We have no control over what the government does.
Government is a great achievement of civilization.
He must keep order, keep the law, that's what the government is there for.
It is unprecedented for so many nations to change their form of government so quickly and peacefully.
It was a government business agency.
It is part of government's commitment to support families.
Not only are we eliminating historically warlike forms of government, we are replacing them with peaceful ones, namely democracy.
Why were bundles of useless papers from the government offices, and Leppich's balloon and other articles removed?
It was government's proposal to introduce a formalized resettlement program.
Chance forms the characters of the rulers of France, who submit to him; chance forms the character of Paul I of Russia who recognizes his government; chance contrives a plot against him which not only fails to harm him but confirms his power.
People can come together and choose a form of government suitable to them.
She rubbed her face and considered ignoring her instinct, wanting to give the high-level government members the benefit of the doubt.
His words are wisdom to those legislators who contemplate no essential reform in the existing government; but for thinkers, and those who legislate for all time, he never once glances at the subject.
In the end, the federal government had to change its approach and send another question to the Supreme Court.
"The government pretty much abandoned us," Kelli said, tone hardening.
There will be no peace talks between the PMF and the government now.
Aid workers accuse the government of mistreating refugees as part of an effort to get them to resettle in camps in Albania.
Government is the servant of the people, not the master.
The British government, which is believed to know the extent of the arms importation, has refused to release its official figures.
It is not many moments that I live under a government, even in this world.
If this happens, the government becomes an agent that works against the very ideals it purports to protect.
I need a listing of the government departments.
The government of the world I live in was not framed, like that of Britain, in after-dinner conversations over the wine.
Though this news was being concealed from the inhabitants, the officials--the heads of the various government departments--knew that Moscow would soon be in the enemy's hands, just as Count Rostopchin himself knew it, and to escape personal responsibility they had all come to the governor to ask how they were to deal with their various departments.
Guard dogs trotted forward to sniff him and his men while a doctor in a blue government jumpsuit approached them, eyes pinned to the injured man carried between two others.
The area beyond the gates and inspections was quiet, with men and women dressed in government uniforms touring the compound like it was any other day and not possibly the last day of the world.
I worry we won't be enough to maintain government ops for much longer.
Today I would like to highlight how a conservative government will support farmers.
Members of the elite federal government and military personnel darted between greencars and buildings, the buzz of radios and shouts adding to the compound's chaos.
The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it.
That is all the government needs to tax to bring in the $300 per person per year.
Others say poor nations need to develop free markets in agriculture and strongly discourage government intervention.
Is the government involved, or backing her in some way?
The campaign has written to the local mayor urging the government to implement the program on time.
It was city government's intention that developers should meet the total costs of major developments.
We receive more than half of our central funding from the federal government, the rest coming from local county taxes.
There were bazaars, shops, warehouses, market stalls, granaries--for the most part still stocked with goods-- and there were factories and workshops, palaces and wealthy houses filled with luxuries, hospitals, prisons, government offices, churches, and cathedrals.
Auril's main focus is to lobby government and industry leaders on university/industry research.
Electronic transfers mean the money of a government, business, or individual might be anywhere at any time.
Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
She dressed in a comfortable uniform marking her as a civilian member of the government service before hesitating to choose what uniforms to bring: the summer- or winter-weight uniforms.
He stood ramrod straight—a movie star, not a government employee.
Sometimes the poor cut out the middleman of government entirely.
Alpatych named others, but they too, according to Dron, had no horses available: some horses were carting for the government, others were too weak, and others had died for want of fodder.
It's not easy with these guys; they're a level of government all to themselves.
It had been addressed to the Peace Command Center—the site where peace had been declared and the new government created after the East-West Civil War—in Colorado.
Sometimes countries simply nationalize industries, so that an enterprise once owned by a private company, often a foreign-based one, is taken over by the government or "the people."
Let every man make known what kind of government would command his respect, and that will be one step toward obtaining it.
As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
But it is the fault of the government itself that the remedy is worse than the evil.
Anyone who loves civilization necessarily appreciates the role of government in protecting liberties.
How is this need filled without government involvement?
I realize in these pages I must seem very distrustful of government, but it is not really true.
He distrusted government and said 'that government governs best which governs least.'
Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.
The Iraqi forces continue to exercise their legitimate right to self-defense and the Iraqi government justly points the finger at the aggressor.
After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
Now that there was no government, she was nothing!
How does it become a man to behave toward this American government to-day?
For these reasons and a hundred more, government should be the smallest unit that is economically and politically viable.
Tim, his government contact and the highest-ranking individual in the PMF, was already on screen when Brady entered the comms center.
The government is splintering, Lana, he continued.
No government is involved in these organizations, which are instead driven by a combination of religious and civic motives.
The government operating in its correct role is instrumental to civilization.
Free and peaceful societies function best when government is transparent and open.
If Howie wants to continue, let him do it under the some government program.
Now let's look at the role of government, both philosophically and historically, which also changes over time.
Lana, you know enough about the PMF to know they're the only force—perhaps in the world—with the ability to survive the government tearing itself apart.
No, not without the help of his friendly government agent.
The grand coalition government of the center right and center left in Germany is pushing through retirement at 67.
Carried out, it finally amounts to this, which also I believe,--"That government is best which governs not at all"; and when men are prepared for it, that will be the kind of government which they will have.
If he knew something was about to happen, then others within the government did as well.
You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
Brady glanced up at Elise's hard tone, sensing she'd not yet absorbed the fact the government she served had splintered.
