Germans Sentence Examples
It's all those damned Germans' muddling!
British, Swiss and Germans are comparatively few.
Of the immigrant arrivals for the forty-seven years given, 1,331,536 were Italians, 4 1 4,973 Spaniards, 170,293 French, 37,953 Austrians, 35,435 British, 30,699 Germans, 25,775 Swiss, 19,521 Belgians, and the others of diverse nationalities, so that Argentina is in no danger of losing her Latin character through immigration.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
Pop. (1900) 14,343, of which about 70% are Germans and 25% are Rumanians.Advertisement
In 1790 he was converted to Methodism, and in 1796 determined to devote himself to preaching that faith among the Pennsylvania Germans.
His labours were continued with even more striking results by another Englishman, Winfred, better known as St Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, who suffered martyrdom at Dokkum in A.D.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
It is a creation of the Germans, the site,.Advertisement
The country is rich in natural products, and its resources have been largely developed by the Germans.
Odoacer inaugurated that long series of foreign rulersGreeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austrians who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of Italy from distant seats of empire.
By these measures the counts became citizens, the rural population ceased to rank as serfs, and the Italo-Roman population of the towns absorbed into itself the remnants of Franks, Germans and other foreign stocks.
Mercenary troops are said to have been first levied from disbanded Germans, together with Breton and English adventurers, whom the Visconti and Castruccio took into their pay.
Austria had persistently adopted a policy of pin-pricks and aggravating police provocation towards the Italians of the Adriatic Littoral and of the Trentino, while encouraging the Slavonic element in the former and the Germans in the latter.Advertisement
The first of these extended from the Pyrenees to the Garumna (Garonne); the second, from that river to the Sequana (Seine) and its chief tributary the Matrona (Marne), reaching eastward presumably as far as the Rhenus (Rhine); and the third, from this bounding Iline to the mouth of the last-named river, thus bordering on the Germans.
Of the "Hidden Seed" the greater number were Germans; they were probably descended from a colony of German Waldenses, who had come to Moravia in 1480 and joined the Church of the Brethren; and, therefore, when persecution broke out afresh they naturally fled to the nearest German refuge.
The Gulf of Riga and the Baltic belong also to territory which is not inhabited by Sla y s, but by Finnish races and by Germans.
Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
During the closing years of the 19th century great numbers of Germans flocked into the industrial governments of Poland, namely, Piotrkow, Warsaw and Kalisz.Advertisement
Little and Great Russians, Rumanians, Bulgarians, Germans, Greeks, Frenchmen, Poles, Tatars and Jews are mingled together and scattered about in small colonies, especially in Bessarabia.
In the Baltic provinces (Esthonia, Livonia and Courland) the prevailing population is Esthonian, Kuronian or Lettish, the Germans being respectively only 3.8, 7.6 and 8.2% of the population.
The Esths and all other Western Finns, the Germans and the Swedes are Protestant.
At Lodz alone the workmen, in great part Germans and Jews, number between 50,000 and 60,000, and the total output of the factories is estimated at £9,000,000 to £10,500,000 annually.
In adopting foreign innovations, he showed, like the Japanese of the present day, no sentimental preference for any particular nation, and was ready to borrow from the Germans, Dutch, English, Swedes or French whatever seemed best suited for his purpose.Advertisement
Her hatred of Germans showed itself likewise in her persistent struggle with Frederick the Great, which cost Russia 300,000 men and 30 millions of roubles - an enormous sum for those days - but in the choice of a successor she could not follow her natural inclinations, for among the few descendants of Michael Romanov there was no one, even in the female line, who could be called a genuine Russian.
Of the middle class, moreover, a large proportion were Jews and Germans.
But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
After the latter had been deported by the Germans, the British and American support was transferred to his successor, Mataafa.
Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
He gathered a large army consisting partly of Germans and Saracens, but was totally defeated by Charles at Tagliacozzo (23rd of August 1268); taken prisoner, he was tried as a rebel and executed at Naples.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
Nearly 95% were Slovenes and 5% Germans, while 99% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church.
Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."
But though the majority of Labour men were apparently in his favour, public opinion in other classes was strongly against any conference with Germans in the midst of war.
