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germination

germination

germination Sentence Examples

  • The conditions for germination are much the same as for growth in general.

    140
    54
  • Different stages in the formation and germination of the zygospore.

    132
    56
  • Further, the older the seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in starting, but there are notable exceptions.

    65
    26
  • A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.

    58
    33
  • The mesodermic portion becomes charged with a yolk-like material (y), and, on the germination of the statoblast, gives rise to the outer layer (mes) of the bud.

    38
    18
  • The oospore on germination usually gives origin A ?°.

    26
    11
  • The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.

    23
    17
  • The time required for germination in the most favourable circumstances varies very greatly, even in the same species, and in seeds taken from one pod.

    18
    11
  • 13, - A series of phases of germination of the spore of B.

    17
    9
  • 13, - A series of phases of germination of the spore of B.

    17
    9
  • This peculiar product of germination, which intervenes between the oospore and the adult form, is the proembryo.

    16
    8
  • 34 (1900); Bernard, "On some Different Cases of Germination," Gardener's Chronicle (1900); Pierce, Publ.

    15
    9
  • On germination, however, the fungus behaves in the same way as one which has entered in the seedling stage.

    15
    11
  • While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.

    13
    5
  • On germination it gives rise to a row of cells in which short (nodal) and long (internodal) cells alternate.

    13
    10
  • On germination of the seed the radicle first grows out, increasing in size as a whole, and soon adding to its tissues by cell division at its apical growing-point.

    12
    4
  • On germination of the seed the radicle first grows out, increasing in size as a whole, and soon adding to its tissues by cell division at its apical growing-point.

    12
    4
  • In Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae the zygospore, after a period of rest, germinates, to form a new filamentous colony; in Desmidiaceae its contents divide on germination, and thus give rise to two or more Desmids.

    12
    10
  • (2) The Procharisteria at the end of winter, at which thanks were offered for the germination of the seed.

    11
    5
  • Miss Nichols fi -ids that it occurs very soon after the germination of the spore in Cc sinus, but no fusion of cells or migration of nuclei was to be observed.

    11
    8
  • The germination of the spores has now been observed in several forms with care.

    10
    8
  • tophthora infestans passing K, Germination of the zoospores through the stomata D, on formed in the sporangia.

    8
    2
  • tophthora infestans passing K, Germination of the zoospores through the stomata D, on formed in the sporangia.

    8
    2
  • This pause, often of so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time of its perfect development within the seed and the moment of germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive features of the life of Spermatophytes.

    8
    6
  • The aim of germination is the fixing of the embryo in the soil, effected usually by means of the root, which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation for the elongation of the epicotyledonary portion of the shoot, and there is infinite variety in the details of the process.

    8
    6
  • Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.

    8
    13
  • (1904); "Zygospore germination in the Mucorineae," Annales mycologici (1906).

    8
    13
  • The empty fruits (after germination of the seed) are found floating in the Indian Ocean, and were known long before the palm was discovered, giving rise to various stories as to their origin.

    8
    13
  • Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.

    8
    13
  • The empty fruits (after germination of the seed) are found floating in the Indian Ocean, and were known long before the palm was discovered, giving rise to various stories as to their origin.

    8
    13
  • The teleutospore puts forth on germination a fourcelled structure, the promycelium or basidium, and this bears later four sporidia or basidiospores, one on each cell.

    8
    14
  • For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.

    7
    10
  • The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.

    7
    12
  • The tuft of hairs at the base facilitates rapid dispersion of the seed, early germination of which is rendered desirable owing to its tenuity.

    7
    12
  • The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant (Vaucheria), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

    7
    12
  • The tuft of hairs at the base facilitates rapid dispersion of the seed, early germination of which is rendered desirable owing to its tenuity.

    7
    12
  • Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of vitality of the embryo is a point of interest.

    7
    13
  • When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

    6
    8
  • The process of liming, which originated at the time when the Dutch held a monopoly of the trade, was with the view of preventing the germination of the seeds, which were formerly immersed for three months in milk of lime for this purpose, and a preference is still manifested in some countries for nutmegs so prepared.

    6
    9
  • As the embryo develops it may absorb all the food material available, and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not immediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in germination, and by so doing it increases in size until it may fill entirely the embryo-sac; or its absorptive power at this stage may be limited to what is necessary for growth and it remains of relatively small size, occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac, which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food is stored.