When I meet a government which says to me, "Your money or your life," why should I be in haste to give it my money?
What would then have become of the activity of all those who opposed the tendency that then prevailed in the government--an activity that in the opinion of the historians was good and beneficent?
Now, instead of just intellectually engaging with the news, we feel the government brutality, we experience the war, we are electrified by the demonstrations, and we are horrified at the suffering.
Government is at best but an expedient; but most governments are usually, and all governments are sometimes, inexpedient.
Why would the United States government help Jeffrey Byrne?
I mention FactCheck and Snopes as two examples of the many enterprises on the Internet that subject every government utterance to scrutiny in something approximating real time.
The government has been divided since the war, but it didn't seem possible that this could happen.
If the government offices were removed, this was only done on the demand of officials to whom the count yielded reluctantly.
Fred asked, surprising the government agent.
The government was inclined to believe the nervousness was due to Arthur's need for a lot of money in a hurry.
In other words, civil government steps in to take over roles traditionally provided by private charity only when charities no longer provide the service.
Rarely in history has a government wrested away a functioning, privately funded solution in favor of a government entitlement.
All of this means examples of atrocities by the government or by the mob are increasingly likely to be documented and publicized.
Having said all of that, government should certainly be watched with a suspicious eye, for it could conceivably delay or derail our ascent to the next golden age.
After the War, the government created seven protected sites around the world with only one person at the site knowing what was there and security measures that were beyond anything the Peak had.
But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.
This is all a new fishing hole and that's all these government guys are doing.
If the Federal Government is continuing to dog us, they are doing so clandestinely, as we've heard nothing of their activities.
Other than cataclysm, asymmetrical attack, or government gone wild, we have little to worry about.
The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.
Barely a decade earlier, Cleveland, also a Democrat, had said essentially, "Look, the government shouldn't be helping the poor Texans; that's the role of charity."
After all, that's the government taking more than half of what you make.
To elevate food to the status of a human right does not require government to administer it—far from it.
After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
The Horsemen was the tongue in cheek name given to the government program that placed a series of devices across the world, both in enemy and friendly countries.
Although this "much-abused prelate," as Lecky calls him, was a firm supporter of the English government in Ireland, he was far from being a man of tyrannical or intolerant disposition.
We have already mentioned the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends are to be realized.
That's what the government is for.
This is one of the few areas in which government taxation actually leads to a more efficient outcome.
I cannot for an instant recognize that political organization as my government which is the slave's government also.
In fact, we don't simply buy more government, but we give it a disproportionate amount of our increased income.
Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
The government is crippled.
She was trained to assess, protect, repair, and sustain government systems through any kind of crisis.
This sort of thing is usually done via the witness protection program but I once heard of a situation where fake papers were assembled independent of any government agency.
Even the government questioned us.
They were headed to Tennessee but we heard something bad happened, split the government at the top level.
The Napoleonic government and army are destroyed.
Government buildings were converted into silos to hold the abundance, as other countries in the region placed orders for massive amounts of these seeds.
He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
I do not hesitate to say, that those who call themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually withdraw their support, both in person and property, from the government of Massachusetts, and not wait till they constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the right to prevail through them.
And, the government chose to pursue the PMF rather than risk another civil war by going after people with a lot of influence and money.
Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
The society need not be secret if the government allows it.
We could always go back to throw away phones but even those were suspect when our pursuer was a high level government agency.
The idea that a person can be a political prisoner, jailed for his beliefs about government, politics, or politicians, is ancient but happily fading.
As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
It seems that we can afford to spend more on government as income rises.
In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
I heartily accept the motto,--"That government is best which governs least"; and I should like to see it acted up to more rapidly and systematically.
But instead of all that--here he was, the wealthy husband of an unfaithful wife, a retired gentleman-in-waiting, fond of eating and drinking and, as he unbuttoned his waistcoat, of abusing the government a bit, a member of the Moscow English Club, and a universal favorite in Moscow society.
Alpatych went to the shops, to government offices, to the post office, and to the Governor's.
Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
But you also say that our oath of allegiance is a conditional matter, and to that I reply: 'You are my best friend, as you know, but if you formed a secret society and began working against the government- -be it what it may--I know it is my duty to obey the government.
If an incident occurred, why was no one else in the government service housing community awake?
The PMF was the only party standing while the government tore itself apart.
They would say, If government is obligated to protect its citizens from a foreign invader, then it is obligated to protect them from a criminal.
And to avoid being imprisoned for the remainder, as the creditors threatened, he re-entered the government service.
The government must reflect the different values these groups have.
Practically speaking, governments often act as if their first duty is to protect the government, not the people.
Men generally, under such a government as this, think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.
But it is not the less necessary for this; for the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have.
I agree with Dan—someone in the government wants to start another civil war.
The balance goes in a slush fund—to fix windshields of government cars that get smashed by trashcans—stuff like that.
These are the measures the government has adopted to re- establish order and relieve your condition.
Government will splinter once the attacks occur.
In other words, the government taxes and spends about $300 per person per year.
Denisov, dissatisfied with the government on account of his own disappointments in the service, heard with pleasure of the things done in Petersburg which seemed to him stupid, and made forcible and sharp comments on what Pierre told them.
The questions put by these two kept the conversation from changing its ordinary character of gossip about the higher government circles.
Everything is strained to such a degree that it will certainly break, said Pierre (as those who examine the actions of any government have always said since governments began).
