The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
The young Saul was chosen by lot and gained unanimous recognition by delivering Jabesh in Gilead from the Ammonites.
In circumstances which are not detailed, the kingdom seems to have regained its strength, and Ishbaal is credited with a reign of two years over Israel and Gilead (2 Sam.
Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
Elijah of Gilead led the revolt.
Certain traditions, it is true, indicate that Israel had been at war with the Aramaeans from before 854 to 842, and that Hazael was attacking Gilead at the time when Jehu revolted; but in the midst of these are other traditions of the close and friendly relations between Israel and Damascus !
The Syrians seized Gilead, crossed over into Palestine, and occupied the land.
Scarcely had Assyria withdrawn before Menahem lost his life in a conspiracy, and Pekah with the help of Gilead made himself king.
It includes Caleb and Jerahmeel, Kenite or Rechabite families, scribes, &c., and these, as " sons " of Hezron, claim some relationship with Gilead.
The Aramean states, Beth-rehob, Maacah, Tob, &c., lay partly to the north of Gilead and partly in the region which was the scene of the fight with Jabin (Josh.
As the female counterpart of the Phoenician Baal (viewed as a sun-god), and on the testimony of late writers (Lucian, Herodian) that she was represented with horns, the place-name AshterothKarnaim in Gilead ("Ashteroth of the horns") has been considered ample proof in favour of the theory.
The .great mass of the Gilead range is formed of Jura limestone, the base slopes being sandstone partly covered by white marls.
At the period of the Israelite conquest the portion of Gilead northward of the Jabbok (Zerka) belonged to the dominions of Og, king of Bashan, while the southern half was ruled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, having been at an earlier date wrested from Moab (Numb.
A somewhat wild Bedouin disposition, fostered by their surroundings, was retained by the Israelite in habitants of Gilead to a late period of their history, and seems to be to some extent discernible in what we read alike of Jephthah, of David's Gadites, and of the prophet Elijah.
As the eastern frontier of Palestine, Gilead bore the first brunt of Syrian and Assyrian attacks.
After the close of the Old Testament history the word Gilead seldom occurs.
At present Gilead south of the Jabbok alone is known by the name of Jebel Jilad (Mount Gilead), the northern portion between the Jabbok and the Yarmuk being called Jebel Ajlun.
The cities of Gilead expressly mentioned in the Old Testament are Ramoth, Jabesh and Jazer.
The city named Gilead (Judg.
sori) for which Gilead was so noted (Gen.
The .modern "balm of Gilead" or "Mecca balsam," an aromatic gum produced by the Balsamodendron opobalsamum, is more likely the Hebrew mor, which the English Bible wrongly renders "myrrh."
The prevalent bush plants are khansa (umbrella mimosa), acacias, aloes, and, especially, Boswellia and Commiphora, which yield highly fragrant resins and balsams, such as myrrh, frankincense (olibanum) and " balm of Gilead."
Its boundaries are not very well defined, but it may be said in general to have been north of the territory of Gilead.
It is south of the Jaulan and north of Gilead.
By this invasion, as the Moabites were driven to the south of the Arnon, which formed their northern boundary from that time, so the Ammonites were driven out of Gilead across the upper waters of the Jabbok where it flows from south to north, which henceforth continued to be their western boundary (Num.
lx., with its ideal description of Jehovah's kingdom as including Gilead, Samaria, Moab, Edom and Philistia, though the ideal was not realized till the days of John Hyrcanus, would be quite appropriate in the mouth of a Maccabaean patriot.
from Haran to Gilead it is probable that Laban's home, only seven days' journey distant, was nearer Gilead than the current tradition allows (Gen.
Gerash or Jerash), a city of Palestine, and a member of the league known as the Decapolis, situated amid the mountains of Gilead, about 1757 ft.
Of its origin nothing is known; it has been suggested that it represents the biblical Ramoth Gilead.
Jephthah, one of the Israelite "judges," delivered Gilead from Ammon, who resumed the attack under its king Nahash, only to be repulsed by Saul.
perpetrating cruelties upon Gilead (Am.
According to the LXX., he was a native of Tishbeh in Gilead; a more natural reading.
