Gospels sentence example
The Gospels assumed their present form between A.D.
He goes so far as to say that "the writings of ancient men, who were the founders of the sect" referred to by Philo, may very well have been the Gospels and Epistles (which were not yet written).
It consisted of a small MS. of the Gospels in the Vulgate, fragments of the liturgy of the Celtic church, and notes, in the Gaelic script of the 12th century, referring to the charters of the ancient monastery, including a summary of that granted by David I.
Here also was produced the Book of Dimma, consisting of the gospels and accompanied by a brazen shrine, ornamented with silver and tracery, and preserved in the library of Trinity College, Dublin.
From this, in the same year, he extracted the versions of the Gospels and Epistles "a l'usage du diocese de Meaux."Advertisement
His sources for the teachings of Jesus are the "Memoirs of the Apostles," by which are probably to be understood the Synoptic Gospels (without the Gospel according to St John), which, according to his account, were read along with the prophetic writings at the public services.
The a posteriori evidence as regards both its moral and religious quality and its date is altogether inferior to the evidence of the Gospels.
But of still greater interest are the passages in the Gospels which show the influence of the Testaments, and these belong mainly to the sayings and discourses of our Lord.
It is stated in the gospels that the Last Supper was the Passover meal, though certain discrepancies between the accounts given in the Synoptics and in John render this doubtful.
He also trained Georgians in the art of printing, and cut the type with which under his pupil Mihail Ishtvanovitch they printed the first Georgian Gospels (Tiflis, 170 9).Advertisement
Basing their views on the synoptic Gospels, and tracing descent from the obscure sect of the Alogi, the Adoptianists under Theodotus of Byzantium tried to found a school at Rome c. 185, asserting that Jesus was a man, filled with the Holy Spirit's inspiration from his baptism, and so attaining such a perfection of holiness that he was adopted by God and exalted to divine dignity.
The closing verses strike that deep note of absolute dependence on God, which is the glory of the religion of the Old Testament and its chief contribution to the spirit of the Gospels.
The second edition was enlarged by a preliminary chapter on the sources of the Gospels, and by a third section for the Son of God chapter.
Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.
Le Discours sur la Montagne is a fragment of a coming enlarged commentary on the synoptic Gospels.Advertisement
The Inquisition, by its decree Lamentabili sane (2nd of July 1907), condemned sixty-five propositions concerning the Church's magisterium; biblical inspiration and interpretation; the synoptic and fourth Gospels; revelation and dogma; Christ's divinity, human knowledge and resurrection; and the historical origin and growth of the Sacraments, the Church and the Creed.
An incisive introduction discusses the ecclesiastical tradition, modern criticism; the second, the first and the third Gospels; the evangelical tradition; the career and the teaching of Jesus; and the literary form, the tradition of the text and the previous commentaries.
Another prolific source of apocryphal gospels, acts and apocalypses was Gnosticism.
The influence of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is still more apparent in the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels, and the same holds true of Jubilees and the Assumption of Moses, though in a very slight degree.
The former contains two sayings of Christ and one of Peter, such as we find in the canonical gospels, Matt.Advertisement
The other group is more in accord with the orthodox gospels.
Recently Schubert has sought to derive the elements which are found in the Petrine Gospel, but not in the canonical gospels, from the original Ada Pilati, while Zahn exactly reverses the relation of these two works.
Some of them believed that the essential matter in the consecration of a bishop consisted in the placing the book of the gospels on his head and shoulders.
With approximate certainty may be ascribed also to Tamas and Balint the original of the still extant transcript, by George Nemeti, of the Four Gospels, the Jciszay or Munich Codex (finished at Tatros in Moldavia in 1466).
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).Advertisement
The Peshitta New Testament - according to the convincing theory which at present holds the field s - is not the oldest form of the Syriac version, at least as regards the Gospels.
The text of the Gospels underlying it " represents the Greek text as read in Rome about A.D.
Slightly later was made the Old Syriac version of the separate Gospels, which survives in two MSS.
Rabbi - la's text of the Gospels " represents the Greek text as read in Antioch about A.D.
Rabbula, the powerful and energetic bishop of Edessa who withstood the beginnings of Nestorianism, and who gave currency to the Peshitta text of the four Gospels, abolishing the use of the Diatessaron, is dealt with in a separate article.Advertisement
Elias of Merv, who belongs to the 2nd half of the 7th century, compiled a Catena patrum on the Gospels and wrote many commentaries.
He based his teaching on the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, repudiating other scriptures; and taking the Pauline name of Silvanus, organized churches in Castrum Colonias and Cibossa, which he called Macedonia, after Paul's congregation of that 1 In the Armenian Letterbook of the Patriarchs (Tiflis, 1901), p. 73.
