Its Gothic cathedral dates from the 15th century.
The building activity of the Gothic kings was continued by Justinian, to whose time we owe the completion of S.
The Gothic hall with rows of fluted pillars is in fair preservation.
The cross, in Decorated Gothic, stands beside the town hall.
It is usually ascribed to a Gothic haiPi, heath.
In detail, however, they differ widely from the purer Gothic of northern countries.
Close by are two Gothic buildings, the bishop's palace (1264) and the Palazzo dei Papi (begun in 1296), the latter with a huge hall now containing the Museo Civico, with various medieval works of art, and also objects from the Etruscan necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (q.v.).
Those who believe that the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the elements of stability.
The principal buildings are the church of St Lawrence in Gothic style, erected in 1821, and the mechanics' institute, a fine building, comprising class-rooms, a library, a.
The first choir was burned down in 1213, but was rebuilt in 1242 at the same time as the transept, and is a superb specimen of pointed Gothic. There are five towers with spires, which give the outside an impressive appearance, and much has been done towards removing the squalid buildings that formerly concealed the cathedral.
Numerous as they were compared with their Gothic predecessors, they had not strength or.
There is a fine Gothic Catholic church.
Other noteworthy churches are the Jakobskirche, an i r th-century Romanesque basilica; the St Martinskirche; the Marienkirche or Obere Pfarrkirche (1320-1387), which has now been restored to its original pure Gothic style.
It contains an Evangelical and five Roman Catholic churches, among them that of St Michael, a fine Gothic edifice.
69 the town was attacked by the partisans of Vespasian, and was frequently besieged in the Gothic wars.
Gothic and Lombard Kingdoms. 27.3.2 II.
The principal building is the cathedral, a Gothic edifice begun in the 13th century.
He settled at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the Gothic chieftains Romanizing policy.
Its crypt dates from 941, the choir from 1274-1300, the Late Gothic choir chapels from the 15th century, and the nave and transept from 1533-1554.
Nine years after the death of Theodoric Justinian sent an army to destroy the Gothic monarchy and restore Italy to the empire.
The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic building.
Francesco, probably the earliest Franciscan church in northern Italy (1230-1298; now a prison), is a Gothic building in brick with a fine rose-window.
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
The church of the Holy Trinity, the oldest part of which dates from about 1 200, is a Gothic building with five aisles and a square tower.
Being surrounded by its ancient walls, and retaining thirteen out of its original fifty towers, it is, with its predominantly Gothic architecture, a thoroughly medieval town in appearance.
Many of the churches show characteristic Spanish Late Gothic architecture which survived until a comparatively recent period.
During the Gothic wars, however, trade was confined to Portus, and the ravages of pirates led to its gradual abandonment.
The four Gothic churches of St Nicholas,' St Mary, with a lofty steeple, St James and The Holy Ghost, and the fine medieval town hall, dating in its oldest part from 1306 and restored in 1882, are among the more striking buildings.
The cathedral (1150-1499), a Romanesque building with a beautiful south portal and a Gothic choir, is, next to the cathedral of Upsala, the largest church in Sweden.
Eu has three buildings of importance - the beautiful Gothic church of St Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the double arches between the pillars of the nave are architecturally notable; the chapel of the Jesuit college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of Cleves; and the château.
Among these is the cathedral of Notre-Dame, one of the finest and best preserved Romanesque and Gothic examples in Belgium (for plan, &c., see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Belgium).
The struggle of the Greeks and the Goths was carried on for fourteen years, between 539 and 553, when Teias, the last Gothic king, was finally defeated in a bloody battle near Vesuvius.
The cloisters connect the cathedral with the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a beautiful building in the form of a circle intersected by a cross, with a lofty vault, built 1127-1143, and said to be the oldest Gothic church in Germany.
Close to it is the former Cloth-hall, a Gothic building of 1325.
The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
The most interesting buildings are the old fortified château of the 16th century, with its Gothic chapel restored in 1880; the church of St Bartholomew, dating in its present form from 1538; the new town hall (1894); the Griines Tor, also built in 1538; and the handsome new synagogue.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
The church of St Peter, a large cruciform structure, exhibits all the Gothic styles, and earlier fragments are traceable.
The Gothic portal is fine, and the church contains a mosaic pavement of 1213 with curious representations and some frescoes by Giotto, painted during a visit to Dante between 1317 and 1320.
During the Gothic wars, however, trade was confined to Portus, and the ravages of pirates led to its gradual abandonment.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
The church of St Peter, a large cruciform structure, exhibits all the Gothic styles, and earlier fragments are traceable.
The small cathedral of St Aurea, also an early Renaissance structure, with Gothic windows, is by some ascribed to Meo del Caprina (1430-1501).
In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.
The parish church, with its two lofty towers, is substantially a Romanesque building of the 13th century, but the choir and transepts are Gothic additions of a later date.
The churches of Notre-Dame des Champs and St Saturnin are modern buildings in the Gothic style.
The Gothic church of Ambronay in the arrondissement of Belley, the church of St Paul de Varax (about 9 m.
BONIFACE pope from S30 to 532, was by birth a Goth, and owed his election to the nomination of his predecessor, Felix IV., and to the influence of the Gothic king.
Among the other 55 churches may be mentioned that of St Nicholas, an Early Gothic building, the oldest church in date of foundation in Ghent, and that of St Michael, completed in 1480, with an unfinished tower.
Its commander, Priscus, declared himself emperor under Gothic protection.
The former, standing on the south side of the market square, is a Gothic structure, erected in 1353-1370 on the ruins of Charlemagne's palace.
The wheels, called naoura, are of the most primitive construction, made of rough branches of trees, with palm leaf paddles, rude clay vessels being slung on the outer edge to catch the water, of which they raise a prodigious amount, only a comparatively small part of which, however, is poured into the aqueducts on top of the dams. These latter are exceedingly picturesque, often consisting of a series of well-built Gothic arches, and give a peculiar character to the scenery; but they are also great impediments to navigation.
The Gothic chapel contains the remains of the emperor Maximilian I., who was born here in 1459.
There are remains of a Moorish fort on the hill commanding the town; and the north gateway - the Puerta del Colegio - is a fine lofty arch, surmounted by an emblematic statue and the city arms. The most prominent buildings are the episcopal palace (1733), with a frontage of a 600 ft.; the town house (1843), containing important archives; and the cathedral, a small Gothic structure built on the site of a former mosque in the 14th century, and enlarged and tastelessly restored in 1829.
In these buildings, as in those of Aquitaine, the pointed arch is the surest sign of Saracenic influence; it must never be looked on as marking the approach of the Gothic of the North.
With the splendour of the whole, the beauty of the composition is marvellous, and it may rank as the highest achievement of Italian Gothic. It was begun in 1310, but the upper part was not completed till the 16th century.
The Gothic chapel contains the remains of the emperor Maximilian I., who was born here in 1459.
The former Royal Dockyard was made over to the War Office in 1872 and converted into stores, wharves for the loading of troopships, &c. The Royal Artillery Barracks, facing Woolwich Common, originally erected in 1775, has been greatly extended at different times, and consists of six ranges of Brick building, including a church in the Italian Gothic style erected in 1863, a theatre, and a library in connexion with the officers' mess-room.
Gyula-Fehervar is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, and has a fine Roman Catholic cathedral, built in the 1 nth century in Romanesque style, and rebuilt in 5443 by John Hunyady in Gothic style.
A remarkable feature of this quarter is a small council chamber with a gypsum throne of curiously Gothic aspect and lower stone benches round.
QUATREFOIL, in Gothic architecture, the piercing of tracery in a window or balustrade with small semicircular openings known as "foils"; the intersection of these foils is termed the cusp.
The Roman Catholic cathedral of St George is a Gothic building by A.
It is by Wren, but there are traces of the previous Gothic edifice in the tower.
Two of the galleries are Romanesque, while two are Gothic. Arles has two other churches of the Romanesque period, and others of later date.
The museum, occupying an old Gothic church, is particularly rich in Roman remains and in early Christian sarcophagi; there is also a museum of Provencal curiosities.
Near the sacristy are also some Gothic chapels of the Aragonese period.
Of the three churches (two Evangelical and one Roman Catholic) the most remarkable is the abbey church (Klosterkirche), a late Gothic building dating from 1465-1496, the choir of which contains beautiful 15th century carved choir-stalls and a fine high altar with a triptych (1496).
JORDANES, 1 the historian of the Gothic nation, flourished about the middle of the 6th century.
Jordanes himself was the notary of Candac's nephew, the Gothic chief Gunthigis, until he took the vows of a monk.
This, according to the manner of speaking of that day, is the meaning of his words ante conversionem meam, though it is quite possible that he may at the same time have renounced the Arian creed of his forefathers, which it is clear that he no longer held when he wrote his Gothic history.
The Getica of Jordanes shows Gothic sympathies; but these are probably due to an imitation of the tone of Cassiodorus, from whom he draws practically all his material.
The chief adviser of Theodoric, the East Gothic king in Italy, he accepted with ardour that monarch's great scheme, if indeed, he did not himself originally suggest it, of welding Roman and Goth together into one harmonious state which should preserve the social refinement and the intellectual culture of the Latin-speaking races without losing the hardy virtues of their Teutonic conquerors.
To this aim everything in the political life of Cassiodorus was subservient, and this aim he evidently kept before him in his Gothic history.
It was Ablabius, apparently, who had first used the Gothic sagas (prisca carmina); it was he who had constructed the stem of the Amals.
We can only say that he wrote on the origin and history of the Goths, using both Gothic saga and Greek sources; and that if Jordanes used Cassiodorus, Cassiodorus used, if to a less extent, the work of Ablabius.