Not merely is it not hostile to government, but it is a society of true conservatives--a society of gentlemen in the full meaning of that word.
I told Tim I was done with government service.
Accountability must be at as low a level as possible, so that if government officials mess up, they answer to constituents in their locality.
Faceless government in a distant land is no one's idea of paradise.
If you made a product the military could use, government contracts came a-flowin'.
This is not to say that businesses are so materialistic they will favor a war to get a government contract.
You would argue that no other widget on the market can beat the C2000, no nation can ever gain widget superiority if the government just buys the C2000—and so they do.
The prince, who generally kept very strictly to social distinctions and rarely admitted even important government officials to his table, had unexpectedly selected Michael Ivanovich (who always went into a corner to blow his nose on his checked handkerchief) to illustrate the theory that all men are equals, and had more than once impressed on his daughter that Michael Ivanovich was "not a whit worse than you or I."
They abused the police and bribed them, made out estimates at ten times their value for government stores that had perished in the fire, and demanded relief.
The way to end war is not to set up some big world government or eliminate nation-states, which will always retain the right to take unilateral military action to defend themselves.
Why do I say world government is not a good idea and nation-states are?
Winston explained that Arthur had recently contacted the government about supplying information on his Philadelphia clients because, he claimed, he was beginning to get nervous.
This was no normal government compound, he realized.
I don't want to end up working for the government.
He was ruthless, beyond loyal to the few he trusted, and quick to use his influence to get Brady access to any of the government's supplies, technology, intelligence, and anything else Brady requested it.
There are many secrets in the government.
I figured I'd open the door and then pawn her off as a companion to someone in the government.
We've all but taken over the military and have people in all levels of government.
I see them once a year at most, but you had access to me and the government's secrets that would've put you in danger had anyone found out.
As much as she didn't want to admit it, there was no way of knowing who the bad guys were, not with Mr. Tim's information about the shadow government.
These rules were borrowed almost word for word from the project drawn up at the Brussels international conference of 1874, which, though never ratified, was practically incorporated in the army regulations issued by the Russian government in connexion with the war of 18 77-7 8.
Under the Restoration he became a peer of France, but protested against the reactionary spirit of the government, and remained in opposition.
In 1283 his father entrusted him with their sole government, and he appears to have ruled them with conspicuous success.
It was a time when, under able leaders, a great national party was beginning the struggle for reform against the stagnant Austrian government.
At last, in 1844, the government succeeded in breaking his connexion with the paper.
About a hundred members who refused to engage not to attempt to change the form of government were excluded on the 12th of September.
Maybe not the entire government.
I left my ID at the Peak and disabled my government implant.
Monarchies—the most prevalent form of government in human history—are disproportionately warlike for a number of reasons.
He sponsored my entrance into government service.
Government clerks set up their baize- covered tables and their pigeonholes of documents in small rooms.
The government agents who dogged him have given up chase for the so called tipster so he is free to finally enjoy his retirement.
Government and Administration.
Instrument Of Government >>
Ginnasi Government 13,875 24,081 192
Technical schools Government 7,510 30,411 188
Licei Government 6,623 10,983 121
Technical institutes Government 5,555 9,654 54
In the third place it was marked by a decline of good government in Rome.
Brennan offered to pay us but we collectively agreed to not become wards of the government.
During exercises, the government's premier contingency operations compound in the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee was populated only by maintenance crews and a few relaxed guards.
Her years of training led her to a conclusion she couldn't yet embrace: that the only way to hide the large-scaled planning would require someone on the inside of the government.
She was a fed, and a powerful one if she held the keys to the government's secret emerops facilities.
The nasty field that dissolved any type of biological entity was one of the government's latest controversial creations.
If well placed, it could wipe out the government.
The fighters were armed as well as the army and the government's special protective services and in many cases, with the same equipment.
PMF spies warning our Eastern adversaries in the government.
She'd removed her personal identifiers, hacked into the government's tracking mainframe to deactivate the implant in her brain, and changed into the black tactical uniform Elise brought her over her civilian grays.
As deputy he had no vote, and he naturally took little share in the debates, but it was part of his duty to send written reports of the proceedings to his patron, since the government, with a well-grounded fear of all that might stir popular feeling, refused to allow any published reports.
He continued the paper in MS., and when the government refused to allow it to be circulated through the post sent it out by hand.
Between 1882 and 1902 over 4,000,000was spent on this by the government).
The Diet, which met in 1839, supported the agitation for the release of the prisoners, and refused to pass any government measures; Metternich long remained obdurate, but the danger of war in 1840 obliged him to give way.
Strangely enough, the government did not refuse its consent.
The attempts of the government to counteract his influence by founding a rival paper, the Vilag, only increased his importance and added to the political excitement.
In a personal interview Metternich offered to take him into the government service.
A new paper was started, to which was given the name of Kossuth Hirlapia, so that from the first it was Kossuth rather than the Palatine or the president of the ministry whose name was in the minds of the people associated with the new government.
With marvellous energy he kept in his own hands the direction of the whole government.
For the time the future form of government was left undecided, but Kossuth was appointed responsible governor.
The act was strongly opposed by the government of Queensland, and the question was raised as to whether it was based on a true interpretation of the constitution.
The British minister demanded from the national government M`Leod's release, but his case was in the New York courts, over which the national government has no jurisdiction.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
Even, therefore, where people desired the Reformation there were powerful influences opposed to the setting up of church government and to the exercise of church discipline after the manner of the apostolic Church; and one ceases to wonder at the absence of complete Presbyterianism in the countries which were forward to embrace and adopt the Reformation.
