Governments Sentence Examples
Free people establish governments to protect their rights.
It is now divided into the governments of Cassel and Wiesbaden, the second of which consists mainly of the former territory of Nassau (q.v.).
It was also the view universally taken by the German governments which supported the Kulturkampf in a greater or less degree.
To the mass of the people the restoration of the old governments undoubtedly brought a sense of relief, for the terrible drain in men and money caused by Napoleon's wars had caused much discontent, whereas now there was a prospect of peace and rest.
Consequently there were only 87.4 and 89.8 women to every 100 men in the governments of St Petersburg and Taurida respectively, but as many as 133.8 in Yaroslavl, 119 in Tver and 117 in Kostroma.Advertisement
During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.
The British and French governments despatched several expeditions of discovery into the Pacific and round the world during the 18th century.
The two governments frequently discussed the situation, but although they had agreed to a selfdenying ordinance whereby each bound itself not to occupy any part of Albanian territory, Austrias declarations and promises were hardly borne out by the activity of her agents in the Balkans.
Aristotle's brief suggestions respect ing the origin of society and governments in the Politics show a leaning to a naturalistic interpretation of human history as a development conditioned by growing necessities.
In the governments of the black-earth region the state of matters is hardly better.Advertisement
The chief towns of Annam are Hue (pop. about 42,000), seat both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of Tourane.
In foreign affairs, the conclusion of a treaty with Russia for delimiting the British and Russian spheres of influence in the Middle East laid the foundations of entirely new relations between the British and Russian governments.
An interesting episode was the active intercourse, chiefly commercial, between the Siamese and Japanese governments from 1592 to 1632.
In central Russia the species become still more numerous, and, though the local floras are not yet complete, they number 850 to 1050 species in the separate governments, and about 1600 in the best explored parts of the S.W.
The reindeer, rapidly disappearing, is now met with only in the governments of Olonets and Vologda; Cervus pygargus is found everywhere, and reaches Novgorod.Advertisement
In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.
During the closing years of the 19th century great numbers of Germans flocked into the industrial governments of Poland, namely, Piotrkow, Warsaw and Kalisz.
The Rumanians (Moldavians) inhabit the governments of Bessarabia, Podolia, Kherson and Ekaterinoslay.
On the whole the Novorossian governments (Bessarabia, Kherson, Ekaterinoslav and Taurida) exhibit the greatest variety of population.
The governments of St Petersburg (apart from the capital), Olonets and Archangel contain an admixture of Karelians, Samoyedes and Syryenians, the remainder being Great Russians.Advertisement
In the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka Great Russians are in the majority, the remainder being a variety of Finno-Tatars.
Ural governments (Uralsk, Orenburg, Ufa) the admixture of Turko-Tatars - of Kirghiz in Uralsk, Bashkirs in Orenburg and Ufa, and less important races - becomes considerable.
In the twelve central governments they grow, on the average, sufficient rye-bread for only 200 days in the year - often for only.
It is only in the steppe governments that the situation is more hopeful.
Since their emancipation in 1861, the peasants of the central governments of Russia have in large numbers drifted away into the black earth zone, or have gone to the factories.Advertisement
The rest of the black earth zone, which stretches from these governments N.E.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
In 30 to 40 governments, however, there is in most years a surplus available for export.
Beetroot (6-8 million tons annually) for sugar is especially cultivated in Poland, the governments of Kiev, Podolia, Volhynia, Kharkov, Bessarabia and Kherson.
Recent investigations in the government of Moscow have revealed that 40% of the peasant households possessed no horses, and similar inquiries in 41 governments elicited the fact that 28% of the peasant households were without horses, although of the total number of horses in the country 82% belong to the peasantry.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
The governments of Orel (shoe factories), Kherson, Vyatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Perm, Kiev and Kazan rank next in this respect.
The emperor, the governments of England, Holland, France and Sweden, and even the Grand Turk made advances to the tsar.
The large Adminis- territorial units of administration created by Peter the trative Great were broken up into so-called " governments " reforms. (gubernii) and further subdivided into districts (uyezdy), and each government was confided to the care of a governor and a vice-governor assisted by a council.
They had fought for freedom in order to liberate themselves not only from the yoke of Napoleon but also from the tyranny of their own governments, whereas he expected them to remain submissively under the patriarchal institutions which their native rulers imposed on them.
During this period the relations between the two governments and the two countries became much more cordial.
These conditions, as well as the degree of control over the construction and working of the lines, are left to the regulation of the provincial governments.
The constitution requires that township and county governments shall be uniform throughout the state.
It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.
The pale now includes fifteen governments, and under the May laws of 1892 the congestion of the Jewish population, the denial of free movement, and the exclusion from the general rights of citizens were rendered more oppressive than ever before.
It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the excellent system of laws and governments that earned for him the reputation of being the greatest legislator of antiquity.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
In this discussion, which was continued for nine days, the document was most strongly opposed because it contained no bill of rights and on the ground that it would provide for such a strong central government that the state governments would ultimately be sacrificed.
They correspond roughly with the governments of Kutais, Tiflis, Elisavetpol and Baku, and have a population of nearly 3,650,000.
So far the principal developments of the industry have been in the governments of Kutais, Batum, Elisavetpol and Kuban.
Mill was earnestly opposed to the transfer, and the documents in which he substantiated the proud boast for the Company that "few governments, even under far more favourable circumstances, have attempted so much for the good of their subjects or carried so many of their attempts to a beneficial issue," and exposed the defects of the proposed new government, are models of trenchant and dignified pleading.
This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.
The peoples, fr rmc-ly so apathetic, were now the centre of resistance, and their efforts failed owing to the timidity or sluggishness of governments and the incompetence of some of their military leaders.
In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of the state governments.
After the fall of the republic the arsenal continued to occupy the attention of the various governments.
Butler, in regard to foreign governments, and reversed all those decisions to the entire satisfaction of the administration.
The soil is almost throughout "black earth," and Podolia is one of the most fertile governments of Russia.
The governments of some colonies have aided the efforts of the association.
It placed on record "its cordial appreciation of the efforts of those governments and institutions which have already supported cotton-growing in their respective colonies."
Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other European countries, while for most regions there R are only so-called "military surveys."
