How to use Gibbon in a sentence
Gibbon sat and listened unobserved to their strictures.
But Gibbon's friends in a few weeks discovered that the new tutor preferred the pleasures of London to the instruction of his pupils, and in this perplexity decided to send him prematurely to Oxford, where he was matriculated as a gentleman commoner of Magdalen College, 3rd April 1752.
In 1757 Voltaire came to reside at Lausanne; and although he took but little notice of the young Englishman of twenty, who eagerly sought and easily obtained an introduction, the establishment of the theatre at Monrepos, where the brilliant versifier himself declaimed before select audiences his own productions on the stage, had no small influence in fortifying Gibbon's taste for the French theatre, and in at the same time abating that "idolatry for the gigantic genius of Shakespeare which is inculcated from our infancy as the first duty of an Englishman."
Gibbon's Vindication (1779) called forth a Reply by Davies (1779), and A Short Appeal to the Public by Francis Eyre (1779).
Chelsum returned to the attack in 1785 (A Reply to Mr Gibbon's Vindication), and Sir David Dalrymple (An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes, &c.) made his first appearance in the controversy in 1786.Advertisement
The ministry of Lord North, however, was tottering, and soon after fell; the Board of Trade was abolished by the passing of Burke's bill in 1782, and Gibbon's salary vanished with it - no trifle, for his expenditure had been for three years on a scale somewhat disproportionate to his private fortune.
It must be added that the pages on the Slavonic peoples and their relations to the empire are conspicuously insufficient; but it must be taken into account that it was not till many years after Gibbon's death that Slavonic history began to receive due attention, in consequence of the rise of competent scholars among the Sla y s themselves.
Gibbon's stylistic artifice both averted the peril of prosecution and rendered the attack more telling.
Gibbon's verdict on the history of the middle ages is contained in the famous sentence, " I have described the triumph of barbarism and religion."
A new edition of the complete translation, prefaced by a letter on Gibbon's life and character, from the pen of Suard, and annotated by Guizot, appeared in 1812 (and again in 1828).Advertisement
Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works, with Memoirs of his Life and Writings, composed by himself; illustrated from his Letters, with occasional Notes and Narrative, published by Lord Sheffield in two volumes in 1796, has been often reprinted.
It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at GÃ¶ttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.
He belonged to the school of Thucydides and Gibbon, not to that of Macaulay and Taine; he deals by preference with the rulers and leaders of the world, and he strictly limits his field to the history of the state, or, as we should say, political history; and in this he is followed by Seeley, one of the greatest of his adherents.
If, then, those contents do not represent the knowledge of Jaber, and if the contents of other Latin translations which there is reason to believe are really made from the Arabic, show little, if any, advance on the knowledge of the Alexandrian Greeks, evidently the part played by the Arabs must be less, and that of the Westerns greater, than Gibbon is prepared to admit.
He now formed the design of joining the Austrian army, for the purpose of campaigning against the Turks, and so crossed over from Dover to Calais with Gibbon, who, writing to his friend Lord Sheffield, calls his fellow-passenger "Mr SecretaryColonel-Admiral-Philosopher Thompson."Advertisement
Gibbon supposes that there were in the Roman world in the reign of Claudius at least as many slaves as free inhabitants.
By 1727 he was domiciled with Edward Gibbon (1666-1736) at Putney as tutor to his son Edward, father of the historian, who says that Law became " the much honoured friend and spiritual director of the whole family."
His pupil then went abroad, but Law was left at Putney, where he remained in Gibbon's house for more than ten years, acting as a religious guide not only to the family but to a number of earnest-minded folk who came to consult him.
Her father was the famous financier Necker, her mother Suzanne Curchod, almost equally famous as the early love of Gibbon, as the wife of Necker himself, and as the mistress of one of the most popular salons of Paris.
Some authorities, however, as for instance Gibbon, have supposed them to refer to the same person.Advertisement
He was a man of brutal and worthless character; but although Gibbon's statement that he was "just, humane and even partial towards the afflicted Christians" may be exaggerated, it is probable that he never exhibited any special hostility towards them.
