However, the duties of archchancellor for Italy were generally discharged by deputy, and after the virtual separation of Italy and Germany, the title alone was retained by the elector.
The Wittelsbachs gave three kings to Germany, Louis IV.,' Rupert and Charles VII.
It is one of the largest buildings of the kind in Germany, covering an area of 15 acres, and having a frontage of about 600 yards.
are again per for Germany, due to O.
While Piero found refuge at Venice and Urbino, Cardinal Giovanni travelled in Germany, in the Netherlands and in France.
In 1500 the diet had divided Germany into six circles, for the maintenance of peace, to which the emperor at the diet of Cologne in 1512 added four others.
The theory was that all the imperial business in Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the elector of Cologne.
He attacked the Venetians, but finding the war unpopular with the trading cities of southern Germany, made a truce with the republic for three years.
STUTTGART, a city of Germany, capital of the kingdom of Wurttemberg.
Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books.
Germany viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war and therefore declared war on Russia.
Soon after he was engaged on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the treaty of Ulm, signed July 1620.
In particular the remarkable frontier lines which bounded the Roman provinces of Upper (southern) Germany and Raetia, and which at their greatest development stretched from near Bonn on the Rhine to near Regensburg on the Danube, are often called the Limes Germanicus.
If there can be a USA, a Germany, and a Japan, then every country can be rich.
In Germany the concessions made to the pope and the reservations maintained by him in the matter of taxes and benefices were deemed excessive, and the prolonged discontent which resulted was one of the causes of the success of the Lutheran Reformation.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
My next step will probably be to fix up the Germany issue, although this will be complicated.
That Leo did not do more to check the tendency toward heresy and schism in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with schemes of papal and Medicean aggrandizement in Italy.
The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat.
In Germany a few Cartesian lecturers taught at Leipzig and Halle, but the system took no root, any more than in Switzerland, where it had a brief reign at Geneva after 1669.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology in Germany since Kant (1890).
During the continuance of the lease Germany exercises all the rights of territorial sovereignty, including the right to erect fortifications.
When Conradin was executed in 1268 Louis inherited his lands in Germany, sharing them with his brother Henry.
In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
SCHWEIDNITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Weistritz, 28 m.
The Trias does not belong, as might have been expected, to the Alpine or Mediterranean type; but resembles that of Germany and northern Europe.
For absurd and impracticable schemes in Italy and elsewhere he neglected Germany, and sought to involve its princes in wars undertaken solely for private aggrandizement or personal jealousy.
Ignoring his responsibilities as ruler of Germany, he only considered the question of its government when in need of money and support from the princes.
Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, was obligated by treaty to defend it.
I've moved German cities in the Poland, Silesia and Prussia category to Category:Germany.
Germany 13,178 13,904 17,363
The struggle, however, with the Protestant princes of Germany not only led to continual demands of Charles for men and money from his Netherland dominions, but to his determination to prevent the spread of Protestant opinions; and a series of edicts was passed, the most severe of which (that of 1550) was carried out with extreme rigour.
The quantity of beer is about the same, the greater part of the beer drunk being imported from Germany, while the production of artificial mineral waters has somewhat decreased.
Italy, in constant danger from France, needed good relations with Austria and Germany, but could only attain the goodwill of the former by firm treatment of the revolutionary Irredentist agitation, and of the latter by clear demonstration of Italian will and ability to cope with all anti-monarchical forces.
TRIER (French treves), an ancient city of Germany, formerly the capital of an archbishopric and electorate of the empire, and now the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and the chief town of a governrnental department in the Prussian province of the Rhine.
After a brief struggle the rebels were overthrown at Trier by Cerealis, and 113 senators emigrated to Germany (70).
In many countries, such as Germany and Russia, the term has retained its original meaning of an officer on the personal staff, and is the designation of personal aides-de-camp to the sovereign.
His adherents were to be found at his death scattered throughout Germany.
What gave Bennigsen his importance not only in Hanover, but throughout the whole of Germany, was the foundation of the National Verein, which was due to him, and of which he was president.
It united the moderate Liberals throughout Germany, and at once became a great political power, notwithstanding all the efforts of the governments, and especially of the king of Hanover to suppress it.
Many amendments suggested by him were introduced in the debates on the constitution; in 1870 he undertook a mission to South Germany to strengthen the national party there, and was consulted by Bismarck while at Versailles.
of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.
The year 1810 saw the crown set to that edifice by the annexations of Holland and of the north-west coast of Germany.
on his way to Germany after Sedan slept one night in the little town, which is a convenient centre for visiting that battlefield.
Thionville), a fortified town of Germany, in Alsace-Lorraine, dist.
Germany and Switzerland fell from thirty-seven in the 1300s to about one today.
A year of fruitless negotiation followed, during which the pamphlets of the reformer set all Germany' on fire.
In the negotiations which followed, it was arranged that the bay and the land on both sides of the entrance within certain defined lines should be leased to Germany for 99 years.
Cleve or Kleve), a town of Germany in the kingdom of Prussia, formerly the capital of the duchy of its own name, 46 m.
His chief philosophical importance consists in the fact that he was a leader in the attempt to revivify French philosophy by the new thought of Germany, to which he had been introduced by Cousin, but of which he never had more than a second-hand knowledge.
Innocent, like his predecessor, hated heresy, and in the bull Summis desiderantes (5th of December 1484) he instigated very severe measures against magicians and witches in Germany; he prohibited (1486) on pain of excommunication the reading of the propositions of Pico della Mirandola; he appointed (1487) T.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD (1837-), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, on the 2nd of December 1837, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge.
At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
WEISSENFELS, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Saxony, situated on the Saale 20 m.
RUHR, a river of Germany, an important right-bank tributary of the lower Rhine.
In the spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies" (Freischaaren).
The German tutor was trying to remember all the dishes, wines, and kinds of dessert, in order to send a full description of the dinner to his people in Germany; and he felt greatly offended when the butler with a bottle wrapped in a napkin passed him by.
The disorder in Germany after the fall of the Hohenstaufen afforded an opportunity for Rudolph to increase his possessions.
The lengthy discussions on ecclesiastical benefices in Germany ended finally in the concordat of Vienna, promulgated by Nicholas V.
On his return to Germany he made peace with France at Frankfort in July 1489, and in October several of the states of the Netherlands recognized him as their ruler and as guardian of his son.
Louis accompanied the Crusaders to Damietta in 1221, and governed Germany as regent from 1225 until 1228, when he deserted Frederick II.
went to Italy in 1251, Otto remained as his representative in Germany, until his death on the 29th of November 12 53.
Louis, who soon became the most powerful prince in southern Germany, was called "the Stern," because in a fit of jealousy he caused his first wife, Maria of Brabant, to be executed in '256.