His policy towards all governments outside Italy was to support them wherever they represented social order; and it was with difficulty that he persuaded French Catholics to be united in defence of the republic. The German Kulturkampf was ended by his exertions.
The appointment was avowedly made in order that an acceptable British statesman, in whom public confidence was reposed, might go to South Africa to consider all the circumstances, and to formulate a policy which should combine the upholding of British interests with the attempt to deal justly with the Transvaal and Orange Free State governments.
The rivalry of these two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the Federal authorities of the radical Republican government (Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed.
At last that final expedient of weak governments, the debasing of the coinage, led to a crisis.
The belief in the rejuvenation of Turkey seemed to be justified; and when, on the 27th of March 1854, Great Britain and France declared war on Russia, the action of the governments was supported by an overwhelming public opinion.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
The hope of eventual emancipation was stimulated by sedulous propagandists from each of these countries; from time to time armed bands of insurgents were manned and equipped in the small neighbouring states, with or without the co-operation of the governments.
Confidential notes are directed to inspiring confidence by giving an explicit account of the views and intentions of the plenipotentiaries and their governments.
Notes ad referendum are addressed by diplomatic agents to their own governments asking for fresh powers to deal with points not covered by their instructions, which they have had to "refer."
These people came for the most part from the northern parts of the black earth zone of middle Russia, and to a smaller extent from the Lithuanian governments and the Ural governments of Perm and Vyatka.
During these latter years he was largely engaged on the composition of a valuable book, published in two substantial volumes, in 1921, on Modern Democracies, a comparative study of a certain number of popular governments in their actual working.
Foreign Governments lodged protests against their subjects being dispossessed before obtaining adequate compensation.
Of the governments which were parties in these several cases Great Britain heads the list in point of numbers, the United States of America being a good second.
Ultimately, in May 1902, an agreement was come to between the two governments which provided for the settlement of the dispute by the Hague tribunal.
In October 1904 the two governments agreed to refer this question to the Hague court.
These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.
Both the national and state governments exercise the right to impose stamp and consumption taxes, and the municipalities likewise are permitted to impose licence and consumption taxes.
It has authority, however, to review the acts and laws of state governments and to decide upon their constitutionality.
On the expiration of his power, which was nearly contemporary with that of his life, an attempt was made to divide Brazil into two governments; but this having failed, the territory was reunited in 1578, the year in which Diego Laurenco da Veiga was appointed governor.
He imagines certain combinations by which this triple tyranny can be abolished, but his solution seems to require the creation of families without heads, countries without governments and property without rights of possession.
These promises were not kept for long, and by 1878 his attitude had become so hostile towards both the Natal and Transvaal governments that Sir Bartle Frere, then High Commissioner for South Africa, determined on his reduction.
Meantime it was agreed by the Cape, Transvaal and Natai governments that, subject to Natal entering the Union, its share of the Rand import trade should be 25% before and 30% after the establishment of the Union.
On the conclusion of this work honours were offered to Cobden by the governments of both the countries which he had so greatly benefited.
The session was interrupted by the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, but not before a 2 Transylvania, Croatio-Slavonia with Fiume and the Temes Banat were separated from the kingdom and provided with local governments.
In harmony with the conditions of his age, he approved of absolute governments, though at the same time they must, he thought, be controlled by constitutional laws.
The Governments of Belgrade and Zagreb were to retain their former spheres until a constituent assembly, elected by universal suffrage, could draw up a new constitution.
In 1908 the inter-colonial council was dissolved, but the railways continued to be administered as a joint concern by a railway board on which the governments of both colonies were represented.
In 1856 a series of public meetings, summoned by Pretorius, was held at different districts in the Transvaal for the purpose of discussing and deciding whether the time had not arrived for substituting a strong central government in place of the petty district governments which had hitherto existed.
Some of the new party were arraigned for treason and fined; and for several months there were two acting presidents and two rival governments within the Transvaal.
Men who would not pay taxes to their own appointed governments, and who were daily expecting to be allowed to return to that condition of anarchy which they had come to regard as the normal order of things, were not likely to respond willingly to the tax-gatherer's demands.
This act called forth a protest from the 15th Lord Derby (now secretary of state for the colonies), stating that he could not recognize the right of Boer freebooters to set up governments of their own on the Transvaal borders.
The Boers were at last convinced of the futility of any attempt to prolong the struggle, and on the 23rd of March the representatives of the Boer governments came into Pretoria.
Some of these claims brought Venezuela into conflict with the governments of Great Britain, Germany and Italy in 1903, and Venezuelan ports were blockaded and there was an enforced settlement of the claims (about £104,417), which were to be paid from 30% of the revenues of the La Guaira and Puerto Cabello custom-houses.
In view of what had occurred the Allied Governments decided that in further operations full use must be made of the gathering army, and from this time onwards the military began to assume the principal role in the effort of the Entente to secure command of the Dardanelles.
Not only was all idea of reinforcing the Allied army that was planted down in this region abandoned by the western Governments, but even some of the troops under Sir I.
This activity gained him recognition abroad and gifts of money from the British and Austrian governments; but it made his position as an official in Berlin impossible, for the Prussian government had no mind to abandon its attitude of cautious neutrality.
Florence was in the 14th century a city of about 100,000 inhabitants, of whom 25,000 could bear arms; there were Ito churches, 39 religious houses; the shops of the ante della lana numbered over 200, producing cloth worth 1,200,000 florins; Florentine bankers and merchants were found all over the world, often occupying responsible positions in the service of foreign governments; the revenues of the republic, derived chiefly from the city customs, amounted to some 300,000 florins, whereas its ordinary expenses, exclusive of military matters and public buildings, were barely 40,000.
Eight years later, on the 1st of August 1896, the bounties offered by the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary were approximately doubled, and France had a bill in preparation to increase hers correspondingly, although it was computed that they were even then equivalent to a grant of 3, 5s.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.
The country was once more split up into small governments, more or less independent, and groups of wandering tribes carrying on their petty feuds.
The eldest, Thuweni, with British support, finally obtained the throne, and in 1862 an engagement was entered into by the French and English governments respecting the independence of the sultans of Oman.
A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
The empire of the Incas was divided into four main divisions, Chinchay-suyu to the north of Cuzco, Anti-suyu to the east, Colla-suyu to the south and Cunti-suyu to the west, the whole empire being called Ttahuantin-suyu, or the four governments.
