Gills with free nonreflected filaments.
In both these species the gills distinctly touch and grow on to the stem.
The embryo passes through three stages - (I) still enclosed within the egg and living on its own yolk; (2) free, within the vitelline mass, which is directly swallowed by the mouth; (3) there is no more vitelline mass, but the embryo is possessed of long external gills, which serve for an exchange of nutritive fluid through the maternal uterus, these gills functioning in the same way as the chorionic villi of the mammalian egg.
Surface of gills smooth, gill-filaments all similar, with interlamellar junctions.
The gills, borne on four arches, are internal and enclosed in the branchial chambers.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
The actual condition in Anodonta at the region where the gills begin anteriorly is shown in fig.
There are other gills developed in addition to those which represent the cirri.
The larger species of fungi, such as the Agaricini and Polyporei, &c., are prepared for the herbarium by cutting a slice out of the centre of the plant so as to show the outline of the cap or pileus, the attachment of the gills, and the character of the interior of the stem.
Both have fleshy caps, whitish, moist and clammy to the touch; instead of a pleasant odour, they have a disagreeable one; the stems are ringless, or nearly so; and the gills, which are palish-clay-brown, distinctly touch and grow on to the solid or pithy stem.
The well-known compact variety of mushroom-growers, with its white cap and dull purplish clay-coloured gills, is A.
The presence of the volva, and the clear white gills and spores, distinguish this genus from all other agarics.
Gills without interlamellar junctions.
A tadpole is the larva of a tailless Batrachian after the loss of the external gills and before the egress of the fore limbs (except in the aberrant Xenopus) and the resorption of the tail.
maculosa, which lives in plains or at low altitudes (up to 3000 ft.), deposits her young, ten to fifty in number, in the water, in springs or cool rivulets, and these young at birth are of small size, provided with external gills and four limbs, in every way similar to advanced newt larvae.
A "map" of the spores should be taken by separating a pileus and placing it flat on a piece of thin paper for a few hours when the spores will fall and leave a nature print of the arrangement of the gills which may be fixed by gumming the other side of the paper.
Respiration is effected by means of external gills placed along both sides of the dorsum of the abdomen and hinder segments of the thorax.
An appeal made by Miller for observations on the development of the Caeciliae, and of those Amphibia which retain gills or gill-clefts throughout life, has unfortunately yielded no fruits.
If ectoparasitic and attached to the skin, apertures or gills, the Trematode adopts more elaborate adhesive organs and undergoes a less complex development than are required for the endoparasitic members of the class.
They are transparent leaf-like organisms and may often be found attached to the skin, mouth, nostrils or gills of fish; on the skin and bladder of Amphibia; and on those of certain Reptilia.
5, 6) on the gills of various fresh-water fish; and a large number of genera occur on the skin, cloaca and gills of Elasmobranchs and other marine fish.
On either side of the body between the mantle and the foot are two flat gills each composed of two lamellae.
Cardium belongs to the order of Lamellibranchia in which the gills present the maximum of complexity, the original vertical filaments of which they are composed being united by interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions.
He has observed that in young specimens of Siren lacertina (the larva is still unknown) the gills are rudimentary and functionless, and that it is only in large adult specimens that they are fully developed in structure and function; he therefore concludes that the sirens are the descendants of a terrestrial type of batrachians, which passed through a metamorphosis like the other members of their class, but that more recently they have adopted a permanently aquatic life, and have resumed their branchiae by reversion.
Gills folded and the filaments at summits and bases of the folds are different from the others.
Notice the purplish tinge on the gills and stem.
The pale clay-coloured gills, offensive odour, and clammy or even viscid top are decisive characters.
cervinus; it has a tall, solid, white, ringless stem and somewhat thin brown cap, furnished underneath with beautiful rose-coloured gills, which are free from the stem as in the mushroom, and which FIG.
is about one-half the size of a mushroom, and whitish-buff in every part, the gills always retaining this colour and never becoming salmon-coloured, brown or black.
The arches bear on the convex outer side the delicate arborescent gills, and on the concave inner side develop a membranous septum with vermicular perforations, a special sifting or filtering contrivance through which the water absorbed by the mouth has to pass before reaching the respiratory organs of the branchial apparatus.