The sudden invasion of Belgium by the Germans rendered a large part of the Belgian civilian population destitute, and on Oct.
The Germans were unsuccessful; but Coloman thought fit to be reconciled with his kinsman and restored to him his estates.
The civil and military government of the province, as well as that of Lorraine, was assumed by the Germans as soon as they obtained possession of those parts of France, which was very shortly after the commencement of the war.
Already, indeed, in 1143 we hear of a hospital of Germans at Jerusalem, which Celestine II.
The original members were thus ennobled; and henceforth it was the rule that only Germans of noble birth could join the Order.
No explanation of the industrial situation in Germany, for example, would be intelligible or satisfactory even from the economic point of view which ignored the significance of the political conditions which Germans have to deal with.
After the battle on the neighbouring heights of Spicheren (6th of August 1870), in which the French under General Frossard were defeated by the Germans under General von Gliimer, the town was occupied by the German troops, and at the conclusion of the war annexed to Germany.
In that letter Stein urged the need of a national rising of the Germans similar to that of the Spaniards, when the inevitable struggle ensued between Napoleon and Austria.
Encouraged by the sympathy of all patriotic Germans and the newly found energy of its own subjects, the House of Habsburg now began to prepare for war.
The hatred felt for him by Germans found expression in a daring attempt to murder him made by a well-bred youth named Staps on the 12th of October.
Further, an alliance with the House of Habsburg might be expected to wean the Germans from all thought of gaining succour from that quarter.
He rushed to Antwerp when there were hopes of saving it from the Germans, but though he exerted himself indefatigably both in diplomacy and in the actual work of defence, and sent a British naval division to help, the effort was in vain.
He determined to treat prisoners captured from submarines, in view of their breaches of the laws of war, with more severity than ordinary prisoners; but the Germans retaliated harshly on the most noteworthy English prisoners in their hands, and Mr. Balfour, on succeeding Mr. Churchill, gave up this discrimination.
General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery.
There are besides a few Armenians, some Germans, and 50,000 Moldavians.
According to nationality, 71.54% were Germans, and 28.39% Slovenes, mostly settled in the districts adjoining the Slovene province of Carniola.
Pop. (1890) 81,298; (1900) 108,027, of whom 30,802 were foreign-born, including 10,491 Irish, 5262 Italians, 4743 Germans, 3 1 93 Russians and 1376 Swedes; (1910 census) 133,605.
Colenso, and learned to regard the prophetic narrative of Genesis, Exodus, and Numbers as older than what was by the Germans denominated Grundschrift (" Book of Origins").
Consequently in 395, after a successful campaign against the Germans on the Rhine, Stilicho marched to the east, nominally to expel the Goths and Huns from Thrace, but really with the design of displacing Rufinus, and by connivance with these same barbarians he procured the assassination of Rufinus at the close of the year, and thereby became virtual master of the empire.
But terms were at last arranged, and by the end of March 1190 the Germans had all crossed to the shores of Asia Minor.
The Germans form 27.9% of the population, and are found mostly in the towns and in the border districts.
Dar-es-Salaam was laid out by the Germans on an ambitious scale in the expectation that it would prove an important centre of commerce, but trade developed very slowly.
In Egypt the succession to the work of the Deutsch-Orient Gesellschaft, which excavated Babylon and Assur, has fallen to the Egypt Exploration Society, which has taken up the excavation at Tell el Amarna where it was laid down by the Germans at the outbreak of war, after they had recovered from the houseruins several wonderfully fine examples of the art of the period of Akhenaton, now in Berlin.
It may be here mentioned that slave was originally a national name; it meant a man of Slavonic race captured and made a bondman to the Germans.
The Germans found remains of a Ptolemaic colonnade and streets in the north-east of the city, but little else.
In the Franco-German War it was seized by the Germans on the 21st of October 1870, and continued during the rest of the campaign an important centre of operations.
A colony of Germans sent over by John Law to the Arkansas removed to the Mississippi above New Orleans, and gave to its bank the name of the " German Coast," by which it is still known.