After 1894 negotiations between the two governments were attempted from time to time, but without any satisfactory results.
The municipal governments of Newport and Providence present interesting features, for which see the separate articles on these cities.
Ifut it reserved the power of suppressing or suspending a newspaper, and against that reservation a majority of the lower house voted, session after session, only to see the bill rejected by the peers, who shared the governments opinion that to grant a larger measure of liberty would certainly encourage licence.
The plan was to overthrow the Lincoln government in the elections and give to the Democrats the control of the state and Federal governments, which would then make peace and invite the Southern States to come back into the Union on the old footing.
Even though we admit that Chios, Lesbos and Samos (up to 440) retained their oligarchic governments and that Selymbria, at a time (409 B.C.) when the empire was in extremis, was permitted to choose its own constitution, there can be no doubt that, from whatever motive and with whatever result, Athens did exercise over many of her allies an authority which extended to the most intimate concerns of local administration.
Russia had annexed the six Lithuanian Governments between 1772 and 1795 and united them as the" Litovskaya Gubernia "in 1797, that is to say, before the Treaty of Vienna conceded her the kingdom of Poland in 1815.
It consisted of two thousand delegates who demanded autonomy for the four governments of Vilna, Kovno, Grodno and Suvalki under a Diet at Vilna to be elected by universal, direct, equal and secret franchise.
In the same spirit he opposed a scheme of military governments for the southern states, unless associated with a plan by which, upon the acceptance of prescribed conditions, they could release themselves from military rule and resume civil government.
The spontaneous yet successful effort made by President Roosevelt in 1905 to bring together the Russian and Japanese governments, and to secure their appointing delegates to discuss terms of peace, although not strictly mediation, was closely akin to it.
Corn, salt, sugar and fish are brought from the south, whilst skins and manufactured wares, imported from Germany, are sent to the southern governments.
This council was nominated by the governments of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Holland and Belgium, with headquarters in Copenhagen and a central laboratory at Christiania, and its aim was to furnish data for the improvement of the fisheries of the North Sea and surrounding waters.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The framework of the governments established in 1836-37 and 1845 was not essentially different from those with which the framers were familiar in the United States.
The extravagance of the Reconstruction governments resulted in the accumulation by 1876 of a debt of $4,792,394.
After a long conflict over the slavery question, the state was admitted into the Union under a joint resolution of Congress adopted on the 1st of March 1845, 1 on condition that the United States should settle all questions of boundary with foreign governments, that Texas should retain all of its vacant and unappropriated public lands, and that new states, not exceeding four in number, might be formed within its limits.
He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti.
By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
The personnel, revenue, jurisdiction, ritual, even the faith of the Church, were in this way placed under the complete control of the territorial governments.
But the pope laid claim to a direct power over the civil governments.
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
Between 1572 and 1576 there were in Brazil the two governments of Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, but its history is of little importance till the occupation of Portugal by Philip II.
The perils of this system becoming apparent, the province was divided (1478 or 1479) into two separate governments, named after their capitals Gawil and Mahur.
It is in this respect superior, and further shows in places a more impartial treatment of the evidence, especially in respect of the aristocratic and absolute governments of Greece.
His newspaper purchases included the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung in Berlin, formerly the organ of Bismarck and then of all succeeding German Governments, the Miinchener Neueste Nachrichten and the Munchen-Augsburger Zeitung, the last-named being one of the oldest newspapers in Germany.
Decision after decision of individual instances has made it a settled practice for the Federal government to co-operate with or to supplement the state governments in the gathering of statistics that may furnish a basis for state or Federal legislation.
There is another mint in Birmingham worked by a private company (" The Mint, Birmingham, Limited "), where coinages for foreign governments are executed and in addition silver and bronze colonial coins are occasionally manufactured under the supervision of the London Mint.
He published two books on English history - Essai sur les causes qui, en 1649, amenerent en Angleterre l'etablissement de la republique (Paris, 1799), and Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II, derniers rois de la maison de Stuart (The Hague, 1818) - which contained much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration governments.
This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid succession.
Federal rights were to be safeguarded against the provincial governments, always jealous of their privileges.
He is inspired with the dislike and jealousy of governments so often felt and expressed by thinkers formed in the social atmosphere of the 18th century.
From time to time, naturally, these Governments required a majority for the budget.
This was far from resulting in any cooperation of the nationalities in realizing their former ideal; on the contrary, they felt themselves free from all constraint, and formed Governments having no connexion with the old state.
The Hungarian Government could claim the right to take independent economic measures for her own territory in war-time; a joint arrangement was only possible for the territories of the Dual Monarchy - which were united for tariff purposes - by agreements between the Austrian and Hungarian Governments; and since neither Government was exclusively concerned to carry out an adjustment of economic conditions solely in accordance with what was necessary for waging war and holding out with the supplies at their disposal, but each had also to champion the interests of one half of the monarchy against the other, the negotiations between the two Governments were often attended with the greatest difficulties, and constantly ended unsatisfactorily.
While the Austrian officials in Dalmatia, with hardly a pretence of concealment, were assisting the insurgents, Russian volunteers were flocking to Servia with the connivance of the Russian and Austrian governments, and General Ignatiev, as ambassador in 3 The names are vocalized to suggest the fanciful interpretations "victim" and "protection withheld."
The more important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai, the capital of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first Lao settlement in Siam; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese kingdoms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments.
Extra-territorial jurisdiction was for long secured by treaty for the subjects of all foreign powers, who could therefore only be sued in the courts maintained in Siam by their own governments, while European assessors were employed in cases where foreigners sued Siamese.
Jean Baptiste's brother, Jacques-Marie, Vicomte Cavaignac (1773-1855), French general, served with distinction in the army under the republic and successive governments.
Successive governments in France made endeavours to break with the prohibitive system, but naturally met with strong opposition from the manufacturing interests, not prepared to meet the competition of Great Britain, whose industries had made, and were continually making, rapid strides.
The political position of the governments of the Restoration and of Louis Philippe was such that they were unwilling to forfeit support by pushing measures in which, after all, they were not themselves deeply interested.
It had been stipulated by the Final Act that the Poles under foreign rule should be endowed with institutions to preserve their national existence according to such forms of political existence as the governments to which they belong shall think fit to allow them.
