Free people establish governments to protect their rights.
Consequently there were only 87.4 and 89.8 women to every 100 men in the governments of St Petersburg and Taurida respectively, but as many as 133.8 in Yaroslavl, 119 in Tver and 117 in Kostroma.
To the mass of the people the restoration of the old governments undoubtedly brought a sense of relief, for the terrible drain in men and money caused by Napoleon's wars had caused much discontent, whereas now there was a prospect of peace and rest.
It is now divided into the governments of Cassel and Wiesbaden, the second of which consists mainly of the former territory of Nassau (q.v.).
It was also the view universally taken by the German governments which supported the Kulturkampf in a greater or less degree.
The aspects which stand out most prominently in this history are: (a) The vacillation of successive governments due to the conflicting policies adopted from time to time to protect the telegraph revenues of the Post Office and to avoid the suppression of an enterprise which was becoming a public necessity and yielding substantial royalties to the PostmasterGeneral.
During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.
on which the Italian revolutionists had built their hopes; the Austrians intervened unhindered; the old governments were re-established in Parma, Modena and Romagna; and Menotti and many other patriots were hanged.
Practically speaking, governments often act as if their first duty is to protect the government, not the people.
In these proportions the respective contributing governments are responsible for the losses made in the working of the undertaking.
Governments respond to that inflation by freezing prices.
the three Baltic provinces, the nine western governments annexed from Poland by Catherine II., and the Cossack provinces of the Don, Astrakhan, Orenburg and Stavropol.
He gave so much trouble to the Madrid governments that they organized a watch over him with the assistance of the French government and police, especially when it was discovered that the two military movements of August 1883 and September 1886 had been prepared and assisted by him.
The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.
the great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.
Of the rest 8 governments are in Finland, ro in Poland.
If governments are created to protect the life, liberty, and property of their citizenry, what all does that entail?
Everything is strained to such a degree that it will certainly break, said Pierre (as those who examine the actions of any government have always said since governments began).
After the rejection in 1838 of the governments proposals for the construction of seven trunk lines to be worked by the state, he obtained a concession for that piece of line on the terms that the French treasury would advance one-third of the capital at 3% if he would raise the remaining two-thirds, half in France and half in England.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
Governments, thieves, scientists, treasurer hunters, historians and despots of all kinds would crave his skill.
Thus on the 31st of March 1889 the undertaking of the Submarine Telegraph Company was purchased by the governments concerned.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
Article 12 provided for the transmission free of cost in Italy of all papal telegrams and correspondence both with bishops and foreign governments, and sanctioned the establishment, at the expense of the Italian state, of a papal telegraph office served b~ papal officials in communication with the Italian postal and telegraph system.
The two governments frequently discussed the situation, but although they had agreed to a selfdenying ordinance whereby each bound itself not to occupy any part of Albanian territory, Austrias declarations and promises were hardly borne out by the activity of her agents in the Balkans.
Aristotle's brief suggestions respect ing the origin of society and governments in the Politics show a leaning to a naturalistic interpretation of human history as a development conditioned by growing necessities.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
The average number of women to every 100 men in the Russian governments proper was 102.9; in Poland, 98.6; in Finland, 102.2; in Caucasia, 88.9; in Siberia, 93'7; and in Turkestan and Transcaspia, 83 o.
European Russia thus embraces 59 governments and 1 province (that of the Don).
In addition there are governors-general, generally placed over several governments and armed with more extensive powers, usually including the command of the troops within the limits of their jurisdiction.
The larger cities (St Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, KertchYenikala, Nikolayev, Rostov) have an administrative system of their own, independent of the governments; in these the.
(2) the zemstvos in the 34 governments of Russia proper, (3) the municipal dumas.
In the United States the governments have done far less.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.
It did little for the moral education of the people, but the same criticism applies more or less to all the European governments of the day.
These various movements proved in the first place that the masses were by no means ripe for revolution, and that the idea of unity, although now advocated by a few revolutionary leaders, was far from being generally accepted even by the Liberals; and, secondly, that, in spite of the indifference of the masses, the despotic governments were unable to hold their own without the assistance of foreign bayonets.
The duke of Modena and Charles Louis of Parma (Marie Louise was now dead) abandoned their capitals; in both cities provisional governments were set up which subsequently proclaimed annexation to Piedmont.
Without the pilgrims who come to visit it, Meshed would be a poor place, but lying on the eastern confines of Persia, close to Afghanistan, Russian Central Asia and Transcaspia, at the point where a number of trade routes converge, it is very important politically, and the British and Russian governments have maintained consulates-general there since 1889.
The economic development of Uruguay was retarded by the corruption of successive governments, by revolutionary outbreaks, by the seizure of farm stock without adequate compensation for the support of military forces, by the consequences of reckless borrowing and over-trading in 1889 and 1890, and also by the transference of commercial undertakings from Montevideo to Buenos Aires between 1890 and 1897.
As organs of the Police central government there are further, the ispravniki, chiefs of police in the districts into which the governments are divided.
In 1893 district committees for the management of the peasants' affairs, similar to those in the purely Russian governments, were introduced into this part of the empire.
It seems that as national income rises, people choose to create larger governments that offer more entitlements and have more expansive powers.
Governments create entitlements due to public demand for them, and public demand exists where the need is not filled.
In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
I am not saying governments are supposed to feed the world or that food should be free.
Thus, governments are very sensitive to criticism and to challenges to their authority.
He was educated there and at Madrid University, where his Radicalism soon got him into trouble, and he narrowly escaped being expelled for his share in student riots and other demonstrations against the governments of Queen Isabella.
Although nations create governments to establish such protections, history shows that all too often, governments fail to do so.
The fact that an unprecedented number of earth's inhabitants today live in poverty is an indictment of governments, not a reflection of some underlying natural limit.
He received formal leave of absence in January 1908, when he received the title of president of the board of customs. Both the Chinese and the British governments from time to time conferred honours upon Sir Robert Hart.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
Causes of friction still remained, but they did not develop into open quarrels, for Mitre was content to leave Urquiza in his province of Entre Rios, and the other administrators (caudillos) in their several governments, a large measure of autonomy, trusting that the position and growing commercial importance of Buenos Aires would inevitably tend to make the federal capital the real centre of power of the republic. In 1865 the Argentines were forced into war with Paraguay through the overbearing attitude of the president Francisco Solano Lopez.
tariff, and in the seven financial years from 1900-1907: the British ship " Agamemnon," both being war-ships lent for the purpose by their respective governments.
The following year an additional cable was laid from Bacton, in Norfolk, to Borkum, in Germany, at the joint expense of the British and German governments.
The service which the government and the colonies desire is one which neither the Eastern Telegraph Company nor any other private enterprise is prepared to undertake on terms which can be considered in comparison with the terms upon which it can be provided by the associated governments."
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
The main point of the treaty, however, lay in clause 17: His Majesty the king of kings of Ethiopia consents to make use of the government of His Majesty the king of Italy for the treatment of all questions concerning other powers and governments.
The spiritual courts in the East have permanently acquired jurisdiction in the matrimonial causes of baptized persons; the Mahommedan governments allowing to Christians a personal law of their own.
Urals, as well as to some of the steppe governments.
They are larger, but still small, in White Russia, Lithuania and the region of the lakes; but in the steppe governments they are very appreciably bigger, some of the Cossack stanitsas or settlements exceeding 20,000, and many of them numbering more than 10,000 inhabitants each.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
For purposes of provincial administration Russia is divided into 78 governments (guberniya), 18 provinces (oblast) and r district (okrug).
Of these 11 governments, 17 - provinces and 1 district (Sakhalin) belong to Asiatic vincial Russia.
From a central plateau, which comprises the governments of Tver, Moscow, Smolensk and Kursk, and projects E.
spurs of the Baltic coast-ridge between the governments of Grodno and Minsk.
It is only in the S.W., where spurs of the Carpathians enter the governments of Volhynia, Podolia and Bessarabia, that ridges reaching 1 100 ft.
m., drains 13 governments, the aggregate population of which numbers over 28,000,000.
In central Russia the species become still more numerous, and, though the local floras are not yet complete, they number 850 to 1050 species in the separate governments, and about 1600 in the best explored parts of the S.W.
The reindeer, rapidly disappearing, is now met with only in the governments of Olonets and Vologda; Cervus pygargus is found everywhere, and reaches Novgorod.
slopes of the central plateau and those of the Carpathian and Lublin mountains, and the Carpathian plateau, that is, the governments of Podolia, Volhynia, Poltava, and Kiev.
In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.
During the closing years of the 19th century great numbers of Germans flocked into the industrial governments of Poland, namely, Piotrkow, Warsaw and Kalisz.
The Rumanians (Moldavians) inhabit the governments of Bessarabia, Podolia, Kherson and Ekaterinoslay.
On the whole the Novorossian governments (Bessarabia, Kherson, Ekaterinoslav and Taurida) exhibit the greatest variety of population.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.