Parapod.ia hardly projecting; palps of prosomium forming branched gills; no pharynx or eversible buccal region; no septa in thorax, septa in abdomen regularly disposed.
o, Mouth; other letters as in a totally distinct series of functional gills, which are not derived from the modification of the typical molluscan ctenidium.
To admit of the free inflow and outflow of currents of water necessary for respiration, which is effected by means of filamentous abdominal tracheal gills, the two ends of the tube are open.
Ope yxta, gills), the fourth of the five classes of animals constituting the phylum Mollusca.
A pair of pedal otocysts, and a pair of osphradia at the base of the gills, appear to be always present.
Classification Of Lamellibranchia The classification originally based on the structure of the gills by P. Pelseneer included five orders, viz.: the Protobranchia in which the gill-filaments are flattened and not reflected; the Filibranchia in which the filaments are long and reflected, with non-vascular junctions; the Pseudo-lamellibranchia in which the gill-lamellae are vertically folded, the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions being vascular or non-vascular; the Eulamellibranchia in which the interfilamentar and interlamellar junctions are vascular; and lastly the Septibranchia in which the gills are reduced to a horizontal paltition.
Gills without inter lamellar junctions.
Lucinidae.-Labial palps very small; gills without an external plate.
When a mushroom is perfectly ripe and the gills are brown-black in colour, they throw down a thick dusty deposit of fine brown-black or purple-black spores; it is essential to note the colour.
Giesbrecht, displacing the older name Ascomyzontidae, assigns to this family 21 genera in five subfamilies, and suggests that the long-known but still puzzling Nicothoe from the gills of the lobster might be placed in an additional subfamily, or be made the representative of a closely related family.
Gills slightly folded.
The parts of a mushroom consist chiefly of stem and cap; the stem has a clothy ring round its middle, and the cap is furnished underneath with numerous radiating coloured gills.
The skeleton is cartilaginous, and the skull is remarkable for the very elongate suspensorium of the lower jaw; the tail remains in the notochordal condition, no cartilages being formed in this organ, which is destined to disappear with the gills.
The prostomium has many long filaments which recall the gills of the Sabellids, &c. The nephridia are specialized into two series, as in the last-mentioned worms. (5) Spioniformia (including Chaetopterus, Spio, &c.) and (6) Scoleciformia (Arenicola, Chloraema, Sternaspis) are the remaining groups.
They are termed pallial gills.
br, One of the two symmetrical gills placed on the neck.
1, The lamelliform sub-pallial gills, which (as in Patella) replace the typical Molluscan ctenidium.
Many insects have aquatic larvae, some of which take in atmospheric air at intervals, while others breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills.
Other aquatic larvae have the tracheal system entirely closed, and are able to breathe dissolved air by means of tubular or leaf-like gills.
Young resembling parents, but aquatic in habit, breathing dissolved air by thoracic tracheal gills.
Aquatic larvae with distinct maxillulae, breathing dissolved air by abdominal tracheal gills.
A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
27) led C. Gegenbaur to the brilliant suggestion that wings might be regarded as specialized and transformed gills.
But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
The river Derwent, rising in the tarns and "gills" or "ghylls" (small streams running in deeply-grooved clefts) north of Sty Head Pass and the Scafell mass flows north through the wooded Borrowdale and forms Derwentwater and Bassenthwaite.
g, the gills.
It is about a foot in length, lives on snails and worms and is provided with both lungs and gills.
On each side, behind the head, there is a row of seven branchial openings, through which the water is conveyed to and from the gills.
Gills fused to the mantle.
Gills much folded.
Mantle closed to a considerable extent; siphons well developed; gills much folded and frequently prolonged into the branchial siphon.
- Mantle extensively closed, with a small pedal orifice; siphons long, united, covered by a chitinous sheath; gills prolonged into the branchial siphon; foot small; shell gaping.
Gills prolonged into the branchial siphon.
- Siphons short, gills papillose; foot small; shell globular.
Septibranchia Gills have lost their respiratory function, and are transformed into a muscular septum on each side between mantle and foot.
Peck, " The Minute Structure of the Gills of Lamellibranch Mollusca," Quart.
Ridewood, " On the Structure of the Gills of the Lamellibranchia," Phil.
Mitsukuri, " On the Structure and Significance of some aberrant forms of Lamellibranchiate Gills," Quart.