By them he was to be ordained, after vowing to be true in office, faithful to the church system, obedient to the laws and to the civil government, and ready to exercise discipline without fear or favour.
` It is interesting to see how in a country whose civil rule was becoming gradually more absolutist, this ` Church under the cross' framed for itself a government which reconciled, more thoroughly perhaps than has ever been done since, the two principles of popular rights and supreme control.
The Reformed churches had established themselves in independence of the state when that state was Catholic; when the government became Protestant the Church had protection and at the same time became dependent.
Thus, although the congregations were Presbyterian, the civil government retained overwhelming influence.
We will not open to churchmen a door for a new mastership over government and subjects, wife and child."From 1618 a modified Presbyterian polity predominated.
After the Restoration the determination of the government to put down Presbyterianism was speedily felt in Ireland.
This adopting act allowed scruples as to "articles not essential and necessary in doctrine, worship or government" - the presbytery being judge in the case and not the subscriber.
As a republic its government was mainly in the hands of the Rossi, Pallavicino, Correggio and Sanvitale families.
The new duke, unwilling to yield to the wishes of his people for greater political liberty, was soon compelled to take flight, and the duchy was for a time ruled by a provisional government and by Charles Albert of Sardinia; but in April 1849 Baron d'Aspre with 15,000 Austrians took possession of Parma, and the ducal government was restored under Austrian protection.
Irish State Paper Office) setting forth the grievances which Ireland had suffered in the past, chiefly on account of the exorbitant pensions enjoyed by government officials.
He introduced the Thurman Bill, for which he was chiefly responsible, which became law in May 1878, and readjusted the government's relations with the bond-aided Pacific railways.
During the Reconstruction the people of the South were divided thus: nearly all native whites (the most prominent of whom were disfranchised) on one side irrespective of former political faith, and on the other side the ex-slaves organized and led by a few native and Northern whites called respectively scalawags and carpet-baggers, who were supported by the United States government and who controlled the Southern state governments.
During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
The postal and telegraph services are administered by the national government, and are under the immediate supervision of the minister of the interior.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
Under the constitution, the provinces retain all the powers not delegated to the federal government.
Each elects its governor, legislators and provincial functionaries of all classes, without the intervention of the federal government.
The territories are under the direct control of the national government .
The government maintains a naval school at Flores, a school of mechanics in Buenos Aires, an artillery school on the cruiser " Patagonia," and a school for torpedo practice at La Plata.
It is under the control of the national government, which in 1902 maintained 19 colleges.
The national government has founded several scholarships (some in art) for study abroad.
The collection of a part of the import duties in gold has served to give the government the gold it requires for certain expenditures, but it has complicated returns and accounts and increased the burden of taxation.
In Argentina these burdens bear heavily upon the labouring classes, and in years of depression they send away by thousands immigrants unable to meet the high costs of living, For the year 1900 the total expenditures of the national government, 14 provincial governments, and 16 principal cities, were estimated to have been $208,811,925 paper, which is equivalent to $91,877,247 gold, or (at $5.04 per pound stg.) to £18,229,612, ios.
The population that year was estimated to be 4,794,149, from which it is seen that the annual costs of government were no less than £3,16s.
Under the provisions of this law the provinces were authorized to borrow specie abroad and deposit the same with the national government as security for their issues.
The national government has since assumed responsibility for all these provincial loans abroad.
In 1620 Buenos Aires was separated from the authority of the government established at Asuncion, and was made the seat of a government extending over Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Corrientes, but at the same time remained like the government of Paraguay at Asuncion, and that of the province of Tucuman, which had Cordoba as its capital, subject to the authority of the viceroyalty of Peru.
But the Spanish government was not content with the prohibition of sea-borne commerce.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
The Spanish government did not, however, formally acknowledge the independence of the country until the year 1842.
In every department of administration and of government he was supreme.
A provisional government was formed under Urquiza, and the Brazilian and Uruguayan troops withdrew.
A constituent congress, in which each province had equal representation, was duly gress had (May 1, 1853) appointed Urquiza president of the confederation, and he established the seat of government at Parana.
Urquiza at this juncture resigned the presidency, and Doctor Santiago Derqui was elected president of the fourteen provinces with the seat of government at Parana; while Urquiza became once more governor of Entre Rios, and Mitre was appointed governor of Buenos Aires.
The government troops gained two decisive victories over the insurgents under Generals Mitre and Arredondo, and they were compelled to surrender at discretion.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
Two days later, the national government occupied, with a strong force of infantry and artillery, the parade ground at Palermo used by the Buenos Aires volunteers for drill purposes.
Negotiations were now opened by the government with the provincial authorities for the disarmament of the city and province of Buenos Aires, but they led to nothing.
The The national government and the twelve provinces forming the Cordoba League, were ranged on one side; the city and province of Buenos Aires and the province of Corrientes on the other.
One of the first notable acts of the Roca administration was to declare the city of Buenos Aires the property of the national government.
Amidst this sea of financial troubles the government drifted helplessly on, without showing any inclination or capacity to initiate a strong policy of reform in the methods of administration which had done so much to ruin the country.
This capture so alarmed the national government that a force was sent under the command of Roca to put down the insurrection.
They were sentenced to banishment in Staten Island at the pleasure of the federal government.
