Pop. (1895) 37,713, chiefly SerboCroatians, with small colonies of gipsies and Jews.
Two festivals are held in the town, a less important one in October, the other, on the 24th and 25th of May, unique for its gathering of gipsies who come in large numbers to do honour to the tomb of their patroness Sara, contained in the crypt below the apse.
The alien element is small, consisting chiefly of Austro-Hungarians, gipsies, Italians and Jews.
Jews number 32,650 and some 5000 gipsies wander about Siberia.
About threefourths of the inhabitants are Christian Serbs, and the remainder are chiefly Moslem Albanians, with a few gipsies, Turkish officials and about 3000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers.
Owing to the improvidence of the Hungarian landowners and the poverty of the peasants the soil of the country is also gradually passing into their hands.3 The Gipsies, according to the special census of 1893, numbered 2 74,94 0.
It is probably from their original Indian home that the traditional dukkeripen (fortune-telling) of the gipsies has been derived.
The gipsies of Transylvania, who are heard of under a voivode or prince of their own in 1417, are estimated at 50,000; many of them have taken to agriculture or gold-washing.
The gipsies are scattered widely throughout the Peninsula; they are found not only in wandering troops, as elsewhere in Europe, but in settlements or cantonments in the neighbourhood of towns and villages.
It should be mentioned that there is another, entirely independent, nomad race, .the despised Nowar, who correspond to the gipsies or tinkers of European countries.
Twenty years later they entered Asia Minor, whence in a later period they came into Europe, under the name of Athinganoi (Ziganes) and Egyptians (gipsies).2 A far more difficult task lay before Motasim, the subjection of Babak al-Khorrami in Azerbaijan.
There is a large and commercially important colony of Greeks; the Jews, Turks and gipsies are also numerous.
Until then the gipsies had been treated as slaves and owned by the Church or by private landowners; they had been bought and sold in the open market.
The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.
The gipsies, who are mostly converts to the Orthodox Church, still, as a rule, cling to their vagabond existence, though their skill at all handicrafts finds them ready employment in the towns.
During their centuries of slavery, they were organized into castes, as musicians, metal workers, masons, &c.; but after about 1850 the bonds of caste were gradually relaxed and gipsies began to intermarry with Rumans.
In Walachia .a certain Ion Budai Deleanu, a man of great learning, author of a hitherto unpublished Rumanian dictionary of great value, wrote a satirical epos in which gipsies play the chief part.
The author displays a profound knowledge of the life and the customs of the gipsies, and of Western literature from the Batrachomyomachia to the Pucelle of Voltaire.
The other representatives of Aryan race in Turkestan are a few (8000) Persians, mostly liberated slaves; Indians (300), who carry on trade and usury in the cities; a few Gipsies (Soo), and the Russians.
Early in the 18th century the Scottish gipsies found a congenial home on the Roxburghshire side of the Cheviots; and at a later period the Scottish border became notorious for a hundred years as offering hospitality to runaway couples who were clandestinely married at Gretna Green, Coldstream or Lamberton.
More than four-fifths of this number belong to the Serbo-Croatian branch of the Slavonic race; while the remainder is composed of about 160,000 Rumans, 47,000 gipsies, 8000 Austro-Hungarians and Germans, and 5000 Jews.
The gipsies occasionally settle down, forming separate camps or villages, but in most cases they prefer a wandering life.
The Mahommedans (about 3000 Turks and 11,000 gipsies) are the largest religious body apart from the national Church.
Schwarzes Bilsenkraut, Hiihnertod, Saubohne and Zigeuner-Korn or "gipsies' corn"), the common name of the plant Hyoscyamus niger, a member of the natural order Solanaceae, indigenous to Britain, found wild in waste places, on rubbish about villages and old castles, and cultivated for medicinal use in various counties in the south and east of England.
The Italians are chiefly confined to the coast; the Germans congregate at Semlin and Warasdin; the Slovenes are settled along the north-western frontier, where they have introduced their language, and so greatly modified the local dialect; the gipsies wander from city to city, as horse-dealers, metal workers or musicians; there are numerous Moravian and Bohemian settlements; and near Mitrovica there is a colony of Albanians.