In the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka Great Russians are in the majority, the remainder being a variety of Finno-Tatars.
Ural governments (Uralsk, Orenburg, Ufa) the admixture of Turko-Tatars - of Kirghiz in Uralsk, Bashkirs in Orenburg and Ufa, and less important races - becomes considerable.
In the twelve central governments they grow, on the average, sufficient rye-bread for only 200 days in the year - often for only.
In the governments of the black-earth region the state of matters is hardly better.
It is only in the steppe governments that the situation is more hopeful.
i.; Collection of Materials on Landholding, and Statistical Descriptions of Separate Governments, published by several zemstvos (Moscow, Tver, Nyzhniy-Novgorod, Tula, Ryazan, Tambov, Poltava, Saratov, &c.); Kawelin, The Peasant Question; Vasilchikov, Land Property and Agriculture (2 vols.), and Village Life and Agriculture; Ivanukov, The Fall of Serfdom in Russia; Shashkov, " Peasantry in the Baltic Provinces," in Russkaya Mysl.
governments of Kovno, Vitebsk, Vilna, Mogilev, Minsk and Grodno the climate is more temperate, but agriculture is more backward than in the Baltic provinces.
Since their emancipation in 1861, the peasants of the central governments of Russia have in large numbers drifted away into the black earth zone, or have gone to the factories.
of the black earth zone, that is in the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Poltava and in part of Kharkov.
The rest of the black earth zone, which stretches from these governments N.E.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
In 30 to 40 governments, however, there is in most years a surplus available for export.
Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
Recent investigations in the government of Moscow have revealed that 40% of the peasant households possessed no horses, and similar inquiries in 41 governments elicited the fact that 28% of the peasant households were without horses, although of the total number of horses in the country 82% belong to the peasantry.
governments and the S.
These cover a considerable area, as may be seen by the following table for 1904: - The distribution of forests is very unequal, the area covered by them in the various governments varying from 70% of the total area in the Ural governments of Perm and Ufa, and 68% in Olonets and Archangel, down to 2% in the S.E.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
governments every year, and similarly plasterers and painters from the government of Moscow.
The governments of Orel (shoe factories), Kherson, Vyatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm, Kiev and Kazan rank next in this respect.
The emperor, the governments of England, Holland, France and Sweden, and even the Grand Turk made advances to the tsar.
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
They had fought for freedom in order to liberate themselves not only from the yoke of Napoleon but also from the tyranny of their own governments, whereas he expected them to remain submissively under the patriarchal institutions which their native rulers imposed on them.
During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.
These conditions, as well as the degree of control over the construction and working of the lines, are left to the regulation of the provincial governments.
The constitution requires that township and county governments shall be uniform throughout the state.
It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.
The pale now includes fifteen governments, and under the May laws of 1892 the congestion of the Jewish population, the denial of free movement, and the exclusion from the general rights of citizens were rendered more oppressive than ever before.
It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the excellent system of laws and governments that earned for him the reputation of being the greatest legislator of antiquity.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
In this discussion, which was continued for nine days, the document was most strongly opposed because it contained no bill of rights and on the ground that it would provide for such a strong central government that the state governments would ultimately be sacrificed.
They correspond roughly with the governments of Kutais, Tiflis, Elisavetpol and Baku, and have a population of nearly 3,650,000.
So far the principal developments of the industry have been in the governments of Kutais, Batum, Elisavetpol and Kuban.
Mill was earnestly opposed to the transfer, and the documents in which he substantiated the proud boast for the Company that "few governments, even under far more favourable circumstances, have attempted so much for the good of their subjects or carried so many of their attempts to a beneficial issue," and exposed the defects of the proposed new government, are models of trenchant and dignified pleading.
This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.
The peoples, fr rmc-ly so apathetic, were now the centre of resistance, and their efforts failed owing to the timidity or sluggishness of governments and the incompetence of some of their military leaders.
In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of the state governments.
After the fall of the republic the arsenal continued to occupy the attention of the various governments.
Butler, in regard to foreign governments, and reversed all those decisions to the entire satisfaction of the administration.
The soil is almost throughout "black earth," and Podolia is one of the most fertile governments of Russia.
The governments of some colonies have aided the efforts of the association.
It placed on record "its cordial appreciation of the efforts of those governments and institutions which have already supported cotton-growing in their respective colonies."
The Austro-Russian entente came to an end in the beginning of 1908 owing to the Austrian project of connecting the Bosnian The "Reval The Austrian and Russian governments then drew up a further series of reforms known as the " Miirzsteg programme " (Oct.
Penck on a scale of 1: i,000,000, which has been undertaken by the leading governments of the world, the ground is shown by contours at intervals of ioo metres (to be increased to 200 and Soo metres in mountainous districts); the strata are in graded tints, viz.
21 a contours are based upon instrumental measurement, and as a whole these ordnance maps were undoubtedly superior in accuracy, with rare exceptions, to similar maps published by foreign governments.
By the middle of the 19th century topographical maps of the various German states had been completed, and in several instances surveys of a more exact nature had been completed or begun, when in 1878 the governments of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Wurttemberg agreed to supersede local maps by publishing a map of the empire (Reichskarte) in 674 sheets on a scale of i:roo,000.
Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other European countries, while for most regions there R are only so-called "military surveys."
His policy towards all governments outside Italy was to support them wherever they represented social order; and it was with difficulty that he persuaded French Catholics to be united in defence of the republic. The German Kulturkampf was ended by his exertions.
MOGILEV, a government of western Russia, situated on the upper Dnieper, between the governments of Vitebsk and Smolensk on the north and east, and Chernigov and Minsk on the south and west.
The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
At last that final expedient of weak governments, the debasing of the coinage, led to a crisis.
The belief in the rejuvenation of Turkey seemed to be justified; and when, on the 27th of March 1854, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia, the action of the governments was supported by an overwhelming public opinion.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
The hope of eventual emancipation was stimulated by sedulous propagandists from each of these countries; from time to time armed bands of insurgents were manned and equipped in the small neighbouring states, with or without the co-operation of the governments.
Confidential notes are directed to inspiring confidence by giving an explicit account of the views and intentions of the plenipotentiaries and their governments.
Notes ad referendum are addressed by diplomatic agents to their own governments asking for fresh powers to deal with points not covered by their instructions, which they have had to "refer."
of the governments of Tomsk and Yeniseisk have been much under Tatar influence and appear to be of a different stock; their sub-groups are the Kamasin Tatars, the Kaibals, the Motors, the Beltirs, the Karagasses and the Samoyedes of the middle Ob.
These people came for the most part from the northern parts of the black earth zone of middle Russia, and to a smaller extent from the Lithuanian governments and the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka.
1% of the population live in towns (6.4% only the governments of Tobolsk and Tomsk).
During these latter years he was largely engaged on the composition of a valuable book, published in two substantial volumes, in 1921, on Modern Democracies, a comparative study of a certain number of popular governments in their actual working.
Foreign Governments lodged protests against their subjects being dispossessed before obtaining adequate compensation.
Of the governments which were parties in these several cases Great Britain heads the list in point of numbers, the United States of America being a good second.
Ultimately, in May 1902, an agreement was come to between the two governments which provided for the settlement of the dispute by the Hague tribunal.
In October 1904 the two governments agreed to refer this question to the Hague court.
These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
Besides these there are other companies engaged in the coasting and river traffic, either with subsidies from the state governments, as feeders for railway lines, or as private unsubsidized undertakings.
Both the national and state governments exercise the right to impose stamp and consumption taxes, and the municipalities likewise are permitted to impose licence and consumption taxes.
It has authority, however, to review the acts and laws of state governments and to decide upon their constitutionality.
On the expiration of his power, which was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenco da Veiga was appointed governor.
He imagines certain combinations by which this triple tyranny can be abolished, but his solution seems to require the creation of families without heads, countries without governments and property without rights of possession.
These promises were not kept for long, and by 1878 his attitude had become so hostile towards both the Natal and Transvaal governments that Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner for South Africa, determined on his reduction.
Meantime it was agreed by the Cape, Transvaal and Natai governments that, subject to Natal entering the Union, its share of the Rand import trade should be 25% before and 30% after the establishment of the Union.
On the conclusion of this work honours were offered to Cobden by the governments of both the countries which he had so greatly benefited.
The session was interrupted by the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, but not before a 2 Transylvania, Croatio-Slavonia with Fiume and the Temes Banat were separated from the kingdom and provided with local governments.
In harmony with the conditions of his age, he approved of absolute governments, though at the same time they must, he thought, be controlled by constitutional laws.
The Governments of Belgrade and Zagreb were to retain their former spheres until a constituent assembly, elected by universal suffrage, could draw up a new constitution.