Papers by him have appeared in the mathematical journals of Italy, France, Germany and England, and he has published several important works, many of which have been translated into other languages.
from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany.
He made various charitable bequests by his will, and among them a gift of $50,000 to found an institution, opened as the "Astor House" in 1854, for the education of poor children and the relief of the aged and the destitute in his native village in Germany.
Rudolph was not very successful in restoring internal peace to Germany.
He possessed many excellent qualities, bravery, piety and generosity; but his reign is memorable rather in the history of the house of Habsburg than in that of the kingdom of Germany.
m., and over a further area, comprising a zone of some 32 m., measured from any point on the shore of the bay, the Chinese government may not issue any ordinances without the consent of Germany.
On the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army (1813), and became a member of the board of administration for north Germany.
For a short while he was at the head of the new Hessian administration; but his ambition was to share in the creation of a united Germany.
Having crushed a rebellion at Utrecht, he compelled the burghers of Ghent to restore Philip to him in 1485, and returning to Germany was chosen king of the Romans, or German king, at Frankfort on the 16th of February 1486, and crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 9th of the following April.
Apart from the great interest of his philosophical work, Lazarus was pre-eminent among the Jews of the so-called Semitic domination in Germany.
Then I hope to divide up Germany into categories based on German states - perhaps something along the lines of Category:Prussia, Category:Bavaria, Category:WÃ¼rttemberg, Category:Baden, Category:Hesse-Darmstadt, Category:Saxony, and Category:Small German states, or some such.
I think I'll postpone any further subdivision of Germany for now, and instead create a Category:Russian Poland to take the rest of the articles in Category:Poland, Silesia and Prussia, as well as articles that have failed to be categorized (like Warsaw and Lodz).
TUBINGEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, picturesquely situated on the hilly and well-wooded banks of the Neckar, at its junction with the Ammer and Steinlach, 22 m.
The term tertia minore, or inferiore, is used by Praetorius to describe a low pitch, often preferred in England and the Netherlands, in Italy and in some parts of Germany.
After a period of retirement at Fonte Avellana, he proceeded in 1069 as papal legate to Germany, and persuaded the emperor Henry IV.
Classified according to place of birth, the principal nationalities were as follows in 1901: Canada, 180,853; England, 20,392; Scotland, 8099; Ireland, 4537; other British possessions, 490; Germany, 229,; Iceland, 54 0 3; Austria, 11,570; Russia and Poland, 8854; Scandinavia, 1772; United States, 6922; other countries, 4028.
They originally emigrated from Germany to the plains of southern Russia, but came over to Manitoba to escape the conscription.
Although there is no direct evidence of the fact, there can be no doubt that he left St Andrews to complete his education abroad, and that he probably studied at the university of Paris, and visited Italy and Germany.
Jowett was thus led to concentrate his attention on theology, and in the summers of 1845 and 1846, spent in Germany with Stanley, he became an eager student of German criticism and speculation.
This was specially true of the Reformers in Switzerland, France, Scotland, Holland and in some parts of Germany.
It was different with the Reformers outside Germany.
In 1890-1893 its shores were divided by treaty between Great Britain, France and Germany.
In Lombardy it has a breadth of 200 yds., and a depth of 10 to 16 ft., but the strength of the current renders its navigation very difficult, and lessens its value as a means of transit between Germany and Italy.
Great Britain, Germany and the United States in volume of exterior trade.
Germany 13,712 16,285 21,021
Compulsory service with the colors is in Germany no longer universal, as there are twice as many able-bodied men presented by the recruiting commissions as the active army can absorb.
One result of this is that mobilization and concentration are much slower processes than they are in Germany.
The foreign countries trading most largely with the French colonies are, in the order named, British colonies and Great Britain, China and Japan, the United States and Germany.
From England he passed to the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and on his return to the Peninsula in 1796 was appointed official translator to the foreign office.
STRALSUND, a seaport of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the west side of the Strelasund, an arm of the Baltic, 12 m.
It is perhaps as much from the impulse which Ernesti gave to sacred and profane criticism in Germany, as from the intrinsic excellence of his own works in either department, that he must derive his reputation as a philologist or theologian.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
LUDWIG MOND (1839-1909), British chemist, was born at Cassel in Germany on the 7th of March 1839.
LAUENBURG, a duchy of Germany, formerly belonging with Holstein to Denmark, but from 1865 to Prussia, and now in cluded in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein.
Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
as far as Jutland, along the coasts of Holland and Germany.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
Had his successor been as prudent and able, he might have made a unified Netherlands the nucleus of a mighty middle kingdom, interposing between France and Germany, and a revival of that of the Carolingian Lothaire.
Crowds of fugitives crossed the frontier to seek refuge in Germany and England.
William had meanwhile succeeded in raising a force in Germany with which his brother Louis invaded Friesland.
Similar action was taken in Germany by the synod of Wiirzburg.
BOCHOLT, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, near the frontier of Holland, 12 m.
War followed, in which Turkey was easily successful and gained a small rectification of frontier; then a few months later Crete was taken over "en depot" by the Four Powers - Germany and Austria not participating, - and Prince George of Greece was appointed their mandatory.
He summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, and encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.
469) in North Germany; and in 1536 he wrote a preface to Gardiner's De vera Obedientia, which asserted the royal, denied the papal, supremacy, and was received with delight by the Lutherans.
Though considered fantastic by many, it had secured fairly general acceptance in Germany in 1912, and was followed by the generalized theory in 1915.
sessiliflora in the New Forest, has been adopted by foresters as a general term for this kind of oak; it seems to be the most prevalent form in Germany and in the south of Europe.
As firewood oak holds a high position, though in Germany it is considered inferior to beech for that purpose.
1 50o), the Dominican inquisitor of Cologne, who with Heinrich Kramer (institor) published M alleus maleficarum or Hexenhammer, the standard textbook on witchcraft, especially in Germany.
He stood between Scotland and France and Germany and France; and, though his expositions are vitiated by loose reading of the philosophers he interpreted, he did serviceable, even memorable work.
It forms part of the territory formerly distinguished as the Slave Coast and was annexed by Germany in 1884.
Imports are mainly from Germany, exports to Germany and to other West African colonies.
Before its annexation by Germany the lagoons were a favourite resort of slavers, and stations were established there by Portuguese, British, French and German traders.
The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides.
GOCH, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Niers, 8 m.
During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples of whom we now hear for the first time - Burgundians, Saxons, Alamanni.
The two cables to Holland and one of the cables to Germany were already the property of Great Britain, and the German Union Company's cable to Germany was purchased by the German government.
The following year an additional cable was laid from Bacton, in Norfolk, to Borkum, in Germany, at the joint expense of the British and German governments.