Weiss, Die Quellen des Lukas-evangeliums (1907); also books on the Four Gospels, or the Synoptic Gospels, mentioned at end of article Gospel.
In his later years he published an address read before the members of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institution (1868), one on Design in Nature, for the Christian Evidence Society, which reached a fifth edition, various charges and pastoral addresses, and he was one of the projectors of The Speaker's Commentary, for which he wrote the "Introduction to the Synoptic Gospels."
The central theme of his preaching was, according to the Synoptic Gospels, the nearness of the coming of the Messianic kingdom, and the consequent urgency for preparation by repentance.Advertisement
It profoundly influenced the Messianic movement depicted in the Gospels.
The poem is based, not directly on the New Testament, but on the pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels, and it shows acquaintance with the commentaries of Alcuin, Banda and Hrabanus Maurus.
About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and his Biblical studies began to affect his views.
There are also extant portions of commentaries on the Gospels from his pen.
Of equestrian rank, his name Pontius suggests a Samnite origin, and his cognomen in the gospels, pileatus (if derived from the pileus or cap of liberty), descent from a freedman.Advertisement
Osiander, besides a number of controversial writings, published a corrected edition of the Vulgate, with notes, in 1522, and a Harmony of the Gospels - the first work of its kind - in 1537.
At Rome were published the Gospels (with a dedication to Pope Damasus, an explanatory introduction, and the canons of Eusebius), the rest of the New Testament and the version of the Psalms from the Septuagint known as the Psalterium romanum, which was followed (c. 388) by the Psalterium gallicanum, based on the Hexaplar Greek text.
The practice of the Jewish courts in New Testament times may be inferred from certain passages in the Gospels.
In answer to these strictures, Bengel published a Defence of the Greek Text of His New Testament, which he prefixed to his Harmony of the Four Gospels, published in 1736, and which contained a sufficient answer to the complaints, especially of Wetstein, which had been made against him from so many different quarters.
The germ of both is to be found in the Gospels; the first words of the Greater Doxology, or Gloria in Excelsis, being taken from Luke ii.Advertisement
Three of the Gospels have clearly been for some time in circulation; St Matthew's is used several times, and there are phrases which occur only in St Luke's, while St John's Gospel lies behind the eucharistic prayers which the writer has embodied in his work.
Eichhorn in favour of the "borrowing hypothesis" of the origin of the synoptical gospels, maintaining the priority of Matthew, the present Greek text having been the original.
He speaks of a Christian collection of writings, and knew and used the gospels, but was influenced less by the fourth than by the Synoptics.
The present article will first describe its general structure and more obvious contents; compare it with the Synoptic Gospels; and draw out its leading characteristics and final object.
In support of this view it is urged, though it is so much less often now than it used to be, that the description "not in order" does not fit our Gospel of Mark, the order in which is from an historical point of view as good as, if not better than, in the other Gospels.Advertisement
The chief revision of Mark would seem, then, to have taken place between the times of the composition of the first and third Gospels, which cannot be far removed from one another (see Matthew, Gospel Of St).
Documents of various kinds, including gospels and apostolic epistles, circulated widely.
These two works, the Logia (or, as some prefer to call it, the Non-Marcan document common to Matthew and Luke) and the Mark-Gospel, were the prime factors in all the subsequent composition of Gospels.
And it is probable that other Gospels of which only fragments have come down to us, like the Gospel according to the Hebrews and the Gospel of Peter, have been built up out of the same materials.
Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
Practically we may say that the estimate of the Four to which Tatian and Irenaeus testify must have been well established by the middle of the century, though sporadic instances may be found of the use of other Gospels that did not become canonical.
There are many indications early in the 2nd century of a tendency towards the recognition of a single Gospel; for instance, there are the local Gospels according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians; Marcion had but one Gospel, St Luke, the Valentinians preferred St John and so on; Tatian reduced the Four Gospels to one by means of a Harmony, and it is possible that something of the kind may have existed before he did this.
There is probably some truth in the view that the Church clung to its Four Gospels as a weapon against Gnosticism; it could not afford to reduce the number of its documents.
But, over and above this, there was probably something in the circumstances in which the canonical Gospels were composed, and in their early history, which gave them a special prestige in the eyes of the faithful.
The list recognized four Gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, two epistles of John, Jude, Apocalypse of John and (as the text stands) of Peter; there is no mention of Hebrews or (apparently) of 3 John or Epistles of Peter, where it is possible - we cannot say more - that the silence as to t Peter is accidental; the Shepherd of Hermas on account of its date is admitted to private, but not public, reading; various writings associated with Marcion, Valentinus, Basilides and Montanus are condemned.
These seem to have been the only books translated immediately upon the foundation of the Edessan Church, though an edition of the separate Gospels must have followed either before or very soon afterwards.
In all other churches the four Gospels, Acts and Epistles of Paul are fixed, with the addition in nearly all of i Peter, i John.