In accordance with the Declaration of Corfu, the decision regarding the actual form of the State was left to a constituent assembly: but as the machinery of Belgrade was naturally quite inadequate to the task of administering a country three times the size of the Serbia of 1914, the provincial Governments of Croatia (with the Ban at its head), Slovenia, Dalmatia and Bosnia continued to function, though the local diets were no longer summoned.
In 1908 the inter-colonial council was dissolved, but the railways continued to be administered as a joint concern by a railway board on which the governments of both colonies were represented.
In 1856 a series of public meetings, summoned by Pretorius, was held at different districts in the Transvaal for the purpose of discussing and deciding whether the time had not arrived for substituting a strong central government in place of the petty district governments which had hitherto existed.
Some of the new party were arraigned for treason and fined; and for several months there were two acting presidents and two rival governments within the Transvaal.
Men who would not pay taxes to their own appointed governments, and who were daily expecting to be allowed to return to that condition of anarchy which they had come to regard as the normal order of things, were not likely to respond willingly to the tax-gatherer's demands.
This act called forth a protest from the 15th Lord Derby (now secretary of state for the colonies), stating that he could not recognize the right of Boer freebooters to set up governments of their own on the Transvaal borders.
The Boers were at last convinced of the futility of any attempt to prolong the struggle, and on the 23rd of March the representatives of the Boer governments came into Pretoria.
The chief towns of Annam are Hue (pop. about 42,000), seat both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of Tourane.
The state governments are autonomous and consist of legislative assemblies composed of deputies elected by ballot for a period of three years (Const.
Some of these claims brought Venezuela into conflict with the governments of Great Britain, Germany and Italy in 1903, and Venezuelan ports were blockaded and there was an enforced settlement of the claims (about £104,417), which were to be paid from 30% of the revenues of the La Guaira and Puerto Cabello custom-houses.
In foreign affairs, the conclusion of a treaty with Russia for delimiting the British and Russian spheres of influence in the Middle East laid the foundations of entirely new relations between the British and Russian governments.
Anxious to open a political connexion with the Cape and British governments, Chaka entrusted early in 1828 one of his principal chiefs, Sotobi, and a companion to the care of J.
- The Dardanelles campaign of 1915 was brought about by a desire entertained during the early stages of the World War by the Allied Governments, and especially by the British Government, that communications should be opened up from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea.
In view of what had occurred the Allied Governments decided that in further operations full use must be made of the gathering army, and from this time onwards the military began to assume the principal role in the effort of the Entente to secure command of the Dardanelles.
Not only was all idea of reinforcing the Allied army that was planted down in this region abandoned by the western Governments, but even some of the troops under Sir I.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
was approaching when war between the British and the Burmese governments would again become inevitable.
Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.
as well as to various foreign governments in (1408).
Eight years later, on the 1st of August 1896, the bounties offered by the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary were approximately doubled, and France had a bill in preparation to increase hers correspondingly, although it was computed that they were even then equivalent to a grant of 3, 5s.
The full text in French, with an English translation, of the Sugar Convention, signed at Brussels on the 5th of March 1902 by the plenipotentiaries of the governments of Germany, AustriaHungary, Belgium, Spain, France, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden, will be found in a return presented to parliament in April 1902 (Miscellaneous, No.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.
The country was once more split up into small governments, more or less independent, and groups of wandering tribes carrying on their petty feuds.
The eldest, Thuweni, with British support, finally obtained the throne, and in 1862 an engagement was entered into by the French and English governments respecting the independence of the sultans of Oman.
A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
The empire of the Incas was divided into four main divisions, Chinchay-suyu to the north of Cuzco, Anti-suyu to the east, Colla-suyu to the south and Cunti-suyu to the west, the whole empire being called Ttahuantin-suyu, or the four governments.
After 1894 negotiations between the two governments were attempted from time to time, but without any satisfactory results.
in the Southern states, owing to the harsh Reconstruction laws and the robberies committed by the carpet-bag governments which those laws kept in power; secondly, the scandals at.
The municipal governments of Newport and Providence present interesting features, for which see the separate articles on these cities.
Ifut it reserved the power of suppressing or suspending a newspaper, and against that reservation a majority of the lower house voted, session after session, only to see the bill rejected by the peers, who shared the governments opinion that to grant a larger measure of liberty would certainly encourage licence.
This difference is explained by the facts that the state lines having been the pioneers, portions of them were built before experience had indicated cheap methods; that a very large and costly foreign staff was employed on these roads in the early days, whereas no such item appeared in the accounts of private lines; that extensive works for the building of locomotives and rolling stock are connected with the governments roads, and that it fell to the lot of the state to undertake lines in districts presenting exceptional engineering difficulties, such districts being naturally avoided by private companies.
The plan was to overthrow the Lincoln government in the elections and give to the Democrats the control of the state and Federal governments, which would then make peace and invite the Southern States to come back into the Union on the old footing.
Even though we admit that Chios, Lesbos and Samos (up to 440) retained their oligarchic governments and that Selymbria, at a time (409 B.C.) when the empire was in extremis, was permitted to choose its own constitution, there can be no doubt that, from whatever motive and with whatever result, Athens did exercise over many of her allies an authority which extended to the most intimate concerns of local administration.
Russia had annexed the six Lithuanian Governments between 1772 and 1795 and united them as the" Litovskaya Gubernia "in 1797, that is to say, before the Treaty of Vienna conceded her the kingdom of Poland in 1815.
It consisted of two thousand delegates who demanded autonomy for the four governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno and Suvalki under a Diet at Vilna to be elected by universal, direct, equal and secret franchise.
In the same spirit he opposed a scheme of military governments for the southern states, unless associated with a plan by which, upon the acceptance of prescribed conditions, they could release themselves from military rule and resume civil government.
The spontaneous yet successful effort made by President Roosevelt in 1905 to bring together the Russian and Japanese governments, and to secure their appointing delegates to discuss terms of peace, although not strictly mediation, was closely akin to it.
Corn, salt, sugar and fish are brought from the south, whilst skins and manufactured wares, imported from Germany, are sent to the southern governments.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The framework of the governments established in 1836-37 and 1845 was not essentially different from those with which the framers were familiar in the United States.
The extravagance of the Reconstruction governments resulted in the accumulation by 1876 of a debt of $4,792,394.
After a long conflict over the slavery question, the state was admitted into the Union under a joint resolution of Congress adopted on the 1st of March 1845, 1 on condition that the United States should settle all questions of boundary with foreign governments, that Texas should retain all of its vacant and unappropriated public lands, and that new states, not exceeding four in number, might be formed within its limits.
He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti.
By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
he succeeded on the 14th of September and landed in England on the 23rd, avowedly on private business, but still animated by the hope of averting a rupture between the two governments.
by the governments of Voronezh, Kharkov and Ekaterinoslav, S.W.
by the governments of Kuban and Stavropol, and E.
The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.
But the pope laid claim to a direct power over the civil governments.
p X., the loin stand for better organized civil governments, with growing powerful despotic heads; for a perfectly worldly papacy absorbed in the interests of an Italian principality, engaged in constant political negotiations with the European powers which are beginning to regard Italy as their chief field of rivalry, and are using its little states as convenient counters in their game of diplomacy and war.
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
Between 1572 and 1576 there were in Brazil the two governments of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, but its history is of little importance till the occupation of Portugal by Philip II.
The perils of this system becoming apparent, the province was divided (1478 or 1479) into two separate governments, named after their capitals Gawil and Mahur.
It is in this respect superior, and further shows in places a more impartial treatment of the evidence, especially in respect of the aristocratic and absolute governments of Greece.
His newspaper purchases included the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung in Berlin, formerly the organ of Bismarck and then of all succeeding German Governments, the Miinchener Neueste Nachrichten and the Munchen-Augsburger Zeitung, the last-named being one of the oldest newspapers in Germany.
Decision after decision of individual instances has made it a settled practice for the Federal government to co-operate with or to supplement the state governments in the gathering of statistics that may furnish a basis for state or Federal legislation.
There is another mint in Birmingham worked by a private company (" The Mint, Birmingham, Limited "), where coinages for foreign governments are executed and in addition silver and bronze colonial coins are occasionally manufactured under the supervision of the London Mint.
by the governments of St Petersburg, Pskov and Vitebsk, and S.
He published two books on English history - Essai sur les causes qui, en 1649, amenerent en Angleterre l'etablissement de la republique (Paris, 1799), and Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II, derniers rois de la maison de Stuart (The Hague, 1818) - which contained much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration governments.
the governments of Kherson and Ekaterinoslay.
This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid succession.
Federal rights were to be safeguarded against the provincial governments, always jealous of their privileges.
He is inspired with the dislike and jealousy of governments so often felt and expressed by thinkers formed in the social atmosphere of the 18th century.
History During the period from the assembly of the first Parliament elected by universal equal suffrage (1907) to the break-up of the Dual Monarchy, Austria itself had nine Governments under the following premiers: All these ministries may be characterized as Cabinets composed of Government officials.
From time to time, naturally, these Governments required a majority for the budget.
