Gland sentence example
They have a musk gland on top of their rump that produces a smell when they get upset.
B, Sole of the foot of Pyrula tuba, to show a, the pore usually said to be " aquiferous " but probably the orifice of a gland; b, median line of foot.
The gland has been found in both sub-orders of the Pectinibranchia, in Cyclostoma and Cypraea among the Taenioglossa, in Hemifusus, Cassis, Nassa, Murex, Fasciolariidae, Turbinellidae, Olividae, Marginellidae and Conidae among the Stenoglossa.
This c and common cross fertilization is often effected by the gland g.
Orifice of coxal gland probably situated at base of coxa of 5th appendage; sternal plate of prosoma minute or absent; no prosternal element underlying the mouth.Advertisement
B, Digestive gland from interior A, B, and C magnified about of pitcher, in pocket-like deI oo diameters.
Thus the base of the gill passes in a slanting direction across the right-hand side of the kidney, the posterior end being dorsal to the apex of the gland, and the anterior end ventral to the right-hand corner.
The gland spaces vary in size and many may show marked cystic formation.
There is a gland on the back.
An ectodemic invagination forms a large mucous gland on the foot, which is more or less atrophied in adult life.Advertisement
Mind, driven from the field of extension, erects its last fortress in the pineal gland.
While the oviducts always open directly on to the exterior, it is the rule for the sperm ducts to open on to the exterior near to or through certain terminal chambers, which have been variously termed atrium and prostate, or spermiducal gland.
Fusus, Pyrula, Purpura, Murex, Nassa, Trophon, Voluta, &c. The float of the pelagic Janthina, to which the egg-capsules are attached, probably is also formed by the secretion of the pedal gland.
The kidney has similar relations in both species, and is identical with the organ spoken of by many authors as the triangular gland.
Orifice of the grape-shaped (supposed poisonous) gland.Advertisement
The musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not appear to be due to the secretion of any gland.
Appendages of 1st pair have two segments, as in Pedipalpi, but are furnished with poison gland, and are retroverts.
The " retrovert " or bent-back first pair of appendages is provided with a poison gland opening on the fang or terminal segment.
Appendages of 1st pair consisting of three segments, completely chelate, without poison gland; of 2nd pair slender, leg-like, tipped with three claws, the basal segment without sterno-coxal process taking no share in mastication, and widely separated from its fellow of the opposite side; 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th appendages similar in form to the 2nd and to each other.
Orifice of coxal gland situated just behind that of the foetid gland.Advertisement
The gland is supposed to secrete a ferment, which, being absorbed into the portal circulation, breaks up a certain portion at least of the grape-sugar contained in the portal blood, and so prevents this overflowing into the circulation in general.
A salivary gland degenerates when its nerve-supply is cut off.
The functions of the thymus gland begin to cease after the second year from birth.
Should this take place into a closed gland space it will give rise to cysts, which may attain a great size, as is seen in the ovarian adenomata.
These changes are found in senile wasting, in metaplasia of cartilage, in many tumours, especially mixed growths of the parotid gland and testicle, and in various inflammatory granulation ulcers.Advertisement
In the wasting of the thyroid gland in myxoedema, or when the gland is completely removed by operation, myxomatous areas are found in the subcutaneous tissue of the skin, nerve-sheaths, &c.
It may follow a diminished functional activity, as in the atrophying thymus gland' and in the muscle cells of the uterus after parturition.
Hippocrates had no opportunity of verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, such, for example, as that named after Graves, and myxoedema, both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own.
The uterus (X in figure C) begins in all cases at the shell gland (c, d) and may exhibit a swelling (R S) for the retention of the spermatozoa..
This spur, which attains the length of nearly an inch, is traversed by a minute canal, terminating in a fine longitudinal slit near the point, and connected at its base with the duct of a large gland situated at the back part of the thigh.Advertisement
The acid gland consists of one, two or more tubes, with a cellular coat of several layers, opening into a reservoir whence the duct leads to the exterior.
The alkaline gland is an irregular tube with a single cellular layer, its duct opening alongside that of the acid reservoir.
The foot has a byssus gland on its posterior surface.
A pair of large glandular outgrowths, the so-called " liver " or great digestive gland, exists as in other Molluscs.
In many Lamellibranchs a gland is found on the hinder surface of the foot in the mid line, which secretes a substance which sets into the form of threads - the so-called " byssus " - by means of which the animal can fix itself.Advertisement
Sometimes this gland is found in the young and not in the adult (Anodonta, Unio, Cyclas).
The left inner gill-plate is also snipped to show the subjacent orifices of the left renal organ x, and of the genital gland (testis or ovary) y.
In Arca too and many others it carries a byssus-forming gland and a byssuscementing gland.