The emissaries of Razin, armed with inflammatory proclamations, had stirred up the inhabitants of the modern governments of Nizhniy-Novgorod, Tambov and Penza, and penetrated even so far as Moscow and Great Novgorod.
The territorial exchanges were amicably agreed upon; the relations between the Indian and Afghan governments, as previously arranged, were confirmed; and an understanding was reached upon the important and difficult subject of the border line of Afghanistan on the east, towards India.
The Christian governments either uttered useless and impotent complaints at Constantinople, or endeavoured to negotiate directly with Algiers, as in the case of the negotiations of Sanson Napollon during the ministry of Richelieu.
For a brief period, in the 7th and 8th centuries, the conquering Sla y s made it one of their Zupanates, or governments; but in the 10th century it was sacked by the Magyars, and in 1092 its territories were bestowed upon the cathedral chapter of Agram by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary.
By the institution of the special mission of Lord Ashburton, however, the direct negotiations between the two governments were, about the time of Everett's arrival in London, transferred to Washington, though much business was transacted at the American legation in London.
They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.
Its political divisions consist of 27 states (originally 19) having independent local governments, 3 territories and 1 federal district in which the national capital stands.
Of these 6488 were supported by the national and state governments and 2706 by the municipalities.
He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments - the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital.
The total number of Abkhasians in the two governments of Kutais and Kuban was 72,103 in 1897; large numbers emigrated to the Turkish empire in 1864 and 1878.
Down to the repeal of the Concordat in 1905 all French governments continued to uphold two of the ancient "Gallican Liberties."
Military baths are maintained in the town by the governments of Austria, Prussia and Saxony, and there are also bath-houses for the poor.
The organization of a municipal system, which should regulate the governments of all these towns on a uniform basis, and define their relation to the Roman government, was probably the work of Sulla, who certainly gave great impetus to the foundation in the provinces of citizen colonies, which were the earliest municipia outside Italy, and enjoyed the same status as the Italian towns.
After the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a well-drilled body of 45, 000 men, whose function was to be ready to intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution.
During the rest of his rule, which lasted till his death in April 1865, he continued to act in concert with the Clerical party, and endeavoured to maintain friendly relations with the European governments.
The Russian and German governments have sent out fresh expeditions to rescue what is left before it is too late.
It was the profits of this neutral trade, notwithstanding the losses to which it was exposed by the high-handed measures of the British and the French governments, that caused these insults to be more or less patiently endured by the trading interests.
Of recent years there has been a great revival of interest in the improvement of inland waterways upon systematic plans, which promises better than an earlier period of internal improvements in the first half of the 19th century, the results of which were more or less disastrous for the state and local governments that undertook them, and only less so for the national government.
It is the expression of the ultimate sovereignty of the people, and its existence gives to the working both of the Federal government and of the several state governments, a certain fixify and uniformity which the European, and especially the British, reader must constantly bear in mind, because under such a constitution every legislative body enjoys far scantier powers than in the United Kingdom and most European countries.
A peculiarly notable form of this special or private bill legislation is that of dealing by special statutes with the governmental forms and details of management of municipalities; and the control exercised by the state legislatures over city governments is not only a most important branch of legislative business, but at the same time a means of power to scheming politicians and of enrichment to greedy ones.
The aim of those who framed the Constitution was to avoid friction between the state governments and the Federal government by rendering their respective spheres of action as separate and distinct as possible.
Foreign governments often complain of this power of the Senate, because it prevents them from being able to rely upon the carrying out of arrangments they have made with the executive; but as the president is not responsible to Congress and is irremovable (except by impeachment) during his term of office, there would be objections to giving him an.
The domestic executive authority of the president in time of peace is small, because by far the larger part of law and administration belongs to the state and local governments, while the Federal administration is regulated by statutes which leave little discretion to the executive.
In 1901 the Supreme Court delivered several judgments in cases arising out of the annexation of Porto Rico, which handled, though they did not fully settle, divers points of novelty and of importance, and still more recently questions of great intricacy affecting the respective legislative rights of the Federal and the state governments have come before it.
The American Political Science Review (Baltimore, 1907 sqq.) is especially useful for a comparative study of the state governments.
More than 82% of the tax revenues of state and local governments were thus derived in 1902.
The revenues of all the states, counties, cities and other local governments, plus those of the national government, aggregated in 1879 only $584,980,614.
Since 1870 the national census office has determined several times the aggregate indebtedness of the national, state and other local governments.
Liberal aid is given by the federal, provincial and municipal governments to the construction of railways, amounting often to more than half the cost of the road.
Measures have been taken, both by the provincial and the federal governments, for its preservation, and for re-forestation of depleted areas.
Both the Dominion and the provincial governments have set apart certain areas to be preserved, largely in their wild state, as national parks.
The various departments of the federal and the provincial governments publish annual reports and frequent special reports, such as the decennial report on the census, from which a vast quantity of information may be obtained.
The governments of the several provinces each have a department of agriculture.
Parts of the proceedings and many of the addresses and papers presented at the more important meetings of these associations are published by the provincial governments, and distributed free to farmers who desire to have them.
As the result of communications during 1897 between Sir Wilfrid Laurier and Secretary Sherman, the governments of Great Britain and the United States agreed to the appointment of a joint high commission, with a view of settling all outstanding differences between the United States and Canada.
Under the British North American Act the control of education was reserved for the provincial governments, with a stipulation that all rights enjoyed by denominational schools at the time of confederation should be respected.
The grave questions of respective jurisdiction which have from time to time arisen between the federal and provincial governments have for the most part been settled by appeal to one or both of these judicial bodies.
Perceiving That The Measure Was Likely To Confer A Great Eclat On His Pontificate, Undertook The Long Desired Reformation; And Having Found The Governments Of The Principal Catholic States Ready To Adopt His Views, He Issued A Brief In The Month Of March 1582, In Which He Abolished The Use Of The Ancient Calendar, And Substituted That Which Has Since Been Received In Almost All Christian Countries Under The Name Of The Gregorian Calendar Or New Style.
An end was thus made of the "carpet-bag governments" conducted by Republican politicians from the North, some of which were very corrupt, and had been upheld mainly by the Federal forces.
During the summer of 1865 he set up provisional civil governments in all the seceded states except Texas, and within a few months all those states were reorganized and applying for readmission to the Union.