In 1896 it was arranged to lay two new cables to France and one (for duplex working) to Germany.
At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
In Germany A.
The system has already been put into practice in Germany by the Gesellschaft fur drahtlose Telegraphie, and in the United States by R.
Apart from France, Germany and Switzerland, there was no European country that had as many telephones working as London.
The only European country which can be compared with the United Kingdom in telephone development is Germany.
OCHSENFURT, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, situated on the left bank of the Main, here crossed by a stone bridge, 13 m.
BREISGAU, a district of Germany, in the grand duchy of Baden.
The countries with which this trade is mainly carried on are: (imports) United Kingdom, Germany, United States, France, Russia and India; (exports) Switzerland, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Argentina.
The Italian suicide rate of 63.6 per 1,000,000 is, however, lower than those of Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and France, while it approximates to that of England.
These conditions made a territorial system of recruiting or organization, as understood in Germany, practically impossible.
The king of Germany descended into Italy, and took Adelheid in marriage.
By this slender tie the crown of Italy was joined to that of Germany; and the formal right of the elected king of Germany to be considered king of Italy and emperor may be held to have accrued from this epoch.
The great Italian nobles, in their turn, appealed to Germany.
It was merged in the German kingdom; and, since for the German princes Germany was of necessity their first care, Italy from this time forward began to be left more and more to herself.
The Lombards chose Ardoin, marquis of Ivrea, for king, and Pavia supported his claims against those of Henry of Bavaria, who had been elected in Germany.
After this event Heribert, the archbishop of..Milan, invited Conrad, the Franconian king of Germany, into Italy, and crowned him with the iron crown of the kingdom.
Henry IV., king o Germany, but not crowned emperor, convened a diet in th~
In his singlehanded duel with the strength of Germany, Gregory received material assistance from the Countess Matilda of Tuscany.
Scarcely had he returned to Germany when the Lateran disavowed all that the pope had done, on the score that it had been extorted by force.
Germany rejected the bull of investiture.
The emperors real weakness was in Germany, where his subjects openly expressed their discontent.
These watchwords are said to have arisen in Germany during the disputed succession of the empire between 1135 and 1152, when the Welfs of Bavaria opposed the Swabian princes of Waiblingen origin.
Having obtained his coronation, Frederick withdrew to Germany, while Milan prepared herself against the storm which threatened.
Three years afterwards he died, leaving a son, Frederick, to the care of Constance, who in her turn died in 1198, bequeathing the young prince, already crowned king of Germany, to the guardianship of Innocent III.
Manfred was killed; and, when Conradin, a lad of sixteen, descended from Germany to make good his claims to the kingdom, he too was defeated at Tagliacozzo in 1267.
Lodovico escaped to Germany, returned the next year, was betrayed by his Swiss mercenaries and sent to die at Loches in France.
Spain, France, Germany, with their Swiss auxiliaries, had been summoned upon various pretexts to partake her provinces.
The Turks were threatening western Europe, and Luther was inflaming Germany.
The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some secondary states of Germany took part.
over the Papal States was admitted; and Italian affairs were arranged much as they were at Campo Formio: Modena and Tuscany now reverted to French control, their former rulers being promised compensation in Germany.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.
Peace not to be concluded until Italy should have received Venetia, I Prussia an equivalent territory in Germany.
Italy which had begut with Villafranca; and Bismarck was not slow to make us~ of this hostility, with a view to preventing Italy from takinj sides with France against Germany in the struggle between the two powers which he saw to be inevitable.
In the case of Italy, as in that of Germany, he frankly regretted the constitution of powerful homogeneous states upon the borders of France.
The treaty of San Stefano had led to the convocation of the Berlin Congress, and though Count Corti was by no means ignorant of the rumours concerning secret agreements between Germany, Austria Con~ss.
and Russia, and Germany, Austria and Great Britain, he scarcely seemed alive to the possible effect of such agreements upon Italy.
Meanwhile a conviction was spreading that the only way of escape from the dangerous isolation of Italy lay in closer agreement with Austria and Germany.
Austria and Germany, however, scarcely reciprocated these dispositions.
Italian alliance with Austria and Germany counterbalanced each other.
Apart from resentment against France on account of Tunisia there remained the question of the temporal power of the pope to turn the scale in favor of Austria and Germany.
The AustroGerman alliance of 1879 formally guaranteed the territory of the contracting parties, but Austria could not count upon effectual help from Germany in case of war, since Russian attack upon Austria would certainly have been followed by French attack upon Germany.
A third Italian army would, if expedient, pass into Germany, to operate against either France or Russia.
Austria undertook to guard the Adriatic on land and sea, and to help Germany by checkmating Russia on land.
Germany would be sufficiently employed in carrying on war against two fronts.
constitutional parties by intimacy with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria.
Possibly Germany and Austria may have been influenced by the secret treaty signed between Austria, Germany and Russia on.
Meanwhile France provided Italy with fresh cause for uneasiness by abating her hostility to Germany.
Italy in consequence drew nearer to Great Britain, and at the London conference on the Egyptian financial question sided with Great Britain against Austria and Germany.
This something more consisted, at least in part, of the arrangement, with the help of Austria and Germany, of an Anglo-Italian naval understanding having special reference to the Eastern question, but providing for common action by the British and Italian fleets in the Mediterranean in case of war.
Not only did he newalef secure concessions from Austria and Germany correthe Triple sponding in some degree to the improved state of the Alliance.
Menelek had previously notified the chief European powers of his coronation at Entotto (i4th December 1889), but Germany and Great Britain replied that such notification should have been made through the Italian.
In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
The action of the tsar of Russia in convening the Peace Conference at The Hague in May 1900 gave rise to a question as to the right of the Vatican to be officially represented, and Admiral Canevaro, supported by Great Britain and Germany, succeeded in prevent~ ing the invitation of a papal delegate.
It was clear that so long as Austria, bribed by Germany, could act in a way so opposed to Italian interests in the Balkans, the Triple Alliance was a mockery, and Italy could only meet the situation by being prepared for all contingencies.
In the summer of 1531 he accordingly proceeded to Germany as sole ambassador to the emperor.
At the most we might say this: If theism is a growing doctrine, Butler in England like Kant in Germany stands for a fresh ethical emphasis.
Secretan (Philosophie de la Liberte) may be named: in Germany, H.
After some delay, he took the offensive in 58, and, reinforced by troops from Germany, attacked Tiridates.
town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Sorebach, 54 m.
It is the most important pre-Carolingian church in Germany.
The cloisters connect the cathedral with the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a beautiful building in the form of a circle intersected by a cross, with a lofty vault, built 1127-1143, and said to be the oldest Gothic church in Germany.