In them the foot has a flat ventral surface used for creeping, as in Gastropods, the byssus gland is but slightly developed, the pleural ganglia are distinct, there is a relic of the pharyngeal cavity, in some forms with a pair of glandular sacs, the gonads retain their primitive connexion with the renal cavities, and the otocysts are open.
In the allied genus Cyclas, a byssus gland is formed in the foot and subsequently disappears, but no such gland occurs in Pisidium.Advertisement
In addition to the characters given above, it may be noted that the mantle is provided with a hypobranchial gland on the outer side of each gill, the auricles are muscular, the kidneys are glandular through their whole length, the sexes are separate.
The special gland of the musk-deer, which has made the animal so well known, and has proved the cause of unremitting persecution to its possessor, is found in the male only, and is a sac about the size of a small orange, situated beneath the skin of the abdomen, the orifice being immediately in front of the preputial aperture.
As each genital gland enlarges it remains attached to the rest of the intermediate cell mass by a constricted fold of the coelomic membrane, known as the mesorchium in the male, and the mesovarium in the female.
It is through this anterior border that the vessels and nerves enter and leave the gland.
D, E, F, Trochosphere stage, D fp, Pore in the foot (belonging mf, The mantle-flap or limbus to the pedal gland?).Advertisement
It is frequently armed with spines, hooks or stylets, and is further complicated by the addition of a nutritive secretion (the prostate gland) which may open at its base or pass separately by a special duct to the exterior.
The secretion of milk, if occurring in the mammary gland, is much diminished or entirely arrested.
The drug appears to have no influence upon the contractile cells that constitute muscle-fibre, any more than it has directly upon the secretory cells that constitute any gland.
Most of these animals were of small size, and many had long upper canines, like those of the existing Hydrelaphus; while in all there was no depression for a gland in front of the eye.
There is a tarsal, but no metatarsal gland and tuft.Advertisement
A slight change in the structure or activity of a gland, by altering the internal secretion, may produce widespread alterations even in an adult organism; and we have good reason to suppose that, if compatible with viability, such minute changes would have even a greater ultimate effect if they occurred in an embryo.
W, wax-yielding surface, covering true gland; s, septem, or carina; wh, webbed hairs.
In all these antelopes long cylindrical horns are present in both sexes; the muzzle is hairy; there is no gland below the eye; the tail is long and tufted; and in the breadth of their tall crowns the upper molar-teeth resemble those of the oxen.
Extracts of supra-renal gland have been found useful.
In the friction-clutch, a pulley loose on a shaft has a hoop or gland made to embrace it more or less tightly by means of a screw; this hoop has short projecting arms or ears.
One point must not be omitted, namely, the homogeny of the endostyle of Amphioxus and the thyroid gland of Craniata.
It is also found in the thymus gland of calves and in the spleen of cattle.
The thyroid gland, which is situated in front of the neck, yields a secretion which passes into the blood and there tends to maintain a state of moderate dilatation in the blood-vessels and of oxidization in the tissues, so that the circulation remains good and the body-heat and muscular activity remain well maintained.
When this gland becomes enlarged, and its secretion consequently increases, the vessels dilate, the heart beats more rapidly, the skin becomes too hot, the nervous system becomes irritable, and tremors occur in the limbs.
Observations were made on the connexion between thyroid gland and myxoedema, which appeared to show that this disease was dependent upon atrophy of the gland.
Accordingly the liquid extracts of the gland, or the gland substance itself compressed into tablets, have become largely used in the treatment of the disorder.
Under the influence of thyroid gland these symptoms all disappear, and the patient is frequently restored to a normal condition.
When the thyroid gland is absent in children, not only is the expression of the face dull and heavy as in the adult, but the growth both of body and mind is arrested, and the child remains a stunted idiot.
The effect of thyroid gland in such cases is marvellous, the child growing in body and becoming healthy and intelligent.
In the case of the thyroid the function of the gland appears to be to prepare a secretion which is poured out into the blood and alters tissue-change.
At the same time other symptoms, such as exophthalmos, may appear, which have an independent origin and are not due to the secretion of the gland.
The whole of the secretion here is poured into the blood and not at all on to a mucous surface, and herein the thyroid gland differs largely from such glands as the pancreas or peptic and intestinal glands.
We do not know at present if any corresponding anti-toxin or antitrypsin, as we may term it, is returned into the lymphatics or blood from the gland, but the pancreas, which in addition to secreting trypsin secretes a diastatic ferment forming sugar from starch, pours this into the intestine and secretes at the same time a glycolytic ferment which breaks up sugar, and this latter passes into the blood by way of the lymphatics.
Thus the gland not only breaks up starch into sugar in the intestine, but breaks up the sugar thus formed after it has been absorbed into the blood.
This passes to the pancreas and causes increased secretion from that gland.
During the early period of their sojourn in the pouch, the blind, naked, helpless young creatures (which in the great kangaroo scarcely exceed an inch in length) are attached by their mouths to the nipple of the mother, and are fed by milk injected into their stomach by the contraction of the muscle covering the mammary gland.
