Gradients sentence example
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The chemical characters of the well-waters, the irregular distribution of the water-pressure, the distribution of the underground thermal gradients, and the occurrence in some of the wells of a tidal rise and fall of a varying period, are facts which are not explained on the simple hydrostatic theory.
At the same time, as the gradients are gradually increasing on account of the upheaval of the continent, the rivers dig their channels deeper and deeper.
Before that time the St Paul had been a great local railway, operating primarily in the Dakotas, Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin and Illinois; but by the construction of a long arm from the Missouri river to Spokane, Seattle and Tacoma, it became a transcontinental line of the first importance, avoiding the mistakes of earlier railway builders by securing a line with easy gradients through the most favourable regions.Advertisement
In the second place, except in the unlikely event of all the places on the selected route lying at the same elevation, a line that is perfectly level is a physical impossibility; and from engineering considerations, even one with uniform gradients will be impracticable on the score of cost, unless the surface of the country is extraordinarily even.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
One of the steepest gradients in England on an important line is the Lickey incline at Bromsgrove, on the Midland railway between Birmingham and Gloucester, where the slope is 1 in 37 for two miles.
In practice the gradient should not exceed i in 221, and even that is too steep, since theoretical conditions cannot always be realized; a wet rail will reduce the adhesion, and the gradients must be such that some paying load can be hauled in all weathers.
When an engineer has to construct a railway up a hill having a still steeper slope, he must secure practicable gradients by laying out the line in ascending spirals, if necessary tunnelling into the hill, as on the St Gothard railway, or in a series of zigzags, or he must resort to a rack or a cable railway.Advertisement
Racks of this type usually become impracticable for gradients steeper than 1 in 4, partly because of the excessive weight of the engine required and partly because of the tendency of the cog-wheel to mount the rack.
It is used largely in America for goods traffic. In Europe it is in considerable favour for goods andpassenger traffic on heavy gradients.
In the great continental basin there are long lines with easy gradients and curves, while in the Allegheny and Rocky Mountains the gradients are stiff, and the curves numerous and of short radius.
This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.
Except in special cases, gradients must not exceed 3 in moo; and between gradients in the opposite sense there must be not less than 60 metres of level for 1.44 m.Advertisement
As might be expected in a country possessing the physical features of Natal, the gradients and curves are exceptionally severe.
Locomotive haulage is applicable to large mines, where trains of cars are hauled long distances on flat or undulating roads of moderate gradients.
Their situation was unsatisfactory not only in the tactical sense, but also from the point of view of keeping the troops supplied, owing to their being perched on ridges with steep gradients behind them.
This system presents the greatest advantages in point of economy of driving power, especially where the gradients are variable, but is expensive in first cost, and is not well suited for curves, and branch roads cannot be worked continuously, as a fresh set of pulleys worked by bevel gearing is required for each branch.
The larger streams have cut their channels to very moderate gradients, but the smaller ones are steeper.Advertisement
In the midwinter month, it is the eastern half of the country that has strong temperature contrasts; the temperature gradients are twice as strong between New Orleans and Minneapolis as on the Pacific coast, and the contrast between Jacksonville, Fla., and Eastport, Me., is about the same as between San Diego, Cal., and the Aleutian Islands.
This agreement was a very satisfactory test of the accuracy of the fundamental law of conduction, as the gradients and periods varied so widely in the two cases.
The dominant mountain system of Afghanistan is the Hindu Kush, and that extension westwards of its water-divide which is indicated by the Koh-i-Baba to the north-west of Kabul, and by the Firozkhoi plateau (Karjistan), which merges still farther to the west by gentle gradients into the Paropamisus, and which may be traced across the Hari Rud to Mashad.
On the southern or Indian side the routes to Tibet and Ladakh follow the levels of Himalayan valleys with no remarkably steep gradients till they near the approach to the water-divide.
