writings.
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  • What he mainly wanted was the time, the leisure and the labour, which we have supposed to have been given to the gradual composition of the extant Aristotelian writings.
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  • There is therefore a history of Aristotle's metaphysical views, corresponding to his gradual method of composition.
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  • Against the "Chorizontes," who have advanced various hypotheses on all these points without convincing one another, it may be objected that they have not considered Aristotle's method of gradual and simultaneous composition of manuscripts within the Peripatetic school.
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  • But at any rate the process was gradual; and Aristotle was advanced in metaphysics, mathematics, physics, dialectics, rhetoric and poetics, before he became the founder of logic.
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  • But in the gradual process of composition, by which a work once begun was kept going with the rest, although a work such as the Politics (begun in 357) was begun early, and some works more rudimentary came earlier than others, the general body of writings was so kept together in Aristotle's library, and so simultaneously elaborated and consolidated into a system that it soon becomes impossible to put one before another.
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  • We must also pass over the very important questions that arise as to the gradual extrication of the New Testament idea of the Christ from the elements of Jewish political doctrine which had so strong a hold of many of the first disciples - the relation, for example, of the New Testament Apocalypse to contemporary Jewish thought.
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  • It was found that during the successive electrical oscillations the metallic lines can be observed to stretch farther and farther away from the poles, thus giving a measure of the gradual diffusion of the metal.
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  • South of this tract there is a gradual ascent to the Central India plateau, and at Sipri the general level is 1500 ft.
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  • By this desertion his self-esteem, one of his strongest passions, though curiously united with singular sincerity and humility, was doubtless hurt to the quick; but the wound inflicted was of a deeper and deadlier kind, for it confirmed him finally in his despair of the world's gradual amelioration, and established his tendency towards supernaturalism.
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  • These advances in natural science, which pointed to a unity and gradual evolution in nature, were accompanied by a growth in commerce, manufactures and industrialism; the same kind of spirit showed itself in the revolutionary upheaval of 1848, and in the materialistic publications which immediately followed, while these XVIII.
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  • By the same dialectic Hegel was able to justify the gradual transformation of transcendental into noumenal idealism by Fichte and Schelling.
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  • This modification was the beginning of a gradual lessening of the antithesis of a priori to a posteriori, until at last the a priori forms of Kant have been transmuted into " auxiliary conceptions," or " postulates of experience."
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  • The cessation of persecution, and consequent gradual elaboration of church furniture and ritual, led to the employment of more costly materials for the altar as for the other fittings of ecclesiastical buildings.
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  • On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
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  • The introduction of powerful engines causing serious vibration to compass cards of the admiralty type, coupled with the prevailing desire for larger cards, the deviation of which could also be more conveniently compensated, led to the gradual introduction of the Thomson compass.
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  • At Florence the pope came into closer contact with the humanists, and to this circumstance is due the gradual dominance which they attained in the Roman Curia - a dominance which, both in itself, and even more because of the frankly pagan leanings of many in that party, was bound to awaken serious misgivings.
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  • From the close of the Thirty Years' War to the outbreak of the French Revolution the papacy suffered abroad waning political prestige; at home, progressive financial embarrassment accompanied by a series of inadequate governmental reforms; and in the world at large, gradual diminution of reverence for spiritual authority.
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  • So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the industry was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gradual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by The introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.
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  • Modern travellers bear witness to a gradual progress of desiccation in the Tibetan uplands.
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  • Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.
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  • At A we 66 have the freezing point of pure water, which is lowered by the gradual addition of 46 ferric chloride in the manner shown by the curve AB.
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  • The gradual elimination of the= nitrogen is tested at a moment's notice with a miniature spectroscope.
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  • These two great rationalist movements, the critical and the philosophical, ultimately led to, or were accompanied by, the gradual reduction of religion to a system of morals based at the most on two or three fundamental religious principles.
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  • Some of the modifications of the family are very gradual, and therefore conclusions founded on them are likely to be correct; others are further apart, and the links which connect them, if not altogether missing, can but be surmised.
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  • The old families had lost heavily from generation to generation, partly by personal extravagances, but also by gradual alienations of land to the Church and by the enormous expenses of the crusades.