Totila's conquest of Italy was marked not only by celerity but also by mercy, and Gibbon says "none were deceived, either friends or enemies, who depended on his faith or his clemency."
He settled in England in 1740, published several books, and wrote the preface to Gibbon's first work, Etude de la litterature.
The speech is unfortunately lost, but Gibbon, who heard it, told his friend Holroyd (afterwards Earl of Sheffield) that Fox, "taking the vast compass of the question before us, discovered powers for regular debate which neither his friends hoped nor his enemies dreaded."
He received the rudiments of an excellent education at a free school in Dublin, and afterwards spent a year or two (1751-1752) under his father's roof at Skeyton rectory, Norfolk, and elsewhere, and for a short time he had Gibbon as a fellow-pupil.Advertisement
A philosopher," as Gibbon long ago pointed out, _ who asks from what articles of faith above and against reason the early Reformers enfranchised their followers of P will be surprised at their timidity rather than scandal Y ized by their freedom.
Herndon (1813-1857) and Lardner Gibbon also occurred during his term.
Rambaud, L'Empire grec au dixieme siecle (1870); see also Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch.
In this connexion Major-General John Gibbon, U.S.A., records that in the American Civil War hunters and others who served in the western regiments habitually knocked off the backsights of the rifles that were issued to them, preferring to do without them.
In vain Edward Gibbon Wakefield, organizer of colonizing associations, prayed and intrigued for permission to repeat in New Zealand the experiment tried by him in South Australia.
Treaties and military operations were at first of no avail, but in 1876 the United States government took steps to reduce them to submission, and Generals George Crook (1828-1890), Alfred Howe Terry (1827-1890) and John Gibbon (1827-1896), with 2700 troops (besides the Crow scouts) were sent against the Sioux under Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse and others.
Wild pig, several species of rats, and many bats - one of the commonest being the'flying-fox, and many species of monkey - especially the gibbon - are also met with.
The greater part of the two years which followed the publication of the Wealth of Nations Smith spent in London, enjoying the society of eminent persons, amongst whom were Gibbon, Burke, Reynolds and Topham Beauclerk.
It occurs naturally in the juice of 1 See Gibbon, ch.
In spite, however, of Gibbon's characteristic scepticism on this point, it is certain that the Constitutum was regarded as genuine both by the friends and the enemies of the papal pretensions throughout the middle ages.
Both were feeble, and, in Gibbon's phrase, slumbered on their thrones, leaving the government to others.
Since the days of Gibbon (resident here for three periods, 1753-1758,1763-1764and 1783-1793), whose praises of the town have been often repeated, Lausanne has become a favourite place of residence for foreigners (including many English), who are especially attracted by the excellent establishments for secondary and higher education.
The house, La Grotte, which Gibbon inhabited 1783-1793, and on the terrace of which he completed (1787) his famous history, was demolished in 1896 to make room for the new post office that stands on the Place St Francois.
This title is given by Gibbon to the son of Romanus I.
Friedlander, for instance, does not think that they exceeded by much Gibbon's estimate for the reign of Decius, viz.
Gibbon speaks of his learning as "immense," and says that his "skill in employing facts is equal to his learning," although he severely criticizes his method and style.
Gibbon contrasts Agathias as " a poet and rhetorician " with Procopius a statesman and soldier."
He prepared editions, which won the praise of Edward Gibbon,' of the Ars poetica and Epistola ad Pisones (1749), and the Epistola ad Augustum (1751) of Horace.
Gibbon defines the great Logothete as "the supreme guardian of the laws and revenues," who "is compared with the chancellor of the Latin monarchies."
There, too, were Gibbon the greatest historian and Sir William Jones the greatest linguist of the age.
See Sidonius Apollinaris, Panegyric of Majorian; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch.
Down to the 3rd century it is proved by the contemporary Graeco-Roman annals to be utterly untrustworthy - but even for the times of Armenian Christianity it must be used far more cautiously than has been done, for example, by Gibbon.