The jackal, like the fox, has an offensive odour, due to the secretion of a gland at the base of the tail.
Thus, in the Phyllopoda, the antennal gland develops early and is functional during a great part of the larval life, but it ultimately atrophies, and in the adult (as in most Entomostraca) the maxillary gland is the functional excretory organ.
In the Decapoda, where the antennal gland alone is well-developed in the adult, the maxillary gland sometimes precedes it in the larva.
In the Branchiopoda the maxillary gland is lodged in the thickness of the shell-fold (when this is present), and, from this circumstance, it often receives the somewhat misleading name of " shell-gland."
In the Decapoda the antennal gland is largely developed and is known as the " green gland."
The external duct of this gland is often dilated into a bladder, and may sometimes send out diverticula, forming a complex system of sinuses ramifying through the body.
The green gland and the structures associated with it in Decapods were at one time regarded as constituting an auditory apparatus.
Packed in among these are gland cells, sense cells, and cnidoblasts.
The endoderm contains in addition gland cells and nervous elements.
The remains of the original genital gland within the theca became the "axial organ" surrounded by the "axial sinus" derived from the anterior coelom, and this again by structures derived from the right posterior coelom, which, as explained above, had been depressed to the aboral pole.
The question of the kings divorce soon became inextricably confused with another problem, whose first beginnings go back En,gland to a slightly earlier date.
A perforated spur, with a special secreting gland in connexion with it, is found attached to each hind-leg of the males of the existing species of Monotremata.
The submaxillary gland is of very similar texture to the last, but much smaller; it is placed deeper, and lies with its main axis horizontal.
The eye is provided with a nictitating membrane or third eyelid, at the base of which open the ducts of the Harderian gland.
A and feet with two primary papillae on the anterior side and one on the posterior side; outer jaw with one minor tooth at the base of the main tooth, inner jaw with no interval between the large tooth and the series of small ones; last fully developed leg of the male with enlarged crural gland opening on a large papilla placed on its ventral surface; coxal organs absent; the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th pairs of legs are placed in the proximal spinous pad.
Last leg of the male with or without a large white papilla on its ventral surface for the opening of a gland, and marked papillae for the, crural glands are sometimes present on other legs of the male; well-developed coxal glands absent.
In common with the other monotremes, the male echidna has its heel provided with a sharp hollow spur, connected with a secreting gland, and with muscles capable of pressing the secretion from the gland into the spur.
In orchids each of the pollen-masses has a prolongation or stalk (caudicle) which adheres to a prolongation at the base of the anther (rostellum) by means of a viscid gland (retinaculum) which is either naked or covered.
In the typical newts (Molge) of Europe, the males are adorned during the breeding season with bright colours and crests or other ornamental dermal appendages, and, resorting to the water, they engage in a lengthy courtship accompanied by lively evolutions around the females, near which they deposit their spermatozoa in bundles on a gelatinous mass, the spermatophore, probably secreted by the cloacal gland.
Substances obtained from animals include gland secretions, pepsin and other ferments, musk, cod-liver oil, &c., and to these may be added various antitoxins.
Iodine has a special interest, as it is a necessary constituent of food, and is present in the secretion of the thyroid gland.
The allied Argentine Onohippidium, which is also Pleistocene, has still longer nasal bones and slits, and a deep double cavity in front of the orbit, part of which probably contained a gland.
The skull, which is relatively short, has a large depression in front of the orbit, commonly supposed to have contained a gland, but this may be doubtful.
The hormone ACTH is naturally produced by the body from the head hormone gland called the pituitary.
The pituitary gland is invaded with a slow growing cancer called an adenoma.
We report a case of Brunner's gland adenoma in which the patient presented with major gastrointestinal bleeding.
The outer part of the adrenal gland is the adrenal cortex which makes three main hormones called steroids.
I have also had a Pheochromocytoma and had my left adrenal gland removed nearly two years ago.
The release of CRH triggers the pituitary gland's discharge of adrenocorticotropic hormone, which in turn stimulates the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol.
It is also the starting material from which steroid hormones are made by the adrenal gland.
The excess secretion of the hormone aldosterone into the blood is from an abnormal adrenal gland or glands.
The use of Tegretol with other anticonvulsants may change thyroid gland function.
The options for eliminating risk of gland leakage is to use bellows sealed valves.
For example, a common cause of tear lipid deficiency is meibomian gland dysfunction secondary to staphylococcal blepharitis.
Oxytocin A hormone, produced by the pituitary gland, which stimulates contraction of the uterus.
The pituitary gland regulates adrenal cortisol production by responding to the amount of cortisol production by responding to the amount of cortisol in the blood.
Options for treatment if it gets too large might include diathermy, laser treatment, surgery or drugs to shrink the gland.