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  • From the accession of Prince Charles, in 1866, a gradual reform began.
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  • In the Old Testament we can trace the gradual development of an ever more definite doctrine of "the final condition of man and the world."
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  • Some parables (the leaven, the mustard seed) suggest a gradual progressive realization of His kingdom.
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  • Its growth was gradual and has not been uniform throughout.
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  • With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.
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  • C. Zeller's Alpentiere im Wechsel der Zeit (1892) gives a reliable account of the gradual disappearance of some of the larger forms of life from the Alps.
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  • By growth is here meant mere increase in bulk, and by development the series of gradual modifications by which a plant, originally simple in its structure and conformation, becomes eventually complicated, and endowed with distinct parts or organs.
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  • With all the difficult and slow-growing plants of the hard-wooded section, all the pruning must be done in this gradual way in the young wood as the plant progresses.
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  • On this view then the Aplacophora are more primitive than the Polyplacophora in the relations of coelom, gonad and coelomoducts; and the genital ducts of the Chitons have arisen either by metameric repetition within the group, or by the gradual loss of an original connexion between the generative sac and the renal tube, as in Lamellibranchs and Gastropods, the generative sac acquiring a separate duct and opening to the exterior on each side.
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  • The gradual disappearance of leprosy combined with other causes to secularize the order more and more.
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  • These changes were the outcome of a gradual reaction in a conservative direction.
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  • With the second period began, in the 14th century, the gradual displacement of the direct extraction of wrought iron from the ore by the intentional and regular use of this indirect method of first carburizing the metal and thus turning it into cast iron, and then converting it into wrought iron by remelting it in the forge.
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  • The indirect process once established, the gradual increase in the height and diameter of the high furnace, which has lasted till our own days, naturally went on and developed the gigantic blast furnaces of the present time, still called " high furnaces " in French and German.
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  • Though it contains far too much sulphur to be used in iron manufacture without first being desulphurized, yet great quantities of slightly cupriferous pyrite, after yielding nearly all their sulphur in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, and most of the remainder in the wet extraction of their copper, are then used under the name of " blue billy " or " purple ore," as an ore of iron, a use which is likely to increase greatly in importance with the gradual exhaustion of the richest deposits of the oxidized ores.
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  • Next let us imagine that, in a series of cast irons all containing 4% of carbon, the graphite of the initial skeleton changes gradually into cementite and thereby becomes part of the matrix, a change which of course has two aspects, first, a gradual thinning of the graphite skeleton and a decrease of its continuity, and second, a gradual introduction of cementite into the originally pure ferrite matrix.
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  • It is uncertain to what extent reliance can be placed upon the traditional accounts of the gradual spread of the supremacy of Rome in Latium, and the question cannot be Latin League.
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  • There was also probably a road to Caere in early times, inasmuch as we hear of the flight of the Vestals thither in 389 B.C. The origin of the rest of the roads is no doubt to be connected with the gradual establishment of the Latin league.
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  • At what period the right of advowson arose is uncertain; it was probably the result of gradual growth.
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  • A second law for these mutual transformations is that when they take place without loss of homogeneity, for example, in the liquid state, the definite transition point disappears and the change is gradual.
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  • In all official communications the Russian language is obligatory, and a gradual elimination of Poles from the administration has been effected.
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  • The place cannot now be identified, as the formation of the Baltic coast has been much modified in the course of subsequent centuries, partly by the gradual silting up of the sea, and partly by the storms of the 14th century.
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  • In that history the gradual development of commerce, the financial reforms in 1895, and the extension of the Paraguay Central railway after 1906, were events of far greater importance than any political movement which took place between 1870 and 1910.
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  • Few areas of large extent in any part of the world are absolutely devoid of vegetation, and the transition from typical desert conditions is often very gradual and ill-defined.
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  • Trade statistics of late years show a gradual increase of exports to India from Kandahar and the countries adjacent thereto, but a curious falling-off in imports.
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  • With the gradual disuse of the old barbarous punishments so universal in medieval times came also a reversal of opinion as to the magnitude of the crime involved in killing a child not yet born.