That Wellington actively assisted despotic governments against the constitutional movements of the time is not true.
Throughout the reign of Arcadius there was estrangement and jealousy between the two brothers or their governments.
In 1881 Mr Blaine, then U.S. secretary of state, addressed an instruction to the ministers of the United States of America accredited to the various Central and South American nations, directing them to invite the governments of these countries to participate in a congress, to be held at Washington in 1882, " for the purpose of considering and discussing the methods of preventing war between the nations of America."
At the second International Conference of American States, which sat in the city of Mexico from the 22nd of October 1901 to the 31st of January 1902, the same subject was again discussed, and a scheme was finally adopted as a compromise which conferred authority on the government of Mexico to ascertain the views of the different governments.
The conference, being held only a year before the time fixed for the second Hague Conference, applied itself mainly to the question of the extent to which force might be used for the collection of pecuniary claims against defaulting governments, and the forwarding of the principle of arbitration under the Hague Conventions.
Therefore the more the armaments of each power increase the less they answer to the objects aimed at by the governments.
These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier between the two states in question.
The secretary of state for the colonies is the official medium of communication with colonial governments; he has certain administrative duties respecting crown colonies, and has a right of advising the veto of an act of a colonial legislature - this veto, however, is never exercised in the case of purely local statutes.
These incidents led to a representation on the part of the native sovereign to the" governments of Great Britain, France and the United States, and the independence of the islands (recognized by the United States in 1842) was recognized in 1844 by France and Great Britain.
The western branch became russified, so that the Meshcheryaks of the governments of Penza, Saratov, Ryazan and Vladimir have adopted the customs, language and religion of the conquering race; but their ethnographical characteristics can be easily distinguished in the Russian population of the governments of Penza and Tambov.
Bignon did not re-enter public life until 1817, when he was elected to the chamber of deputies, in which he sat until 1830, consistent in his opposition to the reactionary policy of successive governments.
The federal constitution was also brought into accord with the democratic governments now prevalent throughout the land.
It is from this time that we find the popes in moments of crisis transporting themselves to Capetian territory, installing their governments and convening their councils there, and from that place of refuge fulminating with impunity against the internal and external foe.
Torn by civil wars, their harassed and the rulers sought papal recognition at a cost which more experienced governments would have refused.
Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even after 1814.
While the hold of the popes on the States of the Church was constantly weakening, their power over the domestic policies of foreign governments was increasing; and the transition from autocracy to parliamentary rule accelerated this process, at least in non-Catholic territories.
Each of them, then, has supreme authority within its own sphere, while the official responsibility belongs to the pope, just as in all governments it is the government that is responsible for the acts of its departments.
The provisional government of 1868 also promised to respect them, and similar pledges were given by the governments which succeeded.
But by the republic of 1848 he was held in less favour, and chagrin at the treatment he experienced at the hands of the governments which succeeded that of Louis Philippe is supposed to have shortened his life.
From the beginning of the 11th century to the 13th it was the chief town of a territory which included large parts of the present governments of Yaroslavl, Vladimir and Novgorod.
It holds supreme control over all the foreign missions in heathen countries, and also over large and important parts of the church in Christian countries whose governments are not Catholic - including the British empire, the United States, Holland, the Norse kingdoms, Greece, and some parts of Germany and Switzerland.
The South African governments foresaw dangerous developments in the Ethiopian movement, and steps were taken to restrain its growth.
The Roman Church, which is dominant throughout the continent, has been engaged in serious struggles with the anti-religious tendencies of the Republican governments, and L'Annee de l'Eglise makes no mention of missions among the Indians.
This led to ill-will between the English and Dutch governments, and to a renewal of the old grievances about maritime and commercial rights, and war broke out in 1665.
This agreement was ratified by the Belgian and French sovereigns on the 10th and 24th of November, by the British on the 6th of December, but the Austrian and Prussian and Russian governments, whose sympathies were with the " legitimate " King William rather than with a prince who owed his crown to a revolution, did not give their ratification till some five months later.
The Bug, another right-hand tributary of the Vistula, describes a wide curve concentric with those of the middle Vistula and the Narew, and separates the Polish governments of Lublin and Siedlce from the Russian governments of Volhynia and Grodno.
Poland, with 193 (domiciled) inhabitants or 213 inhabitants in all to the square mile in 1897, and 240 to the square mile in 1904, has a denser population than any other region in the Russian empire, the next to it being the governments of Moscow, with 189 inhabitants to the square mile, Podolia with 186, and Kiev with 181.
In Russia they constitute, with Jews, Lithuanians, Ruthenians and White Russians, the town population, as also the landed nobility and the country gentry, in several governments west of the Dvina and the Dnieper.
The Lodz manufacturing district, the Polish Birmingham, is becoming more German than Polish; and throughout the governments west of the Vistula German immigration is going on at a steadily increasing rate, especially in the governments of Plock, Kalisz, Piotrkow and Warsaw.
The cultivation of tobacco is successfully carried on, especially in the governments of Warsaw, Plock and Lublin.
The sugar factories and refineries, situated chiefly in the governments of Warsaw, Lublin and Plock, turn out approximately one million tons of sugar in the year, the Polish sugar industry being exceeded in Russia only by that of Kiev.
It was not till 1620 that Paraguay proper and Rio de la Plata or Buenos Aires were separated as distinct governments, and they were both dependent on the vice-royalty of Peru till 1776, when Buenos Aires was erected into a viceroyalty, and Paraguay placed under its jurisdiction.
This act induced the governments of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina to combine for the purpose of suppressing Lopez.
Mahmud was reinstated by Fateh Khan, whom he appointed his vizier, and whose nephews, Dost Mahommed Khan and Kohn dil Khan, he placed respectively in the governments of Kabul and Kandahar.
This centralization is shown not only by the increased power and activity of the Federal government as compared with the state governments, but in the change in popular opinion indicated by the use of the terms National,.
The history of the decay of state rights makes it seem doubtful if the federal form of government is a permanent one, or is only a transient form between independent state governments or loose confederacies and a centralized national government.
The national and state governments had not built any works of reclamation excepting where the federal government, through the Indian department, had constructed irrigation ditches for Indian tribes, notably the Crow Indians of Montana.
A few of the state governments, such, for example, as Colorado, had built small reservoirs or portions of canals from internal improvement funds.