Get., cap. v.), and to send a son of the Gothic king Telephus to fight at the siege of Troy, with the ancestors of the Romans.
It was no longer possible to write as if the whole civilization of the Western world would sit down contentedly under the shadow of East Gothic dominion and Amal sovereignty.
- xxiv.) returns to the true history of the Gothic nation, sets forth the genealogy of the Amal kings, and describes the inroads of the Goths into the Roman Empire in the 3rd century, with the foundation and the overthrow of the great but somewhat shadowy kingdom of Hermanric.
- xlvii.) traces the history of the West Goths from the Hunnish invasion to the downfall of the Gothic kingdom in Gaul under Alaric II.
The celebrated expression certaminis gaudia assuredly came at first neither from the suave minister Cassiodorus nor from the small-souled notary Jordanes, but is the translation of some thought which first found utterance through the lips of a Gothic minstrel.
- lx.) traces the history of the East Goths from the same Hunnish invasion to the first overthrow of the Gothic monarchy in Italy (376-539).
And thus the hasty pamphlet of a half-educated Gothic monk has been forced into prominence, almost into rivalry with the finished productions of the great writers of classical antiquity.
The three Gothic Protestant churches, the Marienkirche, the Nikolaikirche and the Jakobikirche, and the town-hall (Rathaus) are the principal edifices, and these with their lofty spires are very picturesque.
The Gothic church of Greyfriars (1866-1867) occupies the site partly of a Franciscan monastery and partly of the old castle of the town.
On the site of St Mary's (1837-1839), also Gothic, stood the small chapel raised by Christiana, sister of Robert Bruce, to the memory of her husband, Sir Christopher Seton, who had been executed on the spot by Edward I.
CARL GUSTAF NORDIN (1749-1812), Swedish statesman, historian and ecclesiastic. In 1774 he was made docent of Gothic antiquities at Upsala University in consequence of his remarkable treatise, Monumenta svia-golhica vetustioris aevi falso meritoque suspecta.
Corresponding to Proserpine as goddess of the dead is the old Norse goddess Hel (Gothic Halja), whom Saxo Grammaticus calls Proserpine.
The (Roman Catholic) church of St Theobald (1351) is an elegant specimen of Gothic, and has a remarkably fine tower (1450-1516), 266 ft.
It has a Protestant and a Roman Catholic (Gothic) church, a synagogue and a Progymnasium.
We can trace the continuous growth of Venice through the successive styles of Byzantine, Gothic, early Renaissance and late Renaissance architecture.
Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic generally, though in domestic architecture it displays one peculiarity which we shall presently note.
The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.
The peculiarity of Venetian domestic Gothic to which we have referred is this: we frequently find tracery used to fill rectangular, not arched, openings.
Towards the end of the 14th century, this façade, with its lower colonnade, upper loggia with handsome Gothic tracery, and the vast impending upper storey, which give to the whole building its striking appearance and audacious design, had been carried as far as the tenth column on the piazzetta side.
Among the many Gothic churches of Venice the largest are the Franciscan church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Fran (1250-1280), and the Dominican church of SS.
fine choir-stalls and for the series of six eastern chapels which from outside give a very good example of Gothic brickwork, comparable with the even finer apse of the now desecrated church of San Gregorio.
Besides these two churches we may mention Santo Stefano, an interesting building of central Gothic, "the best ecclesiastical example of it in Venice."
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
Polo, a late central Gothic building (1380-1400) which Ruskin describes as "of the finest kind and superb in its effect of colour when seen from the side.
The essential point about the style is that it is intermediary between Venetian Gothic and full Renaissance.
We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).
Early Renaissance palaces occur frequently in Venice and form a pleasing contrast with those in the Gothic style.
The architects Rupolo and Sardi have erected a considerable number of buildings, in which they have attempted, and with considerable success, to return either to Venetian Gothic or to the early Renaissance Lombardesque style.
The most striking of these modern buildings are the new wing of the Hotel d'Italie, San Moise, and the very successful fish market at Rialto, designed by Laurenti and carried out by Rupolo, in which a happy return to early Venetian Gothic has been effected in conjunction with a skilful adaptation of one of the most famous of the old houses of Venice, the Stalon, or palace of the Quirini family.
Giovanni Elemosinario at Rialto (1398-1400) is called by Ruskin "the most interesting piece of central Gothic remaining comparatively intact in Venice."
The old Museum of Fine Arts (1876) is a red brick edifice in modern Gothic style, with trimmings of light stone and terra-cotta.
The new Old South (the successor of the Old South, which is now a museum) is a handsome structure of Italian Gothic style, with a fine campanile.
Amongst its buildings are the Gothic five-naved church of St Barbara, begun in 1368, the Gothic church of St Jacob (14th centur y) and the Late Gothic Trinity church (end of 15th century).
The Walscher Hof, formerly a royal residence and mint, was built at the end of the 13th century, and the Gothic Steinerne Haus, which since 1849 serves as town-hall, contains one of the richest archives in Bohemia.
There are ten Roman Catholic churches here, among them being the beautiful minster, with a Gothic choir dating from 1250, a nave dating from the beginning of the 13th century and a crypt of the 8th century.
The work, which is thus a pragmatical chronicle of the calamities that have happened to mankind from the fall down to the Gothic period, has little accuracy or learning, and even less of literary charm to commend it; but it was the first attempt to write the history of the world as a history of God guiding humanity.
The present structure, which dates from 1347, has its Gothic character disguised by a classical facade with Ionic pillars and much tasteless modernization.
Another interesting building is the Gothic chapel of Notre-Dame, with three naves, rebuilt by Louis XI., standing close to a medieval bridge over the Sienne.
The cathedral has a Romanesque Gothic portal of 1332 by a Roman marble worker named Deodatus, and the interior is decorated in the Baroque style, but still retains the pointed vaulting of 1154, introduced into Italy by French Benedictines; it contains a splendid silver antependium by the 15th-century goldsmith Nicolo di Guardiagrele (1433-48).
Antonio is also in the Romanesque Gothic style.
It is remarkable for a porch ornamented in the richest Gothic style, and for its stained windows of the 16th century.
The 15th-century font, the pulpit (1570), the organ (1617), and the early Gothic Lady chapel containing a much venerated 13th-century image of the Virgin, which was annually carried in procession through the town, are all noticeable.
The principal Protestant church is a Gothic building dating from the end of the 13th century, with a fine tower, and a choir of later date (1410).
The town also contains some picturesque Gothic houses and palaces.
The town is mentioned in the history of the Gothic wars.
auris with the Gothic auso and Lithuanian auris, " ear."
Amongst the principal buildings are the fine Gothic parish church, with a spire 200 ft.
St Catherine's, of the middle of the 13th century, is Gothic, with a pentagonal apse.
The cathedral of Notre-Dame, one of the finest Gothic churches in France, was founded in the 11th century by Bishop Fulbert on the site of an earlier church destroyed by fire.
The more conspicuous buildings are the ancient Gothic cathedral (restored in 1866, and again in 1870 after the interior was destroyed by fire), with its lofty tower, the cavalry barracks, the ex-convent of the Capuchins at a little distance from the city, and the seminary in which are preserved the famous Oscan inscription known as the Cippus Abellanus (from Abella, the modern Avella, q.v.) and some Latin inscriptions relating to a treaty with Nola regarding a joint temple of Hercules.
The cathedral, one of the finest early Gothic buildings in Germany, stands on the Schlossberg, 160 ft.
This evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) - a similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769.
(1) Gmund, a town in Lower Austria, containing a palace belonging to the imperial family, (2) a town in Carinthia, with a beautiful Gothic church and some interesting ruins.
Since the 13th century the snake, under Gothic influence, developed into a boldly designed tendril set with leaves, which usually encircled a figure or group of figures, and the knob dividing shaft and crook into an elegant chapel (6 and 7).
Margherita, founded in 1197, has fine canopied Gothic tombs of the Falcone family.
The old church was destroyed in the great fire of 1842, and the new building, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott in 13th century Gothic, was erected 18 451874.
It is chiefly remarkable for the fine Gothic church of St Caterina, built in 1390 by Raimondello del Balzo Orsini, count of Soleto, with a fine portal and rose-window.
The western gable with its flamboyant window and Gothic door and the massive square tower are all that is left of the original edifice.
The cathedral, originally Romanesque, but restored after 1300 is in the Gothic style; the façade is good, and so is the ciborium.
Among these are the town hall, of the 16th century, in the Transition style from late Gothic to Renaissance, restored in recent years; the Kornhaus; the Ehingerhaus or Neubronnerhaus, now containing the industrial museum; and the commandery of the Teutonic order, built in1712-1718on the site of a habitation of the order dating from the 13th century, and now used as barracks.
The magnificent early Gothic cathedral is capable of containing 30,000 people.
Trani has lost its old walls and bastions, but the 13th-century Gothic citadel is used as a prison.
Near the harbour is the Gothic palace of the doges of Venice, which is now used as a seminary.
Petronio, the patron saint of Bologna, which was begun in 1390; only the nave and aisles as far as the transepts were, however, completed, but even this is a fine fragment, in the Gothic style, measuring 384 ft.
Amongst the principal buildings are a Gothic church of the 15th century, the town and county hall, a German gymnasium with a good collection of antiquities, and the municipal museum.
St Eloi, erected about 1560 in the Gothic style, was deprived of its first two bays in the 18th century; the present façade dates from 1889.
It possesses a castle of Count Esterhazy, a modern Roman Catholic Church in Gothic style and two convents.
A Gothic cloister adjoins the church.
