About half a mile from the glacier the river turns S.E.
Most of the glaciers terminate at an altitude of 14,800-14,900 feet, but the small Cesar glacier, drained to the Hausberg valley, reaches to 14,450.
The whole interior of Greenland is completely covered by the so-called inland ice, an enormous glacier forming a regular shield-shaped expanse of snow and glacier ice, and burying all valleys and mountains far below its surface.
Long, which, with the smaller Kolb glacier, lie immediately west of the main divide.
But the Plateau was to be reached by Shackleton's way up the Beardmore glacier at which point the tracks converged.
Leaving out of account the innumerable glacier streams that swell its volume above the Lake of Constance, the most important affluents to its upper course are the Wutach, the Alb and the Wiese, descending on the right from the Black Forest, and the Aar, draining several Swiss cantons on the left.
His observations led him to the view that a glacier is an imperfect fluid or a viscous body which is urged down slopes of a certain inclination by the mutual pressure of its parts, and involved him in some controversy with Tyndall and others both as to priority and to scientific principle.
The action of the continental glacier in scouring down the passes between the St Lawrence and southern drainage, and in turning streams southward, has facilitated the building of railways across the divides.
For here five large glaciers united to form the grand trunk glacier that eroded fhe valley and occupied it as its channel.
It is unnecessary here to rake among the ashes of this prolonged dispute, but it may be noted that Helmholtz, who, in his lecture on "Ice and Glaciers," adopted Thomson's theory, afterwards added in an appendix that he had come to the conclusion that Tyndall had "assigned the essential and principal cause of glacier motion in referring it to fracture and regelation" (1865).
The lake of Thun, and those in the Upper Engadine, in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes.
It is almost immediately joined on the left by the Mutt torrent, coming from a small glacier to the S.E., and then flows S.W.
These processes are accompanied by a gradual descent down the mountain side, during which the neve suffers consolidation, until it becomes compact glacier-ice.
Nor is there any sign of moraines, glacier-scorings or other traces of the ice-age.
The neve is thus the feeding ground of the glacier (q.v.).
The present course of the Upper Allegheny river is the result of the glacier which blocked the northward drainage of the region through which it flows and turned it southward.
Dr. Atkinson's party, sent back by Scott from the Beardmore glacier, arrived on Jan.
As the Hindu Kush strikes westwards, after first rounding the head of an Oxus tributary (the Ab-i-Panja, which Curzon considers to be the true source of the Oxus), it closely overlooks the trough of that glacier-fed stream under its northern spurs, its crest at the nearest point being separated from the river by a distance which cannot much exceed io m.
While the majority of his researches bear on one or other of the subjects just mentioned, others deal with such widely different topics as the birds of Greenland, ocean temperatures, the Gulf Stream, barometric measurement of heights, arcs of meridian, glacier transport of rocks, the volcanoes of the Hawaiian Islands, and various points of meteorology.
It is reckoned that about 20 glacier passes were certainly known before 1600, about 25 more before 1700, and yet another score before 1800; but though the attempt of P. A.
The highest point in the Julian Alps is formed by the three sugar-loaf peaks of the Triglav or Terglou (9394 ft.), which offers one of the finest views in the whole of the Alps, and which bears on its northern declivity the only glacier in the province.
The region of the limestone Alps is composed of several detached groups: a portion of the Kitzbiihler Alps, which contain the famous Thurn pass (4183 ft.); then the Salzburg Alps, which contain the Loferer Steinberge and the peak Birnhorn (8637 ft.); the Reitalm or the Reiteralpe with the peak Stadelhorn (7495 ft.); and the broad mass of the SchOnfeldspitze (8708 ft.), from which the great glacier-covered block of the Ewiger Schnee, or tbergossene Alps projects into the Salzach valley.
In the early 19th century the Meyer family of Aarau conquered in person the Jungfrau (1811) and by deputy the Finsteraarhorn (1812), besides opening several glacier passes, their energy being entirely confined to the Bernese Oberland.
It issues as a torrent, at the height of 5909 ft., from the great Rhone glacier at the head of the Valais, the recent retreat of this glacier having proved that the river really flows from beneath it, and does not take its rise from the warm springs that are now at some distance from its shrunken snout.
