She invented a deity of her own, a mysterious Corambe, half pagan and half Christian, and like Goethe erected to him a rustic altar of the greenest grass, the softest moss and the brightest pebbles.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
She was as fond of acting as Goethe, and like him began with a puppet stage, succeeded by amateur theatricals, the chief entertainment provided for her guests at Nohant.
As a critic of independent views he won the approval of Goethe; on the other hand, he fell into violent controversy with Ranke about questions connected with Italian history.
Littre et le positivisme (1883), George Sand (1887), Melanges et portraits (1888), La Philosophie de Goethe (2nd ed., 1880).
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
Metamorphosis.It has already been pointed out that each kind of member of the body may present a variety of forms. For example, a stem may be a tree-trunk, or a twining stem, or a tendril, or a thorn, or a creeping rhizome, or a tuber; a leaf may be a green foliage-leaf, or a scale protecting a bud, or a tendril, or a pitcher, or a floral leaf, either sepal, petal, stamen or carpel (sporophyll); a root may be a fibrous root, or a swollen tap-root like that of the beet or the turnip. All these various forms are organs discharging some special function, and are examples of what Wolff called modification, and Goethe metamorphosis.
The phylogeny of the various floral leaves, for instance, was generally traced as follows: foliage-leaf, bract, sepal, petal, stamen and carpel (sporophylls)in accordance with what Goethe termed ascending metamorphosis.
But this phylogenetic differentiation of the organs was not what Wolff and Goethe had in mind; what they contemplated was an ontogenetic change, and there is abundant evidence that such changes actually occur.
Germans have suspected an anti-Christian strain in Goethe; all the world knows of it in E.
It was from the Moravians that Schleiermacher learnt his religion, and they even made a passing impression on Goethe; but both these men were repelled by their doctrine of the substitutionary sufferings of Christ.
Here he lived in close intercourse with Schiller, Goethe, Herder and the most distinguished literary men of the time.
(1719-1790), who served in the Prussian army under Frederick the Great, is chiefly famous as the husband of Caroline (1721-1774), "the great landgravine," who counted Goethe, Herder and Grimm among her friends and was described by Frederick the Great as femina sexu, ingenio vir.
By his wife Margarethe Schleierweber, the daughter of a French corporal, but renowned for her beauty and intellectual gifts, he was the father of Karl Friedrich Moritz Paul von Briihl (1772-1837), the friend of Goethe, who as intendant-general of the Prussian royal theatres was of some importance in the history of the development of the drama in Germany.
Urgent messages were sent off to the Commissary von Goethe (the poet), at Weimar for permission to requisition food and firewood.
Hence a beautiful road, immortalized by Goethe in Dichtung and Wahrheit, leads across the Vosges to Pfalzburg.
He is the Magyarizer of Shakespeare's Anthony and Cleopatra, Othello, Macbeth, Henry VIII., Winter's Tale, Romeo and Juliet and Tempest, as also of some of the best pieces of Burns, Moore, Byron, Shelley, Milton, Beranger, Lamartine, Victor Hugo, Goethe and others.
- General conceptions with regard to the relations of living things (especially animals) to the universe, to man, and to the Creator, their origin and significance: exemplified in the writings of the philosophers of classical antiquity, and of Linnaeus, Goethe, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, H.
The tracing out of this identity in diversity, whether regarded as evidence of blood-relationship or as a remarkable display of skill on the part of the Creator in varying the details whilst retaining the essential, became at this period a special pursuit, to which Goethe, the poet, who himself contributed importantly to it, gave the name " morphology."
Wolff, Goethe and Oken share the credit of having initiated these views, in regard especially to the structure of flowering plants and the Vertebrate skull.
Himself a scholar and author, he was a notable patron of letters, and was the friend of Goethe, Schiller and Wieland.
Among his principal works upon these subjects may be noted the four volumes of Letteratura della nuova Italia (1860-1910); his essays upon Goethe, Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille, and the Poetry of Dante; his two volumes Storia della storiografia italiana del secolo XIX.
The popular hero of the Servians and Bulgarians is Marko Kralyevich, son of Vukashin, characterized by Goethe as a counterpart of the Greek Heracles and the Persian Rustem.
He has, however, left a curious sketch of his projected school reforms. His new duties led him to Strassburg, where he met the young Goethe, on whose poetical development he exercised so potent an influence.
He co-operated with a band of young writers at Darmstadt and Frankfort, including Goethe, who in a journal of their own sought to diffuse the new ideas.
There he enjoyed the society of Goethe, Wieland, Jean Paul (who came to Weimar in order to be near Herder), and others, the patronage of the court, with whom as a preacher he was very popular, and an opportunity of carrying out some of his ideas of school reform.
His personal relations with Goethe again and again became embittered.
In the Grosser Hirschgraben is the Goethehaus, a 16th century building which came into the possession of the Goethe family in 1733.
Here Goethe lived from his birth in 1749 until 1775.
In 1863 the house was acquired by the Freies deutsche Hochstift and was opened to the public. It has been restored, from Goethe's account of it in Dichtung and Wahrheit, as nearly as possible to its condition in the poet's day, and is now connected with a Goethemuseum (1897), with archives and a library of 25,000 volumes representative of the Goethe period of German literature.