Close by are the Steipe or Rotes Haus, formerly the town hall, of the 15th century, and the Frankenturm or propugnaculum, of the 10th century, said to be the oldest stone domestic building in Germany.
obtained the primacy over Gaul and Germany.
had died a few days before this ceremony, but the news did not reach Germany until after the coronation.
A strong opposition was quickly aroused, and when Theophano and Adelaide, widow of the emperor Otto the Great, appeared in Germany, Henry was compelled to hand over the young king to his mother.
The government of Germany during his minority was in the hands of Theophano, and after her death in June 99 1 passed to a council in which the chief influence was exercised by Adelaide and Willigis, archbishop of Mainz.
On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected.
Leaving his aunt, Matilda, abbess of Quedlinburg, as regent of Germany, Otto, in February 99 8, led Gregory back to Rome, took the castle of St Angelo by storm and put Crescentius to death.
On the recursus ad principem and the practice of " cessation " in Belgium, Germany and Spain, cf.
With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.
Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
Klaproth was the leading chemist of his time in Germany.
Under their protection, and favoured by its site, the city rapidly grew in wealth and population, the zenith of its power and prosperity being reached between the 13th and 15th centuries, when it was the emporium of the trade of Germany and the Low Countries, the centre of a great cloth industry, and could put some 20,000 armed citizens into the field.
The railway system belongs to the northern section of the State railways, and affords communication with Germany via Winschoten.
Aurelius next marched to Germany.
Along with his son Commodus he entered Rome in 176, and obtained a triumph for victories in Germany.
It was introduced into France in 1749, and appears to have been grown in Germany and Britain soon after the middle of the last century, if not earlier.
In Austria, Germany, Italy, Rumania and Russia the number of pharmacies is limited according to the population.
The period of study is eighteen months in Denmark or Norway, and two in Austria, Finland, Germany, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, three in Belgium, France, Greece and Italy, four to six in Holland, and five in Spain.
Most continental countries have issued stringent laws against the sale of secret remedies, and these have been lately strengthened in Germany, France and Italy.
The work of Soirns Laubach in Germany, Renault and Bertrand in.
More recently, Dixon and Joly in Dublin and Askenasy in Germany have suggested the action of another force.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
When Charles lef t Germany a few weeks later, Albert renewed his depredations in Franconia.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
Thus he placed on record the voyages of the merchant Ulfsten in the Baltic, including particulars of the geography of Germany.
or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
Aachen, Dutch Aken), a city and spa of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, situated in a pleasant valley, 44 m.
and Liege - Brussels and Maestricht-Antwerp on the W., has favoured its rise to one of the most prosperous commerical towns of Germany.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
A similarly mixed avifauna has been found in the mid-Miocene beds of various other parts of France, Germany and Italy.
ZWEIBRUCKEN, a town of Germany, in the Palatinate, on the Schwarzbach, and on the railway between Germersheim and Saarbrucken.
At the peace of Luneville Zweibriicken was ceded to France; on its reunion with Germany in 1814 the greater part of the territory was given to Bavaria, the remainder to Oldenburg and Prussia.
During an administration of nearly twenty-five years Pond effected a reform of practical astronomy in England comparable to that effected by Bessel in Germany.
SCHWETZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of West Prussia, on the left bank of the Vistula, 29 m.
Owing to the fact that the material collected by Mordecai was left to his pupils to arrange, the work was current in two recensions, an Eastern (in Austria) and a Western (in Germany, France, &c.).
He migrated from Germany and settled at Toledo, where he died in 1328.
In Germany David Gans wrote on astronomy, and also the historical work Zemah David (Prag, 1592).
It is an inhabitant of the rivers and streams of Europe north of the Alps, but it is most abundant in those of France and Germany.
Thence he went to Germany, where he met Goethe.
modern France and Belgium with parts of Holland, Germany and Switzerland.
Augustus had planned the conquest of Germany up to the Elbe.
the two "Exercitus" were turned into the two provinces of Upper and Lower Germany.
ANNABERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, in the Erzgebirge, 1894 ft.
Annaberg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the chief seat of the braid and lace-making industry in Germany, introduced here by Barbara Uttmann in 1561, and further developed by Belgian refugees, who, driven from their country by the duke of Alva, settled here in 15 9 o.
He first engaged himself to a country wine merchant, for whom he travelled in Germany, Russia and the Netherlands.
England indeed had, possibly in a somewhat ruder form, the earlier style of Romanesque once common to England with Italy, Gaul and Germany.
The Hegelian identity of being and thought is also abandoned and the truth of realism acknowledged, an attempt being made to exhibit idealism and realism as respectively incomplete but mutually complementary systems. Ulrici's later works, while expressing the same views, are 1 :trgely occupied in proving the existence of God and the soul from the basis of scientific conceptions, and in opposition to the materialistic current of thought then popular in Germany.
MOLSHEIM, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine at the foot of the Vosges, on the Breusch and at the junction of railways to Zabern and Strassburg.
CUXHAVEN, or Kuxhaven, a seaport town of Germany, belonging to the state of Hamburg, and situated at the extremity of the west side of the mouth of the Elbe, 71 m.
Of the imports about 27% in value are from Great Britain, 14%% from Germany, and smaller proportions from France, Argentina, Italy, Spain, the United States and Belgium.
Of the exports, France, Argentina, Belgium and Germany take the bulk.
AMBERG, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, formerly the capital of the Upper Palatinate, situated on both sides of the Vils, 42 m.
He foretold the outbreak of the revolutionary spirit in Germany and Austria, and was credited with counselling the abdication of Ferdinand in favour of Francis Joseph.
This seemed equally favourable to Austria and Prussia, but it was the latter power which gained all the substantial advantages; and when the conflict arose between Austria and Prussia in 1866, Russia remained neutral and permitted Prussia to reap the fruits and establish her supremacy in Germany.
This was justly regarded by him as an important service to his country and one of the triumphs of his career, and he hoped to obtain further successes with the assistance of Germany, but the cordial relations between the cabinets of St Petersburg and Berlin did not subsist much longer.
The other old Greek cities, as well as those of medieval Italy and Germany, would supply us with endless examples of the various ways in which privileged orders arose.
the social conditions of Great Britain and Germany.
During his residence in Germany Lomonosov married a native of the country, and found it difficult to maintain his increasing family on the scanty allowance granted to him by the St Petersburg Academy, which, moreover, was irregularly sent.
The trade is done almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but.
The attempt to work out either of the reactions against Thomism in new theological systems is pretty much confined to Germany.
It is a common opinion in Germany that our material is in fact too scanty or too self-contradictory.
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
It hampered the Brethren's progress in Germany, and explains the smallness of their numbers there.
In Germany, therefore, the importance of the Moravians must be measured, not by their numbers, but by their influence upon other Christian bodies.