    6
    11
  • (After de Bary.) "1, fragments of filaments with ripe spores; 2-5, successive stages in the germination of the spores, the remains of the spore attached to the germinal rodlets.

    5
    7
  • (After de Bary.) "1, fragments of filaments with ripe spores; 2-5, successive stages in the germination of the spores, the remains of the spore attached to the germinal rodlets.

    5
    7
  • - The various phases of germination of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), as actually observed in hanging drops under very high powers.

    5
    8
  • Germination of spore of Clostridium butyricum - the axis of growth coincides with the long axis of the spore.

    5
    8
  • - The various phases of germination of spores of Bacillus ramosus (Fraenkel), as actually observed in hanging drops under very high powers.

    5
    8
  • experimental farms and various effective organiza tons for assisting the live-stock, dairying and fruitgrowing industries, for testing the germination and purity of agricultural seeds, and for developing the export trade in agricultural and dairy produce.

    5
    10
  • Germination of the microspore begins before it leaves the pollen-sac. In very few cases has anything representing prothallial development been observed; generally a small cell (the antheridial or generative cell) is cut off, leaving a larger tube-cell.

    5
    10
  • A The spores are capable of germination at once, or they may be kept for months and even years, and are very resistant against desiccation, heat and cold, &c. In a suitable medium and at a proper temperature the germination is completed in a few hours.

    4
    4
  • A The spores are capable of germination at once, or they may be kept for months and even years, and are very resistant against desiccation, heat and cold, &c. In a suitable medium and at a proper temperature the germination is completed in a few hours.

    4
    4
  • The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown on the western shores of the British Isles, and as they are capable of germination, the species are only prevented from establishing themselves by an uncongenial climate.

    4
    9
  • During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.

    4
    9
  • The seeds of West Indian plants are thrown on the western shores of the British Isles, and as they are capable of germination, the species are only prevented from establishing themselves by an uncongenial climate.

    4
    9
  • The germination of the macrospore consists in the repeated division of its nucleus to form two groups of four, one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One nucleus from each group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus.

    4
    10
  • The germination of the macrospore consists in the repeated division of its nucleus to form two groups of four, one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One nucleus from each group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus.

    4
    10
  • Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.

    4
    17
  • To take an example, Lemanea and Batrachospermum are Florideae which bear densely-whorled branches, but which, on the germination of the carpospore, give rise to a laxly-filamentous, somewhat irregularly-branched plant, from which the ordinary sexual plants arise at a later stage.

    3
    5
  • To take an example, Lemanea and Batrachospermum are Florideae which bear densely-whorled branches, but which, on the germination of the carpospore, give rise to a laxly-filamentous, somewhat irregularly-branched plant, from which the ordinary sexual plants arise at a later stage.

    3
    5
  • In germination the cotyledons come above ground and form the first green leaves of the plant.

    3
    6
  • The last measure prevents the germination of the spores of the fungus on the leaves, and is a most useful mode of checking the spread of the disease; to be successful in its use, however, entails care in the preparation of the spray and thoroughness in its application.

    3
    6
  • g ', g 2, g3, early stages in the germination of the spores (after being dried several days); h2, i, k, 1 and m, successive stages in the germination of the spore.

    3
    6
  • In germination the cotyledons come above ground and form the first green leaves of the plant.

    3
    6
  • It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.

    3
    7
  • The statoblasts require a period of rest before germination, and Braem has shown that their property of floating at the surface may be beneficial to them by exposing them to the action of frost, which in some cases improves the germinating power.

    3
    8
  • Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.

    3
    8
  • Germination is often slower where there is a store of available food in the perisperm, or in the endosperm, or in the embryo itself, than where this is scanty or wanting.

    3
    8
  • Forms with septate thallus, and reproduction by chlamydospores which on germination produce sporidia; sexuality doubtful.

    3
    8
  • Exalbuminous Dicotyledons usually store reserve-food in their cotyledons, which may in germination remain below ground (hypogeal).

    3
    8
  • Among Chlorophyceae it is often the case that the oospore on germination divides up directly to form a brood of zoospores.

    3
    9
  • The soredia are the most successful method of reproduction in lichens, for not only are some forms nearly always without spore-formation and in others the spores laregly abortive, but in all cases the spore represents only the fungal component of the thallus, and its success in the development of a new lichen-thallus depends on the chance meeting, at the time of germination, with the appropriate algal component.

    3
    10
  • In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.

    3
    13
  • If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.