It is described as a lofty glacier-covered land, reaching an extreme elevation of about 2400 ft.
To the west, on the opposite side of a wide opening which was called the British Channel, appeared glacier-covered land, and an island lay to the northward.
The region was once covered, with the exception of the higher summits, by the Laurentian glacier, whose erosion, while perhaps having little effect on the larger features of the country, has greatly modified it in detail, producing lakes and ponds, whose number is said to exceed 1300, and causing many falls and rapids in the streams. Among the larger lakes are the Upper and Lower Saranac, Big and Little Tupper, Schroon, Placid, Long, Raquette and Blue Mountain.
A way was found to the summit of the Plateau by the Axel Heiberg glacier which was negotiated by the dogs with much difficulty.
The Drygalski glacier tongue was crossed and the party made its way southward along the sea-ice close to shore.
Near its margin the surface of the inland ice is broken up by numerous large crevasses, formed by the outward motion of the glacier covering the underlying land.
For instance, Ryder found that the Upernivik glacier had an average velocity of only 33 ft.
These are Mount Rainier or Tacoma (14,363 ft.), Mount Adams (12,470 ft.), Mount Baker (10,827 ft.), Glacier Peak (10,436 ft.) and Mount St Helens (io,000 ft.).
But his inquiries into glacier motion were notable alike for his association with Switzerland and for prolonged controversy with other men of science on the subject.
In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.), which is not near the true main watershed, though it clings to the slope of the Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze.
Griinhornlucke (Great Aletsch Glacier to the Fiescher Glacier), snow.
8,393 Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road.
10,112 Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow.
Passo di Lares (Lares Glacier to the Lobbia Glacier), snow.
Passo della Lobbia Alta (Lobbia Glacier to the Mandron Glacier), snow..
The party of 12 pushed on up the Beardmore glacier with three man-hauled sledges, and after leaving a depot in the middle of the glacier, reached the Plateau at 8,000 ft.
High, a sheer, plain mass of granite; the Three Brothers, North Dome, Glacier Point, the Sentinel, Cathedral, Sentinel Dome and Cloud's Rest, from 2800 to nearly 6000 ft.
11,205 Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.
To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the PÃ¶llauer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley.
The culminating summits of the ranges generally present the appearance of a flat, rounded swelling, and when they are crowned with glaciers, as many of them are, these shape themselves into what may be described as a mantle, a breastplate, or a flat cap, from which lappets and fringes project at intervals; nowhere do there exist any of the long, narrow, winding glacier tongues which are so characteristic of the Alps of Europe.
The outline of the curve of a valley's sides ultimately depends on the angle of repose of the detritus which covers them, if there has been no subsequent change, such as the passage of a glacier along the v.alley, which tends to destroy the regularity of the crosssection.
10,762 Fenetre de Saleinaz (Saleinaz Glacier to Trient Glacier),snow 10,709 Col de Tracuit (Zinal to Turtmann), snow.
7,267 Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over.
Surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams. As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.
Triftlimmi (Rhone Glacier to the Gadmen Valley), snow Sustenlimmi (Stein Alp to Goeschenen), snow..
It is doubtful whether the convergent action of the streams has been the sole agency in the erosion of these striking cavities, or whether snow and glacier-ice have had a share in the work.
We may compare this with extreme alpine conditions: on a spot above the Aletsch glacier at a height of 10,700 ft.
15 chains; the Murchison glacier is io m.
It is possible that there may be warm springs on the bed of Lake Victoria, as such springs are of frequent occurrence in the Pamirs; but there is no indication of them in the Chakmaktin basin, and the latter lake must be regarded rather as an incident in the course of the Aksu - a widening of the river channel in the midst of this highlevel, glacier-formed valley - than as the fountain-head of the infant stream.
Its main source is in a great glacier-mass of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas, called Kubigangri, about 82° N., and receives various tributaries including one formerly regarded as the true source from the pass of Mariam La (15,500 ft.), which separates its basin from the eastern affluents of the Mansarowar lakes, at least ioo m.