A remarkable point in the Plecoptera is the presence in some forms (Pteronarcys) of small branching gills on the three thoracic and the front abdominal segments.
So in some respects is the lifehistory, with a true larval preparatory stage, unlike the parent form, and living an aquatic life, breathing dissolved air by means of a paired series of abdominal tracheal gills.
They resemble the May-flies in their " hemimetabolous " lifehistory; the young insects are markedly unlike their parents, inhabiting fresh water and breathing dissolved air, either through tracheal gills at the tip of the abdomen, or by a branching system of air-tubes on the walls of the rectum into which water is periodically admitted.
This chamber serves two purposes: it is primarily 18 the respiratory cavity containing the gills, but it also serves to enclose the body so that the latter is surrounded by the shell, from which the head and foot can be protruded at the will of the animal.
The heart receives blood from the gills and mantle, and pumps it through arteries to the body.
At the end of four weeks after it was first purchased the dorsal or upper surface of its external gills developed a small amount of dark pigment.
The ventral surface forms a flat creeping "foot," and between mantle and foot is a pallial groove in which there is on each side a series of gills.
- Ventral aspect of three species of Polyplacophora showing position of gills.
The series of gills may extend the whole length of the body in the pallial groove, or may be confined to the posterior end.
The gills are thus metamerically repeated; there may be from four to eighty pairs, but there is these, and all round the animal, is the mantle-skirt.
There may be from one to nine gills between the genital and renal pores.
The venous blood is conducted from the tissues to a large sinus on either side above the pallial groove, and from this sinus passes to the gills by an afferent vessel in each gill on the internal or pedal margin of the axis.
- In Neomeniidae and most of the Parameniidae there is a circlet of gills on the inner walls of the cloacal chamber.
These gills are simple folds or laminae of the body wall.
There is a heart in the pericardium consisting of a median ventricle attached, except in Neomenia, to the dorsal wall of the pericardium, and in Neomenia a pair of auricular ducts returning blood from the gills to the ventricle.
A single median ventral sinus passes backwards to the gills or cloaca.
Slender, tapering behind, with subventral cloacal orifice; thin cuticle without papillae; flattened spicules; no gills.
Short, truncate in front and behind; cloacal orifice transverse; gills present; rather thin cuticle; no radula.
Short and truncated in front; thick cuticle, often without papillae; gills and 7 radula present.
- Aplacophora without distinct ventral groove, with single median unisexual gonad, with differentiated hepatic sac, and with cloacal chamber furnished with two bipectinate gills.
Running down into the stem from the cap are a number of shallow thick gills.
Here we have the cushion-like type (stroma) of Nectria and many Pyrenomycetes, the clavate "receptacle" of Clavaria, &c., passing into the complex forms met with in Sparassis, Xylaria, Polyporei, and Agaricini, &c. In these cases the compound sporophore is often termed the hymenophore, and its various parts demand special names (pileus, stipes, gills, po--es, &c.) to denote peculiarities of distribution of the hymenium owlthe surface.
g, The gills.
The majority of heads, gills or throats, sides or flanks, paws and pieces of skins cut up in the fur workshops of Great Britain, America and France, weighing many tons, are chiefly exported to Leipzig, and made up in neighbouring countries and Greece, where labour can be obtained at an alarmingly low rate.
The principal linings are as follows: Sable sides, sable heads and paws, sable gills, mink sides, heads and gills, marten sides, heads and gills, Persian lamb pieces and paws, caracul lamb pieces or paws, musquash sides and heads, nutria sides, genet pieces, raccoon sides or flanks, fox sides, kolinski whole skins, and small rodents as kaluga and hamster.
Sable gills, the strongest fur suited for ladies' linings, is taken as the standard.
It seemed impossible to admit that an animal which lives for years without losing its gills, and is able to propagate in that state, could be anything but a perfect form.
These are the external gills, through which the animal breathes the oxygen dissolved in the water.
The animal leaves the water after completing its metamorphosis, the last stage of which is marked by the loss of the gills.
But a year later, the second generation having reached sexual maturity, new broods were produced, and out of these some individuals lost their gills and dorsal crest, developed movable eyelids, changed their dentition, and assumed yellow spots, - in fact, took on all the characters of Amblystoma tigrinum.
"White" axolotls, albinos of a pale flesh colour, with beautiful red gills, have also been kept in great numbers in England and on the continent.