He makes three classes; the first, including the Gospels, Acts, Epistles of Paul, i Peter, t John, is acknowledged; to these, if one likes, one may add the Apocalypse.
Special mention should be made of Wellhausen on the Synoptic Gospels (1903-1905), and Harnack, Beitrage z.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
It has, in the main, a Neutral text, less mixed in the Epistles than that of B, but not so pure in the Gospels.
In the New Testament it has in the gospels a late text of Westcott and Hort's " Syrian " type, but in the epistles there is a strongly marked " Alexandrian " element.
L, von Soden e 56, containing the Gospels; cod.
They are known as the Ferrar group in memory of the scholar who first published their text, and are sometimes quoted as 4, (which, however, properly is the symbol for Codex Beratinus of the Gospels), and sometimes as fam.13.
The African version is best represented in the gospels by cod.
The European version is best represented in the gospels by cod.
He did this fully and carefully in the gospels, but somewhat superficially in the epistles.
Of Jerome's revision we possess at least 8000 MSS., of which the earliest may be divided (in the gospels at all events) into groups connected with various countries; the most important are the Northumbrian, Irish, Anglo-Irish and Spanish, but the first named might also be called the Italian, as it represents the text of good MSS.
The under writing seems to be a little earlier than that of the Curetonian; it contains the gospels in the order Mt., Mc., Lc., Jo.
C. Burkitt that the portion contain ing the gospels was made by Rabbula, bishop of Edessa (411), to take the place of the Diatessaron, and was based on the Greek text which was at that time in current use at Antioch.
It was originally a harmony of the four gospels made by Tatian, the pupil of Justin Martyr, towards the end of the 2nd century.
These authorities are, therefore, only available for the reconstruction of the order of the selections from the gospels, not for textual criticism properly so called.
The Diatessaron appears to have been the usual form in which the gospels were read until the beginning of the 5th century, when the Peshito was put in its place, and a systematic destruction of copies of the Diatessaron was undertaken.
There is no question that many passages in these show signs of Diatessaron influence, but this is only to be expected if we consider that from the end of the 2nd to the beginning of the 5th century the Diatessaron was the popular form of the gospels.
All four Gospels also were to be placed in the 2nd century, though that according to Matthew retained many features unaltered from the Judaistic original upon which it was based.
More important still is the application of Semitic study to elucidate the Gospels.
The subject of the chronology of the New Testament falls naturally into two distinct sections - the chronology of the Gospels, that is, of the life of Christ; and the chronology of the_Acts, that is, of the apostolic age.
The question, however, may still be raised, whether these time-indications of the two Gospels are exhaustive, whether (that is) two years, and two years only, are to be allotted to the ministry.
The only date, in fact, which has any real claim to represent Christian tradition independent of the Gospels, is the year 29.
But if the tradition of the consulship was thus, it would seem, already an old one about the year 200, there is at least some reason to conclude that trustworthy information in early Christian circles pointed, independently of the Gospels, to the year 29 as that of the Crucifixion.
The Chronology of the Apostolic Age, The chronology of the New Testament outside the Gospels may be defined for the purposes of this article as that of the period between the Crucifixion in A.D.
In Italy, by a departure from the traditional policy of the Roman Church, the newly formed "Pious Society of St Jerome for the Dissemination of the Holy Gospels" issued in 1901 from the Vatican press a new Italian version of the Four Gospels and Acts.
In the course of the 10th century the Gospels were glossed and translated.
A further testimony to the activity which prevailed in the field of Biblical lore is the fact that at the close of the century probably about the year r000 - the Gospels were rendered anew for the first time in the south of Eng land.
Of this version - the so-called West-Saxon Gospels - not less than seven manuscripts have come down to us.
With the exception of ZElfric's late works at the very dawn of the century, we can only record two transcripts of the West-Saxon Gospels as coming at all within the scope of our inquiry.
In the 12th century the same gospels were again copied by pious hands into the Kentish dialect of the period.
Commentaries on the Gospels of St Matthew, St Mark and St Luke, we are told by the heading in one of the MSS.
The translation of these Gospels as well as of the Epistles referred to above is stiff and awkward, the translator being evidently afraid of any departure from the Latin text of his original.
The text of the Gospels was extracted from the Commentary upon them by Wycliffe, and to these were added the Epistles, the Acts and the Apocalypse, all now translated anew.
This translation might probably be the work of Wycliffe himself; at least the similarity of style between the Gospels and the other parts favours the supposition."
The Wycliffite authorship of the Commentaries on the Gospels, on which the learned editors base their argument, is, however, unsupported by any evidence beyond the fact that the writer of the Prologue to Matthew urges in strong language " the propriety of translating Scripture for the use of the laity."