Its central bureau, with departments of the interior, religion and education, finance and justice, was established at Serajevo; and its members were largely recruited among the Austrian Sla y s, who were better able than the Germans to comprehend the local customs and language.
The Germans having bought out the British rights, this concession became a purely German affair, although a certain proportion of the capital was found in London.
Railway concessions were given to Germans over the heads of British applicants already in possession of lines from which they were expro- Activity priated, thus affording the nucleus of the Bagdad Turkey.
Aware of the growing feeling against war in France, Napoleon had determined to make his allies not only bear the expenses of the coming campaign, but find the men as well, and he was so far master of Europe that of the 363,000 who on the 24th of June crossed the Niemen no Iess than two-thirds were Germans, Austrians, Poles or Italians.
Then the main army under Napoleon in person (220,000 men; with 80,000 more under the viceroy of Italy on his right rear); and on the extreme left at Tilsit a flanking corps, comprising the Prussian auxiliary corps and other Germans (in all 40,000 strong).
British proposals followed, but were opposed by the Germans, who, as controlling the line to Konia in Asia Minor, claimed preference in the matter.
Of the 124,631, who in 1900 were foreign-born, Germans were greatly predominant (40,648, or 32-6%), with the Bohemians (13,599, or 10.9%) and Irish (13,120, or 10.6%) next in importance, the Bohemians being later comers than the Irish.
The number of emigrant Germans has enormously decreased of late years, Russia and Austria-Hungary now being most largely represented.
The towns, in most cases creations of the rulers of Bohemia who had called in German immigrants, were, with the exception of the "new town" of Prague, mainly German; and in consequence of the regulations of the university, Germans also held almost all the more important ecclesiastical offices - a condition of things greatly resented by the natives of Bohemia, which at this period had reached a high degree of intellectual development.
Many Romanists, mostly Germans - for they had almost all remained faithful to the papal cause - were expelled from the Bohemian cities.
In June of that year their forces, led by Prokop the Great - who took the command of the Taborites shortly after Zizka's death in October 1424 - and Sigismund Korybutovic, who had returned to Bohemia, signally defeated the Germans at Aussig (Usti nad Labem).
The Germans laid the greatest stress on measures with the heliometer; the Americans, English, and French on the photographic method.
Nor did the measures made by the Germans with heliometers come out any better.
The body-guard of Augustus, consisting of foreign soldiers (chiefly Germans and Batavians), abolished by Galba, was revived from the time of Trajan or Hadrian under the above title.
Libau was taken on May 7 1915 by the Germans; the rest of Courland, with one-third of its former population left, was occupied, and German preponderance materialized.
The Germans divide the whole archipelago into two administrative districts, eastern and western, having the seats of government at Ponape and Yap respectively.
His proposals came to nothing, but he continued the struggle at a series of diets, and urged the Germans to emulate the courage and union of the Swiss cantons.
Close to the cathedral there is a triumphal arch decorated with bas-reliefs known as the Porte Noire, which is generally considered to have been built in commemoration of the victories of Marcus Aurelius over the Germans in 167.
Of the emigrants in 1906, 52,121 were Magyars, 32,904 Slovaks, 30,551 Germans, 20,859 Rumanians and 16 0 016 Croats.
The Germans differ from the other Hungarian races in that, save in the counties on the borders of Lower Austria and Styria, where they form a compact population in touch with their kin across the frontier, they are scattered in racial islets throughout the country.
The Germans are most numerous in the towns, and tend to become absorbed in the Magyar population.
Their importance is out of all proportion to their number, since they monopolize a large portion of the trade, are with the Germans the chief employers of labour, and control not only the finances but to a great extent the government and press of the country.
The only exception is formed by the Banat, where Magyars, Rumanians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Croats and Germans live mixed together.
Thus the Servians are mostly Greek Orthodox; the Ruthenians are Uniat Greeks; the Rumanians are either Greek Orthodox or Greek Uniats; the Slovaks are Lutherans; the only other Lutherans are the Germans in Transylvania and in the Zsepes county.
First (908-910) they ravaged Thuringia, Swabia and Bavaria, and defeated the Germans on the Lechfeld, whereupon the German king Henry I.