(3) Diaspora in Germany, Switzerland, France, Denmark, Norway, Russia, Poland.
(4) Church extension in Germany, Great Britain, North America.
In Germany the official title of the Church is Evangelische BruderUniteit; in Austria, Evangelische Bruder-Kirche; in England and America, Moravian Church.
The contagion spread very rapidly, extending as far as the Rhine provinces, and, across Germany, into Bohemia.
The flagellants reappeared, and made the state of religious trouble in Germany, provoked by the struggle between the papacy and Louis of Bavaria, subserve their cause.
In the spring of 1349 bands of flagellants, perhaps from Hungary, began their propaganda in the south of Germany.
In Germany, in 1414, there was a recrudescence of the epidemic of flagellation, which then became a clearly-formulated heresy.
Numbers of Beghards joined the Brethren of the Cross, and the two sects were confounded in the rigorous persecution conducted in Germany by the inquisitor Eylard Schoneveld, who almost annihilated the flagellants.
The Coleoptera can be traced back farther in time than any other order of insects with complete transformations, if the structures that have been described from the Carboniferous rocks of Germany are really elytra.
During the first part of the Glacial period Russia seems to have been covered by an immense ice-sheet, which extended also over central Germany, and of which the E.
Russia, rich in salt-springs, but very poor in fossils, are now held by most Russian geologists to be Triassic. The Permian deposits contain marine shells and also remains of plants similar to those of England and Germany.
Germany, and containing brown coal and amber, has been met with only in Poland, Courland and Lithuania.
Such being the characters of the Quaternary deposits in Russia, the majority of Russian geologists now adopt the opinion that Russia was covered, as far as the above limits, with an immense ice-sheet which crept over central Russia and central Germany from Scandinavia and N.
The flora of Russia, which represents an intermediate link between the flora of Germany and the flora of Siberia, is strikingly uniform over a very large area.
They first entered Poland from Germany during the era of the crusades, and soon spread through Lithuania, Courland, the Ukraine, and, in the 18th century, Bessarabia.
The two best customers of Russia are Germany, which takes 23.3% of her total exports, and the United Kingdom, which takes 22.9%.
The countries from which Russia buys most extensively are Germany (34%), the United Kingdom (152) and the United States (92).
In imitation of the grandfather the grandson gave a commission to a Saxon, in whom he had confidence, to collect artists and artisans in Germany and bring them to Moscow, but he was prevented from carrying out his scheme by the Livonian Order (1547).
His foreign tour, during which he visited Germany, Holland, England, France and Austria, lasted nearly a year and a half, and was suddenly interrupted, when on his way from Vienna to Venice to study the construction of war-galleys, by the alarming news that the turbulent stryeltsi of Moscow had mutinied anew with the intention of placing Sophia on the throne.
During 1803-4 the breach between the two rivals widened, because Napoleon became more and more aggressive and unceremonious in Italy and Germany.
Thus, in spite of his academic sympathy with liberal ideas, he became, together with Metternich, a champion of political stagnation, and co-operated willingly in the reactionary measures against the revolutionary movements in Germany, Italy and Spain.
Some of these officers had been in touch with the revolutionary movements, and had adopted the idea then prevalent in France, Germany and Italy that the best instrument for assuring political progress was to be found in secret societies.
During his father's reign its main objects were: in the west, the maintenance of the alliance with Germany; in south-eastern Europe, policy.
He determined, therefore, to oppose any further disturbance of the balance of power in favour of Germany, and when the treaty of Skierniewice expired in 1887 he declined to renew it.
From that time Russia gravitated slowly towards an alliance with France, and sought to create a counterpoise against the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria and Italy.
He strengthened the cordial understanding with France by a formal agreement, the terms of which were not divulged, but he never encouraged the French government in any aggressive designs, and he maintained friendly relations with Germany.
At first it had seemed that the new birth of Russia would lead to a revival of pan-Slavism, directed not, Neo-Slav as in the middle of the i 9th century, against Austria and pan= but against Germany.
309,974 Australia 17,766 Asia 56,181 Table II., classifying the mileage of Europe, shows that Russia has taken the lead, instead of Germany, as in former years.
If the Asiatic portions of the Russian Empire were given in the same table, the total Russian mileage would appear nearly as large as that of Germany and Italy together.
Germany 36,066 Austria-Hungary,including Bosnia and Herzegovina 25,853 GreatBritain and Ireland 23,108 France 29,717 EuropeanRussia, includ ing Finland 36,280 Italy..
It has generally come to be that of Germany and, so far as the finances of the countries allow, of Austria and Russia; British India also affords not a few examples of the same method.
Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
In Germany, where they have met with greater favour, there were over 261 millions in use in 1905, 1 and they I ave been tried by some American railways.
In Great Britain, Germany and France, at least 90% of the wooden sleepers are " treated " before they are laid, to ii.crease their resistance to decay, and the same practice is followed to some extent in other European countries.
Still used by several railways in Great Britain for express passenger service, but going out of favour; it is also found in France, and less often in Germany, Italy, and elsewhere in Europe.
Used to some extent in France and Germany and considerably in England for passenger traffic of moderate weight.
The type has been introduced in Europe, especially in Germany, where the advantages of a partial-adhesion type in increased stability and a larger boiler are becoming appreciated.
Italy did the same in its laws in 1873, 1879, 1881, 1887 and 1889; and Germany fostered enterprise of this kind by the imperial edicts, of 1875, 1878 and 1892.
In Germany the use of light railways (Klein-bahnen) has made great strides.
114 in., Germany.
Haderslev), a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, 31 m.
In 1109 she was betrothed to the emperorelect, Henry V., and was sent to Germany, but the marriage was delayed till 1114.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
GLUCKSBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein, romantically situated among pine woods on the Flensburg Fjord off the Baltic, 6 m.
in 1530, was ordained priest, and succeeded his uncle John Barry as vicar of Dundee; but before he came into actual possession he also was suspected of heresy, and was compelled to flee to France and Germany.
His graduation thesis, published in 1819, on the history of the Merovingian mayors of the palace, attracted the attention of Baron Stein, by whom he was engaged in 1820 to edit the Carolingian chroniclers for the newly-founded Historical Society of Germany.
In search of materials for this purpose, Pertz made a prolonged tour through Germany and Italy, and on his return in 1823 he received at the instance of Stein the principal charge of the publication of Monumenta germaniae historica, texts of all the more important historical writers on German affairs down to the year 1500, as well as of laws, imperial and regal archives, and other valuable documents, such as letters, falling within this period.
This work for the first time made possible the existence of the modern school of scientific historians of medieval Germany.
as follows: Savaii, Manono, Apolima, Upolu, Fanuatapu, Manua, Nuutele and Nuulua, belonging to Germany, and Tutuila, Anua, Ofu, Olosenga, Tau and Rose, belonging to the United States of America.