Some such document, we know, must lie at the base of our Synoptic Gospels, and it is quite possible that it may have been known to and used by Papias.
There seems to be no motive sufficient to explain the additions that have been made to the text of the Gospels.
There is a notable collection of early Irish manuscripts, including the magnificently ornamented Book of Kells, containing the gospels.
Among his longer works are Christian Leaders of the Eighteenth Century (1869), Expository Thoughts on the Gospels (7 vols., 1856-69), Principles for Churchmen (1884).
It has been necessary to consider at such length St Paul's account of the Eucharist, both because it antedates nearly by half a century that of the gospels, and because it explains the significance which the rite had no less for the Gnostics than for the great church.
It was this work which the Manichaeans set up in opposition to the Gospels.
Mani appears to have given recognition to a portion of the historical matter of the Gospels, and to have interpreted it in accordance with his own doctrine.
Surely, the harmony of these three moral gospels proves that Aristotle wrote them, and wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia as preludes to the Nicomachean Ethics.
A Theological Question for the Times (1889); The Authority of the Holy Scripture (1891); The Bible, the Church and the Reason (1892); The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch (1893); The Messiah of the Gospels (1894) The Messiah of the Apostles (1894); New Light on the Life of Jesus (1904); The Ethical Teaching of Jesus (1904); A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms (2 vols., 1906-1907), in which he was assisted by his daughter; and The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1909).
The present article is concerned solely with general considerations affecting the four canonical Gospels; see for details of each, the articles under Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
But do our Gospels, or any of them, in the form in which we actually have them, belong to the number of those earliest records ?
With a view to obtaining answers to them, it is necessary to consider the reception of the Gospels in the early Church, and also to examine and compare the Gospels themselves.
Some account of the evidence supplied in these two ways must be given in the present article, so far as it is common to all four Gospels, or to three or two of them, and in the articles on the several Gospels so far as it is especial to each.
There is a lack of explicit references to the Gospels; 1, and many of the quotations which may be taken from them are not exact.
For the identification, therefore, of the source or sources used we have to rely upon the amount of correspondence with our Gospels in the quotations made, and in respect to other parallelisms of statement and of expression, in these early Christian writers.
There is evidence of this kind, more or less clear in the several cases, that all the four Gospels were known in the first two or three decades of the 2nd century.
After this time it becomes manifest that, as we should expect, documents were the recognized authorities for the Gospel history; but there is still some uncertainty as to the documents upon which reliance was placed, and the precise estimation in which l For the only two that can be held to be such in the first half of the 2nd century, and the doubts whether they refer to our present Gospels, see Mark, Gospel Of, and Matthew, Gospel Of.
After a great deal of controversy there has come to be very wide agreement that he reckoned the first three Gospels among these Memoirs.
There is a good deal of difference of opinion still as to whether Justin reckoned other sources for the Gospel-history besides our Gospels among the Apostolic Memoirs.
The effect of this was no doubt to enhance the sense generally entertained of the value of the four Gospels.
It may on the contrary be confidently asserted with regard to the first three Gospels that the local colouring in them is predominantly Palestinian, and that they 1 The character of Tatian's Diatessaron has been much disputed in the past, but there can no longer be any reasonable doubt on the subject after recent discoveries and investigations.
We turn to the literary criticism of the Gospels, where solid results have been obtained.
The first three Gospels have in consequence of the large amount of similarity between them in contents, arrangement, and even in words and the forms of sentences and paragraphs, been called Synoptic Gospels.
Now some have held that the form of this oral teaching was to a great extent a fixed one, and that it was the common source of our first three Gospels.
It is now and has for many years been widely held that a document which is most nearly represented by the Gospel of Mark, or which (as some would say) was virtually identical with it, has been used in the composition of our first and third Gospels.
It is introduced into the Synoptic Outline very differently in those two Gospels, which clearly suggests that it existed in a separate form, and was independently combined by the first and third evangelists with their other document.
The form in which it is given in the two Gospels is in several passages so nearly identical that we must suppose these pieces at least to have been derived immediately or ultimately from the same Greek document.
It may, however, fairly be called " the Logian document," as a convenient way of indicating the character of the greater part of the matter which our first and third evangelists have taken from it, and this designation is used in the articles on the Gospels of Luke and Matthew.
One or two remarks may here be added as to the bearing of the results of literary criticism upon the use of the Gospels.
Their effect is to lead us, especially when engaged in historical inquiries, to look beyond our Gospels to their sources, instead of treating the testimony of the Gospels severally as independent and ultimate.
And the fruits of much of that older study of the Gospels, which was largely employed in pointing out the special characteristics of each, will still prove serviceable.
When it was necessary to account for this position, theologians quoted the text of the Gospels, where St Peter is represented as the rock on which the Church is built, the pastor of the sheep and lambs of the Lord, the doorkeeper of the kingdom of heaven.