The cathedral is a late Gothic structure begun in 1397 by Charles III.
The beautiful cloisters on the south side of the cathedral, and the chapter-house beyond them, as well as the old churches of San Saturnino (Gothic) and San Nicolas (Romanesque), are also of interest to the student of architecture.
Her husband died, apparently in the early years of her marriage, leaving her with two children, Athalaric;and Matasuentha.,;On the death of her father in 526, she succeeded him, acting as regent for her son, but being herself deeply imbued with the old Roman culture, she gave to that son's education a more refined and literary turn than suited the ideas of her Gothic subjects.
Conscious of her unpopularity she banished, and afterwards put to death, three Gothic nobles whom she suspected of intriguing against her rule, and at the same time opened negotiations with the emperor Justinian with the view of removing herself and the Gothic treasure to Constantinople.
The choir (restored in 1873 by public subscription) is a fine example of 15th-century architecture, and the Gothic crown surmounting the central tower forms one of the most characteristic features in every view of the city.
Of these by far the most remarkable is the Scott monument in East Princes Street Gardens, designed by George Meikle Kemp (1795-1844); it is in the form of a spiral Gothic cross with a central canopy beneath which is a seated statue of Scott with his dog " Maida " at his side, by Sir John Steell, the niches being occupied by characters in Sir Walter's writings.
The Gothic details are wonderful examples of the carver's skill, the wreathed " Prentice's pillar " being the subject of a well-known legend.
It appears in the history of the Gothic wars, and Theodoric is said to have had a palace here.
395 a Gothic horde under Alaric devastated Laconia, and subsequently it was overrun by large bands of Slavic immigrants.
side of the Piazza della Signoria; it is a huge Gothic edifice with a tower, erected in 1332-1346, according to tradition, by Matteo di Giovanello of Gubbio; the name of Angelo da Orvieto occurs on the arch of the main door, but his work may be limited to the sculptures of this arch.
The exterior of the Gothic church of S.
Francesco, in the lower part of the town, built in 1259, preserves its original style, but the interior has been modernized; and the same fate has overtaken the Gothic churches of S.
Agostino, on the other hand, has its Gothic interior better preserved.
The cathedral, one of the finest examples of Italian Gothic architecture, obviously influenced in plan by the abbey of S.
It is built of brick, is a fine specimen of Pointed Gothic, and was designed by Agostino and Agnolo.
in the Campo Santo of Pisa; Agostino and Agnolo, who in 1330 carved the fine tomb of Bishop Guido Tarlati in the cathedral of Arezzo; Lando di Pietro (14th century), architect, entrusted by the Sienese commune with the proposed enlargement of the cathedral (1339), and perhaps author of the famous Gothic reliquary containing the head of S Galgano in the Chiesa del Santuccio, which, however, is more usually attributed to Ugolino di Vieri, author of the tabernacle in the cathedral at Orvieto; Giacopo (or Jacopo) della Quercia, whose lovely fountain, the Fonte Gaia, in the Piazza del Campo has been recently restored; Lorenzo di Pietro (Il Vecchietta), a pupil of Della Quercia and an excellent artist in marble and bronze; Francesco d'Antonio, a skilful goldsmith of the 1 6th century; Francesco di Giorgio Martini (1439-1502), painter, sculptor, military engineer and writer on art; Giacomo Cozzarelli (15th century); and Lorenzo Mariano, surnamed 11 Marrina (16th century).
Siena is indeed unsurpassed for its examples of 13th and 14th century Italian Gothic, whether in stone or in brick.
The medieval building was demolished late in the 18th century, and the present castle erected in mingled Gothic and Moorish styles.
The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St Mary lies on the north-east side of Hyde Park; it is a splendid Gothic structure, the finest in Australia.
Like most of the buildings at Sydney, the university is built of the excellent sandstone from the quarries of Pyrmont; it is 15th-century Gothic in style and stands at the top of a gentle slope, surrounded by gardens.
Around it lie three Gothic colleges in the 14th-century style, affiliated to the university and known as St Paul's, St John's and St Andrew's.
Other relics belonging to this period are the oath which John Hunyady took when elected governor of Hungary (1446); a few verses sung by the children of Pest at the coronation of his son Matthias (1458); 1 An example of this work, printed on vellum in Gothic letter (Augsburg, 1488), and formerly belonging to the library of Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary, may be seen in the British Museum.
The chief ancient buildings of Gandia are the Gothic church, the college, founded by San Francisco de Borgia, director-general of the order of Jesus (1510-1572), and the palace of the dukes of Gandia - a title held in the i 5th and 16th centuries by members of the princely house of Borgia or Borja.
The well itself is covered by a fine Gothic building, said to have been erected by Margaret, countess of Richmond and mother of Henry VII., with some portions of earlier date.
St John's church is a Gothic edifice with a lofty tower; St Salvator's was built about 1720.
in 1480 in Gothic style; near it is a chapel (1609) remarkable for its architecture and sculpture.
PELAGIUS II., a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, was pope from 579 to 590, having been consecrated successor of Benedict I., without the sanction of the emperor, on the 26th of November.
A magnificent Gothic parish church was destroyed by fire and gunpowder in 1790 to make way for a building of little merit in Italian style.
Its streets are narrow and uninteresting, with the exception of one which contains, among other old houses, that known as the Maison des Consuls, a Gothic building of the 16th century, decorated with sculptured stone-work.
Aurillac owes its origin to an abbey founded in the 9th century by St Geraud, and the abbey-church, rebuilt in the 17th century in the Gothic style, is the chief building in the town.
A Gothic monument commemorates Thomas Clarkson (1760-1846), a powerful opponent of the slave-trade, and a native of the town.
The New English Dictionary points out that whereas the old Teutonic type of the word is neuter, corresponding to the Latin numen, in the Christian applications it becomes masculine, and that even where the earlier neuter form is still kept, as in Gothic and Old Norwegian, the construction is masculine.
In Gothic it is Guth; Dutch has the same form as English; Danish and Swedish have Gud, German Gott.
On the side of the Piazza del Comune opposite to the cathedral are two 13th-century Gothic palaces in brick, the Palazzo Comunale and the former Palazzo dei Giureconsulti, now the seat of the commissioners for the water regulation of the district.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
These losses were confined within the City, architec- but, to go no farther, included the Norman and Gothic tore.
Wren occasionally followed the Gothic model, as in St Antholin.
A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile.
The Houses of Parliament, with Westminster Abbey and St Margaret's Church, complete the finest group of buildings which London possesses; a group essentially Gothic, for the Houses of Parliament, completed in 1867 from the designs m .
Street, in a Gothic style.
The Albert Memorial, Kensington Gardens, was erected (1872) by " Queen Victoria and her People to the memory of Albert, Prince Consort," from the designs of Sir Gilbert Scott, with a statue of the Prince (1876) by John Henry Foley beneath a huge ornate Gothic canopy.
did little to connect his name with the history of London, although the erection of the exquisite specimen of florid Gothic at Westminster Abbey has carried his memory down in its popular name of Henry VII.'s chapel.
In the principal square rises a Gothic column, 40 ft.
Other important buildings are the old state hall, a handsome white marble building erected in 1842; the city hall, a beautiful French Gothic building of pink granite trimmed with red sandstone, designed by H.
high; the cathedral of All Saints (Protestant Episcopal), an English Gothic structure of pink sandstone designed by R.
Gibson and begun in 1883; St Peter's Episcopal Church (French Gothic), of Hudson River bluestone; Emmanuel Baptist Church, of white granite; the Madison Avenue Reformed Church; and St Joseph's (Roman Catholic), of bluestone and Caen stone with marble trimmings.
The Gothic church of San Niccolo (1310-1352) contains a fine tomb by Tullio Lombardo, and a large altarpiece by Fra Marco Pensabene and others; in the church and adjoining chapter-house are frescoes by Tommaso da Modena (1352), some frescoes by whom (life of S.
THEODULF, bishop of Orleans, was born about the middle of the 8th century, of a noble family of Gothic extraction, probably in Spain.
Of its three Evangelical churches the most prominent is the fine Gothic church of St John, with twin spires, which was restored in 1886.
It has a fine Gothic church, dedicated to St Nicholas, and the ruins of an ancient castle, called Barenkasten.
He devoted himself in_ 1335 to the completion of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral, the enormous windows of which were filled with the richest glass, But this building activity, which has left one of the most notable Gothic monuments in Europe, was broken into by the Hundred Years' War.
The most remarkable building in Louvain is the Hotel de Ville, one of the richest and most ornate examples of pointed Gothic in the country.
It is especially noteworthy owing to the difficulty of the task the architect had to accomplish - that of transforming the exterior of the Palazzo della Ragione, a Gothic building of the latter half of the 15th century, which the colonnades of the basilica entirely enclose.
The cathedral, which is Italian Gothic, dating mainly from the 13th century, consists of a nave with eight chapels on each side, and a very high Renaissance domed choir; it contains examples of the Montagnas and of Lorenzo da Venezia.
Corona (1260-1300), both of brick, are better examples of Gothic than the cathedral; both contain interesting works of art - the latter a very fine "Baptism of Christ," by Giovanni Bellini.
Vicenza also contains some interesting remains of the Gothic period besides the churches mentioned - the lofty tower of the town hall (1174-1311-1446; the Piazza contains two columns of the Venetian period, with S.
Among these may be especially noted the small Casa Pigafetta dating from 1481, but still half Gothic, prettily decorated.
The date of this church has been much disputed, but while traces of Romanesque architecture survive, the building is, in the main, Gothic in style and dates from the first half of the 13th century.