The separation of the empire into small states was favorable to road-making, inasmuch as it was principally the smaller governments that expended large sums for their network of roads.
In his office he is assisted by a federal council (Bundesrat), which represents the governments of the individual states of Germany.
The members of this council, 58 in number, are appointed for each session by the governments of the individual states.
The fifty-eight members of the Bundesrat are nominated by the governments of the individual states for each session; while the members of the Reichstag are elected by universal suffrage and ballot for the term of five years.
These schools are in close touch with the sovereigns and the governments, and the more promising pupils are thus from the first assured of a career, especially in connection with the decoration of public buildings and monuments.
The governments cautiously took advantage of the national movement to strengthen their position.
The murder of the dramatist Kotzebue, as an agent of this reaction, in the following year, by a fanatical student named Karl Sand, clinched the matter; it became obvious to the governments that a policy of rigorous repression was necessary if a fresh revolution were to be avoided.
The Mainz Commission, though hampered by the jealousy of the governments (the king of Prussia refused to allow his subjects to be haled before it), was none the less effective enough in preventing all free expression of opinion; while at the universities the official curators kept Liberal enthusiasts in order.
But the governments of Prussia and Austria were unaffected; and when the storm had died down Metternich was able,with the aid of the federal diet, to resume his task of holding the Revolution in check.
Great hindrances were put in the way of the elections, but, as the Prussian and Austrian governments were too much occupied with their immediate difficulties to resist to the uttermost, the parliament was at last chosen, and met at Frankfort on the I8th May.
A committee appointed to discuss the matter suggested that there should be a directory of three members, appointed by the German governments, subject to the approval of the parliament, and ruling by means of ministers responsible to the latter body.
The Moderates took alarm; they had no stomach for an open war with the governments; and in the end thi convention was confirmed by a sufficient majority.
A vigorous agitation began in the country for men, the acceptance of the constitution by the governments.
The difficulty in Hesse was to be left to the decision of the German governments; and as soon as possible ministerial conferences were to be held in Dresden, with a view to the settlement of the German constitution.
Prussia had begun to mobilize in November; and Austria also soon realized that action must speedily be taken if the lesser German governments were not to be allowed to get out of hand.
It was arranged that the headship of the confederation should be hereditary, that it should belong to the king of Prussia, and that legislative functions should be exercised by a federal council (Bundesrat), representative of the various governments, and by a diet (Bundestag) elected by the whole people.
The communication of the French emperors original proposals to the South German governments, whose traditional policy had been to depend on France to save them from the ambitions of the German great powers, was enough to throw them into the arms of Prussia.
None the less, from this time the acts of the state governments and parliaments have ceased to have more than a local importance; the history of the nation is centred in Berlin, in the Bundesrat or federal council, in which the interests of the individual states are represented; in the Reichstag, iii which the feelings and wishes of the nation are expressed; and above all, in the Prussian government and imperial executive.
By the Bank Act of March 14, 1875, which is the foundation of the existing system, the right of granting the privilege is transferred from the governments of the states to the Bundesrat.
The result of the legal reform and other laws has been greatly to diminish the duties of the state governments, for every new imperial law permanently deprives the local parliaments of part of their authority.
No bishop joined it in Germany or in Austria, and few priests, though the governments were ready to protect them in the enjoyment of the privileges secured to Catholics, and to maintain them in the use of the temporalities.
Direct taxation was opposed by the governments of the states, which did not desire to see the imperial authorities interfering in those sources of revenue over which they had hitherto had sole control; moreover, the whole organization for collecting direct taxes would have had to be created.
The Conservatives were prepared to vote for it; the Radicals and Centre opposed it; the decision rested with the National Liberals, and they were willing to accept it on condition that the clause was omitted which allowed the state governments to exclude individuals from districts in which the state of siege had been proclaimed.
This protest was the direct outcome of an instance of the tendency of the emperor to interfere in the affairs of the various governments of the Empire.
Most governments, whether civil or ecclesiastical, have at all times in one way or another acted on the general principle that some control may and ought to be exercised over the literature circulated among those under their jurisdiction.
Though based rather on the simple English model than on the more complicated municipal governments of the United States, it has certain features of its own, and is revised from year to year.
Yet, owing to the increasing use of scientific implements and methods promoted by the federal and provincial governments, the total value of agricultural products increased by over 50% between 1881 and 1910.
Increased attention is now being paid by both provincial and federal governments to preservation and to reforestation.
The discontent created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris as confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share in keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed forms of permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the established governments of the peninsula.
By the end of August the breach between the Austrian and Hungarian governments was open and complete; on the 4th of September Jellachich was reinstated in all his honours, and on the 11th he crossed the Drave to the invasion of Hungary.
The governments on both sides could of course give no countenance to this theory; Bismarck especially was very careful never to let it be supposed that he desired to exercise influence over the internal affairs of his ally.
In the autumn of 1902 the Austrian and the Hungarian governments, at the instance of the crown and in agreement with the joint minister for war and the Austrian and Hungarian ministers for national defence, laid before their respective parliaments bills providing for an increase of 21,000 men in the annual contingents of recruits.
Cyrus promptly agreed on the special request of Lysander (q.v.) to pay slightly increased wages to the sailors, while Lysander established a system of anti-Athenian clubs and oligarchic governments in various cities.
This idea is disproved by Thucydides' own narrative, which shows that down to 418 (the battle of Mantinea) Sparta tolerated democratic governments in Peloponnesus itself - e.g.
In 1827 a combined expedition led by Champollion and Rosellini was despatched by the governments of France and Tuscany, and accomplished a great deal of valuable work in copying scenes and inscriptions.
When the two commissioners were assured of the security of the frontier and the good working and stability of the Egyptian government, they should present reports to their respective governments, and these should consult as to the conclusion of a convention regulating the withdrawal of the English troops.
The administration of the Sudan (q.v.) wus organized on the basis of an agreement between the British and Egyptian governments signed on the 19th of January 1899.
According to that agreement the British and Egyptian flags are used together, and the supreme military and civil command is vested in a governor-general, who is appointed by the khedive on the recom The mendation of the British government, and who cannot Anglo- be removed without the British governments con Egyptian sent.