This was far from resulting in any cooperation of the nationalities in realizing their former ideal; on the contrary, they felt themselves free from all constraint, and formed Governments having no connexion with the old state.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers were flocking to Servia with the connivance of the Russian and Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 3 The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations "victim" and "protection withheld."
The more important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai, the capital of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first Lao settlement in Siam; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese kingdoms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments.
Extra-territorial jurisdiction was for long secured by treaty for the subjects of all foreign powers, who could therefore only be sued in the courts maintained in Siam by their own governments, while European assessors were employed in cases where foreigners sued Siamese.
An interesting episode was the active intercourse, chiefly commercial, between the Siamese and Japanese governments from 1592 to 1632.
Jean Baptiste's brother, Jacques-Marie, Vicomte Cavaignac (1773-1855), French general, served with distinction in the army under the republic and successive governments.
Successive governments in France made endeavours to break with the prohibitive system, but naturally met with strong opposition from the manufacturing interests, not prepared to meet the competition of Great Britain, whose industries had made, and were continually making, rapid strides.
The political position of the governments of the Restoration and of Louis Philippe was such that they were unwilling to forfeit support by pushing measures in which, after all, they were not themselves deeply interested.
It had been stipulated by the Final Act that the Poles under foreign rule should be endowed with institutions to preserve their national existence according to such forms of political existence as the governments to which they belong shall think fit to allow them.
The emissaries of Razin, armed with inflammatory proclamations, had stirred up the inhabitants of the modern governments of Nizhniy-Novgorod, Tambov and Penza, and penetrated even so far as Moscow and Great Novgorod.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
The Christian governments either uttered useless and impotent complaints at Constantinople, or endeavoured to negotiate directly with Algiers, as in the case of the negotiations of Sanson Napollon during the ministry of Richelieu.
It lies on the right bank of the middle Oxus, between 37° and 41° N., and between 62° and 72° E., and is bounded by the Russian governments of Syr-darya, Samarkand and Ferghana on the N., the Pamirs on the E., Afghanistan on the S., and the Transcaspian territory and Khiva on the W.
The two most important tobaccogrowing districts are: the Black Patch, in the extreme south-west corner of the state, which with the adjacent counties in Tennessee grows a black heavy leaf bought almost entirely by the agents of foreign governments (especially Austria, Spain and Italy) and called " regie " tobacco; and the Blue Grass Region, as far east as Maysville, and the hill country south and east, whose product, the red and white Burley, is a fine-fibred light leaf, peculiarly absorbent of licorice and other adulterants used in the manufacture of sweet chewing tobacco, and hence a peculiarly valuable crop, which formerly averaged 22 cents a pound for all grades.'
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
By the institution of the special mission of Lord Ashburton, however, the direct negotiations between the two governments were, about the time of Everett's arrival in London, transferred to Washington, though much business was transacted at the American legation in London.
They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.
Its political divisions consist of 27 states (originally 19) having independent local governments, 3 territories and 1 federal district in which the national capital stands.
Of these 6488 were supported by the national and state governments and 2706 by the municipalities.
He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments - the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital.
murder and brigandage, on the 14th of June, and shot, with Miramon and Mejia, on the 19th of June 1867, despite many protests from European governments and prominent individuals,.
The total number of Abkhasians in the two governments of Kutais and Kuban was 72,103 in 1897; large numbers emigrated to the Turkish empire in 1864 and 1878.
Down to the repeal of the Concordat in 1905 all French governments continued to uphold two of the ancient "Gallican Liberties."
Military baths are maintained in the town by the governments of Austria, Prussia and Saxony, and there are also bath-houses for the poor.
The organization of a municipal system, which should regulate the governments of all these towns on a uniform basis, and define their relation to the Roman government, was probably the work of Sulla, who certainly gave great impetus to the foundation in the provinces of citizen colonies, which were the earliest municipia outside Italy, and enjoyed the same status as the Italian towns.
After the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a well-drilled body of 45, 000 men, whose function was to be ready to intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution.
During the rest of his rule, which lasted till his death in April 1865, he continued to act in concert with the Clerical party, and endeavoured to maintain friendly relations with the European governments.
The Russian and German governments have sent out fresh expeditions to rescue what is left before it is too late.
7.2 II.-The State Governments.
It was the profits of this neutral trade, notwithstanding the losses to which it was exposed by the high-handed measures of the British and the French governments, that caused these insults to be more or less patiently endured by the trading interests.
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
a description of the state governments, one feature must be noticed which is common both to the states and to the Federation, and gives to the governmental system of both a peculiar character, different from that of the government of Great Britain.
It is the expression of the ultimate sovereignty of the people, and its existence gives to the working both of the Federal government and of the several state governments, a certain fixify and uniformity which the European, and especially the British, reader must constantly bear in mind, because under such a constitution every legislative body enjoys far scantier powers than in the United Kingdom and most European countries.
A peculiarly notable form of this special or private bill legislation is that of dealing by special statutes with the governmental forms and details of management of municipalities; and the control exercised by the state legislatures over city governments is not only a most important branch of legislative business, but at the same time a means of power to scheming politicians and of enrichment to greedy ones.
The aim of those who framed the Constitution was to avoid friction between the state governments and the Federal government by rendering their respective spheres of action as separate and distinct as possible.
Foreign governments often complain of this power of the Senate, because it prevents them from being able to rely upon the carrying out of arrangments they have made with the executive; but as the president is not responsible to Congress and is irremovable (except by impeachment) during his term of office, there would be objections to giving him an.
The domestic executive authority of the president in time of peace is small, because by far the larger part of law and administration belongs to the state and local governments, while the Federal administration is regulated by statutes which leave little discretion to the executive.
In 1901 the Supreme Court delivered several judgments in cases arising out of the annexation of Porto Rico, which handled, though they did not fully settle, divers points of novelty and of importance, and still more recently questions of great intricacy affecting the respective legislative rights of the Federal and the state governments have come before it.
that of the state governments.
The American Political Science Review (Baltimore, 1907 sqq.) is especially useful for a comparative study of the state governments.
More than 82% of the tax revenues of state and local governments were thus derived in 1902.
Thus, in the period 1791 to 1811 their ratio to total government expenditure ranged from 41.6 to 189.6%; during the years 1812-1817, from 17.2 in 1814, when war finances reached their weakest point, to 131 ~4% in 1817, showing how rapid was their response under the return of peace; in the period1817-1859from 29-9% in the crisis year of 1837 to 158.9%; in the period1860-1869from 6.5% in 1865, when the governments bonds fell in price to $50.93 per hundred and the war policy of loans was most desperate, tO 84.1%; in the years 1870I 893 from 5f.4 to 85%; and, finally, in the years 1893f 909, from 36.9% (in 1898) to 52.7%.
The revenues of all the states, counties, cities and other local governments, plus those of the national government, aggregated in 1879 only $584,980,614.
Since 1870 the national census office has determined several times the aggregate indebtedness of the national, state and other local governments.
Liberal aid is given by the federal, provincial and municipal governments to the construction of railways, amounting often to more than half the cost of the road.
Measures have been taken, both by the provincial and the federal governments, for its preservation, and for re-forestation of depleted areas.
Both the Dominion and the provincial governments have set apart certain areas to be preserved, largely in their wild state, as national parks.
The various departments of the federal and the provincial governments publish annual reports and frequent special reports, such as the decennial report on the census, from which a vast quantity of information may be obtained.
The governments of the several provinces each have a department of agriculture.
Parts of the proceedings and many of the addresses and papers presented at the more important meetings of these associations are published by the provincial governments, and distributed free to farmers who desire to have them.
As the result of communications during 1897 between Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Secretary Sherman, the governments of Great Britain and the United States agreed to the appointment of a joint high commission, with a view of settling all outstanding differences between the United States and Canada.
Under the British North American Act the control of education was reserved for the provincial governments, with a stipulation that all rights enjoyed by denominational schools at the time of confederation should be respected.
The grave questions of respective jurisdiction which have from time to time arisen between the federal and provincial governments have for the most part been settled by appeal to one or both of these judicial bodies.
Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.
Hence governments are to be arranged from best to worst in the following order: I.
Right governments (opOai 7roAcreiac), aiming at the general good: i.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
An end was thus made of the "carpet-bag governments" conducted by Republican politicians from the North, some of which were very corrupt, and had been upheld mainly by the Federal forces.
During the summer of 1865 he set up provisional civil governments in all the seceded states except Texas, and within a few months all those states were reorganized and applying for readmission to the Union.
That Wellington actively assisted despotic governments against the constitutional movements of the time is not true.
Throughout the reign of Arcadius there was estrangement and jealousy between the two brothers or their governments.
In 1881 Mr Blaine, then U.S. secretary of state, addressed an instruction to the ministers of the United States of America accredited to the various Central and South American nations, directing them to invite the governments of these countries to participate in a congress, to be held at Washington in 1882, " for the purpose of considering and discussing the methods of preventing war between the nations of America."