In January 1895 a special session of congress was summoned to take into consideration the financial proposals of the government, which included an increase in the naval and military estimates.
The Argentine government, though disappointed at the result, accepted the award loyally.
By the powerful influence of the president, government measures were sanctioned by the legislature dealing with the abuses.
The official value of the dollar was fixed at 44 cents gold for all government purposes.
The bishops and archbishops, formerly nominated by the government and canonically confirmed by the pope, are now chosen by the latter.
The appointment of cures rested with the bishops and had to be confirmed by the government, but this confirmation is now dispensed with.
Both Protestant churches have a parochial organization and a presbyterian form of church government.
At Paris is the central consistory, controlled by the government and presided over by the supreme grand rabbi.
Three societies demand special mention: the Union centrale des agriculteurs de France, to which the above syndicates are affiliated; the Sociit nationale dagriculture, whose mission is to further agricultural progress and to supply the government with information on everything appertaining thereto and the Socit des agriculteurs de France.
The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
In 1878 it agreed to spend 20,000,000 in purchasing and completing a number of these lines, some of which were handed over to the great companies, while others were retained in the hands of the government, forming the system known as the Chemins de Fer de lEtat.
All the companies, except the Nord, have at one time or another had to take advantage of the guarantee, and the fact that the Ouest had been one of the most persistent and heavy borrowers in this respect was one of the reasons that induced the government to take it over as from the 1st of January 1909.
It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.
Central Government.The principles upon which the French constitution is based are representative government (by two chambers), manhood suffrage, responsibility of ministers and irresponsibility of the head of the state.
Either house may pass a vote of no confidence in the government, and in practice the government resigns in face of the passing of such a vote by the deputies, but not if it is passed by the Senate only.
When a change of Government occurs the president chooses a prominent parliamentarian as premier and president of the council.
Individual ministers are responsible for all acts done in connection with their own dpartments, and the body of ministers collectively is responsible for the general policy of the government.
The theory of droit administratif lays down the principle that an agent of the government cannot be prosecuted or sued for acts relating to his administrative functions before the ordinary tribunals.
At the head of each department is a prefect, a political official nominated by the minister of the interior and appointed by the president, who acts as general agent of the government and renresentative of the central authority.
The prefect supervises the execution of the laws; has wide authority in regard to policing, public hygiene and relief of pauper children; has the nomination of various subordinate officials; and is in correspondence with the subordinate functionaries in his department, to whom he transmits the orders and instructions of the government.
The general council controls the departmental administration of the prefect, and its decisions on points of local government are usually final.
The expenditure of the government has several times been regulated for as long as six months upon this system.
Besides receiving taxes, they pay the creditors of the state in their departments, conduct all operations affecting departmental loans, buy and sell government stock (rentes) on behalf of individuals, and conduct certain banking operations.
This large increase is to be accounted for by the fact that during the Napoleonic rgime the government steadily refused to issue inconvertible paper currency or to meet war expenditure by borrowing.
The military government of Lyons is another independent and special command; it comprises practically the XIV.
The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
In each of the governments general there is a financial controller with extensive powers who corresponds directly with the metropolitan authorities (decree of March 22, 1907)., Details and local differences hi form of government will be found under the headings of the various colonies and protectorates.
Arnold (London, 1888); articles on Local Government in France in the Stock Exchange Official Intelligence Annuals (London, I908 and 1909); M.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
Although holding an office of subordinate rank, he was the chief defender of the government in the House of Commons, and during the time that Pitt was in opposition had to bear the brunt of his attacks.
But in 1756, when the government was evidently approaching its fall, an unexpected vacancy occurred in the chief justiceship of the king's bench, and he claimed the office, being at the same time raised to the peerage as Baron Mansfield.
other instances, when the government was equally concerned, he was wholly free from suspicion.
(For the political history of Prince Alexander's reign, see Bulgaria.) Without any previous training in the art of government, the young prince from the outset found himself confronted with difficulties which would have tried the sagacity of an experienced ruler.
He soon, however, returned to Bulgaria, owing to the success of the counterrevolution led by Stamboloff, which overthrew the provisional government set up by the Russian party at Sofia.
His best-known work, entitled De Republica Anglorum: the Maner of Government or Policie of the Realme of England, was published posthumously in 1583, and passed through many editions.
Opposite the cathedral is the government palace, which also contains the public library.
The municipal government is housed in an ancient tobacco factory converted to public uses, and a fine old Capuchin convent now serves as a public hospital.
A further persecution of Christians in Uea, during 1875, called forth a protest from the British government.
BOLKHOV, a town of Russia, in the government of Orel, and 35 M.
So long as the island retained its independence the government was an oligarchy.
TSARITSYN, a town of Russia, in the government of Saratov, situated on the right bank of the Volga, where it suddenly turns towards the south-east, 40 m.
The cabinet noir has now disappeared, but the right to open letters in cases of emergency appears still to be retained by the French government; and a similar right is occasionally exercised in England under the direction of a secretary of state, and, indeed, in all civilized countries.
Archelaus, Herod's successor, had far less authority than Herod, and the real power of government at Jerusalem was assumed by the Roman procurators, in the time of one of whom, Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was condemned to death and crucified outside Jerusalem.
He gave so much trouble to the Madrid governments that they organized a watch over him with the assistance of the French government and police, especially when it was discovered that the two military movements of August 1883 and September 1886 had been prepared and assisted by him.