The lands on both banks of the river shared the same fate, due probably to the fact to which Gibbon has drawn attention, that at this period the Danube was frequently frozen over.
The Vita Justiniani of Ludewig or Ludwig (Halle, 1731), a work of patient research, is frequently referred to by Gibbon in his important chapters relating to the reign of Justinian, in the Decline and Fall (see Bury's edition, 1900).
In 1786 he published An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes which Mr Gibbon has assigned for the Rapid Growth of Christianity (Dutch translation, Utrecht, 1793), one of the most respectable of the very many replies which were made to the famous 15th and 16th chapters of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Irving had a library, in which Carlyle devoured Gibbon and much French literature, and they made various excursions together.
He had studied Gibbon, Hume and Montesquieu in Switzerland.
The population more than doubles Gibbon's estimate of 120 millions for all the races and nations which obeyed imperial Rome.
In 1878 he published a volume on Gibbon in the "Men of Letters" series, marked by sound judgment and wide reading.
Hence came the invasion of Alboin (568), which wrested the greater part of Italy from the empire, and changed the destinies of the peninsula.2 1 Gibbon's statement that Narses was "the first and most powerful of the exarchs" is more correct in substance than in form.
Numerous species of monkey are found in Borneo, including the wahwah, a kind of gibbon, a creature far more human in appearance and habits than the orang-utan, and several Semnopitheci, such as the long-nosed ape and the golden-black or chrysomelas.
It is not till the 6th century of our era, in the reign of Justinian, that we find bubonic plague in Europe, a s a part of the great cycle of pestilence, accompanied by extraordinary natural phenomena, which lasted fifty years, and is described with a singular misunderstanding of medical terms by Gibbon in his forty-third chapter.
The nearest approach to excise was the duty of r% on all sales, a tax that in Gibbon's words " has ever been the occasion of clamour and discontent."
The story is well told in Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ch.
He confessed that his object was "to prove the contrary thesis to Gibbon's," and, although any historian who begins with the desire to prove a thesis is quite sure to go more or less wrong, Ozanam no doubt administered a healthful antidote to -the prevalent notion, particularly amongst English-speaking peoples, that the Catholic church had done far more to enslave than to elevate the human mind.
Special studies have been made by Baronius, Miraeus, Labbe, Valesius, Halloix, Scaliger, Ceillier, Cave, Dupin, Pagi, Ittig, Tillemont, Walch, Gibbon, Schroeckh, Lardner.
We read in Gibbon that "Honorius excluded all persons who were adverse to the catholic church from holding any office in the state," that he "obstinately rejected the service of all those who dissented from his religion," and that "the law was applied in the utmost latitude and rigorously executed."
For men like Hume and Gibbon the standpoint of deism was long left behind; yet Gibbon's famous two chapters might well have been written by a deist.
Sir Edward Coke was returned for this borough in 1620, and Edward Gibbon the historian in 1774.
Gibbon, Grote, Giesebrecht, Guizot stand to-day by reason of other virtues than their truth.
But while there are foreshadowings of the evolutionary theory in this work, neither the philosophe historians nor Hume nor Gibbon arrived at a constructive principle in history which could take the place of the Providence they rejected.
Bennet," entitled The Treasury of Wit, and by his first important historical work, the Dissertation on the Origin and Progress of the Scythians or Goths, to which Gibbon acknowledged himself indebted.
Their expulsion from Arabia, followed by the conquest of Egypt by the Mahommedans in the middle of the 7th century, changed this state of affairs, and the continued advances of the followers of the Prophet at length cut them off from almost every means of communication with the civilized world; so that, as Gibbon says, "encompassed by the enemies of their religion, the Ethiopians slept for near a thousand years, forgetful of the world by whom they were forgotten."
In England the just appreciation of his labours by Gibbon, and the ample use made of them in the later volumes of The Decline and Fall, early secured him his rightful place in the estimation of English scholars.