This happy condition had been brought about largely as the result of giving fiscal reform, accompanied by substantial relief to the taxpayers, the first place in the governments programme, and with the abolition of octroi duties in.
The facilities enjoyed by the British and Egyptian governments for securing the material if not the moral development The Anglo- of Egypt were greatly enlarged in 1904, as the result French of the understanding then come to between France under- and Great Britain.
The dual note, communicated to the khedive on the 6th of January 1881, contained an intimation that Great Britain and France were prepared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of Gambettas ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language.
The success of the present mahdi in raising the tribes and extending his influence over great tracts of country was a sufficient proof of the governments inability either to reconcile the inhabitants to its rule or to maintain order.
Though alarmed by the revolutionary agitation in Germany, which culminated in the murder of his agent, the dramatist Kotzebue, Alexander approved of Castlereagh's protest against Metternich's policy of " the governments contracting an alliance against the peoples," as formulated in the Carlsbad decrees, 1819, and deprecated any intervention of Europe to support " a league of which the sole object is the absurd pretensions of absolute power."
On leaving the Senate, in 1893, he became chairman of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (sometimes called the Dawes Indian Commission), and served in this capacity for ten years, negotiating with the tribes for the extinction of the communal title to their land and for the dissolution of the tribal governments, with the object of making the tribes a constituent part of the United States.'
Lights and Buoys.-In view of the difficulties attending navigation in the Gulf, and the impossibility of arranging with the Governments of the littoral for the provision of lights and buoys except on terms which would have greatly hampered shipping, the British Government, in view of the great preponderance of British shipping in the Gulf, has established since 1912 a very complete system of lights and buoys, the cost of which is shared in equal moieties by the Government of India and H.M.
These declarations were never openly challenged, and in 1912-4 the British Government entered into far-reaching negotiations with the Turkish and German Governments with the object of regularizing the position.
The Arms Traffic. - During the 3rd Afghan War the trade in modern arms and ammunition in the Persian Gulf attracted the attention of the British and Indian Governments for the first time.
His emoluments were gradually augmented, and his growing celebrity brought him most advantageous offers from other German governments, which he persistently refused.
Pretorius in his attempt to abolish the district governments in the Transvaal and to overthrow the Orange Free State government and compel a federation between the two countries.
The issue of the declaration without the signatures of the representatives of Great Britain and France proclaimed the disunion of the alliance, within which - to use Lord Stewart's words - there existed "a triple understanding which bound the parties to carry forward their own views in spite of any difference of opinion between them and the two great constitutional governments."
He was engaged with Rosellini in publishing the results of Egyptian researches at the expense of the Tuscan and French governments, when he was seized with a paralytic disorder, and died at Paris in 1832.
In 1906 arose a dispute between the British and Turkish governments about the boundary between Turkish and Egyptian territory, as the Turks had interfered with some of the landmarks.
In short, Hamilton took from recent years the lesson of the evils of lax government; whereas Jefferson clung to the other lesson, which crumbling colonial governments had illustrated, that governments derived their strength (and the Declaration had proclaimed that they derived their just rights) from the will of the governed.
Jefferson's distrust of governments was nothing exceptional for a consistent individualist.
Having long suffered from a terrible disease, he died in 1773, bequeathing to his son Timur a dominion which embraced not only Afghanistan to its utmost limits, but the Punjab, Kashmir and Turkestan to the Oxus, with Sind, Baluchistan and Khorasan as tributary governments.
The meeting between the amir Shere Ali and the viceroy of India (Lord Mayo) at Umballa in 1869 drew nearer the relations between the two governments; the amir consolidated and began to centralize his power; and the establishment of a strong, friendly and united Afghanistan became again the keynote of British policy beyond the north-western frontier of India.
Meanwhile the delimitation of the northern frontier, up to the point where it meets Chinese territory on the east, was completed and fixed by arrangements between the governments of Russia and Great Britain; and the eastern border of the Afghan territory, towards India,was also mapped out and partially laid down, in accordance with a convention between the two governments.
But toward the various questions left pending between the governments of India and Afghanistan the new amir maintained also his father's attitude.
A further step, calculated to strengthen the relations of amity between the two governments, was taken when it was arranged that the amir should pay a visit to the viceroy, Lord Minto, in India, in January 1907; and this visit took place with great cordiality and success.
These thirteen provinces or local governments are Ajmer-Merwara, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, British Baluchistan, Bengal, Bombay, Burma, Central Provinces prescribing the conditions and degree of social intercourse permitted between the several castes.
The local or provincial governments are fifteen in all, with varying degrees of responsibility.
In 1844 and 1847 the subject was actively taken up by the governments of Bombay and Madras.
The Pallavas appear, like the Mahrattas in later times, to have imposed tribute on the territorial governments of the country.
In 1893 the frontiers of Afghanistan and British India were defined by a joint agreement between the two governments, known as the Durand agreement.
In the case of the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic and Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers.
At the beginning of the American occupation, in August 1898, a purely military government was established; but in May 1899 the military authorities began the re-establish Tent of civil courts, and in July of the same year they began the organization of civil municipal governments.
Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia, accepted.
This excellent system has commended itself to many countries and it is now adopted by the bulk of governments and jurisdictions owing allegiance to the British Crown.
Nearly all the trade in the brandy manufactured in the government of Kharkov, and destined for the governments of Ekaterinoslav and Taurida, is concentrated here, as also is the trade in linseed between the districts situated on the left affluents of the Dnieper and the southern ports.
Sahl, surnamed Dhu`l-Riyasatain, or "the man with two governments," because his master had committed to him both the ministry of war and the general administration.
In 1907 a Korean delegacy, headed by Prince Yong, a member of the imperial family, was sent out to lay before the Hague conference of that year, and before all the principal governments, a protest against the treatment of Korea by Japan.
This industry centres in the great forest governments of Viatka, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Kostroma, Kazan, Perm and Simbirsk.
The Federal and Confederate forces controlled at this time different parts of the state; there was some ebb and flow of military fortune in 1864, and for a short time two rival governments.
Early in 1849 temporary local governments were set up in various towns, and in September a convention framed a freestate constitution and applied for admission to the Union.
This seat he retained less than four years; for although he discharged its duties in so efficient a manner that, with one exception, his decisions were never reversed on appeal, he took up a position of such uncompromising hostility to the governments of the day, the Grafton and North administrations, on the greatest and most exciting matters, the treatment of the American colonies and the proceedings against John Wilkes, that the government had no choice but to require of him the surrender of the great seal.