In addition, studies have revealed that red clover isoflavones can also help combat benign prostatic hyperplasia enlargement of the prostate gland.
This poison fang is supplied with venom from a gland in the head.
By doing so the ovaries communicate back to the pituitary gland that the egg follicles have been stimulated and FSH production slows down.
A. The pancreas is a long secreting gland situated at the back of the abdomen, adjacent to the stomach.
They also stimulate the thyroid gland, which plays an important role in the processes of growth.
The pituitary gland is a gland found at the back of our heads toward the bottom of the brain.
The thyroid gland is situated at the base of the throat.
The free radical fighting abilities of melatonin - a natural hormone produced by the pineal gland in your brain - are well known.
Only a part of the prostate gland - not the whole gland is removed, in order to relieve urinary symptoms.
All of them are derived from the bone marrow but T cells undergo a process of maturation in the thymus gland.
This hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and monitored by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH ), which is produced in the hypothalamus gland.
Luteinising hormone (LH) is produced by the pituitary gland in the brain.
Within the brain, the hypothalamus produces gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) which is secreted into the pituitary gland (1 ).
There was a clear dose related increase in parathyroid gland hyperplasia from the lowest dose 400 ppm.
The sort of diseases included myocardial hypertrophy, inflammatory bowel disease, thyroid gland problems and allergy.
It is used in a higher dose to reduce the size of the prostate gland in men with benign prostatic hypertrophy.
They are controlled by the pituitary gland, which is controlled by the hypothalamus.
In autoimmune hypothyroidism, antibodies destroy thyroid gland cells preventing the gland from being able to release normal amounts of thyroid hormones.
Checking for the presence of radioactive iodine in the thyroid gland.
Sometimes half of the gland has to be removed (thyroid lobectomy) or the whole gland can be removed (total thyroidectomy ).
The inside layer of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal medulla.
The badger has a special opening (called a gland) under its tail, which produces a smelly liquid called musk.
Proper lubrication of the gland packing requires a certain leakage rate.
None of the tumors was localized exclusively to the parotid gland, so the primary site was referred to as the " parotid region.
In the stomach, the gastric gland produces gastric juices that contain the enzyme pepsin that breaks down proteins.
Hormonal effects can be caused either by damage to the pituitary gland itself or to the hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary.
Electron microscopy experiments have been carried out on sections of rat pituitary gland.
This gland secretes porphyrins (red tears) in response to stress.
When present these are usually due to a small (2mm) tumor that is secreting excess prolactin in the pituitary gland.
Surgery - in an operation called a prostatectomy, the whole prostate gland is removed.
For an open prostatectomy, access to the prostate gland is gained through an incision in the lower abdomen.
Putting on the brakes PSA is a protein that's naturally produced by the prostate gland.
Radical prostatectomy is surgery to remove the prostate gland.
Advantages Hormone therapy shrinks the prostate gland and can be used to reduce the size of the gland before brachytherapy.
There are three main conditions that can affect the prostate gland.
Continuing on aspirin could cause the prostate gland to bleed excessively at the time of implant which could compromise the success of the treatment.
Antihistamines can make certain conditions worse, such as glaucoma and enlarged prostate gland.
These include the rectum, which is directly behind the prostate gland, and the bladder, lying on top of the gland.
In 1882, he published his first book scrofula and its Gland Diseases.
The key, he believes, is insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas gland.
The prostate gland produces semen, the fluid that transports sperm from a man's body during orgasm.
Pressure to the cement gland excites trigeminal sensory neurons.
The portal vessels run down the pituitary stalk (infundibulum) to arrive at the pituitary gland.
The leaf stalks are up to 5 cm long with 2 large gland s at the leaf end.
All malignant salivary gland tumors expressed similar intense HA in tumor stroma.
A hormone is a chemical substance that is produced in a special tissue within a gland.
Note the two suckers, the ventral sucker near the genital pore, and the oral sucker near the oesophageal gland.
Thyroid nodules are lumps which can develop in the thyroid nodules are lumps which can develop in the thyroid gland.
Thyroid gland This gland in the neck produces the hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate the body's energy levels.
If the TSH level is high this means that you are not having adequate thyroxine to allow for your underactive thyroid gland.
Transrectal ultrasound - this is used to examine the prostate gland in men.
The hormone insulin, secreted by the pancreas gland within the abdomen, controls this action of cell glucose uptake.
The gland surrounds the urethra which carries urine flow from the bladder.
The pineal gland is a tiny structure located at the back of the roof of the third ventricle of the brain.
On one hand the animal spirits " reflected " 2 from the image formed on the pineal gland proceed through the nervous tubes to make the muscles turn the back and lift the feet, so as to escape the cause of the terror.
The stomach has a cardiac gland, and the number of teats is two.
By analogy, acinus is applied in anatomy to similar granules or glands, or lobules of a gland.