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  • In the words of Hallam, "the slow and gradual manner in which parochial churches became independent appears to be of itself a sufficient answer to those who ascribe a great antiquity to the universal payment of tithes."
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  • He identified himself with the more moderate and opportunist section of the Socialist party, decisively dissociating himself from the doctrine of a sudden and violent overthrow of society, and urging his associates to co-operate in bringing about a gradual development towards the Socialistic state.
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  • On the 6th of March 1862, he sent a special message to Congress recommending the passage of a resolution offering pecuniary aid from the general government to induce states to adopt gradual abolishment of slavery.
    0
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  • But in the same proclamation Lincoln recalled to the public his own proposal and the assent of Congress to compensate states which would adopt voluntary and gradual abolishment.
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  • In his message to Congress on the 1st of December following, he again urged his plan of gradual, compensated emancipation (to be completed on the 1st of December 1900) "as a means, not in exclusion of, but additional to, all others for restoring and preserving the national authority throughout the Union."
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  • The third, dowh to 1881, shows the gradual establishment of state control in Prussia, and the formation of direct trunk lines.
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  • Bronze Age (in south Germany from c. 2000-1000 B.C.).In the later StOne age we note the occasional use of copper, and then the gradual appearance of bronze.
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  • His conversion to the views of the colonial party was gradual, as was seen in his attitude to the proposed acquisition of German Afrk stations in South-West Africa.
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  • The most striking effect of the development of this antagonism was the gradual disappearance as a factor in politics of the Liberals, the chief builders of the Empire.
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  • The development of this small mark into the AustroHungarian monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have respectively ruled the land.
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  • The story of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of Austria.
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  • The result was the gradual atrophy of the whole administrative machine.
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  • On one point the two editors differed radically, Lundy being the advocate of gradual and Garrison of immediate emancipation.
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  • It deserves mention here that Garrison was then in utter ignorance of the change previously wrought in the opinions of English abolitionists by Elizabeth Heyrick's pamphlet in favour of immediate, in distinction from gradual emancipation.
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  • Furthermore, apart from the gradual disintegration of the empire, Athens was disturbed by political strife.
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  • The Mahmal, a kind of covered litter, first originated by Queen Sheger-ed-Dur, is brought into the city in procession, though not with as much pomp as when it leaves with the pilgrims. These and other processions have lost much of their effect since the extinction of the Mamelukes, and the gradual disuse of gorgeous dress for the retainers of the,, officers of state.
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  • Prior to the death of the khalifa, many of his soldiers deserted to join their brethren who had been captured by the sirdars troops, during the gradual advance up the Nile.
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  • It has been suggested that the gradual cumulative result of the activity of the nerve cells during the waking day is to load the brain tissue with "fatigue-substances" Theories of which clog the action of the cells, and thus periodi cally produce that loss of consciousness, &c., which is sleep. Such a drugging of tissue by its own excreta is known in muscular fatigue, but the fact that the depth of sleep progressively increases for an hour and more after its onset prevents complete explanation of sleep on similar lines.
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  • Now, however, the state derived a fixed and certain revenue from the confiscated lands; and the possession 1 It is true the university was established on the 9th of September 1537, but its influence was of very gradual growth and small at first.
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  • He traced the gradual elevation of man to the social state, which he conceived as a natural process determined by "the necessities of human life."
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  • Though living in a slave state he was consistently opposed to slavery, but he favoured gradual rather than immediate emancipation, and in 1838 he freed his own slaves.
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  • Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial.
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  • The majority of the palace buildings are, in ground-plan, quadrangular, with all the rooms opening on to a central court; and the whole reached its present size simply by the gradual addition of new quadrangles, designed on the same principle, though varying in dimensions, and connected with each other by smaller rooms and passages.
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  • Regarding the existing flat-topped heights among the eastern Grampians as remnants of what was once the general character of the surface, we can trace every step in the gradual obliteration of the tableland and in the formation of the most rugged and most individualized forms of isolated mountain.
