When Gotama the Buddha, himself a Kosalan by birth, determined on the use, for the propagation of his religious reforms, of the living tongue of the people, he and his followers naturally made full use of the advantages already gained by the form of speech current through the wide extent of his own country.
The peaceful progress of Brahmanism was hindered by the doctrine of the Indian prince Gotama, called the Buddha, which grew into one of the greatest religions of the world.
They were Buddhists, and it is probable that the Mahayana or northern form of Buddhism was due to an amalgamation of Gotama's doctrines with the ideas (largely Greek and Persian) which they brought with them.
And we need have no hesitation in accepting this as a monument put up over a portion of the ashes from the funeral pyre of Gotama the Buddha.
LUMBINI, the name of the garden or grove in which Gotama, the Buddha, was born.
Two others are proclamations commemorating visits paid by the king, one to the dome erected over the ashes of Konagamana, the Buddha, another to the birthplace of Gotama, the Buddha.
The first in the collection of the Dialogues of Gotama discusses, and completely, categorically, and systematically rejects, all the current theories about "souls."
North-west of this another Asoka pillar has been discovered, recording his visit to the cairn erected by the Sakyas over the remains of Konagamana, one of the previous Buddhas or teachers, whose follower Gotama the Buddha had claimed to be.
held very nearly in its original purity from the time when it was propounded by Gotama in the 6th century B.C. to the period in which northern India was conquered by the Huns about the commencement of the Christian era.
The older school had taught that Gotama, who had propounded the doctrine of Arahatship, was a Buddha, that only a Buddha is capable of discovering that doctrine, and that a Buddha is a man who by self-denying efforts, continued through many hundreds of different births, has acquired the so-called Ten Paramitas or cardinal virtues in such perfection that he is able, when sin and ignorance have gained the upper hand throughout the world, to save the human race from impending ruin.
It is worthy of note that the new school found its earliest professors and its greatest expounders in a part of India outside the districts to which the personal influence of Gotama and of his immediate followers had been confined.
The date of none of these works is known with any certainty, but it is highly improbable that any one of them is older than the 6th century after the death of Gotama.
The former is legendary work, partly in verse, on the life of Gotama, the historical Buddha; and the latter, also partly in verse, is devoted to proving the essential identity of the Great and the Little Vehicles, and the equal authenticity of both as doctrines enunciated by the master himself.
As the newer school did not venture so far as to claim as Bodhisats the disciples stated in the older books to have been the contemporaries of Gotama (they being precisely the persons known as Arahats), they attempted to give the appearance of age to the Bodhisat theory by representing the Buddha as being surrounded, not only by his human companions the Arahats, but also by fabulous beings, whom they represented as the Bodhisats existing at that time.
Among these hypothetical beings, the creations of a sickly scholasticism, hollow abstractions without life or reality, the particular trinity in which the historical Gotama was assigned a subordinate place naturally occupied the most exalted rank.
It is needless to add that, under the overpowering influence of these vain imaginations, the earnest moral teachings of Gotama became more and more hidden from view.
As the stronger side of Gotama's teaching was neglected, the debasing belief in rites and ceremonies, and charms and incantations, which had been the especial object of his scorn, began to spread like the Birana weed warmed by a tropical sun in marsh and muddy soil.
In all these respects he was simply following the directions of the Vinaya, or regulations of the order, as established probably in the time of Gotama himself, and as certainly handed down from the earliest times in the pitakas or sacred books.
In Europe, Buddha is used to designate the last historical Buddha, whose family name was Gotama, and who was the son of Suddhodana, one of the chiefs of the tribe of the Sakiyas, one of the republican clans then still existent in India.
He was in after years more generally known by his family name of Gotama, but his individual name was Siddhattha.
Subjectively, though not objectively, these visions may be supposed to have appeared to Gotama.
"This," said Gotama quietly, "is a new and strong tie I shall have to break."
Gotama's return became an ovation; musicians preceded and followed his chariot, while shouts of joy and triumph fell on his ear.
Grateful to one who, at such a time, reminded him of his highest hopes, Gotama, to whom such things had no longer any value, took off his collar of pearls and sent it to her.
Gotama rides a long distance that night, only stopping at the banks of the Anoma beyond the Koliyan territory.
There now ensued a second struggle in Gotama's mind, described with all the wealth of poetry and imagination of which the Indian mind is master.
Disenchanted and dissatisfied, Gotama had given up all that most men value, to seek peace in secluded study and self-denial.