Hagar in turn personifies a people found to the east of Gilead (1 Chron.
Two great rivers, the Yarmuk (Hieromax) and the Zerka (Jabbok), divide Eastern Palestine into three sections, namely Hauran (Bashan, q.v.) with the Jaulan west of it; Jebel Ajlun (Gilead, q.v.); and the Belk'a (the southern portion of Gilead and the ancient territory of the tribe of Reuben).
South of the Zerka the country culminates in Jebel `Osha, a peak of Jebel Jil`ad (" the mountain of Gilead "), 359 6 ft.
Damascus is closely connected with Galilee and Gilead, and has always been in contact with Mesopotamia, Assyria, Asia Minor and Armenia.
Its stability and the necessary furtherance of commerce, usual among Oriental kings, depended upon the attitude of the maritime coast (Philistia and Phoenicia), Edom, Moab, Ammon, Gilead and the Syrian states; and the biblical and external records for the next four centuries (to 586) frequently illustrate situations growing out of this interrelation.
But Judas did not lay down his arms, and added to his resources by rescuing the Jews of Galilee and Gilead and settling them in Judaea (1 Macc. v.).
105, under Trajan, Cornelius Palma added Gilead and Moab to the empire.
I-10 the outlaw stipulates that he shall be chief of Gilead if successful, but in vv.
Both Moab and Ammon had good reason to be hostile to Gilead (Num.
(I) MIZPAH of GILEAD, where Jacob was reconciled to Laban (Gen.
The identification of this Mizpeh is a difficult problem: it is supposed to be the same as Ramoth Gilead, but the evidence is scarcely conclusive.
the house of Jacob shall regain their old possessions; Edom shall be burned up before them as chaff before the flame; they shall spread over all Canaan, over the mountain of Esau and the south of Judah, as well as over Gilead and the Philistine and Phoenician coast.
34, Gilead ?; cf.
the Euphrates); though the seven days' journey of this concourse of men and cattle suggests that he came to Gilead, not from Haran (300 m.
place of sacrificial slaughter), and incidents are narrated with a very intelligible Mizpah in Gilead is the scene of a covenant places.
Yet in the nature of the case there must have been a great store of local tradition accessible to some writers and at some periods.3 Interest is taken not in Phoenicia, Damascus or the northern tribes, but in the east and south, in Gilead, Ammon, Moab and Ishmael.
8), though Machir received Gilead from the hands of Moses (Num.
His separation from Esau, the revelation at Bethel, and the new name Israel are recorded twice, and if the entrance into Palestine reflects one ethnological tradition, the possibility that his departure from Beersheba reflects another, finds support (a) in the genealogies which associate the nomad "father" of the southern clans Caleb and Jerahmeel with Gilead (1 Chron.
The latter finds no place in the present history, although the local story of Jephthah's deliverance of Gilead (Judg.
Camels also formed part of the present which Pharaoh gave to Abraham, and it was to a company of Ishmaelites travelling from Gilead to Egypt on camels, laden with spices, much as their Arabian descendants do at the present day, that Joseph was sold by his brothers.
The impression left by the horrors of the age is clear from the allusions to the barbarities committed by Damascus and its Ammonite allies upon Gilead (Amos i.
The first biblical mention of "Mount Gilead" occurs in connexion with the reconcilement of Jacob and Laban (Genesis xxxi.).
It seems to have soon passed out of use as a precise geographical designation; for though occasionally mentioned by Apocryphal writers, by Josephus, and by Eusebius, the allusions are all vague, and show that those who made them had no definite knowledge of Gilead proper.
26 we find reference to an Atargateion or Atergateion (temple of Atargatis) at Carnion in Gilead (cf.
They were overtaken at Gilead, 2 whose name (interpreted "heap of witness") is explained by the covenant into which Jacob and Laban entered (xxxi.
(see Ahaz), who attacked Gilead, Galilee and the north frontier, and carried off some of its population (cp. i Chron.
Abraham, it was believed, came from Harran (Carrhae), primarily from Babylonia, and Jacob re-enters from Gilead in the north-east with his Aramaean wives and concubines and their families (Benjamin excepted).
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