At the second International Conference of American States, which sat in the city of Mexico from the 22nd of October 1901 to the 31st of January 1902, the same subject was again discussed, and a scheme was finally adopted as a compromise which conferred authority on the government of Mexico to ascertain the views of the different governments.
The conference, being held only a year before the time fixed for the second Hague Conference, applied itself mainly to the question of the extent to which force might be used for the collection of pecuniary claims against defaulting governments, and the forwarding of the principle of arbitration under the Hague Conventions.
" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers suggesting the first Hague Conference.
Therefore the more the armaments of each power increase the less they answer to the objects aimed at by the governments.
The Conference, however, were unanimous in the adoption of the following resolution: " The Conference is of opinion that the restriction of military budgets, which are at present a heavy burden on the world, is extremely desirable for the increase of the material and moral welfare of mankind;" and it passed also the following viceu: " That governments, taking into account the proposals made at the Conference, should examine the possibility of an understanding concerning the limitation of military and naval armaments, and of war budgets."
- In order to remove all cause of fear and distrust between the two countries, the governments of Chile and of the Argentine Republic agree not to take possession of the warships which they are having built, or for the present to make any other acquisitions.
- The two governments respectively promise not to increase their maritime armaments during five years, unless the one who shall wish to increase them shall give the other eighteen months' notice in advance.
- In order to facilitate the transfer of the pending orders the two governments agree to increase by two months the time stipulated for the beginning of the construction of the respective ships.
These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier between the two states in question.
(f) To present, if expedient, to the governments, for their approval, measures for the protection of the common interests of agriculturists and for the improvement of their condition, after having previously taken every means of obtaining the necessary information, e.g.
The secretary of state for the colonies is the official medium of communication with colonial governments; he has certain administrative duties respecting crown colonies, and has a right of advising the veto of an act of a colonial legislature - this veto, however, is never exercised in the case of purely local statutes.
These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native sovereign to the" governments of Great Britain, France and the United States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain.
The western branch became russified, so that the Meshcheryaks of the governments of Penza, Saratov, Ryazan and Vladimir have adopted the customs, language and religion of the conquering race; but their ethnographical characteristics can be easily distinguished in the Russian population of the governments of Penza and Tambov.
Bignon did not re-enter public life until 1817, when he was elected to the chamber of deputies, in which he sat until 1830, consistent in his opposition to the reactionary policy of successive governments.
The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land.
Beyond this limited circle he had to act [by means of diplomatic channels, through the governments of the Lombards, Franks and Visigoths.
It is from this time that we find the popes in moments of crisis transporting themselves to Capetian territory, installing their governments and convening their councils there, and from that place of refuge fulminating with impunity against the internal and external foe.
Torn by civil wars, their harassed and the rulers sought papal recognition at a cost which more experienced governments would have refused.
Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even after 1814.
While the hold of the popes on the States of the Church was constantly weakening, their power over the domestic policies of foreign governments was increasing; and the transition from autocracy to parliamentary rule accelerated this process, at least in non-Catholic territories.
Each of them, then, has supreme authority within its own sphere, while the official responsibility belongs to the pope, just as in all governments it is the government that is responsible for the acts of its departments.
The provisional government of 1868 also promised to respect them, and similar pledges were given by the governments which succeeded.
Paine being the other members) appointed by President McKinley to confer with the governments of Great Britain, France and Germany with a view to the establishment of international bimetallism.
But by the republic of 1848 he was held in less favour, and chagrin at the treatment he experienced at the hands of the governments which succeeded that of Louis Philippe is supposed to have shortened his life.
From the beginning of the 11th century to the 13th it was the chief town of a territory which included large parts of the present governments of Yaroslavl, Vladimir and Novgorod.
It includes the basins of the Oldoi, Zeya and Bureya, left-bank tributaries of the river Amur, and has the governments of Transbaikalia on the W., Irkutsk and Yakutsk on the N., the Maritime province on the E., and Manchuria on the S.
It holds supreme control over all the foreign missions in heathen countries, and also over large and important parts of the church in Christian countries whose governments are not Catholic - including the British empire, the United States, Holland, the Norse kingdoms, Greece, and some parts of Germany and Switzerland.
The South African governments foresaw dangerous developments in the Ethiopian movement, and steps were taken to restrain its growth.
The Roman Church, which is dominant throughout the continent, has been engaged in serious struggles with the anti-religious tendencies of the Republican governments, and L'Annee de l'Eglise makes no mention of missions among the Indians.
(I) Carrying the Gospel to all the non-Christian world; (2) the Church in the mission field; (3) education in relation to the Christianization of national life; (4) the missionary message in relation to non-Christian religions; (5) the preparation of missionaries; (6) the home base of missions; (7) missions and governments; (8) co-operation and the promotion of unity.
This led to ill-will between the English and Dutch governments, and to a renewal of the old grievances about maritime and commercial rights, and war broke out in 1665.
This agreement was ratified by the Belgian and French sovereigns on the 10th and 24th of November, by the British on the 6th of December, but the Austrian and Prussian and Russian governments, whose sympathies were with the " legitimate " King William rather than with a prince who owed his crown to a revolution, did not give their ratification till some five months later.
by the Russian governments of Volhynia, Vilna, Grodno, and Kovno.
The Bug, another right-hand tributary of the Vistula, describes a wide curve concentric with those of the middle Vistula and the Narew, and separates the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce from the Russian governments of Volhynia and Grodno.
Poland, with 193 (domiciled) inhabitants or 213 inhabitants in all to the square mile in 1897, and 240 to the square mile in 1904, has a denser population than any other region in the Russian empire, the next to it being the governments of Moscow, with 189 inhabitants to the square mile, Podolia with 186, and Kiev with 181.
In Russia they constitute, with Jews, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and White Russians, the town population, as also the landed nobility and the country gentry, in several governments west of the Dvina and the Dnieper.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
The cultivation of tobacco is successfully carried on, especially in the governments of Warsaw, Plock and Lublin.
The sugar factories and refineries, situated chiefly in the governments of Warsaw, Lublin and Plock, turn out approximately one million tons of sugar in the year, the Polish sugar industry being exceeded in Russia only by that of Kiev.
It was not till 1620 that Paraguay proper and Rio de la Plata or Buenos Aires were separated as distinct governments, and they were both dependent on the vice-royalty of Peru till 1776, when Buenos Aires was erected into a viceroyalty, and Paraguay placed under its jurisdiction.
This act induced the governments of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina to combine for the purpose of suppressing Lopez.
28 Paul says that God has given to the Church apostles, prophets, teachers, miracles, gifts of healing, helps, governments; but of presbyters he has not a word to say.
8.1 The term "governments" in I Cor.
Mahmud was reinstated by Fateh Khan, whom he appointed his vizier, and whose nephews, Dost Mahommed Khan and Kohn dil Khan, he placed respectively in the governments of Kabul and Kandahar.
This centralization is shown not only by the increased power and activity of the Federal government as compared with the state governments, but in the change in popular opinion indicated by the use of the terms National,.
The history of the decay of state rights makes it seem doubtful if the federal form of government is a permanent one, or is only a transient form between independent state governments or loose confederacies and a centralized national government.
Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe (Boston, 1896).
See also Annual Reports Irrigation Department Local Governments of India; Reports of the Indian Famine Commissions of 5878, 1898 and 1901; Sir Hanbury Brown, Irrigation, its Principles and Practice (London, 1907).
The national and state governments had not built any works of reclamation excepting where the federal government, through the Indian department, had constructed irrigation ditches for Indian tribes, notably the Crow Indians of Montana.
A few of the state governments, such, for example, as Colorado, had built small reservoirs or portions of canals from internal improvement funds.
567 578,503 The majority of the German railways are)57 1,774,072 now own.ed by the state governments.
The separation of the empire into small states was favorable to road-making, inasmuch as it was principally the smaller governments that expended large sums for their network of roads.
In his office he is assisted by a federal council (Bundesrat), which represents the governments of the individual states of Germany.
The members of this council, 58 in number, are appointed for each session by the governments of the individual states.
The fifty-eight members of the Bundesrat are nominated by the governments of the individual states for each session; while the members of the Reichstag are elected by universal suffrage and ballot for the term of five years.
These schools are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the more promising pupils are thus from the first assured of a career, especially in connection with the decoration of public buildings and monuments.
The governments cautiously took advantage of the national movement to strengthen their position.
By the terms of the Final Act this diet had very wide powers for the development f7~e of the mutual relations of the governments in all ~ matters of common interest.
The murder of the dramatist Kotzebue, as an agent of this reaction, in the following year, by a fanatical student named Karl Sand, clinched the matter; it became obvious to the governments that a policy of rigorous repression was necessary if a fresh revolution were to be avoided.