The statue of Goethe (1844) in the Goetheplatz is by Ludwig von Schwanthaler.
He edited the Goethe-Jahrbuch from 1880, Vierteljahrsschrift far Kultur and Litteratur der Renaissance (1885-1886), Zeitschr.
The most important building in Weimar is the palace, a huge structure forming three sides of a quadrangle, erected (1789-1803) under the superintendence of Goethe, on the site of one burned down in 1774.
The interior is very fine, and in one of the wings is a series of rooms dedicated to the poets Goethe, Schiller, Herder and Wieland, with appropriate mural paintings.
Of more interest, however, is the house in which Goethe himself lived from 1782 to 1832.
The interior, apart from the scientific and art collections made by Goethe, is mainly remarkable for the extreme simplicity of its furnishing.
The Goethe-Schiller Museum, as it is now called, stands isolated, the adjoining houses having been pulled down to avoid risk of fire.
The atmosphere of the whole town is, indeed, dominated by the memory of Goethe and Schiller, whose bronze statues, by Rietschel, grouped on one pedestal (unveiled in 1857) stand in front of the theatre.
Just outside the borders of the park, beyond the Ilm, is the "garden house," a simple wooden cottage with a high-pitched roof, in which Goethe used to pass the greater part of the summer.
Finally, in the cemetery is the grand ducal family vault, in which Goethe and Schiller also lie, side by side.
In 1896 the Goethe-Schiller Archiv, an imposing building on the wooded height above the Ilm, containing MSS.
By Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland, Immermann, Fritz Reuter, Morike, Otto Ludwig and others, was opened.
See Scholl Weimar's Merkwil y digkeiten einst and jetzt (Weimar, 1857); Springer, Weimar's klassische Statten (Berlin, 1868); Ruland, Die Scheitze des Goethe National-Museums in Weimar (Weimar and Leipzig, 1887); Francke, Weimar and Umgebungen (3rd ed., Weimar, 1900); Kuhn, Weimar in Wort and Bild (4th ed., Jena, 1905).
In addition to the statues in Juneau Park there is a statue of Kosciusko in the park of that name; one of Washington and a soldiers' monument on Grand Avenue; a statue of Henry Bergh in front of the city hall; one of Robert Burns in the First Ward Park, and, in Washington Park, a replica of Ernst Rietschel's Schiller-Goethe monument in Jena, given to the city in 1908 by the Germans of Milwaukee.
His experiments greatly interested Benjamin Franklin, who used to visit him and Goethe always regarded his rejection by the academy as a glaring instance of scientific despotism.
The form Mephistopheles adopted by Goethe first appears in the version des Christlich Meinenden, c. 1712.
In literature, its leading names were Winckelmann, Lessing and Voss, and Herder, Goethe and Schiller.
Goethe and Schiller were convinced that the old Greek world was the highest revelation of humanity; and the universities and schools of Germany were reorganized in this spirit by F.
At the congress of Erfurt, Daru had the privilege of being present at the interview between Goethe and Napoleon, and interposed tactful references to the works of the great poet.
P. Hasse, Von Plotin zu Goethe (1909); Thomas Whittaker, The NeoPlatonists (1901); Petrie, Personal Religion in Egypt before Christ (1909); M.
With Goethe, who viewed with interest and appreciation the poetical fashion of treating fact characteristic of the Naturphilosophie, he continued on excellent terms, while on the other hand he was repelled by Schiller's less expansive disposition, and failed altogether to understand the lofty ethical idealism that animated his work.
Among other collections is that of the Korner museum with numerous reminiscences of the Goethe-Schiller epoch, and of the wars of liberation (1813-15), and containing valuable manuscripts and relics.
His published works include (besides several volumes of verse) Homer and the Iliad (1866), maintaining the unity of the poems; Four Phases of Morals: Socrates, Aristotle, Christianity, Utilitarianism (1871); Essay on Self-Culture (1874); Horae Hellenicae (1874); The Language and Literature of the Scottish Highlands (1876); The Natural History of Atheism (1877); The Wise Men of Greece (1877); Lay Sermons (1881); Altavona (1882); The Wisdom of Goethe (1883); The Scottish Highlanders and the Land Laws (1885); Life of Burns (1888); Scottish Song (1889); Essays on Subjects of Moral and Social Interest (1890); Christianity and the Ideal of Humanity (1893).
The town preserves associations of Goethe, who wrote Die Leiden des jungen Werthers after living here in 1772 as a legal official, and of Charlotte Buff, the Lotte of Werther.
Goethe, Welcker, Brunn, E.
Friederichs, Die Philostratischen Bilder (1860); Goethe, "Philostrats Gemalde" in Complete Works (ed.
It was speedily translated into many European languages, and Herder and Goethe (in his earlier period) were among its profound admirers.
They were perhaps influenced by the example of Goethe, who in his Autobiography describes, at considerable length, the plan of a poem he had designed on the Wandering Jew.
"We lose much in him," wrote Goethe after Lessing's death, "more than we think."
In the French course I read some of the works of Corneille, Moliere, Racine, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve, and in the German those of Goethe and Schiller.