Ichthulin (see above) may be placed in this group; " helico-proteid," found in the serous gland of Helix pomatia, the vineyard snail, also belongs here.
The gland evidently excretes, or at any rate gets rid of, a certain waste product of a proteid nature, which otherwise tends to accumulate in the tissues and to excite certain nervous and tissue phenomena.
A salivary gland degenerates when its nerve-supply is cut off; and the nerves leading up to the symmetrical sloughs in Raynaud's disease have been found in an advanced state of degeneration (Affleck and Wiglesworth).
In the third generation Caspar Thomeson (1655-1738), son of Thomas, also taught anatomy at Copenhagen, his name being associated with the description of one of the ducts of the sublingual gland and of the glandulae Bartholini, while his younger brother, Thomas (16J9-1690), was a student of northern antiquities who published Antiquitatum Danicarum libri tres in 1689.
White-tailed Group, Subgenus Dorcelaphus or Odocoileus.- Antlers large and complex, with a sub-basal snag, and the lower prong more or less developed at the expense of the upper one; metatarsal gland usually present; tail long or moderate, and hairy below; face very long and narrow; the face-gland small, and the gland-pit in the skull of moderate extent; no upper canines; size generally large.
The duct which runs along its upper and internal border passes forwards in the usual course, lying in the inner side of the sublingual gland, to open on the outer surface of a distinct papilla, situated on the floor of the mouth, half an inch from the middle line, and midway between the lower incisor teeth and the attachment of the fraenum linguae.
Therefore, the radioactive iodine builds up in the thyroid gland.
In 1882, he published his first book Scrofula and its Gland Diseases.
The prostate gland produces semen, the fluid that transports sperm from a man 's body during orgasm.
The gland produces seminal fluid, which is mixed with sperm to make semen.
The crucial, mucous secreting glands in human CF patients are the serous gland.
The splenic artery supplies the remainder of the gland.
In poultry, there is an oil gland located dorsally to the stumpy tail of the bird.
Normally, your immune system is kept in peak condition by your thymus gland, which is located in your upper chest.
Thyroid gland This gland in the neck produces the hormone thyroxine, which helps to regulate the body 's energy levels.
The prostate is a small gland that surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra in men.
The images shown below are all of the same slide; a venom gland from a parasitic wasp.
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland infected by bacteria that decreases milk production and costs 69 billion yen per year in Japan.
In a nutshell, it's caused by a problem with the thyroid gland.
It has low toxicity, and can help regulate the thymus gland.
Many health conditions such as hypoglycemia and Graves disease (overactive thyroid gland) can cause symptoms similar to panic attacks, but only your doctor can rule them out.
The pituitary gland is a pea-sized gland found at the base of the brain.
It is called the master gland or control gland because the hormones it produces control the endocrine glands.
The pituitary gland found in the brain increases a follicle stimulating hormone known as FSH.
Your brain is releasing a hormone that travels to the pituitary gland where more hormones release.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is released by the hypothalamus in the brain, where it moves to the pituitary gland.
Experts believe this can be attributed to differences in sex hormones and thyroid gland function.
The endocrine system is made up of the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pituitary gland, the adrenal glands and part of the pancreas.
When progesterone levels rise, so does the pituitary gland's production of lutenizing hormone, and this triggers ovulation during which the eggs are released for fertilization.
The prostate is a small, walnut-shaped gland that is part of the male reproductive system.
Addison's disease is a condition that interferes with the adrenal gland's ability to produce certain hormones.
Hypothyroidism-A disorder in which the thyroid gland produces too little thyroid hormone causing a decrease in the rate of metabolism with associated effects on the reproductive system.
The ability of the mammary gland to secrete milk during later pregnancy is called lactogenesis, stage 1.
Early symptoms can be produced by the growth of a solid tumor in an organ or gland.
The doctor observes the front of the neck for swelling and may gently manipulate the neck and palpate the front and side surfaces of the thyroid gland at the base of the neck, looking for nodules or tenderness.
Under abnormal conditions these cells affect skin, bone, and the pituitary gland as well as the lungs, intestines, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and brain.
Sometimes referred to as the "master gland," it regulates and controls the activities of other endocrine glands and many body processes including growth and reproductive function.
Human growth hormone (hGH) (somatotropin) is produced by somatotropes in the anterior pituitary gland.
Somatotropin (hGH) is secreted by somatotropes in the anterior pituitary gland.
All of these growth factors may be evaluated in order to understand hormone deficiencies or gland dysfunction when growth deficiencies are suspected.
Because of its critical role in producing hGH and other hormones, a dysfunctional pituitary gland will often lead to altered growth.
The somatotropin test also aids in documenting the excess hGH production responsible for gigantism or acromegaly, and confirms underactivity or overproduction of the pituitary gland (hypopituitarism or hyperpituitarism, respectively).