The Mainz Commission, though hampered by the jealousy of the governments (the king of Prussia refused to allow his subjects to be haled before it), was none the less effective enough in preventing all free expression of opinion; while at the universities the official curators kept Liberal enthusiasts in order.
But the governments of Prussia and Austria were unaffected; and when the storm had died down Metternich was able,with the aid of the federal diet, to resume his task of holding the Revolution in check.
Great hindrances were put in the way of the elections, but, as the Prussian and Austrian governments were too much occupied with their immediate difficulties to resist to the uttermost, the parliament was at last chosen, and met at Frankfort on the I8th May.
A committee appointed to discuss the matter suggested that there should be a directory of three members, appointed by the German governments, subject to the approval of the parliament, and ruling by means of ministers responsible to the latter body.
The Moderates took alarm; they had no stomach for an open war with the governments; and in the end thi convention was confirmed by a sufficient majority.
A vigorous agitation began in the country for men, the acceptance of the constitution by the governments.
The difficulty in Hesse was to be left to the decision of the German governments; and as soon as possible ministerial conferences were to be held in Dresden, with a view to the settlement of the German constitution.
And it was clear to impartial observers Pi~i,s~j~ that, in the event of any great strain upon the power and of the governments, the absolutist system would Switxerbreak down.
stitution of the Confederation and drawing the German states closer together on a Liberal basis; the moment seemed singularly inopportune for Prussia, which had not shown herself particularly zealous for the common interests, to menace the other German governments by increasing her separate armaments.
Prussia had begun to mobilize in November; and Austria also soon realized that action must speedily be taken if the lesser German governments were not to be allowed to get out of hand.
It was arranged that the headship of the confederation should be hereditary, that it should belong to the king of Prussia, and that legislative functions should be exercised by a federal council (Bundesrat), representative of the various governments, and by a diet (Bundestag) elected by the whole people.
The communication of the French emperors original proposals to the South German governments, whose traditional policy had been to depend on France to save them from the ambitions of the German great powers, was enough to throw them into the arms of Prussia.
None the less, from this time the acts of the state governments and parliaments have ceased to have more than a local importance; the history of the nation is centred in Berlin, in the Bundesrat or federal council, in which the interests of the individual states are represented; in the Reichstag, iii which the feelings and wishes of the nation are expressed; and above all, in the Prussian government and imperial executive.
By the Bank Act of March 14, 1875, which is the foundation of the existing system, the right of granting the privilege is transferred from the governments of the states to the Bundesrat.
The result of the legal reform and other laws has been greatly to diminish the duties of the state governments, for every new imperial law permanently deprives the local parliaments of part of their authority.
No bishop joined it in Germany or in Austria, and few priests, though the governments were ready to protect them in the enjoyment of the privileges secured to Catholics, and to maintain them in the use of the temporalities.
Direct taxation was opposed by the governments of the states, which did not desire to see the imperial authorities interfering in those sources of revenue over which they had hitherto had sole control; moreover, the whole organization for collecting direct taxes would have had to be created.
The Conservatives were prepared to vote for it; the Radicals and Centre opposed it; the decision rested with the National Liberals, and they were willing to accept it on condition that the clause was omitted which allowed the state governments to exclude individuals from districts in which the state of siege had been proclaimed.
This protest was the direct outcome of an instance of the tendency of the emperor to interfere in the affairs of the various governments of the Empire.
Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe (1896).
Most governments, whether civil or ecclesiastical, have at all times in one way or another acted on the general principle that some control may and ought to be exercised over the literature circulated among those under their jurisdiction.
Though based rather on the simple English model than on the more complicated municipal governments of the United States, it has certain features of its own, and is revised from year to year.
Yet, owing to the increasing use of scientific implements and methods promoted by the federal and provincial governments, the total value of agricultural products increased by over 50% between 1881 and 1910.
Increased attention is now being paid by both provincial and federal governments to preservation and to reforestation.
The discontent created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris as confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share in keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed forms of permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the established governments of the peninsula.
By the end of August the breach between the Austrian and Hungarian governments was open and complete; on the 4th of September Jellachich was reinstated in all his honours, and on the 11th he crossed the Drave to the invasion of Hungary.
The settlement with Hungary consisted then of three parts: - (1) the political settlement, which was to be permanent and has since remained part of the fundamental constitution of the monarchy; (2) the periodical financial settlement, determining the partition of the common expenses as arranged by the Quota-Deputations and ratified by the parliaments; (3) the Customs Union and the agreement as to currency - a voluntary and terminable arrangement made between the two governments and parliaments.
The governments on both sides could of course give no countenance to this theory; Bismarck especially was very careful never to let it be supposed that he desired to exercise influence over the internal affairs of his ally.
In the autumn of 1902 the Austrian and the Hungarian governments, at the instance of the crown and in agreement with the joint minister for war and the Austrian and Hungarian ministers for national defence, laid before their respective parliaments bills providing for an increase of 21,000 men in the annual contingents of recruits.
(8) The securities of the two governments to rank as investments for savings banks, insurance companies and similar institutions in both countries, but not as trust fund investments.
"As to the governments of this world," he said, "whatever their titles or forms we shall endeavour to prove that in their essential elements, as at present administered, they are all anti-Christ; that they can never by human wisdom be brought into conformity with the will of God; that they cannot be maintained except by naval and military power to carry them into effect; that all their penal enactments, being a dead letter without any army to carry them into effect, are virtually written in human blood; and that the followers of Jesus should instinctively shun their stations of honor, power: and emolument - at the same time ` submitting to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake' and offering no physical resistance to any of their mandates, however unjust or tyrannical."
Cyrus promptly agreed on the special request of Lysander (q.v.) to pay slightly increased wages to the sailors, while Lysander established a system of anti-Athenian clubs and oligarchic governments in various cities.
This idea is disproved by Thucydides' own narrative, which shows that down to 418 (the battle of Mantinea) Sparta tolerated democratic governments in Peloponnesus itself - e.g.
(b) Next came the inability to levy taxes on foreigners without the consent of their respective governments.
In 1827 a combined expedition led by Champollion and Rosellini was despatched by the governments of France and Tuscany, and accomplished a great deal of valuable work in copying scenes and inscriptions.
When the two commissioners were assured of the security of the frontier and the good working and stability of the Egyptian government, they should present reports to their respective governments, and these should consult as to the conclusion of a convention regulating the withdrawal of the English troops.
The administration of the Sudan (q.v.) wus organized on the basis of an agreement between the British and Egyptian governments signed on the 19th of January 1899.
According to that agreement the British and Egyptian flags are used together, and the supreme military and civil command is vested in a governor-general, who is appointed by the khedive on the recom The mendation of the British government, and who cannot Anglo- be removed without the British governments con Egyptian sent.
This happy condition had been brought about largely as the result of giving fiscal reform, accompanied by substantial relief to the taxpayers, the first place in the governments programme, and with the abolition of octroi duties in.
The facilities enjoyed by the British and Egyptian governments for securing the material if not the moral development The Anglo- of Egypt were greatly enlarged in 1904, as the result French of the understanding then come to between France under- and Great Britain.
The dual note, communicated to the khedive on the 6th of January 1881, contained an intimation that Great Britain and France were prepared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of Gambettas ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language.
The success of the present mahdi in raising the tribes and extending his influence over great tracts of country was a sufficient proof of the governments inability either to reconcile the inhabitants to its rule or to maintain order.
Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist Kotzebue, Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of " the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples," as formulated in the Carlsbad decrees, 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support " a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power."
(1605); Neder Dvytsche Epigrammen (161 7); Sundry Successive Regal Governments in England (1620); Spiegel der Nederlandsche Elenden (1621).
On leaving the Senate, in 1893, he became chairman of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (sometimes called the Dawes Indian Commission), and served in this capacity for ten years, negotiating with the tribes for the extinction of the communal title to their land and for the dissolution of the tribal governments, with the object of making the tribes a constituent part of the United States.'
especially Vassiliev, Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina) which follow the fortunes of the Byzantine emperors and their governments.
Lights and Buoys.-In view of the difficulties attending navigation in the Gulf, and the impossibility of arranging with the Governments of the littoral for the provision of lights and buoys except on terms which would have greatly hampered shipping, the British Government, in view of the great preponderance of British shipping in the Gulf, has established since 1912 a very complete system of lights and buoys, the cost of which is shared in equal moieties by the Government of India and H.M.
These declarations were never openly challenged, and in 1912-4 the British Government entered into far-reaching negotiations with the Turkish and German Governments with the object of regularizing the position.
The Arms Traffic. - During the 3rd Afghan War the trade in modern arms and ammunition in the Persian Gulf attracted the attention of the British and Indian Governments for the first time.
His emoluments were gradually augmented, and his growing celebrity brought him most advantageous offers from other German governments, which he persistently refused.
Pretorius in his attempt to abolish the district governments in the Transvaal and to overthrow the Orange Free State government and compel a federation between the two countries.