During the last two years of his life Ruiz Zorilla became less active; failing health and the loss of his wife had decreased his energies, and the Madrid government allowed him to return to Spain some months before he died at Burgos, on the 1 3 th of June 1895, of heart disease.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
deep. In New South Wales by the 30th of June 1903, the government had put down 101 bores producing 66 flowing wells and 22 sub-artesian wells, with a total discharge of 54,000,000 gallons a day; and there were also 144 successful private wells.
During 1906 a more rational view of the value of immigration was adopted by the various state governments and by the federal government, and immigration to Australia is now systematically encouraged.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
But a reorganization of the military forces, on the basis of obligatory national training, was already contemplated, though the first Bill introduced for this purpose by Mr Deakin's government (Sept.
in this mineral, according to the reports of Dr Jack, late Government geologist of the former state, and the late Rev. J.
Dr Jack, late government geologist of Queensland, considers the extent of the coal-fields of that state to be practically unlimited, and is of opinion that the carboniferous formations extend to a considerable distance under the Great Western Plains.
This sum represents the interest payable on government loans placed outside Australia, mainly in England, and the income from British and other capital invested in the country; the former may be estimated at £7,300,000 and the latter £8,000,000 per annum.
In several of the states, New South Wales and South Australia proper, the railways yield more than the interest paid by the government on the money borrowed for their construction.
The divergence of policy of that state from that pursued by the other states was caused by the inability of the government to construct lines, when the extension of the railway system was urgently needed in the interests of settlement.
The postal services and the telegraphs are administered by the federal government.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
The federal government has no public debt, but each of the six states has contracted debts which aggregate £237,000,000, equal to about £58, 8s.
The ceremony of hoisting a flag and taking possession of the country in the name of the government of the Netherlands was actually performed, but the description of the wildness of the country, and of the fabulous giants by which Tasman's sailors believed it to be inhabited, deterred the Dutch from occupying the island, and by the international principle of " non-user " it passed from their hands.
A military station having been fixed by the British government at Port Victoria, on the coast of Arnheim Land, for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route between this settlement and Moreton Bay, in what then was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called Queensland.
Mr Gosse, with men and horses provided by the South Australian government, started on the 21st of April from the telegraph station So m.
John (afterwards Sir John) Forrest was despatched by the Perth government with general instructions to obtain information regarding the immense tract of country out of which flow the rivers falling into the sea on the northern and western shores of Western Australia.
Alive to the importance of the trade, the South Australian government despatched Hiibbe from Oodnadatta to Coolgardie.
At the beginning of 1860, when the excitement of the gold discoveries was wearing off, five of the states had received from the home government the boon of responsible government, and were in a position to work out the problem of their position without external interference; it was not, however, until 1890 that Western Australia was placed in a similar position.
After the establishment of responsible government the main issue was how to tax the citizens.
Sir Henry Parkes was elected president, and he moved a series of resolutions embodying the principles necessary to establish, on an enduring foundation, the structure of a federal government.
The powers and rights of existing colonies to remain intact, except as regards such powers as it may be necessary to hand over to the Federal government.
Power to impose customs and excise duties to be in the Federal government and parliament.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
Bills imposing taxation or appropriating revenue must not originate in the Senate, and neither taxation bills nor bills appropriating revenue for the annual service of the government may be amended in the Senate, but the Senate may return such bills to the House of Representatives with a request for their amendment.
The seat of government was to be within New South Wales, not less than 100 m.
Riotous scenes occurred both in Sydney and on the coal-fields, and a large number of special constables were sworn in by the government.
It supports the government as the power alone capable of promoting legislation, but its support is given only so long as the measures of the government are consistent with the Labour policy.
The party is, however, formed on a broader basis than the state parties, the solidarity pledge extends only to votes upon which the fate of a government depends.
More than one change of government occurred before the bill became law in April 1908.
Garran, The Coming Commonwealth: a Handbook of Federal Government (Sydney, 1897); George William Rusden, History of Australia, 3 vols.
The Austrian government has here a large stud.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
The Dutch government claimed the wreck and granted one-third of the salvage to bullion-fishers.
He retired into what Bright called the "Cave of Adullam," and opposed the bill in a series of brilliant speeches, which raised his reputation as an orator to its highest point and effectually caused the downfall of the government.
In 1873 he was transferred to the Home Office, but in 1874 the government resigned.
Mehemet Ali, who was the viceroy of Egypt, owed his position, to a certain extent, to the recommendations made in his behalf to the French government by Mathieu de Lesseps, who was consul-general in Egypt when Mehemet Ali was a simple colonel.
Towards the close of the year 1837 he returned to France, and on the 21st of December married Mlle Agathe Delamalle, daughter of the government prosecuting attorney at the court of Angers.
In the latter year the government of the French Republic confided to him a mission to Rome at the moment when it was a question whether the expelled pope would return to the Vatican with or without bloodshed.
Following his interpretation of the instructions he had received, de Lesseps began negotiations with the existing government at Rome, according to which Pius IX.
But while he was negotiating, the elections in France had caused a change in the foreign policy of the government.
The Egyptian government subscribed for eighty millions' worth of shares.
de Brazza's explorations, and acquired stations that he subsequently abandoned to the French government.
In the first Gladstone administration he held a variety of public offices, finally becoming, in 1871, the first president of the local government board.
In the same year Stansfeld again became president of the local government board.
Godfrey of Verdun was invested by him with the government of Lower Lorraine (Nieder-LOthringen).
develop, orderly government to be carried on, and the general condition of the people to be less hopeless and miserable.
