Apart from the fjords and lakes the chief beauties of the Alps are glaciers and waterfalls.
Among the great glaciers which stream from the peak the most noteworthy are those of Bossons and Taconnaz (northern slope) and of Brenva and Miage (southern slope).
A district of considerable extent in the centre of the island is occupied by snowfields, whence glaciers descend east and west to the sea.
Glaciers are fully developed.
Over the whole state there is a layer of drift deposited by the glaciers which once covered this region.
To the west of Aorangi glaciers crawl into the forest as low as 400 ft.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
Below Aosta also the Dora Baltea receives several considerable tributaries, which descend from the glaciers between Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa.
Most of the glaciers terminate at an altitude of 14,800-14,900 feet, but the small Cesar glacier, drained to the Hausberg valley, reaches to 14,450.
On the Swiss Alps it is one of the most prevalent and striking of the forest trees, its dark evergreen foliage often standing out in strong contrast to the snowy ridges and glaciers beyond.
The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves.
The shores are so extensively indented with voes, or firths - the result partly of denudation and partly caused by glaciers - that no spot in Shetland is more than 3 m.
The presence of enormous glaciers in the Ice Age is attested by the moraines at the Atlantic end, and by other indications farther east.
The coast-line of Melville Bay (the northern part of the west coast) is to some degree an exception, though the fjords may here be somewhat filled with glaciers, and, for another example, it may be noted that Peary observed a marked contrast on the north coast.
In some parts the interior ice-covering extends down to the outer coast, while in other parts its margin is situated more inland, and the ice-bare coast-land is deeply intersected by fjords extending far into the interior, where they are blocked by enormous glaciers or " ice-currents " from the interior ice-covering which discharge masses of s"aefel's0° icebergs into them.
Here the ice converges into the valleys and moves with increasing velocity in the form of glaciers into the fjords, where they break off as icebergs.
In twenty-four hours, with which the glaciers of Greenland move into the sea, the margin of the inland ice and its glaciers was studied by several expeditions.
There seem to be periodical oscillations in the extension of the glaciers and the inland ice similar to those that have been observed on the glaciers of the Alps and elsewhere.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
There are no glaciers near its sources, although they must have existed there in geologically recent times, but masses of melting snow annually give rise to floods, which rush through the midst of the valley in a turbid red stream, frequently rendering the river impassable and cutting off the crazy brick bridges at Herat and Tirpul.
Its glaciers send down a thousand rills which combine to form the Pangani river.
Glaciers are common both in the N.
In the rapidly moving glaciers of the icefjords this striation is not distinctly visible, being evidently obliterated by the strong motion of the ice masses.
(Danish).3 It was, however, ascertained that there is a great difference between the velocities of the glaciers in winter and in summer.
Its early beginnings take their rise amidst a mighty mass of glaciers which cover the northern slopes of the watershed, separating them from the sources of the Gogra on the south; and there is evidence that two of its great southern tributaries, the Shorta Tsanpo (which joins about 150 m.
It rises in the glaciers of the Tbdi range, and has cut out a deep bed which forms the Grossthal that comprises the greater portion of the canton of Glarus.
(1) The principal stream is considered to be that of the Hinter Rhine, which issues (7271 ft.) from the glaciers of the Rheinwaldhorn group, and then flows first N.E.
The narrow strait Strdmmen separates Kvalii from the larger Seiland, whose snow-covered hills with several glaciers rise above 3500 ft., while an insular rampart of mountains, Sord, protects the strait and harbour from the open sea.
The Carpathians, which only in a few places attain an altitude of over 8000 ft., lack the bold peaks, the extensive snow-fields, the large glaciers, the high waterfalls and the numerous large lakes which are found in the Alps.
They are nowhere covered by perpetual snow, and glaciers do not exist, so that the Carpathians, even in their highest altitude, recall the middle region of the Alps, with which, however, they have many points in common as regards appearance, structure and flora.
It drains the tract between the Yamdok Tso and Tigu Lakes, and is fed by the glaciers of the Kulha Kangri and other great ranges.
In the north, icebergs break off, as a rule, from the ends of the great glaciers of Greenland, and in the far south from the edge of the great Antarctic ice-barrier.
Along the Ruwenzori range are glaciers and snowfields nearly 15 m.
North America is bathed in frigid waters around its broad northern shores; its mountains bear huge glaciers in the north-west; the outlying area of Greenland in the north-east is shrouded with ice; and in geologically recent times a vast ice-sheet has spread over its north-eastern third; while warm waters bring corals to its southern shores.