The issue of the declaration without the signatures of the representatives of Great Britain and France proclaimed the disunion of the alliance, within which - to use Lord Stewart's words - there existed "a triple understanding which bound the parties to carry forward their own views in spite of any difference of opinion between them and the two great constitutional governments."
He was engaged with Rosellini in publishing the results of Egyptian researches at the expense of the Tuscan and French governments, when he was seized with a paralytic disorder, and died at Paris in 1832.
In 1906 arose a dispute between the British and Turkish governments about the boundary between Turkish and Egyptian territory, as the Turks had interfered with some of the landmarks.
In short, Hamilton took from recent years the lesson of the evils of lax government; whereas Jefferson clung to the other lesson, which crumbling colonial governments had illustrated, that governments derived their strength (and the Declaration had proclaimed that they derived their just rights) from the will of the governed.
Again he says:" Societies exist under three forms - (i) without government, as among our Indians; (2) under governments wherein the will of every one has a just influence....
(3) under governments of force....
Jefferson's distrust of governments was nothing exceptional for a consistent individualist.
Having long suffered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing to his son Timur a dominion which embraced not only Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Punjab, Kashmir and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Baluchistan and Khorasan as tributary governments.
The meeting between the amir Shere Ali and the viceroy of India (Lord Mayo) at Umballa in 1869 drew nearer the relations between the two governments; the amir consolidated and began to centralize his power; and the establishment of a strong, friendly and united Afghanistan became again the keynote of British policy beyond the north-western frontier of India.
Meanwhile the delimitation of the northern frontier, up to the point where it meets Chinese territory on the east, was completed and fixed by arrangements between the governments of Russia and Great Britain; and the eastern border of the Afghan territory, towards India,was also mapped out and partially laid down, in accordance with a convention between the two governments.
But toward the various questions left pending between the governments of India and Afghanistan the new amir maintained also his father's attitude.
A further step, calculated to strengthen the relations of amity between the two governments, was taken when it was arranged that the amir should pay a visit to the viceroy, Lord Minto, in India, in January 1907; and this visit took place with great cordiality and success.
These thirteen provinces or local governments are Ajmer-Merwara, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, British Baluchistan, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Provinces prescribing the conditions and degree of social intercourse permitted between the several castes.
The local or provincial governments are fifteen in all, with varying degrees of responsibility.
In 1844 and 1847 the subject was actively taken up by the governments of Bombay and Madras.
The Pallavas appear, like the Mahrattas in later times, to have imposed tribute on the territorial governments of the country.
In 1893 the frontiers of Afghanistan and British India were defined by a joint agreement between the two governments, known as the Durand agreement.
In the case of the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic and Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers.
At the beginning of the American occupation, in August 1898, a purely military government was established; but in May 1899 the military authorities began the re-establish Tent of civil courts, and in July of the same year they began the organization of civil municipal governments.
BALKASH, or Balkhash (called by the Kirghiz Ak-denghiz or Ala-denghiz and by the Chinese Si-hai), a lake of Asiatic Russia, in the Kirghiz steppes, between the governments of Semipalatinsk and Semiryechensk, in 45° to 47° N.
Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia, accepted.
This excellent system has commended itself to many countries and it is now adopted by the bulk of governments and jurisdictions owing allegiance to the British Crown.
Nearly all the trade in the brandy manufactured in the government of Kharkov, and destined for the governments of Ekaterinoslav and Taurida, is concentrated here, as also is the trade in linseed between the districts situated on the left affluents of the Dnieper and the southern ports.
Sahl, surnamed Dhu`l-Riyasatain, or "the man with two governments," because his master had committed to him both the ministry of war and the general administration.
- The sudden death of Moktafi, Dhu`lga`da 295 (August 908), was a fatal blow to the prestige of the Caliphate, which had revived under the successive governments of Mowaffaq, Motadid and himself.
In 1907 a Korean delegacy, headed by Prince Yong, a member of the imperial family, was sent out to lay before the Hague conference of that year, and before all the principal governments, a protest against the treatment of Korea by Japan.
This industry centres in the great forest governments of Viatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kostroma, Kazan, Perm and Simbirsk.
The Federal and Confederate forces controlled at this time different parts of the state; there was some ebb and flow of military fortune in 1864, and for a short time two rival governments.
Early in 1849 temporary local governments were set up in various towns, and in September a convention framed a freestate constitution and applied for admission to the Union.
This seat he retained less than four years; for although he discharged its duties in so efficient a manner that, with one exception, his decisions were never reversed on appeal, he took up a position of such uncompromising hostility to the governments of the day, the Grafton and North administrations, on the greatest and most exciting matters, the treatment of the American colonies and the proceedings against John Wilkes, that the government had no choice but to require of him the surrender of the great seal.
He never learned to read or write, though late in life he mastered colloquial Arabic; yet those Europeans who were brought into contact with him praised alike the dignity and charm of his address, his ready wit, and the astonishing perspicacity which enabled him to read the motives of men and of governments and to deal effectively with each situation as it arose.
The Roman Catholic and Greek divisions of the Christian Church are homogeneous in organization, but in Protestantism certain denominations are national, established by differing governments, and others are independent of governmental aid, making a large number of differing denominations.
This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments, all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants, and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the territory.
The relatively detailed information which we possess concerning the federal governments of Greece makes it necessary to pay special attention to them.
Of all the federal governments of Greece, this league was the most certainly democratic in constitution.
Delegates of the various federated governments form the Bundesrath; the Reichstag, or popular assembly, is directly chosen by the people by universal suffrage; and the two assemblies constitute the federal parliament.
There is, however, a striking difference to be observed in the powers of the federal governments of Canada and Australia.
In consequence of the alarm excited by this appearance of plague upon European soil, most European governments sent special commissions to the spot.
It occupies an advantageous position on the great artery of Russian trade, at a place where the manufactured and agricultural products of the basin of the Oka meet the metal wares from that of the Kama, the corn and salt brought from the south-eastern governments, the produce of the Caspian fisheries, and the various wares imported from Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasia and Persia.
by the governments of Samara and Saratov, W.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1902 and endowed by him with $22,000,000 ($10,000,000 in 1902; $12,000,000 later), is designed "to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular to conduct, endow and assist investigation in any department of science, literature or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals; to appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research; to publish and distribute documents; and to conduct lectures, hold meetings and acquire and maintain a library."
The more complete isolation of the regular clergy, however, together with their direct relation to the Holy See, has made them, not only the more effective instruments of papal authority, but more obnoxious to the peoples and governments of countries where they have gained any considerable power.
" Governments learned to oppress them wisely, depriving them of church and school, of pastor and schoolmaster; and by those nameless arts with which the rich used to coerce the poor in the good old days.
Its real object is to attack such professedly Catholic governments as have fallen in with modern ideas - as for instance, by allowing freedom of worship to their Protestant subjects, or by refusing to punish brawling in Catholic churches more severely than other breaches of the peace.
On the other side, he addressed himself to the analysis of man considered as a political being, to the anatomy of constitutions and the classification of governments, to the study of motives underlying public action, the secrets of success and the causes of failure in the conduct of affairs.
The quality of the bulk of the Austro-Hungarian wines has been improved of late years, principally owing to the endeavours of the respective governments to introduce scientific and modern methods among the wine-farmers.
against the Puritan governments of New England, among them Massachusetts' extension of its jurisdiction over the towns of Maine and New Hampshire, the persecution of the Quakers, and the denial of the right of appeal to the crown, and in 1664 a royal commission, consisting of Richard Nicolls, Samuel Maverick, Robert Carr and George Cartwright, was sent over to settle disputes and secure some measure of imperial control, but Massachusetts, the chief offender; successfully baffled all attempts at interference, and the mission was almost a complete failure.
It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.
The country was divided into six governments, a second superior court of justice was founded at Vasa, many new towns were built, commerce flourished, and science and art were encouraged.
Thus the amount and character of public ex penditure necessarily depends on the functions that the state undertakes to perform - national defence, the maintenance of internal' order, and the efficient equipment of the state organization; such are the tasks that all governments have to discharge, and for their cost due provision has to be made.
To national debts there has been added a great mass of municipal and local indebtedness, which seems likely to equal, or even exceed in magnitude the liabilities of the central governments.
Kearny was ordered to undertake the conquest of New Mexico and California and to " establish temporary civil governments therein."
The downriver traffic consists chiefly of manufactured goods and timber, the latter mostly for the treeless governments of Samara, Saratov and Astrakhan, as well as for the region adjacent to the lower course of the Don.
VOLHYNIA, a government of south-western Russia, bounded by the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce on the W., Grodno and Minsk on the N., Kiev on the E.
But on the eve of the occupation of Casale by the French, Mattioli - actuated by a tardy sense of patriotism or by the hope of further gain - betrayed the transaction to the governments of Austria, Spain, Venice and Savoy.