It is curious, not only that Luke's story does not appear in the other gospels, but also that in no other of Christ's parables is a name given to the central character.
In a secondary sense cniht meant a servant or attendant answering to the German Knecht, and in the Anglo-Saxon Gospels a disciple is described as a leorning cniht.
While John's Apocalypse is distinctly eschatological, the Epistles and the Gospels often give these conceptions an ethical and spiritual import, without, however, excluding the eschatological.
He contributed to the expense of printing and publishing at Oxford the four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in the Malay language, and at his death left 5400 for the propagation of the gospel in heathen lands.
The door was re-opened by the treaties of 1882-1886, and even before that copies of the gospels had been circulated from the Manchuria side.
It may be added that the Venetians prided themselves on possessing, not only the body of St Mark, but also the autograph of his Gospel; this autograph, however, proved on examination to be only part of a 6th-century book of the Gospels, the remainder of which was published by Bianchini as the Evangeliarium forojuliense; the Venetian part of this MS. was found some years ago to have been wholly destroyed by damp.
Next the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles of Paul are to be read, and finally the four Gospels by a deacon or a priest.
More weighty contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article "The Gospels" in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898), Johannine V ocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).
The Gospels agree in regarding Cephas or Peter as an additional name, which was given by Christ.
He wrote a commentary on the first two gospels in the Speaker's Commentary.
On each visit to Rome it was his delight to collect relics for his native land; and to his favourite basilica at Ripon he gave a bookcase wrought in gold and precious stones, besides a splendid copy of the Gospels.
He also published a small work, The Christ of the Gospels and the Christ of History, in which the views of Renan on the gospel history were dealt with; a monograph on Pascal for Blackwood's Foreign Classics series; and a little work, Beginning Life, addressed to young men, written at an earlier period.
The document is for the most part an enumeration of such apocryphal works as by their titles might be supposed to be part of Holy Scripture (the "Acts" of Philip, Thomas and Peter, and the Gospels of Thaddaeus, Matthias, Peter, James the Less and others).
Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
Numerous gifts from the Russian court, such as gospels lettered in gold and silver relief, or jewelled crucifixes, are preserved on the spot; but the valuable library was removed, in the 15th century, to Mount Athos.
He knows nothing of the Old Testament, and only the life of Christ in the New, while he does not quote directly from the Gospels.
The gospels generally have left upon the minds of men an impression unfavourable to the Pharisees.
To write a summary account of the life of Christ, though always involving a grave responsibility, was until recent years a comparatively straightforward task; for it was assumed that all that was needed, or could be offered, was a chronological outline based on a harmony of the four canonical Gospels.
A document, no longer extant, which was partially incorporated into the Gospels of St Matthew and St Luke.
We pass on now to compare with this narrative of St Mark another very early document which no longer exists in an independent form, but which can be partially reconstructed from the portions of it which have been embodied in the Gospels of St Matthew and St Luke.
Accordingly so much of St Mark's Gospel has been taken over word for word in the Gospels of St Luke and St Matthew that, if every copy of it had perished, we could still reconstruct large portions of it by carefully comparing their narratives.
This impression is confirmed by the Gospels of St Matthew and St Luke, which though they add much fresh material do not disturb the general scheme presented by St Mark.
The Fourth Gospel thus offers us a most important supplement to the limited sketch of our Lord's life which we find in the Synoptic Gospels.
His mission is described as running on for a while concurrently with that of our Lord, whereas in the other Gospels we have no record of our Lord's work until John is cast into prison.
Away from the atmosphere of contention we find Him manifesting the same broad sympathy and freedom from convention which we have noted in the other Gospels, especially in that of St Luke.
The account of the trial and the crucifixion differs considerably from the accounts given in the other Gospels.
For bibliography see BIBLE; CHRISTIANITY; CHURCH HISTORY; and the articles on the separate Gospels.
Among his many theological works may be mentioned An Exposition of the Epistles to the Seven Churches of Asia (1877), The Spirits in Prison (1884), "The Book of Proverbs" (which he annotated in the Speaker's Commentary), the "Synoptic Gospels, Acts, and II.
The first volume contained the first three Gospels, synoptically arranged; the second, the Epistles and the book of Revelation.
All the historical books were reprinted in one volume in 1 777, the synoptical arrangement of the Gospels having been abandoned as inconvenient.
Of a third edition, edited by David Schulz, only the first volume, containing the four Gospels, appeared (1827).
His chief work was the Syntagmation, but he wrote many others, including commentaries on the Gospels, the Psalms, and Romans.
In his Kritische Untersuchungen ieber die kanonischen Evangelien, ihr Verheiltniss zu einander, ihren Charakter and Ursprung (1847) he turns his attention to the Gospels, and here again finds that the authors were conscious of the conflict of parties; the Gospels reveal a mediating or conciliatory tendency (Tendenz) on the part of the writers or redactors.