In 1879 Germany obtained the harbour of Saluafata.
The situation, however, was found to be so complicated and embarrassing that, early in 1900, the so-called Berlin treaty was abrogated, Great Britain withdrew her claims to any portion of the islands and received compensation from Germany by concessions in other parts of the world, and the United States withdrew from all the islands W.
Later Nicolas held an influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany.
SPREMBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, situated partly on an island in the river Spree and partly on the west bank, 76 m.
BAMBERG, a town and archiepiscopal see of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria.
The Ship of Fools was as popular in its English dress as it had been in Germany.
The disintegrating speculations of an influential school of criticism in Germany were making their way among English men of culture just about the time, as is usually the case, when the tide was turning against them in their own country.
SAMLAND, a peninsula of Germany, in the province of East Prussia, on the Baltic. It separates the Frisches Haff on the W.
Clement continued the struggle of his predecessors with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, excommunicating him after protracted negotiations on the 13th of April 1346, and directing the election of Charles of Moravia, who received general recognition after the death of Louis in October 1347, and put an end to the schism which had long divided Germany.
LUDWIGSHAFEN, a town of Germany, in the Bavarian Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, immediately opposite to Mannheim, with which it is connected by a steam ferry and a railway bridge.
AHR, a river of Germany.
But the heads of the church carried the day, and, more stringent measures being adopted against dissenters, Schwenkfeld left Strasburg for a time, residing in various cities of south Germany and corresponding with many nobles.
It was the author's original intention to complete this work in four volumes, but as the first volume was keenly attacked in Germany as well as in France, Fustel was forced in self-defence to recast the book entirely.
GLEIWITZ, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, on the Klodnitz, and the railway between Oppeln and Cracow, 40 m.
In Germany, the punishment for blasphemy is imprisonment varying from one day to three years, according to the gravity of the offence.
The new reign began, therefore, under sinister omens, with the suppression of liberty in Italy, Hungary and Germany.
The German empire and the Italian kingdom had been built up out of the ruins of immemorial Habsburg ambitions; yet he refused to be drawn into an alliance with France in 1869 and 1870, and became the mainstay of the Triple Alliance of Austria-Hungary, Germany and Italy.
In France, Germany, England, Italy.
In Germany at the same period the feudal system debarred the Jews from holding land, and though there was as yet no material persecution they suffered moral injury by being driven exclusively into finance and trade.
But in England, France and Germany persecution altogether failed to shake the courage of the Jews, and martyrdom was borne in preference to ostensible apostasy.
But in Germany there was no echo of this brighter note.
Following on this came the Black Death with its terrible consequences in Germany; even in Poland, where the Jews had previously enjoyed considerable rights, extensive massacres took place.
A grotesque feature of the time in Germany and Austria was the class of court Jews, such as the Oppenheims, the personal favourites of rulers and mostly their victims when their usefulness had ended.
Crowds of wanderers were to be met on every road; Germany, Holland and Italy were full of Jews who, pack on shoulder, were seeking a precarious livelihood at a time when peddling was neither lucrative nor safe.
Holdheim (q.v.) and Geiger (q.v.) led the reform movement in Germany and at the present day the effects of the movement are widely felt in America on the Liberal side and on the opposite side in the work of the neo-orthodox school founded by S.
Brilliant results accrued from all this participation in the general life of Germany.
A similar obligation prevails in parts of Germany.
While in Russia this took the form of actual massacre, in Germany and Austria it assumed the shape of social and civic ostracism.
In Germany Jews are still rarely admitted to the rank of officers in the army, university posts are very difficult of access, Judaism and its doctrines are denounced in medieval language, and a tone of hostility prevails in many public utterances.
In Austria, as in Germany, anti-Semitism is a factor in the parliamentary elections.
In the reformed churches the title was retained in England, Sweden, Denmark and Germany.
SIEGBURG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, on the river Sieg, 16 m.
Treaties of friendship were concluded with Germany, Great Britain, and the United States of America.
Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and France, and cotton textiles from England.
The prospect of a final settlement was improved by the withdrawal of Germany and Austria, which had favoured Turkish pretensions, from the European concert (April 1898); the remaining powers divided the island into four departments, which they severally undertook to administer.
Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."
He also nominated Pierre d'Ailly as his legate in Germany (March 18, 1413).
This involved constant contact with officials of the warring countries, especially those of Germany, but he soon showed that the work was entirely neutral.
The tench is really an excellent fish for the table, if kept in cool, clear water for a few days, as it is the custom to do in Germany, in order to rid it of the muddy flavour imparted to it by its favourite abode.
GOSLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, romantically situated on the Gose, an affluent of the Oker, at the north foot of the Harz, 24 m.
thick; the market church, in the Romanesque style, restored since its partial destruction by fire in 1844, and containing the town archives and a library in which are some of Luther's manuscripts; the old town hall (Rathaus), possessing many interesting antiquities; the Kaiserworth (formerly the hall of the tailors' gild and now an inn) with the statues of eight of the German emperors; and the Kaiserhaus, the oldest secular building in Germany, built by the emperor Henry III.
In the beginning of the 13th century the foundation of the Dominican and Franciscan_ orders furnished a more ecclesiastical and regular means of supplying the same wants, and numerous convents sprang up at once throughout Germany.
The sect of the New Spirit, or of the Free Spirit as it was afterwards called, spread widely through the north of France and into Switzerland and Germany.
The political circumstances of Germany in the first half of the 14th century were in the last degree disastrous.
Thus arose the society of the Friends of God (Gottesfreunde) in the south and west of Germany, spreading as far as Switzerland on the one side and the Netherlands on the other.
The society counted many members among the pious women in the convents of southern Germany.
It has been customary for Protestant writers to represent the mystics of Germany and Holland as precursors of the Reformation.
This has been especially so in Germany.
He studied history and humanities at the university of Moscow, and, after having gone through his military training in a grenadier regiment, left for Germany where he read political economy in Berlin under Prof. Schmoller.
He would have liked to organize a big move against the Bolsheviks from the west, but such a move could not be made while the Entente Powers were resolved to keep Germany out, and while they sympathized with all the new organizations hostile to RussiaEsthonia, Latvia and Poland.
Another category of European possessions in Asia comprises those acquired towards the end of the 19th century, such as Indo-China (France), Burma and Wei-Hai-Wei (Britain), and Kiao-Chow (Germany).
He was of peasant origin, but obtained a good education at Sofia and then at Halle in Germany.
POMERANIA (German, Pommern), a territory of Germany and a maritime province of Prussia, bounded on the N.