The forces of the British Crown may be classed as (a) the regular, or general service, army, together with the Indian army; and (b) the home territorial force; while there are also certain forces controlled by the governments of the various selfgoverning dominions.
Consequently the Indian government, unlike the colonial governments, can within limits dispose of the British paid regulars within its sphere.
Forces of the Dominions and Colonies.-Lord Kitchener and Sir John French in1909-1910paid visits of inspection to Australia and Canada in connexion with the reorganization by the local governments of their military forces, and a beginning was made of a common organization of the forces of the empire in the colonial military conference of 1909.
The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion.
In 1871 he proceeded to America and Europe at the head of an imposing embassy of some fifty persons, the object being to explain to foreign governments the actual conditions existing in Japan, and to pave the way for negotiating new treaties consistent with her sovereign rights.
This approximation between the two governments was happily followed by friendly feelings between the two nations, under the pressure of a common danger.
The result of the negotiations was published in a so-called " communique," dated the 24th of March 1903, in which, among other things, it was proposed that the relations of the separate consuls to the joint ministry of foreign affairs and the embassies should be arranged by identical laws, which could not be altered or repealed without the consent of the governments of the two countries.
From that date up to 1830 there were no less than ten governments, while three different constitutions were proclaimed.
In the various engagements throughout the conflict more than r o,000 lives were lost, and the joint expenditure of the two governments on military preparations and the purchase of war material exceeded 10,000,000 sterling.
An unfortunate occurrence soon after the close of the revolution brought strained relations for a short period between the governments of the United States and Chile.
On the 17th of April 1896 another protocol was drawn up, by which the contending parties agreed to submit any differences to the arbitration of Great Britain, at the instance of one or both governments.
The governments of both countries began to purchase large supplies of war material, and generally to make preparations for a possible conflict.
Senor Errazuriz weakly gave way, and a decree was promulgated placing the 1899, and the verdict was accepted unreservedly by both governments.
The year closed with a frontier incident between Chile and Argentina in the disputed territory of Ultima Esperanza, where some Argentine colonists were ejected by Chilean police; but both governments signed protocols agreeing not to take aggressive action in consequence.
The father y' Y towards the Pan-American Congress at Mexico became a matter of interest in the autumn, particularly in connexion with the proposal for compulsory arbitration between all American governments.
was put in hand, and this work lasted from November 1857 till March 1865, when the Porte was informed in May of that year that in the opinion of the mediating Powers, the future line of boundary between the respective dominions of the sultan and the shah was to be found within the limits traced o~i the map; that the two Mahommedan governments should themselves mark out the line; and that in the event of any differences arising between them in regard to any particular locality, the points in dispute should be referred to the decision of the governr~ients of England and 1~ussia.
This boundary has remained unsettled, and disputes have frequently arisen between the Turkish and Persian governments with regard to their respective claims to land (Hertslet, Persian Treaties).
On the death of the emperor Alexander in December 1825 Prince Menshikov was sent to Teheran to settle a dispute which had arisen between the two governments regarding the prescribed frontier.
Some eight or nine years afterwards Abbas Mirza, when at the head of his army in Meshed, invited Var Mahommed Khan of Herat to discuss a settlement of differences between the two governments.
During the latters tenure of office an agreement was concluded between the Persian and British governments regarding the British telegraph settlement at Jask, and the telegraph conventions of 1868 and I872 relative to telegraphic communication between Europe and India through Persia, in force until the 1st of January 1895, were prolonged until the 31st of January 1905 by two conventions dated the 3rd of July f887.
In federal governments such as the United States, the German empire, or the Argentine republic, the budgets of the several states of the federation have to be consulted, as well as the federal budgets, for a knowledge of the finances.
At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, the opening of new universities, co-operating with the suspicions of the various German governments as to the democratic opinions which obtained at Jena, militated against the university, which has never regained its former prosperity.
None of the South African governments was, however, then in a position to undertake large works.
The Boer governments had done little to promote irrigation, but during1905-1907a strong intercolonial commission investigated the subject as it affected the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their final report, issued at Pretoria in 1908, contains full particulars as to the irrigation possibilities in those provinces.
In 1909 an irrigation congress representative of all the governments of British South Africa was held at Robertson, in the Cape province.
After this deputation some nominal reforms were granted; but in 1795 a number of burghers settled in the Swellendam and Graaf Reinet districts drove out the officials of the company and established independent governments.
The Cape governments - both Dutch and British - had been consistently averse from the importation of slaves in large numbers, and the great majority of the slaves were therefore Hottentots.
The refusal of the German Emperor to receive him extinguished alike his political influence and all hopes that the Boers might still have entertained of help from foreign governments.
2 Stability - the thing which South Africa required above everything else - was unattainable so long as there were five separate governments developing different systems in all branches of public life, but no national government with power to harmonize the whole.
An agreement between the Transvaal and the Portuguese governments, concluded in April 1909, while the fate of the draft constitution was still in doubt, assigned to Lourenco Marques 50 to 55% of the import trade to the Rand, and (with certain exceptions) provided for free trade in native products between the Mozambique province and the Transvaal.
He assumed command of the Portuguese army, divided by the kingdom into military governments, and, on the 1st of February 1808 announced that the Braganza 1807- dynasty had forfeited its right to the throne.
By the last the city and county, which until then had maintained separate governments, were consolidated.
There were for a time at the end of 1848 three (and for a longer time two) civil governments and one military.
The British agent then applied for an adjournment of eight months, ostensibly in order that the two governments might conclude a supplemental convention, it having been meanwhile privately arranged between the arbitrators that an extra-judicial declaration should be obtained from the arbitrators on the subject of the direct claims. On the 19th of June Count Sclopis intimated on behalf of all his colleagues that, without intending to express any opinion upon the interpretation of the treaty, they had arrived at the conclusion that "the indirect claims did not constitute upon the principles of international law applicable to such cases a good foundation for an award or computation of damages between nations."
The British government maintained that while the measure of care which a government is bound to use in such cases must be dependent more or less upon circumstances, it would be unreasonable to require that it should exceed that which the governments of civilized states were accustomed to employ in matters concerning their own security or that of their citizens.
It is the chief centre for the supply of agricultural machinery to the steppe governments of southeastern Russia.
At this meeting it was resolved that it was the duty of the respective governments to prevent the export of opium to any countries prohibiting its importation; that drastic measures should be taken against the use of morphine; that anti-opium remedies should be investigated; and that all countries having concessions in China should close the opium divans in their possessions.
TRANSCAUCASIA, a general name given to the governments and provinces of Russian Caucasia, excluding the steppe provinces of Kuban and Terek and the steppe government of Stavropol.
It thus includes the governments of Baku, Elisavetpol, Erivan, Kutais and Tiflis; the provinces of Batum, Daghestan and Kars; and the military districts of the Black Sea (Chernomorsk) and Zakataly.
In 1815 he published An Appeal to the Governments of Europe on the Necessity of bringing Napoleon Bonaparte to a Public Trial.
All this activity, though combined with a haughty tone towards foreign governments and diplomatists, did not produce much general apprehension, probably because there was a widespread conviction that he desired to maintain peace, and that his great ability and strength of character would enable him to control the dangerous forces which he boldly set in motion.
(1) The Kazan Tatars, descendants of the Kipchaks settled on the Volga in the 13th century, where they mingled with survivors of the old Bulgarians and partly with Finnish stems. They number about half a million in the government of Kazan, about 100,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, Samara and Simbirsk, and about 300,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg; some 15,000 belonging to the same stem have migrated to Ryazan, or have been settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilna, Grodno and Podolia); and there are some 2000 in St Petersburg, where they pursue the callings of coachmen and waiters in restaurants.
the whole burden fell on Winterthur, which struggled valiantly to meet its liabilities, and was helped by large loans from the cantonal and federal governments.
He may not be elected by the legislature, during the term for which he is elected as governor, to any office under the state or the United States governments.
4 The tax on railway corporations collected by the state for local purposes and paid over to the local governments in 1907 amounted to $581,794.
The seizure of Andros by the people of Boston in April 1689, following the news of the revolt in England against James II., gave the Jersey proprietors an opportunity to resume their rights, but the proprietary governments regained their former footing very slowly.
Following the recommendation of the Continental Congress, that the colonies should create independent governments, the provincial congress also drafted a provincial constitution, which, without being submitted to the people, was published on the 3rd of July 1776; it contained the stipulation that " if a reconciliation between Great Britain and these colonies should take place, and the latter be taken again under the protection of the crown of.
Guizot inaugurated a different policy; by mutual confidence and friendly offices they entirely succeeded in restoring the most cordial understanding between the two governments, and the irritation which Lord Palmerston had inflamed gradually subsided.
from the Russian governments of Podolia and Kherson by the Dniester; on the S.E.
The second class may be subdivided into two groups: (a) protectorates exercised over countries with organized governments and under recognized sovereigns, such as the Malay States; and (b) those exercised over countries possessing no stable or definite governments and rulers.
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