If such stimulation is unsuccessful, a malfunction of the anterior pituitary gland is likely.
Untreated, the tumor eventually destroys the pituitary gland, resulting in death during early adulthood.
Normal menstrual periods are the result of proper functioning and synchronization of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries.
The hypothalamus also secretes hormones that regulate the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland in turn produces hormones that stimulate the ovaries to secrete two hormones known as estradiol and progesterone.
In some cases the doctor may order an MRI to rule out tumors affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Tumors of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland or abnormalities of the reproductive organs usually require surgery.
The word pituitary refers to the pituitary gland, which regulates the production of certain chemicals called hormones.
Pituitary dwarfism is caused by problems arising from the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland, also called the hypophysis, is a gland at the base of the brain that produces many different hormones.
This gland is divided into the anterior (front) and posterior (back) halves.
In cases of tumor, most commonly craniopharyngioma (a tumor near the pituitary gland), children and adolescents may have neurological symptoms such as headaches, vomiting, and problems with vision.
A careful balancing of all of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland is necessary for patients with panhypopituitarism, making this form of dwarfism complex and difficult to manage.
There is no known way to prevent pituitary dwarfism, although in some cases it may be caused by traumatic injury to the pituitary gland.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-Also called adrenocorticotropin or corticotropin, this hormone is produced by the pituitary gland to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release various corticosteroid hormones.
Hormone-A chemical messenger secreted by a gland or organ and released into the bloodstream.
Luteinizing hormone-A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that regulates the menstrual cycle and triggers ovulation in females.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-A hormone produce by the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the hormones that regulate metabolism.
Secretion-A substance, such as saliva or mucus, that is produced and given off by a cell or a gland.
T-cells are few and weak, and the thymus gland is immature.
Most of these are cancers of the lymphoid tissues (leukemias and lymphomas), but one fifth of the cancers occur in the stomach, brain, ovary, skin, liver, larynx, parotid gland, and breast.
T cell-A type of white blood cell that is produced in the bone marrow and matured in the thymus gland.
In thyroid disease, the thyroid gland (located in the neck) may produce too much or too little thyroid hormone.
Autonomic nervous system-The part of the nervous system that controls so-called involuntary functions, such as heart rate, salivary gland secretion, respiratory function, and pupil dilation.
Corticosteroids-A group of hormones produced naturally by the adrenal gland or manufactured synthetically.
Another endocrine disorder that can interfere with growth is hypothyroidism, a condition resulting from insufficient activity of the thyroid gland.
As a result, the thyroid gland becomes enlarged.
Solid columns of cells form from each breast bud, with each column becoming a separate sweat gland.
Lymphadenitis is also referred to as lymph node infection, lymph gland infection, or localized lymphadenopathy.
A sty, or external hordeolum, is a common childhood infection of an oil gland on the surface of the upper or lower eyelids at the base of the eyelash.
Obstruction and infection, which often are the result of bacteria, cause the gland and the area around it to swell.
If the oil gland is blocked and inflammation spreads beyond the eyelid, the condition can interfere with vision.
Bacteria may live on the eyelids or eyelash hair follicles themselves and begin to grow when the oil gland of a hair follicle becomes blocked.
It also opens the blocked oil gland and helps remove pus.
Chalazion-A condition in which clogging of the Meibomiam gland causes a cyst inside the eyelid.
Sty-An external hordeolum caused by an infection of an oil gland on the eyelid.
In some cases, myopathies can be caused by a malfunctioning endocrine gland that produces either too much or too little of the chemical messengers called hormones.
Hyperthyroid myopathy occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine, leading to muscle weakness, some muscle wasting in hips and shoulders, and, sometimes, problems with eye muscles.
Melatonin is produced in the body by the pineal gland at the base of the brain.
The most common problems are twitching, and, because of the need for magnesium in the parathyroid gland, soft bones even when calcium and vitamin D are adequate.
Parathyroid gland-A pair of glands adjacent to the thyroid gland that primarily regulate blood calcium levels.
Some other conditions such as malfunction of the adrenal gland or kidney failure can produce abnormal chloride readings.
Occasionally, children with retinoblastoma develop trilateral retinoblastoma, which results from the development of an independent brain tumor that forms in a part of the brain called the pineal gland.
Hyperplasia-A condition where cells, such as those making up the prostate gland, rapidly divide abnormally and cause the organ to become enlarged.
An adult whose heart, kidneys, and pituitary gland are functioning properly would have to drink more than two gallons of water a day to develop water intoxication.
Tonsillitis is an infection and swelling of the tonsils, which are oval-shaped masses of lymph gland tissue located on both sides of the back of the throat.
From the stylomastoid foramen, the nerve enters the parotid gland and divides into an estimated 7,000 nerve fibers that control a wide range of facial and neck activity.
This variation is normal and is usually the result of imperfect coordination between the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, and the ovaries.