    2
    7
  • Sicily was a favourite haunt of the two 1 Some, however, regard Proserpina as a native Latin form, not borrowed from the Greek, and connected with proserpere, meaning the goddess who aided the germination of the seed.

    2
    7
  • For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is only the observation of Hedlund, that in Catillaria denigrata and C. prasena a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural conditions.

    2
    7
  • The observations of Moller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of Ulothrix and Ectocarpus, for example From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

    2
    7
  • The development of the "conidia" as true conidial spores or as zoosporangia may occur in one and the same species (Cystopus candidus, Phytophthora infestans) as in Pythium described above; in other cases the direct conidial germination is characteristic of genera - e.g.

    2
    7
  • For the germination of the spermatia in nature there is only the observation of Hedlund, that in Catillaria denigrata and C. prasena a thallus may be derived from the spermatia under natural conditions.

    2
    7
  • The development of the "conidia" as true conidial spores or as zoosporangia may occur in one and the same species (Cystopus candidus, Phytophthora infestans) as in Pythium described above; in other cases the direct conidial germination is characteristic of genera - e.g.

    2
    7
  • In GY~~1NospERMsso-called because the ovules (and seeds) are borne on an open sporophyll or carpelthe microsporophylls and macrosporophylls are not as a rule associated in the same shoot and are generally arranged in cone-like structures; one or two small prothallial cells are formed in the germination of the microspore; the male cells are in some older members of the group motile though usually passive.

    0
    0
  • "The occurrence of Phylactolaemata in the tropics would show, however, without further evidence, that frost is not a factor essential for germination.

    0
    0
  • All seeds require a certain degree of heat to induce germination.

    0
    0
  • The half-hardy series are best sown in pots or pans under glass in mild,heat, in order to accelerate germination.

    0
    0
  • In some cases resting spores are formed inside the host (Chytridium), and give rise to zoosporangia on germination.

    0
    0
  • In the leaf of the Victoria regia the transformation may be traced during germination.

    0
    0
  • Their function is the twofold one of protecting the embryo and of aiding in dissemination; they may also directly promote germination.

    0
    0
  • Exalbuminous Monocotyledons are either hydrophytes or strongly hygrophilous plants and have often peculiar features in germination.

    0
    0
  • Drying by exposure to the air for a month has been found to prevent their germination.

    0
    0
  • 1, back, and 2, front view; 3, vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo; 4, beginning of germination, showing (b) the pileole and (c) the radicle and secondary rootlets surrounded by their coleorrhizae.

    0
    0
  • In germination the coleorhiza lengthens, ruptures the pericarp, and fixes the grain to the ground by developing numerous hairs.

    0
    0
  • Colymbea) the germination is epigean.

    0
    0
  • (1864); Bower, " Germination, &c., in Gnetum," Journ.

    0
    0
  • with the germination of which the life-history again commences.

    0
    0
  • On germination the microspores give rise to a reduced prothallus, consisting of the small cell first cut off and a wall of cells enclosing two to four central ones; "from these latter the biciliate spermatozoids originate.

    0
    0
  • The microspores on germination produce a small, greatly reduced male prothallus bearing one or two antheridia which give rise to a number of spirally coiled, multiciliate spermatozoids.

    0
    0
  • from the period when sown, or 1715° from the period of germination, branching or "tillering" goes on freely, and the young ears are formed.

    0
    0
  • Unchewed oats pass out in the faeces uninjured, so that they are capable of germination, and are of less than no value to a horse.

    0
    0
  • Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.

    0
    0
  • or more of them the pollen-tube is extended in germination of the spore.

    0
    0
  • It is a curious fact that in no case has an embryo been found in any of these seeds; probably fertilization took place after they were shed, and was followed immediately by germination.

    0
    0
  • Norman Deno ~ author of Seed Germination Theory and Practice Nut ~ a large single hardened achene.

    0
    0
  • amaranth plants and residues may have an allelopathic effect on the germination and growth of other plants.

    0
    0
  • berryd from unripe berries tested 27 days after flower opening gave 100% germination.

    0
    0
  • chickpea seed a head start with uniform germination and stronger plants that can outgrow weeds and resist pests.

    0
    0
  • conidial germination.

    0
    0
  • cyclamen seed ripens in July, regardless of the species, and the best germination rates are achieved from fresh seed.

    0
    0
  • During germination the barley secretes the enzyme diastase which makes the starch in the barley soluble, thus preparing it for conversion into sugar.