Of the other buildings of Coutances the church of St Pierre, in which Renaissance architecture is mingled with Gothic, and that of St Nicolas, of the 16th and 17th centuries, demand mention.
The prime object of interest is the cathedral of St Magnus, a stately cruciform red sandstone structure in the severest Norman, with touches of Gothic. It was founded by Jarl Rognvald (Earl Ronald) in 1137 in memory of his uncle Jarl Magnus who was assassinated in the island of Egilshay in 1115, and afterwards canonized and adopted as the patron saint of the Orkneys.
The church of St Martin is a brick building of the 17th century in the Gothic style with a modern facade.
It does not appear in Gothic, where the word used is hoha.
The church of St Peter, erected about 1too and renewed in the Gothic style in the 15th century, has a lofty steeple (365 ft.) and contains a very fine carved oak reredos by Hans Bruggemann, which is regarded as the most valuable work of art in Schleswig-Holstein.
Thus for instance when any feudal institution (be it Gothic, Norman, or Anglo-Saxon) eludes our deciphering faculty from the imperfect records of its use and operation, then we endeavour conjecturally to amend our knowledge by watching the circumstances in which that institution arose."
The work of his life was the restoration of the Gothic kingdom in Italy and he entered upon the task at the very beginning of his reign, collecting together and inspiring the Goths and winning a victory over the troops of the emperor Justinian, near Faenza.
Towards the end of 545 the Gothic king took up his station at Tivoli and prepared to starve Rome into surrender, making at the same time elaborate preparations for checking the progress of Belisarius who was advancing to its relief.
It was plundered, although Totila did not carry out his threat to make it a pasture for cattle, and when the Gothic army withdrew into Apulia it was from a scene of desolation.
His next exploit was the conquest and plunder of Sicily, after which he subdued Corsica and Sardinia and sent a Gothic fleet against the coasts of Greece.
Among the relics of its former importance are the cathedral, built in1420-1424(though originally founded in 1188), restored in 1893 and now housing the archaeological collection of the Altmark, the Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1447, a "Roland column" of 1535, and two fortified gateways, dating from the 13th century.
Its buildings and institutions include the old Gothic church of St Mary, the Powysland Museum, with local fossils and antiquities, and a library, vested (with its science and art school) in the corporation in 1887.
Other churches are the Gothic church of the Holy Ghost; the churches of St Severin, of St Paul and of St Gertrude; the double church of St Salvator; the Romanesque church of the Holy Cross; the pilgrimage church of Our Lady of Succour (Mariahilf); the church of the hospital of St John; and the Romanesque Votiv Kirche.
Other notable buildings within the line of the old fortifications are the Gothic Augustine church, built in the 14th century, and containing a fine monument of Canova; the Capuchin church, with the burial vault of the Habsburgs; the church of Maria-Stiegen, an interesting Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1820; the handsome Greek church, by T.
Hansen (1813-1891), finished in 1858; the Minorite church, a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, containing an admirable mosaic of Leonardo da Vinci's "Last Supper" by Raffaeli, executed in 1806-14 by order of Napoleon and placed here in 1846.
Beyond the houses of parliament stands the new Rathaus, an immense and lavishly decorated Gothic building, erected in 1873-83.
It was designed by Friedrich Schmidt (1825-1891), who may be described as the chief exponent of the modern Gothic tendency as T.
Near the university, and separated from the Ring by a garden, stands the votive church in Alsergrund, completed in 1879, and erected to commemorate the emperor's escape from assassination in 1853, one of the most elaborate and successful of modern Gothic churches (Ferstel).
Francesco, begun in the 12th century in the Lombard Romanesque style, was continued in the 13th in the Gothic style.
A portion of them migrated to Sweden, where they settled among the Gotar, while others crossed the Danube and entered the Roman service, where they are frequently mentioned later in connexion with the Gothic wars.
The baptistery was completed only in 1278, and marred in the 14th century by the introduction of Gothic details.
The building, erected in the Italian Gothic style between 1278 and 1283, by Giovanni Pisano, is of special interest chiefly for its famous frescoes.
The cathedral, an imposing building in the Romanesque Transition style (1207-1242), has a Gothic choir at each end, and contains some interesting medieval sculptures.
On the adjacent Marienplatz are the old townhall, dating from the 14th century and restored in 1865, and the new town-hall, the latter a magnificent modern Gothic erection, freely embellished with statues, frescoes, and stainedglass windows, and enlarged in 1900-1905.
The parish church of Au, in the Early Gothic style, contains gigantic stained-glass windows and some excellent wood-carving; and the church of St John in Haidhausen is another fine Gothic structure.
Among newer churches the most noticeable are the Evangelical church of St Luke, a Transitional building, with an imposing dome, finished in 1896, and the Gothic parochial church of the Giesing suburb, with a tower 312 ft.
Justinus being the first bishop. The cathedral has been spoilt by restoration, and the decoration of the exterior is incomplete; the Gothic campanile of 1335 is, however, fine.
It then passed under the Gothic kings Odoacer and Theodoric, but made submission to the Greeks in 540.
The old Gothic church is dedicated to her, and in the choir is a shrine, enclosing her relics, with fine panel paintings representing incidents in her life by, probably, a contemporary of Memling.
The cathedral, founded in 1314, has a fine porch and Gothic facade.
The first object of historical and architectural interest in Mainz is the grand old cathedral, an imposing Romanesque edifice with numerous Gothic additions and details (for plan, &c. see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Germany).
The early thuribles were usually simple in design; but in the medieval period an architectural form was given to the lids by ornamenting them with towers, battlements and traceries, varying according to the prevalent Gothic style of the period.
ATAULPHUS (the Latinized form of the Gothic Ataulf, "Father-wolf," from atta, father, and vulfs, wolf; mod.
He was one of the first to bring to light the characteristic excellences of Gothic art.
The arches are mostly pointed, and in other respects the influence of northern Gothic was more direct in Verona than in Florence.
An English church, in Early English Gothic style, situated adjacent to the Bockenheimer Landstrasse, was completed and consecrated in 1906.
The façade was rebuilt (1896-1898) in late Gothic style.
still farther westwards is the fishing town of St Monans or Abercromby (pop. 1898), with a fine old Gothic church, picturesquely perched on the rocky shore.
Round its top run balustrades formed of Gothic letters, which read as part of the Magnificat.
The principal buildings are the parish church of St Andrew (dating from the time of Henry I., modernized in 1710, rebuilt with the exception of the tower in 1805, and again rebuilt in 1878), and the handsome Gothic mechanics' institute and technical school (1870).
The most prominent church is the cathedral, a Gothic building of the 14th century, restored in 1883-1886, with a tower 328 ft.
The Mauritius church, a fine Gothic building of the 15th century, and the St Michael church are also worth mentioning.
The principal secular building is the town-hall, completed in the 15th century, flanked on one side by a Gothic chapel, transformed now into a museum.
Other noteworthy buildings are the Gothic town hall, founded in 1449 and rebuilt in 1690, and the weigh-house, built by Pieter Post of Haarlem (1608-1669) and adorned with a fine relief by Barth.
It had a fine Gothic façade: the interior had mosaics in the apses dating from 1330, and the nave contained 26 granite columns, said to have been brought from a temple of Poseidon near Faro, and had a fine wooden roof of 1260.
The church of Notre-Dame, typical of the Gothic style of Burgundy, was erected from 1252 to 1334, and is distinguished for the grace of its interior and the beauty of the western facade.
Relics of it survive in the old Gothic entrance, the portal of the church, a tower and the well of Moses, which is adorned with statues of Moses and the prophets by Claux Sluter (fl.
Dijon possesses several houses of the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, notably the Maison Richard in the Gothic, and the Hotel Vogue in the Renaissance style.
p (c) Panegyrics on Gothic kings and queens (fragments ed.
Of his lost works the most important was the Historia Gothorum, written with the object of glorifying the Gothic royal house and proving that the Goths and Romans had long been connected by ties of friendship. It was published during the reign of Athalaric, and appears to have brought the history down to the death of Theodoric. His chief authority for Gothic history and legend was Ablavius (Ablabius).
It contains a fine cathedral, with a Gothic facade, reconstructed in 1486, and is an important commercial centre.
It is in part surrounded by ancient walls, and has many picturesque medieval houses, and two old churches, of St Gregory and St Augustine, both fine Gothic buildings.
Of its churches the most noteworthy are the Reformed "Great Church" (Grosse Kirche), a large Gothic building completed in 1455, containing the tomb of Enno II.
Domenico has a fine Gothic portal and S.
The Gothic cathedral, consecrated in 1222, on the site of another ruined by an earthquake in 1184, goes back to French models in Champagne, and is indeed unique in Italy.
It contains the Gothic tomb of Isabella of Aragon, wife of Philip III.
The Gothic Wallace Tower in High Street stands on the site of an old building of the same name taken down in 1835, from which were transferred the clock and bells of the Dungeon steeple.
It was in the East especially that preaching flourished: Eusebius of Caesarea, Eusebius of Emesa, Athanasius, Macarius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Ephraem Syrus among the orthodox; and of the Arians, Arius himself and Ulfilas the great Gothic missionary, are all of high quality; but above even these stand out the three Cappadocians,Basil (q.v.) of Caesarea,cultured, devout and practical; his brother Gregory of Nyssa, more inclined to the speculative and metaphysical, and Gregory (q.v.) of Nazianzus, richly endowed with poetic and oratorial gifts, the finest preacher of the three.
It is especially rich in Bibles, incunabula and books of the early Reformation period, and contains some fragments of the Gothic bible of Ulfilas.
After the Gothic raids of 267 and 395 Corinth was secured by new fortifications at the Isthmus.