The Gospels, in fact, are adaptations or redactions of an older Gospel, such as the Gospel of the Hebrews, of Peter, of the Egyptians, or of the Ebionites.
In 1701 he published A Paraphrase upon the Gospel of St Matthew, which was followed, in 1702, by the Paraphrases upon the Gospels of St Mark and St Luke, and soon afterwards by a third volume upon St John.
In the lists of the Apostles given in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, Matthew ranks third or fourth in the second group of four - a fair index of his relative importance in the apostolic age.
Its separation was due to growing consciousness of the Gospels as a unit of sacred records, to which Acts stood as a sort of appendix.
It is also said that Akbar employed Jerome Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, to translate the four Gospels into Persian.
In 1897, however, Alexander Robinson of Kilmun was deposed by the presbytery of Dunoon acting under the orders of the Assembly on account of the views contained in his book The Saviour in the Newer Light, in which the results of modern criticism of the Gospels were set forth with some ability.
It has been frequently reprinted, and in the edition of De la Barre, 1580, is accompanied by some notes on the Gospels by the same author.
His commentary on the Gospels is of great importance in connexion with the textual history of the N.T., for the text on which he composed it was that of the Diatessaron.
C. Burkitt's 2 careful examination of the quotations from the Gospels in the other works of Ephraim; he shows conclusively that in all the undoubtedly genuine works the quotations are from a pre-Peshitta text.
The relationship of Talmudism to the Old Testament has been likened to that of Christian theology to the Gospels; the comparison, whether fitting or not, may at least enable one to understand the varying attitudes of Jewish thinkers to their ancient sources.
This was fgllowed by Through Scylla and Charybdis, in which he developed his favourite view of revelation as experience; Mediaevalism, a vigorous apologia in reply to a Lenten pastoral of Cardinal Mercier, archbishop of Malines, who had attacked him as the chief exponent of Modernism; and Christianity at the Cross Roads, which emphasizes the distinction between his own position and that of the Liberal Protestants, and is of special interest for its treatment of the eschatological problems of the Gospels.
From the frequency of his quotations, Aphraates is a specially important witness to the form in which the Gospels were read in the Syriac church in his day; Zahn and others have shown that he - mainly at least - used the Diatessaron.
This he did by setting aside the spurious gospels, purging the real gospel (the Gospel of Luke) from supposed judaizing interpolations, and restoring the true text of 2 On the relation of matter to the Creator, Marcion himself seems not to have speculated, though his followers may have done so.
The lessons read at the third nocturn are patristic homilies on the Gospels, and together form a rough summary of theological instruction.
He regarded many books of the Old Testament as spurious, questioned the genuineness of 2 Peter and Jude, denied the Pauline authorship of Timothy and Titus, and suggested that the canonical gospels were based upon various translations and editions of a primary Aramaic gospel.
Probably because it was so completely exotic in character it is passed over in almost total silence in the Gospels - the city (as opposed to the lake) is mentioned but once, as the place from which came boats with sight-seers to the scene of the feeding the five thousand, John vi.
He sought to show that even in the New Testament there are essential contradictions, and instances the unconditional forgiveness preached by Christ in the gospels as compared with Paul's doctrine of forgiveness by the mediation of Christ.
An old oak lectern, dating from the middle of the 15th century, carries a chained copy, in a Tudor binding of brass, of Dean Comber's (1655-99) book on the Common Prayer, and a black-letter copy of Erasmus's Paraphrase of the Gospels.
The mythical theory that the Christ of the Gospels, excepting the most meagre outline of personal history, was the unintentional creation of the early Christian Messianic expectation he applied with merciless rigour to the narratives.
C. Baur complained, his critique of the Gospel history had not been preceded by the essential preliminary critique of the Gospels themselves.
On the other hand, the attempt made in 1901 by the Holy Synod at Athens, with the co-operation of Queen Olga of Greece (a Russian princess), to circulate a modern Greek version of the Gospels was resented as a symptom of a Pan-Slavist conspiracy, and led to an ebullition of popular feeling which could only be pacified by the withdrawal of the obnoxious version and the abdication of the metropolitan of Athens.
Throughout the history of the Church, also, it has held a place second to none of the Gospels alike in public instruction and in the private reading of Christians.
Conservative writers on the Gospels have frequently maintained that the writing here referred to was virtually the Hebrew original of our Greek Gospel which bears his name.
Where there are parallels in the other Gospels they should be compared and the words in Matthew noted which in many instances serve to emphasize the points in question.
C. Allen (in the series of International Critical Commentaries, 1907); also books on the Four Gospels or the Synoptic Gospels cited at the end of GOSPEL.