    0
    0
  • In orchid seeds, the nutrients required for germination are provided by a mycorrhizal fungus with which it forms an association.

    0
    0
  • Warm compost promotes the rapid germination of most herb seeds and is particularly useful for gardeners who raise their plants in an unheated greenhouse.

    0
    0
  • Birds eat the haws on the hawthorn bushes and deposit the remains across the common, surface planting them for germination in the summer.

    0
    0
  • inhibit germination depending on the concentration.

    0
    0
  • interbreeded out comparative studies of germination under different conditions and interbred garden species with their wild congeners.

    0
    0
  • Seed predation and germination, fruiting phenology and forest microclimate were also examined.

    0
    0
  • black nightshade grows rapidly after germination and the time from emergence to flowering is around 60 days in May and 50 days in July.

    0
    0
  • pollen germination.

    0
    0
  • Effect of passage through duck gut on germination of fennel pondweed seeds.

    0
    0
  • Early harrowing of fields being prepared for root crops will induce charlock germination allowing the mechanical destruction of seedlings during subsequent seedbed preparations.

    0
    0
  • rust spores require water for germination.

    0
    0
  • Light, alternating temperatures, chilling, nitrate and seed scarification can all help to promote germination.

    0
    0
  • scarify with rakes to maintain an open sward to allow the germination of seedlings.

    0
    0
  • seed germination & to keeping adult plants ticking over in UK winter.

    0
    0
  • When the foliage dries more quickly, infections are reduced since, like almost all fungal spores, rust spores require water for germination.

    0
    0
  • spore germination.

    0
    0
  • The second is likely to be an increased stringency in requirements for pollen germination to ensure more specificity.

    0
    0
  • The spores on germination make a white felted mat, more or less dense, of mycelium; this, when compacted with dry, half-decomposed dung, is the mushroom spawn of gardeners.

    0
    0
  • The viscid pulp soon hardens, affording a protection to the seed; in germination the sucker-root penetrates the bark, and a connexion is established with the vascular tissue of the first plant.

    0
    0
  • A spirit has been distilled from acorns in process of germination, when the saccharine principle is most abundant.

    0
    0
  • The Archegoniatae are characterized by a well-marked alternation of gametophyte and sporophyte generations; the former bears the sexual organs which are of characteristic structure and known as antheridia (male) and archegonia (female) respectively; the fertilized egg-cell on germination gives rise to the spore-bearing generation, and the spores on germination give rise directly or indirectly to a second gametophyte.

    0
    0
  • In GY~~1NospERMsso-called because the ovules (and seeds) are borne on an open sporophyll or carpelthe microsporophylls and macrosporophylls are not as a rule associated in the same shoot and are generally arranged in cone-like structures; one or two small prothallial cells are formed in the germination of the microspore; the male cells are in some older members of the group motile though usually passive.

    0
    0
  • It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.

    0
    0
  • If we go back to the first instance cited, the embryo in the seed and its development during germination, we can ascertain what is necessary for its life by inquiring what are the materials which are deposited in the seed, and which become exhausted by consumption as growth and development proceed.

    0
    0
  • For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.

    0
    0
  • The rows of cells from which the laticiferous vessels are formed can be distinguished in many cases in the young embryo while still in the dry seed (Scott), but the latex vessels in process of formation are more easily seen when germination has begun.

    0
    0
  • In germination of the seed the root of the embryo (radicle) grows out to get a holdfast for the plant; this is generally followed by the growth of the short stem immediately above the root, the so-called "hypocotyl," which carries up the cotyledons above the ground, where they spread to the light and become the first green leaves of the plant.

    0
    0
  • Sicily was a favourite haunt of the two 1 Some, however, regard Proserpina as a native Latin form, not borrowed from the Greek, and connected with proserpere, meaning the goddess who aided the germination of the seed.

    0
    0
  • During April (when the seed is usually sown) and May frequent light showers, which keep the ground sufficiently moist to assist germination and the growth of the young plants, are desired.

    0
    0
  • (2) The Procharisteria at the end of winter, at which thanks were offered for the germination of the seed.

    0
    0
  • Soil whose temperature remains low, whether from its northerly aspect or from its high water content or other cause, is unsatisfactory, because the germination of seeds and the general life processes of plants cannot go on satisfactorily except at certain temperatures well above freezing-point.

    0
    0
  • The mesodermic portion becomes charged with a yolk-like material (y), and, on the germination of the statoblast, gives rise to the outer layer (mes) of the bud.