The cathedral, dedicated to San Cataldo, an Irish bishop, dating from the 11th century, has externally some remains of Saracenic Gothic; internally it has been completely modernized, and the shrine of the patron saint has been termed "an orgy of rococo."
The dome is an unsuitable addition of 1731 by the Sicilian architect Filippo Juvara (1685-1735), and its baroque decorations spoil the effect of the fine Gothic interior.
The Gothic abbey church dates from the 15th century, but its Romanesque crypt from the 12th.
For the more modern churches the Gothic style has frequently been used.
Many Arab coins, some Kufic inscriptions and several burial-places were left by the Arabs; but they did not establish their religion or leave a permanent impression on the Phoenician inhabitants, or deprive the Maltese language of the characteristics which differentiate it from Arabic. There is no historical evidence that the domination of the Goths and Vandals in the Mediterranean ever extended to Malta: there are fine Gothic arches in two old palaces at Notabile, but these were built after the Norman conquest of Malta.
Its proper meaning is "sacrifice," and thus the word hunsl appears in Ulfilas' Gothic version of Matt.
The facade has a Gothic portal, ascribed to Giorgio da Como (1228), which was intended to have a lateral arch on each side.
There are also several fine late Gothic buildings, among them the churches of S.
In Augustus' time Tegea was the only important town of Arcadia, but its history throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods is obscure; it ceased to exist as a Greek city after the Gothic invasion of 395.
Among its ecclesiastical edifices (nine Roman Catholic and four Protestant churches) the most noteworthy is the Roman Catholic cathedral, with huge pointed windows, slender columns and numerous flying buttresses, which, begun in the 13th century and consecrated in 1546, belongs to the period of the decadence of the Gothic style.
The Gothic churches of St Vincent and St Eucharius, and the handsome Protestant garrison church, completed in 1881, also deserve mention.
de Ronde, and is in tertiary Gothic style.
The council chamber contains a fine oak door and Gothic chimney-piece, both c. 1530.
It contains a fine Gothic Protestant church (St Mary's) dating from the 13th century and has several educational establishments, notably a school of seamanship. Its industries comprise iron-founding, ship-building, brewing, and the manufacture of cigars, leather and tinned fish.
The town has many good pre-Renaissance buildings; the picturesque colonnaded market-place contains the fine Gothic church of S.
Francesco and the original Palazzo del Comune, now the prefecture (Gothic with Renaissance additions).
The Gothic cathedral (now Protestant), dating from the 13th and 14th centuries, is remarkable for the majestic impression made by the great height of the interior, with its slender columns and lofty, narrow aisles.
Among its buildings are the Gothic Evangelical church, dating from 1285; the chapel of St Catherine built in 1344; the church of the former Augustinian monastery, dating from 1405; and the Augustinian monastery itself, founded in 1276 and now converted into a brewery.
It is an ancient place surrounded with walls, and contains a Gothic town hall and two interesting churches.
Littre suggests that it may be related to the Gothic haurja, coal.
The cathedral, though small, is a very interesting example of pure German Gothic. It was founded in 1275, and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869.
Perhaps the most pleasing modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the Danube.
St Paul's was a fine Gothic church of brick, built by the Baganda in 1901-1904.
Many of the grand masters of this order lie buried in the 13th-century Gothic church.
The Evangelical church of St George is a Gothic structure erected in the 15th century and restored in 1880.
The Late Gothic town hall has a collection of pictures and antiquities.
The Domkerk, dedicated to St Martin, the former cathedral church of the bishops of Utrecht, is a large Gothic building, erected in1254-1267on the site of the original church founded by St Willibrord about 720 and completed by Bishop Adelbo]d about 1015.
Attached to the Domkerk by fine old Gothic cloisters is the university, which was founded in 1634 and enlarged in 1894.
Among the more interesting buildings are the Schloss, a long, rectangle begun in 1255 and added to later, with a Gothic tower 277 ft.
in 1861 crowned themselves kings of Prussia; and the cathedral, begun in 1333 and restored in 1856, a Gothic building with a tower 164 ft.
This church, built from 1489 to 1662, belongs chiefly to the Gothic style, of which it is one of the finest examples in southern France.
The former contains a valuable note on the "Gothic Christmas" described in detail in the De cerimoniis; see also Bury in Eng.
Of the churches the Stadtkirche (parish church), of which Herder became pastor in 1776, is a Gothic building dating from about 1400, but much altered in detail under "classical" influences.
Venetian influence is everywhere manifest; the Lion of St Mark is carved over the main gateway and on many public buildings; and among the narrow and steep lanes of the city there are numerous examples of Venetian Gothic or early Renaissance architecture.
The older part of the cathedral, dating from 1430 to 1441, and including the fine north doorway, is Italian Gothic. Giorgio Orsini of Zara, who had studied architecture in Venice and been strongly influenced by the Italian Renascence, carried on the work of construction until his death in 1475.
Besides the Gothic cathedral (1480-1511), with the tombs of the marquises, the churches of San Giovanni (formerly San Domenico), San Bernardo and the Casa Cavazza, now the municipal museum, are noteworthy.
The chief secular buildings are the town-hall (Rathaus), which dates from the i 5th century and was restored in 1883-1892, adorned with frescoes illustrating the history of the city; the Tempelherrenhaus, in Late Gothic erroneously said to have been built by the Knights Templars; the Knochenhaueramthaus, formerly the gild-house of the butchers, which was restored after being damaged by fire in 1884, and is probably the finest specimen of a wooden building in Germany; the Michaelis monastery, used as a lunatic asylum; and the old Carthusian monastery.
Dreiblatl and Dreiblattbogen), the term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, &c., in which the centre takes the form of a three-lobed leaf, one of the earliest examples being in the plate tracery at Winchester (1222-1235);1235); See Quatrefoil.
Other buildings are the Gothic church of St James, with curiously carved altars and beautiful stained-glass windows, and containing in the Toppler chapel the tomb of the burgomaster, Heinrich Toppler; the 15th-century church of St Wolfgang; the Franciscan church; and five other churches.
His birth must have occurred within a few years of the date assigned; the only fixed chronological point is a visit of the Gothic king Totila to him in 543, when Benedict was already established at Monte Cassino and advanced in years (Dial.
A handsome Gothic Lutheran church was erected in 1892-1897, a post office (Renaissance) in 1881, and new administrative offices and law courts in 1876-1880.
It contains the fine Gothic church of St Martin, which contains 67 beautifully carved choir-stalls, and a town hall dating from about 1580.
The Roman Catholic churches are the cathedral church of St George, a fine Gothic building founded in the 13th century, and the church of St Fides, dating from the iith century.
Aviles is a picturesque and old-fashioned town, containing several ancient palaces and Gothic churches.
It is the seat of a GreekCatholic bishop, and possesses a beautiful cathedral built in the 18th century in late Gothic style.
of Eperjes, is situated the old town of Bdrtfa (pop. 6098), which possesses a Gothic church from the 14th century, and an interesting town-hall, dating from the 15th century, and containing very valuable archives.
Of the apartments, all of the finest Gothic architecture, the chief are the refectory, divided down the centre by columns and lighted by large embrasured windows, and the knights' hall, a superb chamber, the vaulting of which is supported on three rows of cylindrical pillars.
The church, which rises high above the buildings clustering round it, consists of transepts and four bays of the nave of Romanesque architecture and of a fine choir (1450 - I 521) in the Flamboyant Gothic style with a triforium surmounted by lofty windows.
The central tower terminates in a Gothic spire surmounted by a gilded bronze statue of St Michael.
It has been restored, and is considered by some authorities, although others make the same claim on behalf of Huy, the most complete specimen in Belgium of pointed Gothic architecture.
The cathedral, close by, is a fine specimen of Italian Gothic begun in 1277, but not completed internally until 1511, while the facade was not begun until 1880.
In the zodiac of Merton College, Oxford, Libra is represented by a judge in his robes and Pisces by the dolphin of Fitzjames, warden of the college, 1482-1507.6 The great rose-windows of the Early Gothic period were frequently painted with zodiacal emblems; and some frescoes in the cathedral of Cologne contain the signs, each with an attendant angel, just as they were depicted on the vault of the church at Mount Athos.
It was begun about the year 1220, and is considered one of the finest specimens left of pointed Gothic. It is said to have been completed in 1273, with the exception of the two towers which were added in the 14th or 15th century.
Note should be made of a short treatise on La Formation francaise des anciens noms du lieu (1867); a memoir De l'ogive et de l'architecture dite ogivale (1850), where he gives his theory on the use of stone arches - important for the history of religious architecture; an article on L'Age de la cathedrale de Laon (1874), in which he fixed the exact date of the birth of Gothic architecture; Histoire du costume en France (1875; 2nd ed.
The old town-hall (Oud Stadhuis), a Gothic building of the r 5th century, is now used as a museum of antiquities.
and later Gothic architecture bears evidence of the frequency with which the church has been restored and altered.
The present Gothic building of St Martin (in Wyk) was erected in 1859; the original church is said by tradition to have occupied the site of an old heathen temple.
The Protestant St Janskerk, a Gothic building of the 13th and i 5th centuries, with a fine tower, was formerly the baptistery of the cathedral.
Eloquent testimony is given by the beautiful churches and palaces of Prague - largely Gothic and baroque in style - to the architectural genius of the nation.
Vitus, rising above the castle (Hrad) on the heights of the Hradcany (Prague), is a magnificent specimen of Gothic. The beautiful church of St.
The cathedral contains many interesting objects of art, but, with the exception of the Gothic Marienkirche of the 15th century, none of the churches is notable.