The heart and pericardial chamber in the oyster lie along the anterior face of the adductor muscle, almost perpendicular to the direction of the gills, with which in Anodon they are parallel.
All the cavities of a side are ultimately in communication with an efferent duct opening on the surface of the body a little above the line of attachment of the gills.
After escaping from the genital aperture they find their way into the infra-branchial part of the mantle cavity of the parent, probably by passing through the suprabranchial chamber to the posterior extremity of the gills, and then being conducted by the inhalent current caused by the cilia of the gills into the infra-branchial chamber.
3), this coalescence affects only the dorsal region of the thoracic somites, and the lateral portions of the carapace overhang on each side, enclosing a pair of chambers within which lie the gills.
Gills or branchiae may be developed by parts of an appendage becoming thin-walled and vascular and either expanded into a thin lamella or ramified.
In many of the smaller Entomostraca (Copepoda and most Ostracoda) no special gills are present, and respiration is carried on by the general surface of the body and limbs.
In the primitive Malacostraca the gills were probably, as in the Phyllopoda and in Nebalia, the modified epipodites of the thoracic limbs, and this is the condition found in some Schizopoda.
In the Amphipoda, the gills though arising from the inner side of the bases of the thoracic legs are probably also epipodial in nature.
The gills are inserted at the base of the thoracic limbs, and lie within a pair of branchial chambers covered by the carapace.
The Stenopidea, another primitive group, differing from the Penaeidea in the character of the gills,, appear in the Trias and Jurassic. The Caridea or true prawns and shrimps appear later, in the Upper Jurassic, some of them presenting primitive characteristics in the retention of swimming exopodites on the walking-legs.
They are separated from fishes and batrachians (Pisces and Batrachians) on the one hand, and agree with reptiles, and birds (Reptilia and A y es) on the other, in the possession during intra-uterine life of the membranous vascular structures respectively known as the amnion and the allantois, and likewise in the absence at this or any other period of external gills.
They appear to be serial equivalents (homogenous meromes) of the tracheal gills, which develop in a like position on the abdominal segments of some aquatic Hexapods.
When the facile tendency of Arthropoda to develop tracheal air-tubes is admitted, it becomes probable that the tracheae of Hexapods do not all belong to one original system, but may be accounted for by new developments within the group. Whether the primitive tracheal system of Hexapoda was a closed one or open by serial stigmata in every somite remains at present doubtful, but the intimate relation of the system to the wings and tracheal gills cannot be overlooked.
Some of the forms breathe by gills throughout their existence, and were formerly regarded as establishing a passage from the fishes to the air-breathing batrachians.
One of the most startling discoveries of the decade 1890-1900 was the fact that a number of forms are devoid of both gills and lungs, and breathe merely by the skin and the buccal mucose membrane (20).
Although the lungs are present in such forms as preserve the gills throughout life, it is highly remarkable that quite a number of abranchiate salamanders, belonging mostly to the subfamilies Desmognathinae and Plethodontinae, are devoid of lungs and breathe entirely by the skin and by the bucco-pharyngeal mucose membrane (20).
In the Caudata, external gills (three on each side) persist until the close of the metamorphosis, whilst in the Apoda and Ecaudata they exist only during the earlier periods, being afterwards replaced by internal gills.
The first are truly aquatic and retain the method of respiration of their marine ancestors, gills.
Often their gills collapse and their swim bladder can rupture due to the sudden change in pressure on their bodies.
The Gills report this worked for a while, and Balfour Beatty complied and had white boiler suits for their staff.
breathe through gills rather than lungs and have a tail for swimming, instead of legs.
chiffchaffs hidden high in the fresh foliage and streams of shrill rattles from secretive Wrens deep in the gills.
damselfly nymphs breath through 3 feathery gills which grow out the back of their tails.
Decurrent gills characteristic of many Clitocybe species and the decurrent gills characteristic of many Clitocybe species and the decurrent vein-like folds of Cantharellus cibarius are also easily recognized.
feathery external gills.
Wednesday, August 07, 2002 Gills sign striker Sidibe BBC Online Gillingham have signed former Swansea striker Mamady Sidibe on a three-year contract.
gills of fish.
Fish have gills to get the oxygen out of the water.
They then produce mucus which clogs there gills causing them to die.
Their bodies are covered in scales and, like sharks, they use gills to get oxygen from water.