Throughout his reign the Czechs and the Germans were every whit as dangerous to Hungary as the Turks, and the political necessity which finally compelled Matthias to partition Austria and Bohemia, in order to secure Hungary, committed him to a policy of extreme circumspection.
Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.
The counties were administered by imperial officials, Germans, Czechs and Galicians, who did not understand the Magyar tongue.
For at the beginning of his reign Valdemar leaned largely upon the Germans and even went the length, against the advice of Absalon, of acknowledging the overlordship of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the reichstag of Dole, 1162.1162.
Pop. (1900) 159,618, of whom over 80% were Poles, Io% Germans, and 8% Ruthenians; nearly 30% of the population were Jews.
There are also a polytechnic, gymnasia - for Poles, Ruthenians and Germans respectively - seminaries for priests, training colleges for teachers, and other special and technical schools.
With Liman von Sanders, the chief of the German military mission, his relations were strained, and the situation was not improved by certain Germans who flattered Enver and intrigued against Liman von Sanders.
Of the non-British or Boer whites Russians form 3.01%, Germans 1-62% and Dutch (of Holland) 1-14%.
In 1715 he entered the House of Commons as Lord Stanhope of Shelford and member for St Germans, and when the impeachment of James, duke of Ormonde, came before the House, he used the occasion (5th of August 1715) to put to proof his old rhetorical studies.
Had the Austrians attacked on both flanks forthwith, the Prussian central (I.) army could have reached neither wing in time to avert defeat, and the political consequences of the Austrian victory might have been held to justify the risks involved, for even if unsuccessful the Austrians and Saxons could always retreat into Bavaria and there form a backbone of solid troops for the 95,000 South Germans.
The Prussian army, now called the "Army of the Main," of three divisions (one being unusually strong), had next to deal with the 7th (Bavarians) and 8th (other South Germans) Federal corps in the valley of the Main.
According to nationality there were 578,789 Rumanians, 362,487 Germans, 251,938 Servians and 170,124 Magyars.
Landulf, a German to whom the see was granted by Henry II., was driven out in 1022, and his palace destroyed, but other Germans were invested with the see afterwards.
As an itinerant auctioneer he became well acquainted with the Germans in the S.E.
The inquisitorial nature of the proceedings aroused strong opposition among the Germans, and many of them refused to pay.
Pupils flocked to him from all European countries; Germans are especially mentioned; a Polish student reported and published some of his lectures; and the Englishman Kaye was a zealous disciple, who does not, however, seem to have done anything towards transplanting this method of instruction to his own country.
Of these last Russians and Poles numbered 21,013; Germans, 3386; Austrians and Hungarians, 2197; Dutch, 1902; Norwegians Swedes and Danes, 1341; and Rumanians, 1016.
At the end of that month the Germans had nearly one-third of their total available submarine force in this theatre-14 boats out of 44 - of which 5 seagoing, 2 small and I mine-laying boats, were working in the open, and 3 small (UB7, 8, 14) and 2 mine-laying (UC13, 15) at Constantinople.
The chief scientists of the party were the Germans, Theodor von Heuglin and Hermann Steudner.
Up to the outbreak of the World War all the Katanga copper was bought by Germans; thereafter it was sent to Britain.
We find a division of social ranks which reminds us of the threefold gradation of Lower Germany (edelings, frilings, lazzen - eorls, ceorls, laets), and not of the twofold Frankish one (ingenui Franci, Romani), nor of the minute differentiation of the Upper Germans and Lombards.
This text, however, is not a law, but rather an abstract of the special usages obtaining in those regions - what the Germans call a Weistum.
Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
According to the "Skra," the by-laws of the Novgorod branch, the four aldermen of the community of Germans, who among other duties held the keys of the common chest, deposited in Wisby, were to be chosen from the merchants of the Gothland association and of the towns of Lubeck, Soest and Dortmund.
The situation thus created led by 1282 to the coalescence of the rival associations in the "Gild-hall of the Germans," but though the Baltic traders had secured a recognized foothold in the enlarged and unified organization, Cologne retained the controlling interest in the London settlement until 1476.