It is well built, and boasts of a fine old Gothic parish church, dating from the 14th and 15th centuries, opposite which a statue was erected in 1889 to the memory of the famous Minnesinger, Walther von der Vogelweide, who, according to some accounts, was born (c. 1170) at a farm above Waidbruck, to the north of Botzen.
It is preceded by a rich portal in the Gothic style with elaborately carved doors, and is flanked on the north by an uncompleted tower.
The handsome cathedral of white marble in the Gothic style, dating from 1355, was completed in 1474.
There is a fine cathedral, rebuilt in Gothic style after a fire in 1880.
Close by is the Gothic church of S.
On a hill dominating the town stands the old fortress, which contains a beautiful church in Gothic style built about 1446, where in 1571 the diet was held which proclaimed the equality of the Unitarian Church with the Roman Catholic, the Lutheran, and Calvinistic Churches.
Linz possesses two cathedrals, one built in1669-1682in rococo style, and another in early Gothic style, begun in 1862.
Of the remaining versions of the Old Testament the most important are the Egyptian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Gothic and Armenian, all of which, except a part of the Arabic, appear to have been made through the medium of the Septuagint.
The exchange (lonja), a Gothic building begun in 1426, excited the admiration of the emperor Charles V.
Its capital, Vitoria, is said to have been founded by the Gothic king Leovigild (581).
Domenico is a Gothic edifice of 1281; that of S.
Two striking churches face each other in Collins Street, the Scots church, a Gothic edifice with a lofty spire, and the Independent church, a fine Saracenic building with a massive campanile.
Many of the commercial buildings are of architectural merit, notably the banks, of which the bank of Australasia, a massive edifice of the Doric order, and the Gothic Australian bank are the finest examples.
The cathedral of Sainte Cecile, a fine fortress-church in the Gothic style, begun in 1277, finished in 1512, rises high above the rest of the town.
The choir of the old Gothic church of 1398 (restored at the end of the 19th century) forms a portion of the parish church.
The castle is a fine example of Gothic, and mainly consists of a great oblong quadrangle, flanked on the south side by circular towers.
Dublin Castle stands high, and occupies about ten acres of ground, but excepting St Patrick's Hall, the apartments are small, and the building is of a motley and unimposing appearance, with the exception of the chapel (a Gothic building of the early 29th century) and great tower.
The principal buildings of Chateauroux are the handsome modern church of St Andre, in the Gothic style, and the Chateau Raoul, of the 14th and 15th centuries; the latter now forms part of the prefecture.
those of certain monastic orders - have retained or reverted to the earlier " Gothic " forms to be described later.
The town has a citadel built by Vauban on a rock beside the river, and embracing in its enceinte ruins of an old Gothic château.
Santa Maria is a fine example of Spanish Gothic, and consists, like many Catalan churches, of nave and chancel, aisles and ambulatory, without transepts.
Worthy of mention also are the parish church, a Late Gothic building, finished in 1520, and restored in 1875, which possesses an altar piece by Tintoretto; the Augustinian church, appropriated to the service of the university since 1827; the small Leech Kirche, an interesting building in Early Gothic style, dating from the 13th century, and the Herz Jesu-Kirche, a building in Early Gothic style, finished in 1891, with a tower 360 ft.
Of these the most important is the Stanislaus cathedral, in Gothic style, consecrated in 1359, and built on the Wawel, the rocky eminence to the S.W.
The Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1223, rebuilt in the 14th century with several chapels added in the 15th and 16th centuries, was restored in 1889-1893, and decorated with paintings from the designs by Matejko.
The Dominican church, a Gothic building of the 13th century, but practically rebuilt after a fire in 1850; the Franciscan church, also of the 13th century, also much modernized; the church of St Florian of the 12th century, rebuilt in 1768, which contains the late-Gothic altar by Veit Stoss, executed in 1518, during his last sojourn in Cracow; the church of St Peter, with a colossal dome, built in 1597, after the model of that of St Peter at Rome, and the beautiful Augustinian church in the suburb of Kazimierz, are all worth mentioning.
The Jagellonian university, now housed in a magnificent Gothic building erected in 1881-1887, was attended in 1901 by 1255 students, and had 175 professors and lecturers.
Its rich library is now housed in the old university buildings, erected in the 15th century, in the beautiful Gothic court of which a bronze statue of Copernicus was placed in 1900.
Behind it is a Gothic tower, the only relic of the old town hall, demolished in 1820.
The latter retains Gothic details in the interior, but the facade is simple Renaissance work.
The hotel de ville, with a graceful facade surmounted by a lofty belfry, is in the late Gothic style of the early 6th century and was completed in modern times.
It is uncertain whether the conventional fleur-de-lis was originally meant to represent the lily or white iris - the flower-de-luce of Shakespeare - or an arrow-head, a spear-head, an amulet fastened on date-palms to ward off the evil eye, &c. In Roman and early Gothic architecture the fleur-de-lis is a frequent sculptured ornament.
Notable are the two Roman Catholic churches, beautiful Gothic edifices of the -14th century, the Protestant church, and the handsome townhall.
These Goths are known as Moeso-Goths, for whom Ulfilas made the Gothic translation of the Bible.
The cathedral, a flat-roofed basilica, was erected by Patriarch Poppo in 1031 on the site of an earlier church, and rebuilt about 1379 in the Gothic style by Patriarch Marquad.
553, which put an end to the Gothic domination in Italy.
It has a stately modern parish church (attached to a Gothic choir), a small but very ancient chapel of the abbots of St Gall (whose summer residence was this village), and two Capuchin convents (one for men, founded in 1588, and one for women, founded in 1613).
Mention may also be made of Mirepoix, once the seat of a bishopric, and possessing a cathedral (15th and 16th centuries) with a remarkable Gothic spire.
The parish church is a Gothic edifice of the 14th century, with fine cloisters; and the Lusric château, once belonging to the family of Rosenberg, and now to Prince Schwarzenberg, dating from the 15th century, is reputed to contain the most extensive and valuable archives in Bohemia.
The principal monuments of the Lusignan period are the fine cathedral church of St Sophia, an edifice of French Gothic, at once solid and elegant (the towers were never completed); the church of St Catherine, an excellent example of the last years of the 14th century (both these are now mosques); and the church of St Nicolas of the English (now a grain store), built for the order of the Knights of St Thomas of Acre.
Domenico, a Gothic building with a good early Renaissance portal and a relief in the lunette by Luca della Robbia (1449).
It was an important place in the Gothic wars, and is frequently mentioned by Procopius.
Hahnel; the Postplatz, adorned by a Gothic fountain, by Semper; and the Bismarckplatz in the Anglo-American quarter.
The church (12th to 15th centuries) is in the Gothic style.
Gainas entered into a close league with the latter; fomented a Gothic rebellion in Phrygia; and forced the emperor to put Eutropius to death.
The Freiburg minster is considered one of the finest of all the Gothic churches of Germany, being remarkable alike for the symmetry of its proportions, for the taste of its decorations, and for the fact that it may more correctly be said to be finished than almost any other building of the kind.
The Romanesque churches, still reminiscent of antique models, had preserved all the simplicity of the ancient basilicas with much more than their grandeur; but the taste for religious symbolism which culminated in the 13th century, and the imaginative genius of the northern peoples, transformed them into the marvellous dreams in stone of the " Gothic " period.
It possesses a Gothic church, with a crypt dating from the 15th century, and a still older Romanesque burial chapel.
He was consecrated on the 8th of June 536, having purchased his elevation from the Gothic king Theodotus.
ULFILAS (c. 311-383), the apostle of Christianity to the Gothic race, and, through his translation of the Scriptures into Gothic, the father of Teutonic literature, was born among the Goths of the trans-Danubian provinces about the year 311.1 The Arian historian Philostorgius (Hist.
5) says that his grand-parents were Christian captives from Sadagolthina in Cappadocia, who had been carried off to the lands beyond the Danube in the Gothic raid of 264, and became so naturalized that the boy received a Gothic name, Wulfila (Little Wolf).
His work and influence were not confined to his own immediate flock, but radiated by means of his homilies and treatises, and through the disciples he despatched as missionaries, among all the Gothic tribes beyond the Danube.
This Arian form of Christianity was imparted by Ulfilas and his disciples to most of the tribes of the Gothic stock, and persisted among them, in spite of persecution, for two centuries.
The town contains three old churches, of which the early Gothic abbey church with its Romanesque cloister is most notable, and some good houses.
It is to be observed that the term " Teutonic " is of scholastic and not of popular origin, and this is true also of the other terms (" Germanic," " Gothic," &c.) which are or have been used in the same sense.
This had not 'been required under the old Latin emperors nor under the Gothic kings, and it disappeared of its own accord with the Byzantine regime.
There is a fine Gothic church dating from 1348, but subsequently in part destroyed and used for secular purposes; the town hall (1475) has a fine gable filled with sculpture, and contains some interesting antiquities.
There is a Gothic church (dating from 1245).
It is not, indeed, demonstrable, but there are many presumptions, besides some fragments of direct evidence, which make it more than probable that the old administrative arrangements both of the provinces and of the towns, but especially of the latter, remained practically undisturbed at the period of the Gothic occupation of Spain.'
It is one of the oldest towns in Moravia, and possesses a Gothic town-hall and an old castle, once occupied by Matthias Corvinus.
The interior area is partly occupied by a 12th-century Gothic church, and contains six modern cenotaphs of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Sarah, Rebecca and Leah.
It is constructed of brick in a pure Gothic style.
Asti has still numerous medieval towers, a fine Gothic cathedral of the 14th century, the remains of a Christian basilica of the 6th century, and the octagonal baptistery of S.