South America has warm waters and corals on the north-east, and cold waters and glaciers only on its narrowing southern end.
After the continental ice sheet entirely disappeared from the state, local valley glaciers lingered in the Adirondacks and the Catskills.
The Pleistocene system in the South Island includes glacial deposits, which prove a great extension of the New Zealand glaciers, especially along the western coast.
The glaciers must have reached the sea at Cascade Point in southern Westland.
But there are no perpetual snow-fields, no glaciers creep down these valleys, and no alpine hamlets ever appear to break the monotony.
The mountains both in Victoria and New South Wales were snow-capped, and glaciers flowed down their flanks and laid down Carboniferous glacial deposits, which are still preserved in basins that flank the mountain ranges, such as the famous conglomerates of Bacchus Marsh, Heathcote and the Loddon valley in Victoria, and cf Branxton and other localities in New South Wales.
C. von Sonklar, in his map of the Hohe Tauern (r: 144,000; 1864) coloured plains and valleys green; mountain slopes in five shades of brown; glaciers blue or white.
They are printed in three colours, contours at intervals of 10 and 20 metres being in brown, incidental features (ravines, cliffs, glaciers) in black or blue.
From the outer coast to the point where it is blocked by the glaciers, and with its numerous branches covers an enormous area.
There are also many smaller lakes fed by the glaciers of the Sailughem (Achit-nor, 4650 ft., and Uryu-nor), and others scattered through the Ektagh Altai.
His attention was directed to the question of the flow of glaciers in 1840 when he met Louis Agassiz at the Glasgow meeting of the British Association, and in subsequent years he made several visits to Switzerland and also to Norway for the purpose of obtaining accurate data.
Forbes was also interested in geology, and published memoirs on the thermal springs of the Pyrenees, on the extinct volcanoes of the Vivarais (Ardeche), on the geology of the Cuchullin and Eildon hills, &c. In addition to about 150 scientific papers, he wrote Travels through the Alps of Savoy and Other Parts of the Pennine Chain, with Observations on the Phenomena of Glaciers (1843); Norway and its Glaciers (1853); Occasional Papers on the Theory of Glaciers (1859); A Tour of Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa (1855).
In the Dachstein group are found the most easterly glaciers of the Alps, of which the largest is the Karls-Eisfeld, nearly 22 m.
On the eastern side of the Alps the glaciers appear to have been confined to the mountain valleys.
On its slope, which rises abruptly from the Bitterroot Basin, glaciers have cut canyons between high and often precipitous walls, and between these canyons are steep and rocky ridges having peaked or saw-toothed crest lines.
Deep and narrow canons are common, and, at higher levels, glaciers, carved out amphitheatres, or " cirques " and " U "-shaped troughs.
Of altitude in Khan-tengri, and are covered with snow and glaciers - the only pass through them being the Muzart.
Farther east where it joins the snow-clad Darvaz range, and where the group Sandal, adorned with several glaciers, rises to 24,000 or 25,000 f t.
The Kashka-darya, which flows westwards out of the glaciers of Hazret-sultan (west of the Hissar range), supplies the Shahri-sabs (properly Shaarsabiz) oasis with water, but is lost in the desert to the west of Karshi.
There is a great development of snowfields and glaciers, the passes are buried under snow, and the short summer is rainy.
As the part east of the river was once covered by the ice-sheet, its hills have been lowered and its valleys filled through the attrition of glaciers until the surface has a gently undulating appearance.
The culminating summits of the ranges generally present the appearance of a flat, rounded swelling, and when they are crowned with glaciers, as many of them are, these shape themselves into what may be described as a mantle, a breastplate, or a flat cap, from which lappets and fringes project at intervals; nowhere do there exist any of the long, narrow, winding glacier tongues which are so characteristic of the Alps of Europe.
The glaciers also attain a greater development in the western portion of the Nan-shan, but the valleys are dry, and the slopes of both the mountains and the valleys, furrowed by deep ravines, are devoid of vegetation.
The climate is so dry, and the rains are so scarce, that an absence of forests and Alpine meadows is characteristic of the ridge; but when heavy rain falls simultaneously with the melting of the snows in the mountains, the watercourses become filled with furious torrents, which create great havoc. The main glaciers (12) are on the north slope, but none creeps below io,000 to 12,000 ft.
From the central peaks fifteen glaciers, all lying west of the main divide, descend to the north and south, the two largest being the Lewis and Gregory glaciers, each about 1 m.
Beyond this point the Anglo-Russian Commission of 1895 demarcated a line to the snowfields and glaciers which overlook the Chinese border.