Pomerania is one of the flattest parts of Germany, although east of the Oder it '.s traversed by a range of low hills, and there are also a few isolated eminences to the west.
Owing to the long line of coast and the numerous lakes, fishing forms an important industry, and large quantities of herrings, eels and lampreys are sent from Pomerania to other parts of Germany.
MUNSTER AM Stein, a watering-place of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the Nahe, 21m.
In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German" (kleindeutsche) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
The sect was the outcome of one of the many Pietistic movements of the 17th century, and was founded in 1708 by Alexander Mack of Schwarzenau, Germany, and seven of his followers, upon the general issue that both the Lutheran and Reformed churches were taking liberties with the literal teachings of the Scriptures.
BLAUBEUREN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, 12 m.
SAALFELD, a town of Germany, in the duchy of SaxeMeiningen, picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Saale, 24 m.
The best MS. is the Heidelberg MS., written in Germany, probably in the 8th century; but this perished in the fire at Mommsen's house.
to seize Holland, that part of Alsace which remained to Germany was again overrun by the French.
But long before that date the Order had begun to find that its true work lay on the eastern frontiers of Germany.
Thus the Order took its place as the founder of one of the marks on the eastern frontier of Germany, and began to play its part in that Drang nach Osten, which is perhaps the vitally important thing in the history of Germany from the 12th to the 14th century.
It lost any connexion with the East: after the fall of Acre in 1291, the grand master (whose seat had been at Acre, while the German master (Deutschmeister) had controlled the Order in Germany) moved first to Venice, and then, in 1308, to Marienburg on the Vistula.
The success of the Hussite raids in Germany gave fresh confidence to the Sla y s of Poland.
Henceforth the Teutonic Order lived in Germany and in Livonia.
Henceforth the Order was confined to Germany alone.
The German master - now grand master and German master in one - had his headquarters at Mergentheim in Swabia; the revenues of the states scattered throughout the twelve bailiwicks of Germany sustained him and his Order.
Voigt has traced the history of the Order previous to 1526 in his Geschichte Preussens (Konigsberg, 1827-1839), and he has dealt with the organization of the Order, and with its history in Germany from 1525 to 1858, in his Geschichte des deutschen Ritterorden in seinen zwolf Balleien in Deutschland (Berlin, 1857-1859).
Huxley gave it as his opinion that it was sufficient to cover the whole cost of the war indemnity paid by France to Germany in 1870.
GREIFSWALD, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Pomerania, on the navigable Ryk, 3 m.
Paulus was educated in the seminary at Tubingen, was three years master in a German school, and then spent two years in travelling through England, Germany, Holland and France.
After this he filled various posts in south Germany - school director at Bamberg (1807), Nuremberg (1808), Ansbach (181o) - until he became professor of exegesis and church history at Heidelberg (1811-1844).
The revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the commander of the Roman forces in Upper Germany (88 or 89), marks the turning-point in his reign (on the date see H.
of Germany was entertained there in 1539.
THANN, a town of Germany, in Upper Alsace, 16 m.
It was about this time that the first experiments were made (in Germany) with basic slag, a material which had hitherto been regarded as a worthless by-product of steel manufacture.
In 899, when Arnulf died, Hatto became regent of Germany, and guardian of the young king, Louis the Child, whose authority he compelled Zwentibold, king of Lorraine, an illegitimate son of Arnulf, to recognize.
No explanation of the industrial situation in Germany, for example, would be intelligible or satisfactory even from the economic point of view which ignored the significance of the political conditions which Germans have to deal with.
So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.
Just as the historical school grew up along with the greatest constructive achievement of the 29th century, namely, the consolidation of Germany, so the application to modern problems of the methods of that school has been called forth by the constructive needs of the present generation.
The scientific study of practical problems and difficulties is (generally speaking, and with honourable exceptions) far more advanced in almost every civilized country than it is in England, where the limited scale upon which such work is carried on, the indifference of statesmen, officials and business men, and the incapacity of the public to understand the close relation between scientific study and practical success, contrast very unfavourably with the state of affairs in Germany or the United States.
SODEN, a town and spa of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, pleasantly situated in the valley of the Sulzbach under the southern slope of the Taunus range, io m.
After the battle on the neighbouring heights of Spicheren (6th of August 1870), in which the French under General Frossard were defeated by the Germans under General von Gliimer, the town was occupied by the German troops, and at the conclusion of the war annexed to Germany.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
The wood is burned for fuel, its heat-giving power being reckoned in Germany about one-fourth less than that of beech.
MULDE, a river of Germany, a left-bank tributary of the Elbe.
WITTENBERGE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Brandenburg, on the Elbe, near the influx of the Stepenitz into that river, 77 m.
Subsequently by judicious bribery he contrived to escape to Germany, and from thence rejoined Christian III.
He found that they were wholly inadequate, and summed up his views in a remarkable letter to the Directory (23rd of February), wherein he pointed out two possible alternatives to an invasion of England, namely, a conquest of the coast of the north-west of Germany, for the cutting off of British commerce with central Europe, or the undertaking of an expedition to the Orient which would be equally ruinous to British trade.
The return of a large part of the armed forces from Italy and Germany, where they had lived on the liberated inhabitants, also threw new burdens on the Republic; and it was clear that French money alone would not suffice to fit out an armada.
His action in the matters just named, as also in the complex affair of the secularizations of clerical domains in Germany (February 1803), belongs properly to the history of those countries; but we may here note that, even before the signature of the peace of Amiens (27th of March 1802), he had effected changes in the constitution of the Batavian (Dutch) republic, which placed power in the hands of the French party and enabled him to keep French troops in the chief Dutch fortresses, despite the recently signed treaty of Luneville which guaranteed the independence of that republic. His treatment of the Italians was equally high-handed.
But Napoleon's actions, especially the annexation of Genoa, at last brought the three powers to accord, with the general aim of re-establishing the status quo ante in Germany, Holland, Switzerland and Italy, or, in short, of restoring the balance of power which Napoleon had completely upset.
When modified in February 1806, after Prussia's demobilization, they comprised the occupation of Hanover by Prussia, with the proviso, however, that she should exclude British ships and goods from the whole of the northwest coast of Germany.
By these alliances the new Charlemagne seemed to have founded his supremacy in South Germany on sure foundations.
He now grouped together the princes of south and central Germany in the Confederation of the Rhine, of which he was the protector and practically the ruler in all important affairs.
This tame acquiescence of the House of Habsburg in the reorganization of Germany seemed to set the seal on Napoleon's work.
Nelson's crowning triumph rendered impossible for the present all other means of attack on those elusive foes; and Napoleon's sense of the importance of that battle may be gauged, not by his public utterances on the subject, but by his persistence in forcing Prussia to close Hanover and the whole coastline of north-west Germany against British goods.