The cathedral, erected between 1298 and 1448 on Monte Taber, an oval hill which forms the highest point of the Rambla, is one of the finest examples of Spanish Gothic; although it is not designed on a great scale and some parts have been freely modernized.
The principal civic and commercial buildings are the Casa Consistorial, a fine Gothic hall (1369-1378), the Lonja or exchange (1383), and the Aduana or custom-house (1792).
The collar is composed of gold and blue enamel figures of the conversion linked by the Gothic monogram I.T.V., Trau Vast, the motto of the order, alternately red and green.
The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral, finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St Isaac at St Petersburg; the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style, built in 1877.
Its public buildings include the parish church, in the Gothic style, St Brycedale United Free church, with a spire 200 ft.
It possesses six Evangelical churches, notably the Miinsterkirche, a Romanesque building with a Gothic apse of the r 5th century; the Marienkirche, in the Gothic style; and the Johanniskirche, with a steeple 280 ft.
The principal buildings are the Stadt Kirche, a beautiful Gothic building, erected about 1320 and restored in 1899, with a fine tower and a large bell; the old and interesting town hall (Rathaus) and the ruins of the abbey church.
It is situated on the Elbe, and amongst its noteworthy buildings may be specially mentioned the beautiful early Gothic church of St Bartholomew, erected during the latter half of the 14th century.
With its Renaissance windows and portals this facade, though good in itself, was utterly out of keeping with the general style of the church, and in 1900 the removal of the inharmonious features was begun, to be replaced in a style strictly in accordance with the Gothic style of the rest of the building from the designs of Giuseppe Brentano.
Eustorgio, one of the largest Gothic churches in Milan, with some Romanesque survivals, dates, as it stands, with its campanile, from the end of the 13th century, and has a modern facade in the old style.
Simpliciano, too, though originally Romanesque, is now in the main Gothic, and has been much altered.
Maria Incoronata is unique as a double Gothic church, in the horizontal sense (1451-1487).
Of the secular buildings of the beginning of the 15th century, the most notable is the Palazzo Borromeo, which still preserves its Gothic courtyard.
Ambrogio, in the Corso Magenta, is the church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, built by the Dominicans about 1460, to which the Gothic facade and nave belong.
Among the churches, which are all modern, are the Protestant Marktkirche, in the Gothic style with five towers, built 1853-1862; the Bergkirche; the Roman Catholic church of St Boniface; the Anglican church and the Russian church on the Neroberg.
Most likely they were descendants of the Marcomanni, Quadi and Narisci, tribes of the Suevic or Swabian race, with possibly a small intermixture of Gothic or Celtic elements.
Another but less probable explanation derives the name from a combination of the old high German word uudra, meaning league, and bai, a Gothic word for both.
The market-place (now Piazza Garibaldi) contains the Gothic Palazzo Vecchio or Broletto; close by are the cathedral (1614) and a small baptistery of 1340, rebuilt in 1898.
It is an irregular building in Gothic style, with a high pointed roof, and flanked by four towers of unequal dimensions.
The palace church is an interesting medley of Gothic and Renaissance detail.
ALARIC (Ala-reiks, " All-ruler"), (c. 370-410), Gothic conqueror, the first Teutonic leader who stood as a conqueror in the city of Rome, was probably born about 370 in an island named Peucb (the Fir) at the mouth of the Danube.
He was of noble descent, his father being a scion of the family of the Balthi or Bold-men, next in dignity among Gothic warriors to the Amals.
In the year 394 he served as a general of foederati (Gothic irregulars) under the emperor Theodosius in the campaign in which he crushed the usurper Eugenius.
They raised him on a shield and acclaimed him as a king; leader and followers both resolving (says Jordanes the Gothic historian) "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own labour, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others."
Here, ruling the Danubian provinces, he was on the confines of the two empires, and, in the words of the poet Claudian, he "sold his alternate oaths to either throne," and made the imperial arsenals prepare the weapons with which to arm his Gothic followers for the next campaign.
It was probably in the year 400 (but the dates of these events are rather uncertain) that Alaric made his first invasion of Italy, co-operating with another Gothic chieftain named Radagaisus.
Peter"; at least one case in which a beautiful Roman matron appealed, not in vain, to the better feelings of the Gothic soldier who attempted her dishonour; but even these exceptional instances show that Rome was not entirely spared those scenes of horror which usually accompany the storming of a besieged city.
He died soon after, probably of fever, and his body was buried under the river-bed of the Busento, the stream being temporarily turned aside from its course while the grave was dug wherein the Gothic chief and some of his most precious spoils were interred.
He was succeeded in the command of the Gothic army by his brotherin-law, Ataulphus.
The earliest record in the West of the blessing of the palms and the subsequent procession is the liber ordinum of the West Gothic Church (published by Fhrotin, Paris, 1904, pp. 178 sqq.), which dates from the 6th century; this shows plainly that the ceremonial of the procession had been borrowed from Jerusalem.
The most important and imposing among the more modern architectural additions to the city are the handsome Gothic exchange, completed in 1867, the municipal theatre, the municipal library, the post office (1878), the law courts (1891-1895), the wool exchange, the German bank, the municipal museum for natural science, ethnology and commerce, and the fine railway station (1888).
It contains five churches, one of which (St Nicholas), built in 1446-88, is a good example of the late Gothic style as developed in Saxony, with its spacious proportions, groined vaulting, and bare simple pillars.
The town possesses a fine Gothic church, and a hydropathic establishment.
The Mosel is spanned by a Gothic freestone bridge of 14 arches, erected in 1344, and also by a railway bridge.
The church was originally founded in 836 by Louis the Pious, but the present Romanesque building was completed in 1208, the Gothic vaulted roof dating from 1498.
St Peter's, the parish church, dates from the 12th century, but having been nearly destroyed by fire was rebuilt in 1826 in the Gothic style, the ancient tower, however, being preserved.
The church of Our Lady (Frauenkirche) is a fine Gothic building of the 15th century, and has a beautifully sculptured doorway and a lattice spire 240 ft.
Francesco has a Gothic façade and cloisters.
The cathedral or Dom, the principal edifice and chief object of interest in Cologne, is one of the finest and purest monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe (for plan,.
&c. see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Germany).
The Wolkenburg, a fine Gothic house of the 15th century, originally a patrician residence, was restored in 1874, and is now the headquarters of the famous men's choral society of Cologne (Kolner Mannergesangverein).
Athanaric waged, from 367 to 369, an unsuccessful war with the emperor Valens, and the peace by which the war was ended was ratified by the Roman and Gothic rulers meeting on a barge in mid-stream of the Danube.
The church of St Ulrich and St Afra, built 1474-1500, is a Late Gothic edifice, with a nave of magnificent proportions and a tower 300 ft.
The large Protestant church of St Willibrord has a choir, built 1424-1526, which is one of the noblest Gothic structures on the Lower Rhine, and a modern nave (1882-96).
The decoration is in the richest Gothic style, and is especially admirable in the case of the windows.
The Kapitel-Stadt, sometimes called the Bishop's Town, with the palace of the Roman Catholic archbishop, and his late Gothic cathedral, dating from the 15th century, lies eastward of the 1Vledvescak, a brook which flows into the Save.
It is a fine specimen of later Gothic, and contains some good glass as well as a few pictures by Van Thudden.
The Rector's Palace, another noteworthy example of late Romanesque, combined with Venetian Gothic, is one of the masterpieces of Dalmatian architecture.
Among the Church organizations are: the First (Unitarian; originally Trinitarian Congregational), which dates from 1629 and was the first Congregational church organized in America; the Second or East Church (Unitarian) organized in 1718; the North Church (Unitarian), which separated from the First in 1772; the Third or Tabernacle (Congregational), organized in 1735 from the First Church; the South (Congregational), which separated from the Third in 1774; several Baptist churches; a Quaker society, with a brick meeting-house (1832); St Peter's, the oldest Episcopalian church in Salem, with a building of English Gothic erected in 1833, and Grace Church (1858).
The most noteworthy of its public buildings is the handsome Protestant Church, begun in the 14th century and finished in 1520, in the Gothic style, containing a beautiful cup-shaped font, cast by Meister Leonhardus in 1438, and a large mural painting of the Crucifixion by Johannes von Rosenau (1445).
The nave was begun in 1096 and is Romanesque in style; the transept and choir, which contain magnificent stained glass of the Renaissance period, are of Gothic architecture.
It contains several interesting Gothic buildings, including a fine town hall with a timber facade of 1498.
The gymnasium, occupying a modern Gothic building, is the successor of an ancient grammarschool, which existed until 1825.
This style continued in Gothic times also.
The little square in front of the church is surrounded by Gothic palaces of the Doria family.
Another very fine building is the Gothic Palazzo di S.
4) the island on condition of a tribute, which was hardly paid by Theodoric. Sicily was now ruled by a Gothic count, and the Goths claimed to have treated the land with special tenderness (Procopius, Bell.
The island, like the rest of Theodoric's dominions, was certainly well looked after by the great king and his minister; yet we hear darkly of disaffection to, Gothic rule (Cass.
Yet Lilybaeum was a Gothic possession when Belisarius, conqueror of Africa, demanded it in vain as part of the Vandal possessions (Proc. Bell.
In the Gothic war Sicily was the first land to be recovered for the empire, and that with the good will of its people (535).
Panormus alone was stoutly defended by its Gothic garrison.
To the Gothic count again succeeded, under Justinian, a Roman praetor, in Greek 6rparrj'yos.