    0
    0
  • The statoblasts require a period of rest before germination, and Braem has shown that their property of floating at the surface may be beneficial to them by exposing them to the action of frost, which in some cases improves the germinating power.

    0
    0
  • "The occurrence of Phylactolaemata in the tropics would show, however, without further evidence, that frost is not a factor essential for germination.

    0
    0
  • experimental farms and various effective organiza tons for assisting the live-stock, dairying and fruitgrowing industries, for testing the germination and purity of agricultural seeds, and for developing the export trade in agricultural and dairy produce.

    0
    0
  • Seeds are tested in the laboratory for purity and germination on behalf of farmers and seed merchants, and scientific investigations relating to seeds are conducted and reported upon.

    0
    0
  • The soredia are the most successful method of reproduction in lichens, for not only are some forms nearly always without spore-formation and in others the spores laregly abortive, but in all cases the spore represents only the fungal component of the thallus, and its success in the development of a new lichen-thallus depends on the chance meeting, at the time of germination, with the appropriate algal component.

    0
    0
  • The observations of Moller, &c., on the germination cannot be assumed to negative the sexual hypothesis for the sexual cells of Ulothrix and Ectocarpus, for example From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

    0
    0
  • The conditions for germination are much the same as for growth in general.

    0
    0
  • The time required for germination in the most favourable circumstances varies very greatly, even in the same species, and in seeds taken from one pod.

    0
    0
  • Germination is often slower where there is a store of available food in the perisperm, or in the endosperm, or in the embryo itself, than where this is scanty or wanting.

    0
    0
  • All seeds require a certain degree of heat to induce germination.

    0
    0
  • The half-hardy series are best sown in pots or pans under glass in mild,heat, in order to accelerate germination.

    0
    0
  • Forms with septate thallus, and reproduction by chlamydospores which on germination produce sporidia; sexuality doubtful.

    0
    0
  • The oospore on germination usually gives origin A ?°.

    0
    0
  • In some cases resting spores are formed inside the host (Chytridium), and give rise to zoosporangia on germination.

    0
    0
  • Different stages in the formation and germination of the zygospore.

    0
    0
  • On germination, however, the fungus behaves in the same way as one which has entered in the seedling stage.

    0
    0
  • The teleutospore puts forth on germination a fourcelled structure, the promycelium or basidium, and this bears later four sporidia or basidiospores, one on each cell.

    0
    0
  • Miss Nichols fi -ids that it occurs very soon after the germination of the spore in Cc sinus, but no fusion of cells or migration of nuclei was to be observed.

    0
    0
  • (1904); "Zygospore germination in the Mucorineae," Annales mycologici (1906).

    0
    0
  • 34 (1900); Bernard, "On some Different Cases of Germination," Gardener's Chronicle (1900); Pierce, Publ.

    0
    0
  • In the leaf of the Victoria regia the transformation may be traced during germination.

    0
    0
  • Germination of the microspore begins before it leaves the pollen-sac. In very few cases has anything representing prothallial development been observed; generally a small cell (the antheridial or generative cell) is cut off, leaving a larger tube-cell.

    0
    0
  • As the embryo develops it may absorb all the food material available, and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not immediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in germination, and by so doing it increases in size until it may fill entirely the embryo-sac; or its absorptive power at this stage may be limited to what is necessary for growth and it remains of relatively small size, occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac, which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food is stored.

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  • Their function is the twofold one of protecting the embryo and of aiding in dissemination; they may also directly promote germination.

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  • Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of vitality of the embryo is a point of interest.

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  • Further, the older the seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in starting, but there are notable exceptions.

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  • This pause, often of so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time of its perfect development within the seed and the moment of germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive features of the life of Spermatophytes.

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  • The aim of germination is the fixing of the embryo in the soil, effected usually by means of the root, which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation for the elongation of the epicotyledonary portion of the shoot, and there is infinite variety in the details of the process.

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  • Exalbuminous Dicotyledons usually store reserve-food in their cotyledons, which may in germination remain below ground (hypogeal).

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  • Exalbuminous Monocotyledons are either hydrophytes or strongly hygrophilous plants and have often peculiar features in germination.

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  • When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

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  • The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant (Vaucheria), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

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  • In Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae the zygospore, after a period of rest, germinates, to form a new filamentous colony; in Desmidiaceae its contents divide on germination, and thus give rise to two or more Desmids.