Does the human fetus temporarily develop gills, a tail, and a yolk sac?
On emerging from the egg, the tadpoles have feathery external gills.
White or pale straw gills radiate from the point of attachment where they may fork.
The larvae have external gills, which absorb oxygen directly from the water.
Whole fish should have clear, bright eyes and bright red gills.
All these specimens had brown gills as shown in the photographs.
Also occurring in flat oysters, where the eggs are incubated on the gills.
Water is expelled through the gills creating a vacuum, which sucks the unsuspecting prey in to its doom.
purplish hue to the gills matches this species.
purplish tinge on the gills and stem.
sparkle in the sunshine, its blood red fins move in time with its mouth and gills.
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To summarize the characters of a true mushroom - it grows only in pastures; it is of small size, dry, and with unchangeable flesh; the cap has a frill; the gills are free from the stem, the spores brown-black or deep purple-black in colour, and the stem solid or slightly pithy.
The gills underneath the cap L, ht, N are at first white, then rose-coloured, at length brown-black.
A point of great importance is to be noted in the attachment of the gills near the stem at 0, P; the gills in the true mushroom are (as shown) usually more or less free from the stem, they never grow boldly against it or run down it; they may sometimes just touch the spot where the stem joins the bottom of the cap, but never more; there is usually a slight channel, as at r, all round the top of the stem.
lacrymabundus; this grows in the same positions as the last, and is somewhat fleshier and more like a true mushroom; it has a hollow stem and a slight ring, the gills are black-brown mottled and generally studded with tear-like drops of moisture.
fastibilis; the difference in the nature of the attachment of the gills near the stem is seen at R, the absence of a true ring at s, and of a pendent frill at T.
The buffgills are far apart (v), and in this they greatly differ from the somewhat crowded gills of the mushroom; the junction of the gills with the stem (w) also differs in character from the similar junction in the mushroom.
urens; this also generally grows in woods, but the gills are not nearly so deep, they soon become brownish, the stem is downy, and the taste is acrid.
dryophilus has sometimes been gathered in mistake for the champignon, but this too grows in woods where the champignon never grows; it has a hollow instead of a solid stem, gills crowded together instead of far apart, and flesh very tender and brittle instead of tough.
9, c) is slender with elongate legs, and the abdominal segments carry paired tracheal gills.
piscis), the common name of that class of vertebrate animals which lives exclusively in water, breathes through gills, and whose limbs take the form of fins (see Ichthyology).
These gills are in the form of delicate lamellae (fig.
But the uterine gills soon wither and are shed, and are replaced by other gills differing in no respect from those of its congener.
The nymphs of the Perlidae are closely like their parents and breathe dissolved air by means of tracheal gills on the thoracic segments, for they all live in the water of streams. They feed upon weaker aquatic creatures, such as the larvae of Mayflies.
The Sialidae or alder-flies (q.v.) differ from other Neuroptera in the jaws of the larva - which is aquatic, breathing by paired, jointed abdominal gills - resembling those of the imago, and being adapted for the mastication of solid food.
The excretory organs or coelomoducts arise from the posterior corners of the pericardium, run forwards and then back wards to open by separate apertures lateral to the gills (fig.
The heart and vascular system are similar to those of the Neomeniomorpha, the only important differences being that the ventricle is nearly free in the pericardial cavity, and that the latter is traversed by the retractor muscles of the gills.
Thomson on Mount Wellington, in Tasmania, the gills are not arborescent, and there are seven segments of the trunk free of the carapace (fig.
In the latter they accumulate, being held together and fastened to the gills by a white viscid secretion.
The purplish hue to the gills matches this species.
Its silver scales glisten and sparkle in the sunshine, its blood red fins move in time with its mouth and gills.
Portobello mushrooms on the other hand need to have the gills scraped off before they can be stuffed.
Scrape the gills completely off the flesh of the mushroom and discard the scraped gills.
Flukes are microscopic parasites that embed themselves in the gills of the fish.
Symptoms include red and swollen gills and difficulty breathing.
Remove the gills and intestinal vein, and use a mallet to crack the claws.
The colour, with the exception of the gills, is not unlike that of the mushroom.
6), but no gills.
Gills not united with mantle.
" If," says Bradley, " A and B, for instance, both have lungs or gills, they are so far the same."
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.