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  • Among these high grounds also the gradual narrowing of ridges into sharp, narrow, knife-edged crests and the lowering of these into cols or passes can be admirably studied.
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  • And in India the problem still remains to trace, in the literature, the gradual growth of the system - the gradual formation of new sections among the people, the gradual extension of the institution to the families of people engaged in certain trades, belonging to the same group, or sect, or tribe, tracing their ancestry, whether rightly or wrongly, to the same source.
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  • Pellican's autobiography describes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature being mainly philological.
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  • Among these are the gradual disappearance of various kinds of grain as one advanced towards the north; the use of fermented liquors made from corn and honey; and the habit of threshing out their corn in large covered barns, instead of on open threshing-floors as in Greece and Italy, on account of the want of sun and abundance of rain.
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  • We have followed it long enough to see its directness and simplicity, to observe the naturalness with which one incident succeeds another, and to watch the gradual manifestation of a personality at once strong and sympathetic, wielding extraordinary powers, which are placed wholly at the service of others, and refusing to be hindered from helping men by the ordinary restrictions of social or religious custom.
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  • Even to the last Hegel had not so externalized his system as to treat it as something to be led up to by gradual steps.
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  • The characteristic of the system is the gradual way in which idea is linked to idea so as"to make the division into chapters only an arrangement of convenience.
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  • Seeking to establish for himself a middle position between rationalism and supernaturalism, he declared for a "rational supernaturalism," and contended that there must be a gradual development of Christian doctrine corresponding to the advance of knowledge and science.
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  • From this time onwards to the outbreak of the Peasants' War (1525) Luther was the real leader of the German nation, and everything seemed to promise a gradual reformation without tumult.
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  • On the west side the slope is gradual, especially in the broad plain that skirts the coast for the greater part cf its length; on the east side it is steep - precipitous indeed, towards the southern end - and intersected by valleys worn to a tremendous depth by the force of the torrents that once ran down them.
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  • He carried a great scheme for the gradual acquisition of the railways by the state and the construction of new lines at a cost of three milliards, and for the development of the canal system at a further cost of one milliard.
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  • The gradual removal of obstacles from the commerce of the island from 1766 to 1818 particularly benefited Havana.
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  • At this time Jefferson championed the natural right of expatriation, and gradual emancipation of the slaves.
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  • When, therefore, the conquest of Khiva in 1873 by the Russians, and their gradual approach towards the amir's northern border, had seriously alarmed Shere Ali, he applied for support to the British; and his disappointment at his failure to obtain distinct pledges of material assistance, and at Great Britain's refusal to endorse all his claims in a dispute with Persia over Seistan, so far estranged him from the British connexion that he began to entertain amicable overtures from the Russian authorities at Tashkend.
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  • The alluvial deposits of the plain, as made known by the boring at Calcutta, prove a gradual depression of the area in recent times.
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  • In 1908 an international commission that met at Shanghai passed resolutions inviting all the states there represented to take measures for the gradual suppression of the manufacture, sale and distribution of opium, except for medicinal purposes.
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  • During this first period of their dealings with India the aims of the British were purely those of traders, without any aspirations to military power or territorial aggrandizement; but in the period that followed, the gradual decay of the Mogul empire from within, and the consequent anarchy, forced the English to take up arms in their own defence, and triumphing over one enemy after another they found themselves at last in the place of the Moguls.
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  • The subsequent political history of India has been but the gradual development of this policy, which received its finishing touch when Queen Victoria was proclaimed empress of India in 1877.
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  • We have thus followed somewhat minutely the history of the gradual process by which Dollond arrived independently at his invention of the refracting telescope, because it has been asserted that he borrowed the idea from others.
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  • From that year the increase in the Indian population has been more gradual but steady, while the non-Indian population has decreased.
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  • It is unnecessary to trace in detail the gradual conquest of the islands, or the hundreds of engagements, often small, between the rebels and the Americans.
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  • Then follows a gradual absorption of first the helium and then the hydrogen, the photosphere grows continually cooler, and the star passes successively through the stages exemplified by Sirius, Procyon, the Sun, Arcturus and Antares.
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  • What, however, is of particular importance is that the increase is gradual.
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