It is quite consistent with his whole career that it was love and pity for others - otherwise, as it seemed to him, helplessly doomed and lost - which at last overcame every other consideration, and made Gotama resolve to announce his doctrine to the world.
His acquaintance rejoins: "In that case, venerable Gotama, your way lies yonder !"
He understands their change of manner, calmly tells them not to mock him by calling him "the venerable Gotama"; that he has found the ambrosia of truth and can lead them to it.
After the rainy season Gotama called together those of his disciples who had devoted themselves to the higher life, and said to them: "I am free from the five hindrances which, like an immense net, hold men and angels in their power; you too (owing to my teaching) are set free.
2 Throughout his career, Gotama yearly adopted the same plan, collecting his disciples round him in the rainy season, and after it was over travelling about as an itinerant preacher; but in subsequent years he was always accompanied by some of his most attached disciples.
Gotama settled among them, and after a time they became believers in his system, - the elder brother, Kassapa, taking henceforth a principal place among his followers.
Gotama then spoke to the king on the miseries of the world which arise from passion, and on the possibility of release by following the 1 Vinaya Texts, i.
The next day, therefore, Gotama set out at the usual hour, carrying his bowl to beg for a meal.
Startled at such news he rose up, seizing the end of his outer robe, and hastened to the place where Gotama was, exclaiming, "Illustrious Buddha, why do you expose us all to such shame ?
"My noble father," said Gotama, "you and your family may claim the privileges of Kshatriya descent; my descent is from the prophets (Buddhas) of old, and they have always acted so; the customs of the law (Dharma) are good both for this world and the world that is to come.
Eighteen months had now elapsed since the turning-point of Gotama's career - his great struggle under the Bo tree.
A merchant from Sunaparanta having joined the Society was desirous of preaching to his relations, and is said to have asked Gotama's permission to do so.
She went to Gotama; and doing homage to him said, "Lord and master, do you know any medicine that will be good for my child?"
For forty-five years after entering on his mission Gotama itinerated in the valley of the Ganges, not going farther than about 250 m.
Gotama are succeeded by tolerably clear accounts of the last few days of his life.
There Gotama rested again, and bathed for the last time.
Gotama heard the sound of their talk, and asking what it was, told them to let Subhadra come.
So deeply did the words or the impressive manner of the dying teacher work upon Subhadra that he asked to be admitted at once, and Gotama granted his request.
Jainism purports to be the system of belief promulgated by Vaddhamana, better known by his epithet of Maha-vira (the great hero), who was a contemporary of Gotama, the Buddha.
Against this custom, Gotama, the Buddha, especially warned his followers; and it is referred to in the well-known Greek phrase, Gymnosophist, used already by Megasthenes, which applies very aptly to the Niganthas.
Then, Gotama, he is neither reborn nor not reborn.
We hear nothing further about the success or otherwise of the new order, but it may possibly be referred to under the name of the Gotamakas, in the Anguttara (see Dialogues of the Buddha 1.222), for Devadatta's family name was Gotama.
The systems called Jainism (see Jains) and Buddhism (q.v.) had their roots in prehistoric philosophies, but were founded respectively by Vardhamana Mahavira and Gotama Buddha, both of whom were preaching in Magadha during the reign of Bimbisara (c. 520 B.C.).
9 Or, again, maternity disappears, while parenthood survives, and causation is embodied in a universal " Father of all that are and are to be," like the Indian Brahma in the days of Gotama the Buddha."
Nichiren taught a philosophical monism in the 13th century which is the basis of a vigorous sect at the present day; and the " True Sect of the Pure Land," founded by his older contemporary Shin-ran, and now the most numerous, wealthy and powerful of the Buddhist denominations, has dropped the original Gotama altogether out of sight, and permits worship to Amida alone, the sublime figure of " Boundless Light," whose saving power is appropriated by faith.
Mara, the great tempter, appears in the sky, and urges Gotama to stop, promising him, in seven days, a universal kingdom over the four great continents if he will but give up his enterprise.2 When his words fail to have any effect, the tempter consoles himself by the confident hope that he will still overcome his enemy, saying, "Sooner or later some lustful or malicious or angry thought must arise in his mind; in that moment I shall be his master"; and from that hour, adds the legend, "as a shadow always follows the body, so he too from that day always followed the Blessed One, striving to throw every obstacle in his way towards the Buddhahood."
Another cousin, Devadatta, the son of the raja of Koli, also joined the society, but became envious of the teacher, and stirred up Ajatasattu (who, having killed his father Bimbisara, had become king of Rajagaha) to persecute Gotama.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.