These gradients enable the inconstant streams tributary to the Colorado to carve their canyons, some of which are in themselves very remarkable, though insignificant beside the Grand Canyon.Advertisement
Attention has been called to the fact that the bare rocks and steep gradients which are common in the Western Division allow of the heavy rainfall running off the surface rapidly, while the flat and often clayey lands of the Eastern Division retain the scantier rainfall in the soil for a longer time, so that for agricultural purposes the effect of the rainfall is not very dissimilar throughout the country.
The site has a variety of aspect and gradients, with the grassland dominated by red fescue Festuca rubra and upright brome Bromus erectus.
The seams were on severe gradients with chain conveyors along the face length.
Oulton is a wide circuit, with long sweeping curves, a rare mixture of gradients and some picturesque scenery.
The paper discusses the possibility that horizontal advection combined with horizontal gradients in the plasma density can contribute to the radar echoes.Advertisement
These agents also engender stimulus generalization gradients similar to those of exteroceptive stimuli as a function of modifications of their chemical composition.
Preconditioned conjugate gradients are shown to be extremely effective for all symmetric problems.
There are no published EMs of material banding in sucrose density gradients.
In order for a cell to use calcium as a signaling molecule, the cell must create calcium gradients across membranes.
Others factors create pressure gradients that cause water to try to flow from high pressure to low pressure.Advertisement
Weather in strong or steep pressure gradients is normally subject to sudden changes with varying wind force and direction.
Any density gradients result in net negative pressure gradients which act on positive matter to produce negative buoyancy forces.
The dominant process is baroclinic instability which owes its existence to strong meridional temperature gradients.
Observations are made at a given height over level open ground near the observatory, and a comparison with the simultaneous results from the self-recording electrograph enables the records from the latter to be expressed as potential gradients in the open.
If the mean of the gradients observed at the ground and at 1500 metres be taken as an approximation to the mean value of the gradient throughout the lowest 1500 metres of the atmosphere, we find for the potential at 1500 metres level 112,500 volts.Advertisement
The grand Trunk Pacific railway, the great transcontinental line promoted by the Laurier government, passes through Manitoba north of the Canadian Pacific, coming from the east deflects southward to pass through Winnipeg, and then strikes northward in a direct line of easy gradients to find its way through the Rocky Mountains to its terminus of Prince Rupert on the north coast of British Columbia.
He will incline to the first of these alternatives when cheapness of first cost is a desideratum, but, except in unusually favourable circumstances, the resulting line, being full of sharp curves and severe gradients, will be unsuited for fast running and will be unable to accommodate heavy traffic economically.
The design combines ample boiler capacity with large adhesive weight and moderate axle loads, but except on heavy gradients or for unusually large trains requiring engines of great adhesion, passenger traffic can be more efficiently and economically handled by four-coupled locomotives of the eight-wheel or Atlantic types.
The prevailing winds respond to the stronger poleward temperature gradients of winter by rising to a higher velocity and a more frequent and severer cyclonic storminess; and to the weaker gradients of summer by relaxing to a lower velocity with fewer and weaker cyclonic storms; but furthermore the northern zone occupied by the prevailing westerlies expands as the winds strengthen in winter, and shrinks as they weaken in summer; thus the stormy westerlies, which impinge upon the north-western coast and give it plentiful rainfall all through the year, in winter reach southern California and sweep across part of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida; it is for this reason that southern California has a rainy winter season, and that the states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico are visited in winter by occasional intensified cold winds, inappropriate to their latitude.
Brown and gold candles are also lovely options, as are candles in mottled fall shades or autumn gradients.Advertisement
The trains are few and the speed on all these lines is moderate, but the gradients are often very heavy.
As far as Terracina it ran in an almost entirely straight line, even through the Alban Hills, where the gradients are steep.
There are gradients of I in 20 and I in 25.
For heavy gradients rope haulage has no rival, though for moderate grades it is often advantageously replaced by electric and compressed air haulage.
The difference of the temperature gradients D/l at the ends of the section was simultaneously obtained from the difference D of the readings of a pair of couples at either end connected in opposition.Advertisement
The Orange Free State line, after leaving Ladysmith, ascends by steep gradients the whole of its own course in Natal territory, and when it gains the summit at Van Reenen's Pass it is 5500 ft.