He never learned to read or write, though late in life he mastered colloquial Arabic; yet those Europeans who were brought into contact with him praised alike the dignity and charm of his address, his ready wit, and the astonishing perspicacity which enabled him to read the motives of men and of governments and to deal effectively with each situation as it arose.
The Roman Catholic and Greek divisions of the Christian Church are homogeneous in organization, but in Protestantism certain denominations are national, established by differing governments, and others are independent of governmental aid, making a large number of differing denominations.
This was granted, and subsequently the British North Borneo Company, which was formed in May 1882, took over, in spite of some diplomatic protests on the part of the Dutch and Spanish governments, all the sovereign and territorial rights ceded by the original grants, and proceeded under its charter to organize the administration of the territory.
The relatively detailed information which we possess concerning the federal governments of Greece makes it necessary to pay special attention to them.
Of all the federal governments of Greece, this league was the most certainly democratic in constitution.
Delegates of the various federated governments form the Bundesrath; the Reichstag, or popular assembly, is directly chosen by the people by universal suffrage; and the two assemblies constitute the federal parliament.
There is, however, a striking difference to be observed in the powers of the federal governments of Canada and Australia.
In consequence of the alarm excited by this appearance of plague upon European soil, most European governments sent special commissions to the spot.
It occupies an advantageous position on the great artery of Russian trade, at a place where the manufactured and agricultural products of the basin of the Oka meet the metal wares from that of the Kama, the corn and salt brought from the south-eastern governments, the produce of the Caspian fisheries, and the various wares imported from Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasia and Persia.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington, founded by Andrew Carnegie in 1902 and endowed by him with $22,000,000 ($10,000,000 in 1902; $12,000,000 later), is designed "to encourage in the broadest and most liberal manner, investigation, research and discovery, and the application of knowledge to the improvement of mankind; and in particular to conduct, endow and assist investigation in any department of science, literature or art, and to this end to co-operate with governments, universities, colleges, technical schools, learned societies and individuals; to appoint committees of experts to direct special lines of research; to publish and distribute documents; and to conduct lectures, hold meetings and acquire and maintain a library."
The more complete isolation of the regular clergy, however, together with their direct relation to the Holy See, has made them, not only the more effective instruments of papal authority, but more obnoxious to the peoples and governments of countries where they have gained any considerable power.
Its real object is to attack such professedly Catholic governments as have fallen in with modern ideas - as for instance, by allowing freedom of worship to their Protestant subjects, or by refusing to punish brawling in Catholic churches more severely than other breaches of the peace.
On the other side, he addressed himself to the analysis of man considered as a political being, to the anatomy of constitutions and the classification of governments, to the study of motives underlying public action, the secrets of success and the causes of failure in the conduct of affairs.
The quality of the bulk of the Austro-Hungarian wines has been improved of late years, principally owing to the endeavours of the respective governments to introduce scientific and modern methods among the wine-farmers.
It touches at its south-eastern extremity the government of St Petersburg, includes the northern half of Lake Ladoga, and is separated from the Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and Olonets by a sinuous line which follows, roughly speaking, the water-parting between the rivers flowing into the Baltic Sea and the White Sea.
The country was divided into six governments, a second superior court of justice was founded at Vasa, many new towns were built, commerce flourished, and science and art were encouraged.
Thus the amount and character of public ex penditure necessarily depends on the functions that the state undertakes to perform - national defence, the maintenance of internal' order, and the efficient equipment of the state organization; such are the tasks that all governments have to discharge, and for their cost due provision has to be made.
To national debts there has been added a great mass of municipal and local indebtedness, which seems likely to equal, or even exceed in magnitude the liabilities of the central governments.
Kearny was ordered to undertake the conquest of New Mexico and California and to " establish temporary civil governments therein."
The downriver traffic consists chiefly of manufactured goods and timber, the latter mostly for the treeless governments of Samara, Saratov and Astrakhan, as well as for the region adjacent to the lower course of the Don.
But on the eve of the occupation of Casale by the French, Mattioli - actuated by a tardy sense of patriotism or by the hope of further gain - betrayed the transaction to the governments of Austria, Spain, Venice and Savoy.
The forces of the British Crown may be classed as (a) the regular, or general service, army, together with the Indian army; and (b) the home territorial force; while there are also certain forces controlled by the governments of the various selfgoverning dominions.
Forces of the Dominions and Colonies.-Lord Kitchener and Sir John French in1909-1910paid visits of inspection to Australia and Canada in connexion with the reorganization by the local governments of their military forces, and a beginning was made of a common organization of the forces of the empire in the colonial military conference of 1909.
The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion.
In 1871 he proceeded to America and Europe at the head of an imposing embassy of some fifty persons, the object being to explain to foreign governments the actual conditions existing in Japan, and to pave the way for negotiating new treaties consistent with her sovereign rights.
This approximation between the two governments was happily followed by friendly feelings between the two nations, under the pressure of a common danger.
The result of the negotiations was published in a so-called " communique," dated the 24th of March 1903, in which, among other things, it was proposed that the relations of the separate consuls to the joint ministry of foreign affairs and the embassies should be arranged by identical laws, which could not be altered or repealed without the consent of the governments of the two countries.
From that date up to 1830 there were no less than ten governments, while three different constitutions were proclaimed.
In the various engagements throughout the conflict more than r o,000 lives were lost, and the joint expenditure of the two governments on military preparations and the purchase of war material exceeded 10,000,000 sterling.
An unfortunate occurrence soon after the close of the revolution brought strained relations for a short period between the governments of the United States and Chile.
On the 17th of April 1896 another protocol was drawn up, by which the contending parties agreed to submit any differences to the arbitration of Great Britain, at the instance of one or both governments.
The governments of both countries began to purchase large supplies of war material, and generally to make preparations for a possible conflict.
Senor Errazuriz weakly gave way, and a decree was promulgated placing the 1899, and the verdict was accepted unreservedly by both governments.
The year closed with a frontier incident between Chile and Argentina in the disputed territory of Ultima Esperanza, where some Argentine colonists were ejected by Chilean police; but both governments signed protocols agreeing not to take aggressive action in consequence.