Rostock has five old churches: St Mary's, dating from 1398 to 1472, one of the most imposing Gothic buildings in Mecklenburg, with two Romanesque towers and containing a magnificent bronze font and a curious clock; St Nicholas's, begun about 1250 and restored in 1450, and again in 1890-94; St Peter's, with a lofty tower over 4 00 ft.
Among other interesting buildings are the curious 14th-century Gothic town hall, the façade of which is concealed by a Renaissance addition; the palace of the grand duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, built in 1702; the law courts, built in 1878-79; the university buildings, erected in 1867-70; and an assembly hall of the estates of Mecklenburg (Standehaus), a handsome Gothic building erected in 1889-93.
It does not appear whether he was with the Roman armies in the later stages of the Gothic War, when Belisarius and afterwards Narses fought against Totila in Italy; his narrative of these years is much less full and minute than that of the earlier warfare.
Procopius's writings fall into three divisions: the Histories (Persian, Vandal and Gothic Wars), in eight books; the treatise on the Buildings of Justinian (De aedificiis), in six books; and the Unpublished Memoirs ('AvEKbora, Historia arcana), so called because they were not published during the lifetime of the author.
They consist of: (1) the Persian Wars,- in two books, giving a narrative of the long struggle of the emperors Justin and Justinian against the Persian kings Kavadh and Chosroes Anushirvan down to 550; (2) the Vandal War, in two books, describing the conquest of the Vandal kingdom in Africa and the subsequent events there from 532 down to 546 (with a few words on later occurrences); (3) the Gothic War, in three books, narrating the war against the Ostrogoths in Sicily and Italy from 536 till 552.
Haury (Teubner Series, 1905); the Gothic War has been edited by D.
Like its contemporary Gothic, it has three great periods, those of growth, maturity and decline.
The ease with which so important a conquest had been effected encouraged Justinian to attack the Ostrogoths of Italy, whose kingdom, though vast in extent, for it included part of south-eastern Gaul, Raetia, Dalmatia and part of Pannonia, as Well as Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, had been grievously weakened by the death first of the great Theodoric, and some years later of his grandson Athalaric, so that the Gothic nation was practically without a head.
After a siege of over a year, the energy, skill, and courage of Belisarius, and the sickness which was preying on the Gothic troops, obliged Vitiges to retire.
The imperial administration was established through Italy, but its rapacity soon began to excite discontent, and the kernel of the Gothic nation had not submitted.
Totila was slain, and the Gothic cause irretrievably lost.
Justinian's policy both in the Vandalic and in the Gothic War stands condemned by the result.
The only relic of its former importance is the Evangelical church of St Catherine, one of the most beautiful Gothic edifices of the 13th and 14th centuries in Germany, and recently restored at the public expense.
In such work the painters of Upper Germany at this time, working in the spirit of the late Gothic style just before the dawn of the Renaissance, show considerable technical attainments, with a love of quaint costumes and rich draperies crumpled in complicated angular folds, some feeling for romance in landscape backgrounds, none at all for clearness or balance in composition, and in the attitudes and expressions of their overcrowded figures a degree of grotesqueness and exaggeration amounting often to undesigned caricature.
The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.
From associates like these Di.irer could imbibe the spirit of Renaissance culture and research; but the external aspects and artistic traditions which surrounded him were purely Gothic, and he had to work out for himself the style and formlanguage fit to express what was in him.
In the nudes of the next four or five years, which included a "St Sebastian," the so-called "Four Witches" (1497), the "Dream" or "Temptation," the "Rape of Amymome," and the "Jealousy" or "Great Hercules," Venetian, Paduan and Florentine memories are found, in the treatment of the human form, competing somewhat uncomfortably with his own inherited Gothic and northern instincts.
The town has a Gothic church (1581), a château, schools, cloth and cigar factories, iron-foundries, flour and saw mills and factories for machine building.
The Gothic church of S.
By far the most important building in Magdeburg is the cathedral, dedicated to SS Maurice and Catherine, a handsome and massive structure of the 14th century, exhibiting an interesting blending of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.
The church of St Olai, first erected in 1240, and often rebuilt, was completed in 1840 in Gothic style; it has a bell tower 456 ft.
In the same square is the massive Romanesque Gothic Palazzo Comunale of 1267, the Palazzo dei Priori and the Palazzo della Podesta.
hentan, Gothic hinpan, to capture, O.H.G.
At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.
Essentially the child of the Gothic revival, he had put an ineffaceable stamp on Victorian ornament and design, his place being that of a follower of Ruskin and Pugin, but with a greater practical influence than either.
The garrison church, a Gothic building of the 13th century, and the Reformed church, finished in 1898, are the other ecclesiastical buildings in Buda worth mentioning.
The oldest church in Pest is the parish church situated in the Eskii-Ter (Schwur-Platz) in the inner town; it was built in 1500, in the Gothic style, and restored in 1890.
115), a huge limestone edifice in the late Gothic style, covering an area of 34 acres, erected in 1883-1902; the Academy, in Renaissance style, erected in 1862-1864, containing a lofty reception room, a library, a historic picture gallery, and a botanic collection; the Redoute buildings, a large structure in a mixed Romanesque and Moorish style, erected for balls and other social purposes; the extensive custom-house at the lower end of the quays, and several fine hotels and insurance offices.
The cathedral (see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic Architecture in France; and Cathedral), which is perhaps the finest church of Gothic architecture in France, far exceeds the other buildings of the town in importance.
It was begun in the 12th century, but the nave was rebuilt in the 13th in the Gothic style.
Among these may be mentioned the Predigerkirche, dating from the latter half of the 12th century; the Reglerkirche, a Romanesque building (restored in 1859) with a 12th-century tower; and the Barfusserkirche, a Gothic building containing fine 14th-century monuments.
The town possesses a fine Gothic cathedral.
On the 30th of January 1907 the body was removed with great ceremony from Kensal Green and reburied in the crypt of the new cathedral, where it lies beneath a Gothic altar tomb, with a recumbent effigy of the archbishop in full pontificals.
among them being the church of St James, a handsome Late Gothic edifice, with some paintings ascribed to Wohlgemuth; the old Carmelite church containing a monument to Duke Albert II.
It has also a Gothic town-hall, a castle, now used as barracks, and two fine squares.
The Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in Leipzig.
In this thinker, who was his senior by five years, Goethe found the master he sought; Herder taught him the significance of Gothic architecture, revealed to him the charm of nature's simplicity, and inspired him with enthusiasm for Shakespeare and the Volkslied.
The Dominican church, built in 1674; the church of St Michael, in the Gothic style, completed in 1484, the most interesting church in the town; and the old tower, 200 ft.
The present town (pop. in 1901, 15,322) has a picturesque aspect, and contains many buildings in the Gothic style.
It is situated on the river Traun and possesses an interesting parish church, in Gothic style, rebuilt in the 15th century, but the oldest part supposed to date from the 9th century.
to the S.E., and near it is the Cistercian abbey of Chiaravalle della Colomba, with a fine Gothic church and a large and.
The cathedral tower dating from the 11th century, illustrates the first step in the growth of the Gothic spire in Germany.
Among the chief edifices are the old church of St Martin; the town hall, with a Gothic facade; the law courts and the government offices, constructed, like many of the other buildings, of a peculiar veined brown sandstone found in the district.
The massively moulded ormolu stair balustrade of Northumberland House, now at 49 Prince's Gate; the candelabra at Windsor and Buckingham Palace, produced in Birmingham by the firm of Messenger; the cast-iron railings with javelin heads and lictors' fasces, the tripods, Corinthian column standard lamps and candelabra, boat-shaped oil lamps and tent-shaped lustres with classic mountings, are examples of the metal-work of a style which, outside the eccentric Brighton Pavilion and excursions into Gothic and Elizabethan, was universally accepted in the United Kingdom from the days of the Regency until after the accession of Victoria.
The Gothic revival also helped the recognition of art, without very directly affecting the movement.
British architects and artists who design for the principal decorating firms are to-day as conversant with the Renaissance and succeeding styles of France and Italy as medieval revivalists were familiar with the Gothic styles with which they made us so well acquainted.
He had amassed some wealth, which on his return to Rome he so employed among the poor as to secure for himself great popularity; and, when Vigilius was summoned to Byzantium in 544, Pelagius, now archdeacon, was left behind as his vicar, and by his tact in dealing with Totila, the Gothic invader, saved the citizens from murder and outrage.
The cathedral, constructed in 1074 at the summit of the hill, is externally plain; it has a fine Gothic interior, somewhat spoilt by restoration, with a good Cosmati pavement, and a canopy and paschal candlestick in the same style.
Foremost among its buildings must be mentioned its five chief churches, stately Gothic edifices in glazed brick, with lofty spires and replete with medieval works of art - pictures, stained glass and tombs.
Of them, the Marienkirche, built in the 13th century, is one of the finest specimens of early Gothic in Germany.
Within the church are the iron crown of Lombardy, supposed to have been beaten out of one of the nails used at the Crucifixion, and the treasury containing the relics of Theodelinda, comprising her crown, fan and comb of gold, and the golden hen and seven chickens, representing Lombardy and her seven provinces, and crosses, reliquaries, &c., of the Lombard and Gothic periods.
Among other buildings are a Gothic Minorite church (now Protestant), a town hall, and a prison, formerly the castle of the archbishops of Cologne.
This is generally known as the Breviarium Alaricianum, or Breviary of Alaric. Alaric was of a peaceful disposition, and endeavoured strictly to maintain the treaty which his father had concluded with the Franks, whose king Clovis, however, desiring to obtain the Gothic province in Gaul, found a pretext for war in the Arianism of Alaric. The intervention of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of Alaric, proved unavailing.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.