Foxe was one of the earliest students of AngloSaxon, and he and Day published an edition of the Saxon gospels under the patronage of Archbishop Parker.
Zola also wrote a series of three romances on cities, Lourdes, Rome, Paris (1894-98), novels on the "gospels" of population (Fecondite) and work (Travail), a volume of plays, and several volumes of criticism, .and other things.
The first impression it produces may be one of heaviness, and the later "gospels" on population and work are distinctly ponderous.
That a learned man like Hippolytus should refer a work which contains quotations from the Epistles and Gospels to Simon Magus, who was probably older than Jesus Christ, shows the extent to which men can be blinded by religious bigotry.
But, if the end in view with the Fathers had been the attainment of truth, instead of the branding of heretics, they could not possibly have accepted the Great Declaration, which contains, as we have seen, the story of Helen, with its references to the Gospels, as the work of Simon 1 See H.E.
But in the absence of any reference to this prophecy in the Gospels, this view is unconvincing, though the correspondence is remarkable.
There is no traceable literary contact with the synoptic gospels.
The very first book published in Rumanian is the Gospels printed in Kronstadt between 1560 and 1561.
An absolutely identical Slavonic text of the Gospels appeared in the same year, or one year earlier, which no doubt was the original for the Rumanian translation.
By the end of the 17th century Rumanian had become the authorized language of the Church, and the Rumanian translation of the Gospels (printed 1693) had become the Authorized, Version.
The most extravagant estimate of all was that of Whiston, who calls them "the most sacred standard of Christianity, equal in authority to the Gospels themselves, and superior in authority to the epistles of single apostles, some parts of them being our Saviour's own original laws delivered to the apostles, and the other parts the public acts of the apostles" (Historical preface to Primitive Christianity Revived, pp. 85-86).
In the 3rd century this love of mystification reached the pitch of hiding even the gospels from the unclean eyes of pagans.
In the synoptic gospels Bartholomew is never mentioned except in the lists of the apostles, where his name always appears after Philip's.
The Christian oath might be on a copy of the Gospels, a saint's crozier, relic or other holy thing.
In the Gospels confession is scarcely mentioned.
He led the way in the task of discovering the origin of the Gospels, the Epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Apocalypse.
Besides the teaching of Jesus (best preserved in the first three gospels) and the teaching of Paul (in six, ten, or thirteen epistles), the recent " science " of New Testament Contents of New theology finds other types of doctrine.
He translated the Psalms into Persian, the Gospels into Judaeo-Persic,.
The Gospels had been carefully studied when he was preparing his Reasonableness of Christianity.
The recall of the national religion to the simplicity of the gospels would, he hoped, make toleration of nonconformists unnecessary, as few would then remain.
There Judson mastered Burmese, into which he translated part of the Gospels with his wife's help. In 1824 he removed to Ava, where during the war between the East India Company and Burma he was imprisoned for almost two years.
Bradshaw also discovered some Celtic glosses on the MS. of a metrical paraphrase of the Gospels by Juvencus.
All the preparations had been made, when Murad's envoys arrived in the royal camp at Szeged and offered a ten years' truce on advantageous terms. Both Hunyadi and Brankovic counselled their acceptance, and Wladislaus swore on the Gospels to observe them.
In particular he exerted himself to stamp out the use of the Diatessaron in favour of the four Gospels, the Syriac version of which probably now took the form known as the Peshitta.
It is said that there is a complex relationship between the Gospels.
The risen Jesus was not as he was, thus apparently contradicting the gospels.
You could say the same about the whole set of gospels, it becoming purely arbitrary what is considered original and what is added.
A physical and on-line gallery featuring the artworks and calligraphy of Mary Fleeson, based on celtic inspired artwork and the Lindisfarne Gospels.
Much more signifi cant is their divergent stance toward the Gospels.
Neither will the Gospels afford a clew; for these are the record of " days of heaven upon earth.
But that is quite unlike the accounts of the virginal conception in the Gospels.
The same sort of circular reasoning is applied to pericope after pericope in the gospels to exclude future eschatology from Jesus ' teaching.
It is a view, which is often extolled in the gospels.
He then gives us four reasons why the gospels are purely factual.
What is more, the synoptic gospels more or less got him right.
You also get bizarre alleged miracles in the apocryphal gospels.
Hengel concludes that the four canonical gospels were never even formally anonymous.
Modern evidentialist apologists have made exaggerated claims regarding our ability to verify the historicity of the Gospels.
It is assigned to the eighth century, and contains the Gospels complete, except for a few small lacunae.
He encouraged the laity to follow monastic practices such as fasting and meditation on the Gospels and lived himself in poverty.
It consists of 680 pages that present the four gospels in an elegant Latin hand known as insular majuscule.
From reading the Gospels it's clear that faith played an important part in Jesus ' healing ministry.
How has the mysticism of the Gnostic Gospels affected her?