Two years later biographical studies of Theodore Beza and Peter Martyr Vermili (Leben des Theodor de Beza and des Peter Martyr Vermili, Heidelberg, 1809) revealed more genuine scholarship. In 1812 appeared his History of the Iconoclastic Emperors of the East (Geschichte der bilderstiirmenden Kaiser des ostromischen Reichs), in which he controverted some points in Gibbon and sought to avoid painting the past in present-day colours.
There seems no reason to accept Gibbon's contemptuous estimate of their social position.
Macaulay is not greatly superior in impartiality to Hume; Gibbon and Robertson were less open to temptation because they avoided English subjects.
Pears, Fall of Constantinople (1885), The Destruction of the Greek Empire (1903); Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire; Salzenberg, Altchristliche Baudenkmale von Konstantinopel; Lethaby and Swainson, The Church of Sancta Sophia; Pulgher, Les Anciennes Eglises byzantines de Constantinople; Labarte, Le Palais imperial de Constantinople et ses abords.
This forgery was accepted as genuine by a well-known antiquary of the 18th century, Dr William Stukeley, and under the sanction of his authority continued for a long time to be regarded in the same light by numerous scholars and antiquaries, including Gibbon and Lingard.
In 1838 he had edited Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, and in the following year published his Life of Gibbon.
But while on a visit to Geneva, Madame de Vermenou met Suzanne Curchod, the daughter of a pastor near Lausanne, to whom Gibbon had been engaged, and brought her back as her companion to Paris in 1764.
Merivale as a historian cannot be compared with Gibbon for virility, but he takes an eminently common-sense and appreciative view.
Gibbon and other writers quote from John Cassian the tale of the poor monk, who, being convinced of his error, burst into tears, exclaiming, "You have taken away my God!
Paul and Kitty - We have housed our lone male agile gibbon, Paul, with young Kitty, the lar gibbon.
Checking a bit closer, it turned out to be a very young gibbon that was tied to the top of some chicken cages.
The fourth new-comer is Puma, an agile gibbon who has been brought back to be a mate with the center's agile male.
The three gibbons were a young male golden-cheeked, a young female lar, and an adult female agile gibbon.
In particular the team noted a concolor gibbon (Hylobates concolor ssp) in the distance.
Playful Welsh scamps Ether stomp immediately onto the part of the dancefloor labeled kitsch 70s throwbacks and start to do the funky gibbon.
After a short time his father removed to the " rustic solitude " of Buriton (Hants), but young Gibbon lived chiefly at the house of his maternal grandfather at Putney, where, under the care of his devoted aunt, he developed, he tells us, that passionate love of reading " which he would not exchange for all the treasures of India," and where his mind received its most decided stimulus.
The most memorable incident, however, in Gibbon's stay at Oxford was his temporary conversion to the doctrines of the church of Rome.
At this stage he was introduced by a friend (Mr Molesworth) to Bossuet's Variations of Protestantism and Exposition of Catholic Doctrine (see Gibbon, Decline and Fall, c. xv., note 79).
The elder Gibbon heard with indignant surprise of this act of juvenile apostasy, and, indiscreetly giving vent to his wrath, precipitated the expulsion of his son from Oxford, a punishment which the culprit, in after years at least, found no cause to deplore.
But in yielding to paternal authority, Gibbon frankly owns that he " complied, like a pious son, with the wish of his own heart."
Gibbon has criticized it with the utmost frankness, not to say severity; but, after every abatement, it is unquestionably a surprising effort for a mind so young, and contains many thoughts which would not have disgraced a thinker or a scholar of much maturer age.
In 1776 he answered Gibbon's chapters on Christianity, and had the honour of being one of the only two opponents whom Gibbon treated with respect.
Gibbon justly describes it as " a golden volume, not unworthy of the leisure of Plato or Tully, but which claims incomparable merit from the barbarism of the times and the situation of the author."
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
But little time was lost by the elder Gibbon in the formation of a new plan of education for his son, and in devising some method which if possible might effect the cure of his "spiritual malady."
Pavilliard appears to have known little of English, and young Gibbon knew practically nothing of French.