The Germans recognized the staple rights of Bruges for a number of commodities, such as wool, wax, furs, copper and grain, and in return for this material contribution to the growing commercial importance of the town, they received in 1309 freedom from the compulsory brokerage which Bruges imposed on foreign merchants.
It had come to depend largely upon the Germans for the importation of all its luxuries and of many of its necessities, as well as for the exportation of its products, but regular trade with the three kingdoms was confined for the most part to the Wendish towns, with Lubeck steadily asserting an exclusive ascendancy.
Their highly favoured position in England, contrasting markedly with their refusal of trade facilities to the English in some of the Baltic towns and their evident policy of monopoly in the Baltic trade, incensed the English mercantile classes, and doubtless influenced the increases in customs-duties which were regarded by the Germans as contrary to their treaty rights.
The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.
Of more importance were the two sieges by the Turks (1529 and 168 3), when the city was saved on the first occasion by the gallant defence of Count Niclas von Salm (1459-1530), and on the second by RÃ¼diger von Starhemberg (1638-1701), who held out until the arrival of the Poles and Germans under John Sobieski of Poland.
The general tendency of its policy throughout the war of investitures was Imperial and not Roman; and its bishops were, for the most part, Germans.
Pop. (1900), 132,879, of which three-fourths are Italians, the remainder being composed of Germans, Jews, Greeks, English and French.
It had in 1900 a population of 178,672, of which 77% were Italians, 18% Slovenes and 5% Germans.
Pop. (1890) 44,007; (I goo) 56,383, of whom 13,470 were foreign-born, including 3696 Germans, 2458 Irish, 1661 Italians and 1165 Welsh; (1910, census) 74,419.
Soon after the close of the War of Independence a settlement was begun, most of the newcomers being Palatine Germans from the lower Mohawk.
Pop. (1900) 21,933, of which two-thirds are Germans.
Two-thirds of the inhabitants are Germans; the remainder, chiefly found in the valleys of the Drave and Save, are Sla y s (Slovenes).
Its fidelity to the monarchy was tested in 1513, when the citizens were besieged by 50,000 Swiss and Germans, and forced to agree to a treaty so disadvantageous that Louis XII.
In their withdrawal, by a historic disregard of fair play, the Germans not merely refused to put at the disposal of the Lithuanian authorities the necessary means of defence, but under a military convention allowed the Bolshevist troops to march into evacuated zones at a mean distance of io kilometres.
The lines which existed under the old Russian Empire were converted by the Germans during their occupation from Russian 5-ft.
In the Roman Catholic Church are the Italians Ventura and Curci, the Germans Diepenbrock and Foerster, the French Lacordaire, Dupanloup, Loyson (Pere Hyacinthe) and Henri Didon.
Its population (1895) was 78,221, of whom a large percentage were European immigrants, principally Germans.
At first the Irish and Germans were most prominent.
After a fierce and stubborn struggle in which the Germans behaved with great valour, the Royalists were completely victorious, though they left 2000 men on the field; Lincoln, Schwartz and Fitzgerald with 4000 of their followers were killed, and Lovell and Broughton disappeared never to be heard of again.
The greater part of the trade with Tanganyika is done by the African Lakes Corporation by the Shire-Nyasa route, but the Germans have opened up overland routes from Dar-es-Salaam.
The settlement of the place was begun mostly by Germans during the middle of the 18th century.
In this action the Germans brought 30,500 rifles and 150 guns on to the battlefield only out of more than 10o,000 with 300 guns which could have been engaged before darkness.
The losses on either side were in killed and wounded - French about 3600, Germans about 4800.
So far, however, from being ahead of the Germans on the road to Verdun, the French were actually, late in the afternoon of the 15th of August, bivouacked on the plateau of Rezonville, and there their outposts were placed, not where they could see the surrounding country, but at the regulation distances of 600 to loon paces from the bivouacs.
The manoeuvring power of the latter attracted the admiration of the Germans, but arriving singly on the field they were generally reduced to silence in a few minutes.
Fortunately for the French the Germans were too exhausted by the battle of the 16th to attempt to interfere with these movements.