They had united under their sway a number of provinces with different histories and institutions and speaking different languages, and their aim was to centralize the government.
Yet despite the efforts of the government the Reformation made progress in the land.
This extremely able man, a Burgundian by birth, was the son of one of Charles V.'s most trusted councillors, and it was largely to him that the government of the Netherlands was confided.
The prince now took up his permanent residence at Delft, and a regular government was established, in which he exercised almost dictatorial authority.
It was on this question that Bonner came into conflict with Edward's government.
The plantations are almost entirely owned by the government and Europeans, but the rice mills are in the hands of Chinese.
Two government dry docks are available for merchant vessels.
He believed that the Union could be saved without a war, and that a policy of delay would prevent the secession of the border states, which in turn would gradually coax their more southern neighbours back into their proper relations with the Federal government.
There was a struggle between the two branches of government, the Executive and Congress.
During the eleven years of government without parliament very little is recorded of Cromwell.
In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
The special form of government was not the important point, but its possibility and its acceptability.
The great problem was to found a stable government, an authority to keep order.
If every man should fight for the best form of government the state would come to desolation.
The Roman Catholic landowners lost their estates, all or part according to their degree of guilt, and these were distributed among Cromwell's soldiers and the creditors of the government; Cromwell also invited new settlers from home and from New England, two-thirds of the whole land of Ireland being thus transferred to new proprietors.
of about one-third of the estates to the royalists - survived, and added to the difficulties with which the English government was afterwards confronted in Ireland.
The estates of only twenty-four leaders of the defeated cause were forfeited by Cromwell, and the national church was left untouched though deprived of all powers of interference with the civil government, the general assembly being dissolved in 1653.
This measure focuses on all three branches of the government - executive, legislative, and judicial.
On the 15th of April they proposed that the parliament should appoint a provisional government and dissolve itself.
It is probable that very little of this moral legislation was enforced in practice, though special efforts were made under the government of the major-generals.
Bordeaux, the French envoy in England, wrote that, in spite of the severe laws, the Romanists received better treatment under the Protectorate than under any other government.
to demonstrate that military government had given place to civil; for he approached his task in the same spirit that had prompted his declaration to the Little Parliament of his wish "to divest the sword of all power in the Civil administration."
Various dangerous plots against his government and person were at this time rife.
The military rule excited universal hostility; there was an earnest desire for a settled and constitutional government, and the revival of the monarchy in the person of Cromwell appeared the only way of obtaining it.
On the 25th of lvIarch the Remonstrance, now termed the Petition and Advice, and including a new scheme of government, was passed by a majority of 123 to 62 in spite of the opposition of the officers; and on the 31st it was presented to Cromwell in the Banqueting House at Whitehall whence Charles I.
Instead, however, of proceeding with the work of practical legislation, accepting the Instrument of Government without challenge as the basis of its authority, the parliament immediately began to discuss and find fault with the constitution and to debate about "Fundamentals."
White Church), a town of Russia, in the government of Kiev, 32 m.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
This road was practically abandoned when the Indian government telegraph line, which ran along it, was removed to a road farther east in 1906.
In the hill country are the government stations of Misahohe and Bismarckburg.
Government, eec. - The colony is administered by a governor who is advised by a nominated council of unofficial members.
The government maintains schools at all the coast towns.
At stated intervals the native chiefs are summoned to Lome to discuss administrative matters with the government.
1 It was said to have been founded by a band of emigrants from Phocis, under the guidance of two Athenian leaders, named Philogenes and Damon, but it joined the Ionian confederacy by accepting the government of Athenian rulers of the house of Codrus.
Phocaea continued to exist under the Persian government, but greatly reduced in population and commerce.
A college, founded by government in 1853, was made over in 1888 to a local committee, being mainly supported by the munificence of the rani Svarnamayi.
He immediately brought forward a scheme for improving the condi - tion of the poorer clergy by equalizing the incomes of the bishops, the reception of which at the time may be imagined, though it was substantially the same as that carried into effect by Lord Melbourne's government fifty years later.
His advice to the government in 1787 is said to have saved the country £ioo,000 a year in gunpowder.
He was estranged from many old friends who accused him, probably with injustice, of making his peace with the government.
On the outbreak of the Pindari War in 1817 the British government offered its protection.
Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
The Belgian government endeavoured by reducing rates and increasing facilities to stimulate inland telegraphy in the hope of thereby increasing the profits of the department.
In that year the Swiss government reduced the rate for inland telegrams by one-half, and the traffic immediately doubled, but the cost of carrying on the service increased in a larger ratio.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
After much negotiation the basis finally agreed upon between the government and the companies was 20 years' purchase of the profits of the year ended 30th June 1868.
The two cables to Holland and one of the cables to Germany were already the property of Great Britain, and the German Union Company's cable to Germany was purchased by the German government.
The offices of the Submarine Company in London, Dover, Ramsgate, East Dean and Jersey were purchased by the Post Office, as well as the cable ship; and the staff, 370 in number, was taken over by the government.
Government messages were accorded a rate of 2S.
The government policy would, they alleged, create an absolute and objectionable monopoly.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.
The service which the government and the colonies desire is one which neither the Eastern Telegraph Company nor any other private enterprise is prepared to undertake on terms which can be considered in comparison with the terms upon which it can be provided by the associated governments."
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
underground, and the total lengths of submarine cables of the world were 39,072 nautical miles under government administration and 194,751 nautical miles under the administration of private companies.