The cordial and gentle manners of Mrs Gibbon, however, and her unremitting care for his happiness, won him from his first prejudices, and gave her a permanent place in his esteem and.
After breakfast " he was expected," he says, to spend an hour with Mrs Gibbon; after tea his father claimed his conversation; in the midst of an interesting work he was often called down to entertain idle visitors; and, worst of all, he was periodically compelled to return the well-meant compliments.
Mdlle Curchod soon afterwards became the wife of Necker, the famous financier; and Gibbon and the Neckers frequently afterwards met on terms of mutual friendship and esteem.
In 1761 Gibbon, at the age of twenty-four, after many delays, and with many flutterings of hope and fear, gave to the world, in French, his maiden publication, an Essai sur l'etude de la litterature, which he had composed two years before.
The militia was disbanded in 1762, and Gibbon joyfully shook off his bonds; but his literary projects were still to be postponed.
He has recorded one or two interesting notes on Turin, Genoa, Florence and other towns at which halt was made on his route; but Rome was the great object of his pilgrimage, and the words in which he has alluded to the feelings with which he Her letters to Walpole about Gibbon contain some interesting remarks by this ' ` aveugle clairvoyante," as Voltaire calls her; but they belong to a later period (1777).
It never got beyond that rehearsal; Hume, indeed, approved of the performance, only deprecating as unwise the author's preference for French; but Gibbon sided with the majority.
It is interesting, however, to know, that in the first volume is a review by Gibbon of Lord Lyttelton's History of Henry II., and that the second volume contains a contribution by Hume on Walpole's Historic Doubts.
This theory Gibbon completely exploded in his Critical Observations (1770) - no very difficult task, indeed, but achieved in a style, and with a profusion of learning, which called forth the warmest commendations both at home and abroad.
Gibbon, however, regrets that the style of his pamphlet was too acrimonious; and this regret, considering his antagonist's slight claims to forbearance, is creditable to him.
The only attack, however, to which Gibbon deigned to make any reply was that of Davies, who had impugned his accuracy or good faith.
Two years before the publication of this first volume Gibbon was elected member of parliament for Liskeard (1774).
The French government had issued a manifesto preparatory to a declaration of war, and Gibbon was solicited by Chancellor Thurlow and Lord Weymouth, secretary of state, to answer it.
In his Memoir, indeed, Gibbon denies that he had ever enlisted with the Whigs.
Gibbon was eight-and-thirty when he entered parliament; and the obstacles which even at an earlier period he had not had courage to encounter were hardly likely to be vanquished then.
Having sold all his property except his library - to him equally a necessary and a luxury - Gibbon repaired to Lausanne in September 1783, and took up his abode with his early friend Deyverdun, now a resident there.
Gibbon was such a man as Horace might have been, had the Roman Epicurean been fonder of hard intellectual work, and less prone than he was to the indulgence of emotion.
In the immense region which Gibbon surveyed there is hardly a section which has not been submitted to the microscopic examination of specialists.
But apart from the inevitable advances made in the course of a century during which historical research entered upon a new phase, the reader of Gibbon must be warned against one capital defect.
The flavour of these chapters is due to the irony which Gibbon has employed with consummate art and felicity.
There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
In regard to the attitude of the Roman government towards the Christian religion, there are questions still sub judice; but Gibbon had the merit of reducing the number of martyrs within probable limits.
Yet in this matter Gibbon has been grossly misapprehended and misrepresented.
The Italian translation (alluded to by Gibbon himself) was, along with Spedalieri's Confutazione, reprinted at Milan in 1823.
He had also read a great deal of history in English - Robertson's histories, Hume, Gibbon, Robert Watson's Philip II.
It is impossible not to concur in almost every point with Gibbon's own estimate of his numerous assailants.
While Burke and Fox and so many great statesmen proclaimed the consequences of the collision with America, Gibbon saw nothing but colonies in rebellion, and a paternal government justly incensed.
Taking the manuscript with him, Gibbon, after an absence of four years, once more visited London in 1787; and the 51st anniversary of the author's birthday (27th April 1788) witnessed the publication of the last three volumes of The Decline and Fall.