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  • On germination it gives rise to a row of cells in which short (nodal) and long (internodal) cells alternate.

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  • This peculiar product of germination, which intervenes between the oospore and the adult form, is the proembryo.

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  • While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.

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  • Among Chlorophyceae it is often the case that the oospore on germination divides up directly to form a brood of zoospores.

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  • The process of liming, which originated at the time when the Dutch held a monopoly of the trade, was with the view of preventing the germination of the seeds, which were formerly immersed for three months in milk of lime for this purpose, and a preference is still manifested in some countries for nutmegs so prepared.

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  • The last measure prevents the germination of the spores of the fungus on the leaves, and is a most useful mode of checking the spread of the disease; to be successful in its use, however, entails care in the preparation of the spray and thoroughness in its application.

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  • Germination of the spore of the hay bacillus (B.

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  • Germination of spore of Clostridium butyricum - the axis of growth coincides with the long axis of the spore.

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  • g ', g 2, g3, early stages in the germination of the spores (after being dried several days); h2, i, k, 1 and m, successive stages in the germination of the spore.

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  • The germination of the spores has now been observed in several forms with care.

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  • Drying by exposure to the air for a month has been found to prevent their germination.

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  • 1, back, and 2, front view; 3, vertical section, showing (b) the endosperm, and (a) embryo; 4, beginning of germination, showing (b) the pileole and (c) the radicle and secondary rootlets surrounded by their coleorrhizae.

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  • In germination the coleorhiza lengthens, ruptures the pericarp, and fixes the grain to the ground by developing numerous hairs.

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  • Colymbea) the germination is epigean.

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  • (1864); Bower, " Germination, &c., in Gnetum," Journ.

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  • with the germination of which the life-history again commences.

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  • On germination the microspores give rise to a reduced prothallus, consisting of the small cell first cut off and a wall of cells enclosing two to four central ones; "from these latter the biciliate spermatozoids originate.

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  • The microspores on germination produce a small, greatly reduced male prothallus bearing one or two antheridia which give rise to a number of spirally coiled, multiciliate spermatozoids.

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  • from the period when sown, or 1715° from the period of germination, branching or "tillering" goes on freely, and the young ears are formed.

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  • Unchewed oats pass out in the faeces uninjured, so that they are capable of germination, and are of less than no value to a horse.

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  • Linnaeus's copy of the book evinces the great assiduity with which he studied it; he laboured throughout to remedy the defect of the want of synonyms, sub-joined his own generic names to nearly every species, and particularly indicated the two remarkable passages where the germination of plants and their sexual distinctions are explained.

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  • or more of them the pollen-tube is extended in germination of the spore.

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  • The spores in the sporangia have been found in a germinating condition; the stages of germination correspond closely with those observed in recent homosporous ferns (fig.

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  • It is a curious fact that in no case has an embryo been found in any of these seeds; probably fertilization took place after they were shed, and was followed immediately by germination.

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  • When the foliage dries more quickly, infections are reduced since, like almost all fungal spores, rust spores require water for germination.

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  • Light, alternating temperatures, chilling, nitrate and seed scarification can all help to promote germination.

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  • Scarify with rakes to maintain an open sward to allow the germination of seedlings.

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  • My suggestions apply both to small scale seed germination & to keeping adult plants ticking over in UK winter.

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  • All three salts significantly reduced mycelial growth and spore germination.

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  • The second is likely to be an increased stringency in requirements for pollen germination to ensure more specificity.

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  • Read the article on seed germination to grow your own herbs.

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  • Seed germination takes place within 2-3 months at 20°c.

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  • You will have to experiment with seed germination.

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  • Remember that perennial seeds often have a long dormant period, and that some seeds may germination before others.

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  • Try sowing another group of seeds in trays, following the directions in our article on seed germination.

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  • Seed germination should normally begin about six weeks before the last spring frost.

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  • Older seeds may have a slow germination rate and cool temperatures or lack of moisture can also prevent germination.

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  • A little cover over the seeds made from a plastic soda bottle bottom can protect them until germination.

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  • Rye suppressed weed germination but doesn't harm vegetable crops.

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  • Plants and seeds that aren't artificially protected sometimes have lower germination or higher failure rates.

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  • Because your organic okra crop may have a lower germination rate, hedge your bets by planting a few more seeds.

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  • Tomato seeds can stay viable for years, but it is best to use them as soon as possible for maximum germination.

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  • Sprouting is the process of soaking seeds in order to bring about germination.

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