The tsar acquired a frontier district from Prussia, recognized the changes brought about by Napoleon in Germany and Italy, and agreed by a secret article that the Cattaro district on the east coast of the Adriatic should go to France.
"Everything is connected with this event," he wrote on the 2nd of August, "Germany, Poland, Italy."
A letter written by the Prussian statesman, Baron vom Stein, had fallen into the hands of the French and revealed to the emperor the ferment produced in Germany by news of the French reverses in Spain.
After spending a short time in Paris in order to supervise the transfer of his forces from Germany to the Pyrenees, he journeyed swiftly southwards, burst upon the Spaniards, and on the 3rd of December received the surrender of Madrid.
At that town he also heard news on the 1st of January 1809, which portended trouble in Germany and perhaps also at Paris.
In the Danubian campaign of 1809 he succeeded; but the stubborn defence of Austria, the heroic efforts of the Tirolese and the spasmodic efforts which foreboded a national rising in Germany, showed that the whole aspect of affairs was changing, even in central Europe, where rulers and peoples had hitherto been as wax under the impress of his will.
In the next months Napoleon promulgated a series of decrees for effecting the ruin of British commerce, and in December 1810 he decreed the annexation of the northwest coast of Germany, as also of Canton Valais, to the French empire.
Early in January 1813 the senate promised that 350,000 conscripts should be enrolled; but 150,000 of them were under twenty years of age, and mobile columns had to be used to sweep in the recruits, especially in Brittany, the Netherlands and the newly annexed lands of North Germany.
Forces, inexperienced but devoted, were soon on foot; and he informed his German allies that he would allow the Russians to advance into Central Germany so as to ensure their destruction.
On these facts becoming known, a feeling of pity for the pope became widespread; and the opinion of the Roman Catholic world gradually turned against the emperor while he was fighting to preserve his supremacy in Germany.
The offer met with no response, Austria having received from the allies vaguely alluring offers that she might arrange matters as she desired in Italy and South Germany.
After the disastrous defeat of Leipzig (r 7th-19th Dctober 1813), when French domination in Germany and Italy -vanished like an exhalation, the allies gave Napoleon another opportunity to come to terms. The overtures known as the Frankfcrt terms were ostensibly an answer to the request for information which Napoleon made at the field of Leipzig.
Murat now joined the allies; Germany, Switzerland and Holland were lost to Napoleon; but when the allies began to invade Alsace and Lorraine, they found the French staunch in his support.
The return of French prisoners from Russia, Germany, England and Spain would furnish him with an army far larger than that which had won renown in 1814.
Fisher, Napoleonic Statesmanship: Germany (Oxford, 1903); A.
During this period of diplomatic work he acquired an exceptional knowledge of the affairs of Europe, and in particular of Germany, and displayed great tact and temper in dealing with the Swedish senate, with Queen Ulrica, with the king of Denmark and Frederick William I.
In 1743 he accompanied the king of Germany, and was present at the battle of Dettingen on the 27th of June.
But many of his ideas were taken up by those who, like Arnold Ruge, had entered into the struggle between church and state in Germany, and those who, like F.
Meanwhile, he had thrown out, on the estimates of 1913, a hint to Germany that all naval Powers might well take a year's holiday from shipbuilding; but, though he repeated and emphasized his plea for this " naval holiday " in a speech in the autumn of 1913, it met with no response from Berlin.
Manuel subsequently set out in person to seek help from the West, and for this purpose visited Italy, France, Germany and England, but without material success; the victory of Timur in 1402, and the death of Bayezid in the following year were the first events to give him a genuine respite from Ottoman oppression.
He soon convinced himself that western Europe had nothing to fear from Charles, and that no bribes were necessary to turn the Swedish arms from Germany to Russia.
When the danger of a war with Germany came first to be apprehended, it was proposed to establish the chief British naval base, in the event of war, at Rosyth in the Firth of Forth, but it was afterwards decided that a larger base in a natural harbour farther N.
Frisch began the long series of works on the birds of Germany with which the literature of ornithology is enriched, by his Vorstellung der Vogel Teutschlands, which was only completed in 1763, and, its coloured plates proving very attractive, was again issued at Berlin in 1817.
The fulness and accuracy of the text, combined with the neat beauty of its coloured plates, have gone far to promote the study of ornithology in Germany, and while essentially a popular work, since it is suited to the comprehension of all readers, it is throughout written with a simple dignity that commends it to the serious and scientific. Its twelfth and last volume was published in 1844 - by no means too long a period for so arduous and honest a performance, and a supplement was begun in 1847; but, the editor - or author as he may be fairly called - dying in 1857, this continuation was finished in 1860 by the joint efforts of J.
Other European countries, though not quite so prolific as Germany, bore some ornithological fruit at this period; but.
Moreover, it veiled the honest attempts that were making both in France and Germany to find real grounds for establishing an improved state of things, and consequently the labours of De Blainville, Etienne, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and L'Herminier, of Merrem, Johannes Muller and Nitzsch-to say nothing of others-were almost wholly unknown on this side of the Channel, and even the value of the investigations of British ornithotomists of high merit, such as Macartney and Pvlacgillivray, was almost completely overlooked.
Works on the birds of Germany are far too numerous to be recounted.
Hitherto our attention has been given wholly to Germany and France, for the chief ornithologists of Britain were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless way - not paying due heed at this time to the internal structure of birds, and some excellent descriptive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on ornithic anatomy.
Even in Germany, the author's.
Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
The wild boar is still found in Europe, in marshy woodland districts where there is plenty of cover, and it is fairly plentiful in Spain, Austria, Russia and Germany, particularly in the Black Forest.
It is also shot in great forest drives in Austria, Germany and Russia.
Under Galba, to the general astonishment, at the end of 68 he was chosen to command the army of Lower Germany, and here he made himself popular with his subalterns and with the soldiers by outrageous prodigality and excessive good nature, which soon proved fatal to order and discipline.
Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.
Of the same total 3,6 9 8,811 or 88.9% were native-born and 458,734 were foreign-born; 93.8% of the foreign-born consisted of the following: 204,160 natives of Germany, 65,553 of Great Britain, 55,018 of Ireland, 22,767 of Canada (19,864 English Canadian), 16,822 of Poland, 15,131 of Bohemia, 11,575 of Austria and 11,321 of Italy.
Persia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, reached America in 1846.
Clauberg was one of the earliest teachers of the new doctrines in Germany and an exact and methodical commentator on his master's writings..
RECKLINGHAUSEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, 22 m.
GLADBACH, the name of two towns in Germany distinguished as Bergisch-Gladbach and Munchen-Gladbach.
ESCHWEGE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, on the Werra, and the railway Treysa-Leinefelde, 28 m.