What he afterwards became has been made more vividly familiar by the clever silhouette prefixed to the Miscellaneous Works (Gibbon himself, at least, we know, did not regard it as a caricature), and by Sir Joshua Reynolds's portrait so often engraved.
It has already been seen that Gibbon's early ailments all left him on the approach of manhood; thenceforward, " till admonished by the gout," he could truly boast of an immunity well-nigh perfect from every bodily complaint; an exceptionally vigorous brain, and a stomach "almost too good," united to bestow upon him a vast capacity alike for work and for enjoyment.
It is not easy, however, to perceive much resemblance between the method of Pascal and that of Gibbon, though in particular passages we may discover the influence which Gibbon acknowledges.
The criterion by which Gibbon judged civilization and progress was the measure in which the happiness of men is secured, and of that happiness he considered political freedom an essential condition.
It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at GÃƒ¶ttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.
Samuel Johnson, Gibbon, Lord Lyttelton and Bishop Horne all spoke enthusiastically of its merits; and it is still the only work by which its author is popularly known.
Adolf, Latinized as Adolphus, the form used by Gibbon for the subject of this article), king of the Goths (d.
His character has been drawn with graphic fidelity by Gibbon in the 23rd chapter of the Decline and Fall; but the theory, accepted by Gibbon, which identifies him with the patron saint of England is now rejected (see George, Saint).
To his modesty Bossuet bears witness, when he told him to stand up sometimes, and not be always on his knees before a critic. Gibbon vouches for his learning, when (in the 47th chapter) he speaks of "this incomparable guide, whose bigotry is overbalanced by the merits of erudition, diligence, veracity and scrupulous minuteness."
Gibbon, describing his first stay at Lausanne (1752-1755), writes in his Autobiography, "the logic of de Crousaz had prepared me to engage with his master Locke and his antagonist Bayle."
Calvin impugned the saint's existence altogether, and Edward Reynolds (1599-1676),bishop of Norwich, like Edward Gibbon a century later, made him one with George of Laodicea, called " the Cappadocian," the Arian bishop of Alexandria (see [[George Of Laodicea]]).
Lastly, the Jansenist " hermitage " a.t Port Royal contributed the historian Tillemont, whose bigotry Edward Gibbon declares to be overbalanced by his erudition, veracity and scrupulous minuteness.
His writings of this kind, though too laudatory and somewhat diffuse, have great merit; they abound in those anecdotal details, natural yet not obvious reflections, and vivacious turns of thought, which made Gibbon style him, with some extravagance certainly, though it was true enough up to Gassendi's time - "le meilleur philosophe des litterateurs, et le meilleur litterateur des philosophes."
At the basis of the works of all the modern historians from Gibbon to Buckle, despite their seeming disagreements and the apparent novelty of their outlooks, lie those two old, unavoidable assumptions.
The Early Years Gibbon was born in 1869 in a house built by his stonemason father on Malakoff Street, Stalybridge.
Whether you're a fan of Billy Gibbon's guitar licks or Dusty Hill's heat pounding bass lines, you can find the tabs you need from the list below.
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
Gibbon justly calls Beli- sarius the Africanus of New Rome.
Haury, 1905, 1907); see Gibbon, Decline and Fall (ed.
The Asiatic elephant; the seladang, a bison of a larger type than the Indian gaur; two varieties of rhinoceros; the honey bear (bruang), the tapir, the sambhur (rusa); the speckled deer (kijang), three varieties of mouse-deer (napoh, plandok and kanchil); the gibbon (ungka or wawa'), the siamang, another species of anthropoid ape, the brok or coco-nut monkey, so called because it is trained by the Malays to gather the nuts from the coco-nut trees, the lotong, kra, and at least twenty other kinds of monkey; the binturong (arctictis binturong), the lemur; the Asiatic tiger, the black panther, the leopard, the large wild cat (harimau akar), several varieties of jungle cat; the wild boar, the wild dog; the flying squirrel,.