In the same year numerous experiments were tried with the assistance of an Italian battleship, the " Carlo Alberto," lent by the Italian government, and messages were transmitted from Poldhu to Kronstadt, to Spezia, and also to Sydney in Nova Scotia.
The decisions of the Conference were ratified for Great Britain by the British government on July 1, 1908.
On the 23rd of August 1873 it was bombarded by the Spanish fleet under Admiral Lobos; on the 11th of October a battle took place off the town, between the ships of the government and the rebels, and on the 12th of January 1874 Cartagena was occupied by the government troops.
Both the Bell and the Edison Companies opened negotiations with the Post Office for the sale of their patents to the government, but without success.
The new licences were to terminate in 1911 without any provision for purchase or compensation in that year, but with the option to the government to purchase the plant of the licensees in 1890, 1897, or 1904 at a price to be determined by arbitration.
The government had the option to buy out the: companies under the licences of 1884, but did not exercise it.
The government again changed its policy.
The draft agreement between the government and the National Telephone Company to carry out the policy of 1892 was submitted to parliament and led to much discussion.
The trunk wires were transferred to the Post Office in pursuance of the policy of 1892, but for all practical purposes the local authorities had vetoed the permission of the government to the company to lay wires underground.
The government had an option to purchase the plant of the company under the licences of 1884, but did not exercise it.
The policy of the government was again changed; Mr R.
The government policy of 1899 was abandoned in London, the Post Office making an agreement with the company in regard to the London business.
The government had option to purchase the company's provincial plant under the licence of 1884.
The government contracted to buy the company's plant in 1911, thus in effect annulling the act of 1899 which had failed to accomplish its object of establishing all-round competition.
These words seem to contain the mere truth: Francis's peculiar religious genius was probably not adapted for the government of an enormous society spread over the world, as the Friars Minor had now become.
The province is divided for administration into 42 circles (Kreise), 24 in the government of Cassel and 18 in that of Wiesbaden.
He was a leader of those who contended for reform in municipal government, was conspicuous for his public spirit, and exerted a great influence for good not only in New York City but in the state and nation.
Since tobacco is a government monopoly, its cultivation is subject to official concessions and prescriptions.
This has been encouraged by government prizes since 1904.
In 1902 there were 23,098 boats, manned by 101,720 men, and the total catch was valued at just over half a million sterlingaccording to the government figures, which are certainly below the truth.
The total salt production in 1902 was 458,497 tons, of which 248,2i5 were produced in the government salt factories and the rest in the free salt-works of Sicily.
A government weaving school was established in Naples in r9o6.
Milan and Genoa are the principal centres, and also the government military pharmaceutical factory at Turin.
The societies require government recognition if they wish to enjoy legal rights.
The schools which do not obtain equality with government schools are either some of those conducted by religious orders, or else those in which a sufficient standard is not reached.
The scuole normali or training schools (117 in number, of which 75 were government institutions) for teachers had 1329 male students in I 9011902, showing hardly any increase, while the female students increased from 8oo~ in 1882-1883 to 22,316 in 1895-1896, but decreased to 19,044 ifl 1901-1902, owing to the admission of women to telegraph and telephone work.
The female secondary schools in 1881-1882 numbered 77, of which 7 were government institutions, with 3569 pupils; in 1901f 902 there were 233 schools (9 governmental) with 9347 pupils.
Constitution and Government .T he - Vatican palace itself twith St Peters), the Lateran palace, and the papal villa at Castel Gandolfo have secured to them the privilege of extraterritoriality by the law of 1871.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
Each of the chambers has the right of introducing new bills, as has also the government; but all money bills must originate in the Chamber of Deputies.
Of these, 31,219 were in lockups, 25,145 in penal establishments, 1837 minors in government, and 4547 in private reformatories, and 307!
Land is not so heavily burdened by the government quota as by the additional centimes imposed by the provincial and communal authorities.
On an average Italian landowners pay nearly 25% of their revenues from land in government and local land tax.
It is only in Rome and Naples tha S the octroi is collected directly by the government, which pays over~
Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
Local government was modified by the law of the 10th of February 1889 and by posterior enactments.
The syndics (or mayors) are now elected by a secret ballot of the communal council, though they are still government officials.
Each provincial administrative junta is composed, in part, of government nominees, and in larger part of elective elements, elected by the provincial council for four years, half of whom require to be elected every two years.
Both communal councils and prefects may appeal to the government against the decision of the provincial administrative juntas, the government being guided by the opinion of the Council of State.
Besides possessing competence in regard to local government elections, which previously came within the jurisdiction of the provincial deputations, the provincial administrative juntas discharge magisterial functions in administrative affairs, and deal with appeals presented by private persons against acts of the communal and provincial administrations.
The former qualifications for electorship in local government elections have been modified, and it is now sufficient to pay five lire annually in, direct taxes, five lire of certain communal taxes, or a certain rental (which varies according to the population of a commune), instead of being obliged to pay, as previously, at least five lire annually of direct taxes to the state.
Thus began that system of mixed government, Teutonic and Roman, which, in the absence of a national monarch, impressed the institutions of new Italy from the earliest date with dualism.
The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
The mass of the people remained unrepresented in the government; and even if the consuls existed in the days of Heribert, they were but humble legal officers, transacting business for their constituents in the courts of the bishop and his viscount.
But the main issue of the struggle was not in these details of ecclesiastical government; principles had been at stake far deeper and more widely reaching.