Oligomenorrhea that occurs in adolescents is often caused by immaturity or lack of synchronization between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and ovaries.
The pituitary gland is then stimulated to produce hormones that affect growth and reproduction.
In a few cases the doctor may order an MRI to rule out tumors affecting the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.
Defects in the thymus gland that manufactures T lymphocytes or defects in the T lymphocytes themselves can also result in reduced production of immunoglobulins.
Thymus gland-An endocrine gland located in the upper chest just below the neck that functions as part of the lymphatic system.
Precocious Puberty Causes and Symptoms Puberty begins when the brain secretes a hormone that triggers the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the ovaries or testes to produce sex hormones.
Less commonly, it may be caused by other types of brain tumors, central nervous system disorders, or adrenal gland problems.
As darkness approaches, the hormone melatonin is secreted by the pineal gland and signals the brain that it is time to sleep.
The parts of the body involved in the menstrual cycle include the uterus and cervix, the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the brain and pituitary gland, and the vagina.
Puberty is initiated by hormonal changes triggered by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus, which stimulates the pituitary gland, which in turn activates other glands as well.
In early puberty, the offending gland or tumor may require surgical attention, although there are several drugs as of 2004 that counteract hormone effects.
Adrenal gland-A small gland located above the kidney (one on each side) that secretes various hormones.
Acromegaly is a disease in which an abnormality in the pituitary gland leads to an oversecretion of growth hormone.
Acromegaly is a disorder in which the abnormal release of a particular chemical from the pituitary gland in the brain causes increased growth in bone and soft tissue, as well as a variety of other disturbances throughout the body.
This chemical released from the pituitary gland is called growth hormone (GH).
The pituitary is a small gland located at the base of the brain, which releases certain hormones that are important to the functioning of other organs or body systems.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for viewing the pituitary gland and for identifying and locating an adenoma.
Hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid, develops when the thyroid gland fails to produce or secrete as much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyonine (T3) as the body needs.
Nicknamed "Gland Central" because it influences almost every organ, tissue, and cell in the body, the thyroid is shaped like a butterfly and located just below the larynx, or Adam's apple, and in front of the trachea, or windpipe.
One out of every 4,000-5,000 infants is born without a properly functioning thyroid gland.
Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder that affects infants from birth, resulting from the loss of thyroid function due to the failure of the thyroid gland to develop correctly.
Sometimes the thyroid gland is absent or is ectopic, i.e., in an abnormal location.
Hypothyroidism may also be caused by an abnormality of the immune system that results in damage and destruction of the thyroid gland (Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
Less often, hypothyroidism develops when the pituitary gland fails and does not release enough thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which stimulates the thyroid to produce and secrete normal amounts of T4 and T3.
Radiation. Radioactive iodine used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or radiation treatments for head or neck cancers can destroy the thyroid gland.
Surgery. Removal of the thyroid gland because of cancer or other thyroid disorders can result in hypothyroidism.
In turn, the production of these hormones is controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) that is produced by the pituitary gland.
Patients with Graves' disease often have a goiter (visible enlargement of the thyroid gland), although as many as 10 percent do not.
An enlarged thyroid gland, seen as a bulge in the neck, should be examined by a doctor.
Iodine is required for thyroid gland function and metabolizing fats.
Deficiency in adults can result in an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) in the neck.
A child who is dehydrated due to diabetes, kidney disease, or adrenal gland disorders must receive treatment for these conditions as well as for the resulting dehydration.
Mumps, another viral disease, affects the salivary glands, especially the parotid gland.
The sebaceous gland units are most commonly found on the face, neck, and back.
Sebaceous follicle-A structure found within the skin where a sebaceous gland opens into a hair follicle.
However, a larger skin surface area to body weight ratio may make children more susceptible to adrenal gland problems such as growth retardation and delayed weight gain.
Hypopituitarism can also be caused by damage to the pituitary gland.
They are closely controlled by the pituitary gland.
For several reasons, the pituitary gland can fail to produce hormones.
The most frequent symptom of MEN 1 is hyperparathyroidism, which is excessive growth of the parathyroid gland and excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone.
The anterior pituitary gland and the adrenal glands can also be affected.
Unlike MEN 2, the thyroid gland is rarely involved in MEN 1 symptoms.
Patients with both MEN 2A and MEN 2B experience two main symptoms, medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and a tumor of the adrenal gland medulla known as pheochromocytoma.
Individuals with MEN 2A have a predisposition to develop tumors of the parathyroid gland.
Pancreas-A five-inch-long gland that lies behind the stomach and next to the duodenum.
Pheochromocytoma-A tumor that originates from the adrenal gland's chromaffin cells, causing overproduction of catecholamines, powerful hormones that induce high blood pressure and other symptoms.
Thyroid gland-An endocrine gland in the neck overlying the windpipe (trachea) that regulates the speed of metabolic processes by producing a hormone, thyroxin.