Whatever the Gospels record, they do not record the exact words of Jesus, learned by rote by the disciples.
The dialog does not sound stylistically like either the Jesus in various Gospels nor Buddha in various sutras.
Jesus had in fact scored a victory, although it is hidden in the gospels as the curing of the Gadarene swine.
Bruce, Chief End of Revelation (1881), The Miraculous Element in the Gospels (1886), Apologetics (1892), and other works; Bruce's posthumous article, " Jesus " in Encyc. Bib., was understood by some as exchanging Christian orthodoxy for bare theism, but probably its tone of aloofness is due to the attempt to keep well within the limits of what the author considered pure scientific history.
He also completed a whole corpus of lectionaries, missals, gospels, &c.
At the end of 1900 Loisy secured a government lectureship at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Pratiques, and delivered there in succession courses on the Babylonian myths and the first chapters of Genesis; the Gospel parables; the narrative of the ministry in the synoptic Gospels; and the Passion narratives in the same.
Yet the great bulk of the sayings remain substantially authentic; if the historicity of certain words and acts is here refused with unusual assurance, that of other sayings and deeds is established with stronger proofs; and the redemptive conception of the Passion and the sacramental interpretation of the Last Supper are found to spring up promptly and legitimately from our Lord's work and words, to saturate the Pauline and Johannine writings, and even to constitute an element of all three synoptic Gospels.
On the question of the relationship of the Synoptic Gospels, Holtzmann in his early work, Die synoptischen Evangelien, ihr Ursprung and geschichtlicher Charakter (1863), presents a view which has been widely accepted, maintaining the priority of Mark, deriving Matthew in its present form from Mark and from Matthew's earlier "collection of Sayings," the Logia of Papias, and Luke from Matthew and Mark in the form in which we have them.
Of late, however, it has acquired new importance through the critical inquiries which have led to the conclusion that the two other synoptic Gospels are based upon it, or upon a document which is upon the whole most truly represented in it (see Gospel), so that it possesses the advantage of being an earlier source of information, or at least of bringing us more fully into contact with such a source.
The uses of amen ("verily") in the Gospels form a peculiar class; they are initial, but often lack any backward reference.
This catena of time-references is of course unique in the Gospels as a basis for a chronology of the ministry; and it is not reasonable to doubt (with Loisy, loc. cit., who suggests that the aim was to produce an artificial correspondence of a three and a half years' ministry with the half-week of Daniel; but many and diverse as are the early interpretations of Daniel's seventy weeks, no one before Eusebius thought of connecting the half-week with the ministry), that the evangelist intended these notices as definite historical data, possibly for the correction of the looser synoptic narratives and of the erroneous impressions to which they had given rise.
If, on the other hand, it was, as in ancient Jewish times, the first after the earliest ears of the barley harvest would be ripe, it would have varied with the forwardness or backward If the Passover celebration could, be anticipated by one day in a private Jewish family (and we know perhaps too little of Jewish rules in the time of Christ to be able to exclude this possibility), the evidence of the synoptic Gospels would no longer conflict with that of St John.
The many more or less imaginative lives of Christ which are not accepted by the Christian Church as canonical are known as " apocryphal gospels " (See Apocryphal Literature).
The chief work of Severus is the Chronica (c. 403), a summary of sacred history from the beginning of the world to his own times, with the omission of the events recorded in the Gospels and the Acts, "lest the form of his brief work should detract from the honour due to those events."
Let us rather read the Epistles and Gospels.
He remembered that he had now a new source of happiness and that this happiness had something to do with the Gospels.
Much has been made in recent years of the Gnostic gospels.
The discussion of the redaction of material in the Gospels is surprisingly in-depth for such a short book.
Once the Gospels were regarded as inspired, they were copied with scrupulous accuracy and by the most skillful scribes available.
The Gospels give great prominence to the sorrowful mysteries of Christ.
The dialog does not sound stylistically like either the Jesus in various Gospels nor Buddha in various Sutras.
We have clear evidence that Christians tampered with the text of the Gospels to make them better evidence for the Resurrection.
Making the Pages The Lindisfarne Gospels are painted on vellum sheets made from calf skin.
Since they are such established names, some people may not realize that these names are actually that of the four New Testament Gospels, who tell the main story of Jesus Christ.
This 2004 film directed by Mel Gibson follows the story of Jesus Christ's last hours as depicted in the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
His Catena Aurea next appeared, which, under the form of a commentary on the Gospels, was really an exhaustive summary of the theological teaching of the greatest of the church fathers.
Evanson rejected most of the books of the New Testament as forgeries, and of the four gospels he accepted only that of St Luke.
In the gospels he is mentioned as Herod.
John the Baptist condemned his marriage with Herodias, and in consequence was put to death in the way described in the gospels and in Josephus.