Because cortisol production is impeded, the adrenal gland over-produces androgens (male steroid hormones).
Normally the thymus gland is located below the thyroid gland in the neck and front of the chest and is the primary gland of the lymphatic system, which is necessary for normal functioning of the immune system.
The parathyroid glands, located on the sides of the thyroid gland, are responsible for maintenance of normal levels of calcium in the blood.
The doctor may make the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome during heart surgery when he or she notices the absence or abnormal location of the thymus gland.
Advances in heart surgery indicate that the prognosis is most closely linked to the severity of the heart defects and the partial presence of the thymus gland.
Excessive radiation of diagnostic x rays of the neck and chest may damage the thymus gland behind the breastbone.
The thymus gland is an integral part of the immune system.
Health problems associated with external itchiness include vaginitis, vulvar dystrophy, Bartholin gland cyst, and diabetes.
Unfortunately, you can't take Yaz if you have a history of kidney, liver, or adrenal gland disease or risk factors for developing these conditions.
It inhibits the secretion of parathyroid hormone from the parathyroid gland.
It is produced in the pineal gland which is located in the brain.
It is produced in the adrenal gland, and production of this hormone drops sharply as people age.
The parathyroid is a gland located on your trachea and behind your thyroid gland.
The nutrient helps the immune system by fostering growth of the thymus gland and keeping it from shrinking due to stress.
It is associated with the pituitary gland, sensitivity and deep feeling.
The thyroid gland, which is located below the Adam's apple, produces hormones that help regulate metabolism.
Other causes of a slowed metabolism include a high intake of foods and drinks with a high sugar content, a thyroid gland that is under active and a lifestyle that is sedentary.
The Body Type Diet helps you to identify the foods that overstimulate your dominant gland, and to learn how to avoid these foods.
The basic principles behind this diet are designed to rest your overstimulated dominant gland by eating less of the foods that stimulate it.
This gives your dominant gland a chance to recover, and in the process, eliminate those food cravings that sabotage your best dieting plans.
The dominant gland provides a foundation on which to build your diet plan.
Eat fewer foods that stimulate your dominant gland.
When we eat high glycemic carbs, blood sugar rises quickly and triggers a rapid response from the pancreatic gland.
Acne is common during puberty, when hormonal changes signal the sebaceous gland to make more oil.
In that gland the mystery of creation is concentrated; thought meets extension and directs it; extension moves towards thought and is perceived.
But, on the other hand, the vital spirits cause a movement in the gland by which the mind perceives the affection of the organs, learns that something is to be loved or hated, admired or shunned.
The tail is long and in some cases prehensile; the first hind-toe may be either large, small or absent; the dentition usually includes three pairs of upper and one of lower incisors, and six or seven pairs of cheekteeth in each jaw; the stomach is either simple or sadculated, without a cardiac gland; and there are four teats.
The pneumato phore arises from the ectoderm as a pit or invagination, part of which forms a gas-secreting gland, while the rest gives rise to an air-sack lined by a chitinous cuticle.
Haeckel regards it as the equivalent of the manubrium, and as it is implanted on the blind end of the pneumatophore, such a view leads necessarily to the air-sack and gland being a development on the ex-umbral surface of the medusa-person.
In addition to these lines, all tadpoles show more or less distinctly a small whitish gland in the middle of the head between the eyes, the so-called frontal gland or pineal gland, which in early stages is connected with the brain.
Moreover, the pollen, instead of consisting of separate cells or grains, consists of cells aggregated into "pollen-masses," the number varying in different genera, but very generally two, four, or eight, and in many of the genera provided at the base with a strap-shaped stalk or "caudicle" ending in a flattish gland or "viscid disk" like a boy's sucker.
This column stands up from the base of the flower, almost at right angles to the lip, and it bears at the top an anther, in the two hollow lobes of which are concealed the two pollen-masses, each with its caudicle terminating below in a roundish gland, concealed at first in the pouch-like rostellum at the front of the column.
The essential feature of the asymmetry of Gastropoda is the atrophy or disappearance of the primitively left half of the circumanal complex (the right half in sinistral forms), including the gill, the auricle, the osphradium, the hypobranchial gland and the kidney.
Two pairs of salivary ducts, each leading from a salivary gland, open into the buccal chamber.
In the latter a pallial siphon, a welldeveloped proboscis and an unpaired oesophageal gland are always present, in the former they are usually absent.
The enlarged glandular structure of the walls of the rectum is frequent in the Pectinibranchia, as is also though not universal the gland marked y, next to the rectum.
It is the adrectal gland, and in the genera Murex and Purpura secretes a colourless liquid which turns purple upon exposure to the atmosphere, and was used by the ancients as a dye.
Cunningham that in Buccinum the egg-capsules are formed by this pedal gland and not by any accessory organ of the generative system.