Of this fact the Germans were well aware, and hence they decided from the first to reduce the place by hunger, calculating that with the extra 150,000 men thrown back upon the fortress, its food supplies could not last very long.
Besides, the Germans had long since become aware of the movement in progress, and all chance of surprise was past.
It was obvious that what they had failed to do by surprise was hopeless now that twenty-four hours had been given in which the Germans 1 Steinmetz was shortly afterwards relieved of his command and returned to Germany.
Some 120,000 men with 528 guns had been engaged against 60,000 Germans with 222 guns, and had been beaten off with a loss of 3500 men.
The Germans had lost about 3000.
The Germans; secure in the strength of their position on the left bank of the Moselle, drew more troops over to the right, and added to their defences and communications.
Of the total population in 1900, 18,921 were foreign-born, including 6991 French-Canadians, 5650 Irish, 1602 Germans and 1118 English; and 33,626 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 12,370 of Irish and 11,050 of French-Canadian parentage.
The Germans opposite the Canadians appear to have been warned of the attack and to have thinned out their front line, so that resistance was weak at first.
Fortunately for the Germans the Canal du Nord proved a sufficiently formidable obstacle to give pause to the First Army's progress.
The Germans resisted stoutly all along the line, but were unable to stem the drive.
It was to be their last feat of arms in the World War, and they had the satisfaction of knowing, as they left the line on the 6th, that the last fortifications of the Germans on the Fourth Army front had fallen, and that the way was clear into the open country beyond.
He succeeded in inducing the Germans to abandon that clause of the terms by which the burgomaster, the communal counsel and one hundred citizens were required to surrender themselves as hostages.
An army of South Germans in the Breisgau, after an unsuccessful attempt to invade Alsace, moved northward to the Neckar valley with the intention of uniting with Bournonville, who was moving up the Rhine to meet them.
Turenne steadily retired to his camp of Dettweiler, unable for the moment to do more, and the Germans took up winter quarters in all the towns from Belfort to Strassburg (OctoberNovember 1674).
The advance continued to Colmar, where the elector, who was now in command of the Germans, stood on the defensive with forces equal to Turenne's own.
The Germans in addition had the inestimable advantage of having been in commission over two years and being in a state of prime gunnery efficiency, whereas the " Good Hope " and " Monmouth " were both 3rd Fleet ships, which had been lying idle in the dockyards, manned entirely with reserve men on the outbreak of war.
When the Germans at Valparaiso acclaimed him a naval hero, he shook his head.
It enabled him to study the Swiss and the Germans in their homes; and the report which he wrote on his return is among his most effective political studies.
The privileges of the company were extended to Germans in 1633, and about 1640 the Dutch members were bought out.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 130,389 were natives of Tennessee, 129,945129,945 of Alabama, 90,584 of Mississippi, 77,950 of Georgia and 75,633 of Arkansas; and of the foreign-born 71,062 were Mexicans, 48,295 Germans, 9204 Bohemians, 8213 English, 6870 Austrians and 6173 natives of Ireland.
He had spoken disrespectfully of the church, it was said, had even hinted that Antichrist might be found to be in Rome, had fomented in his preaching the quarrel between Bohemians and Germans, and had, notwithstanding all that had passed, continued to speak of Wycliffe as both a pious man and an orthodox teacher.
For certain public works the Germans enforce a system of compulsory labour.
The Arab Noma, constructed in 1800, has been rebuilt by the Germans, who have retained the fine sculptured gateway.
On the German coast of Tanganyika are Ujiji, pop. about 14,000, occupying a central position; Usumbura, at the northern end of the lake where is a fort built by the Germans; and Bismarckburg, near the southern end.
Making their way inland, three young Germans, Karl Peters, Joachim Count Pfeil and Dr Jiihlke, concluded a "treaty" in November 1884 with a chieftain in Usambara who was declared to be independent of Zanzibar.
Wissmann, with 1000 soldiers, chiefly Sudanese officered by Germans, and a German naval contingent, succeeded by the end of 1889 in crushing the power of the Arabs.
The revolt was due largely to resentment against the restrictions enforced by the Germans in their efforts at civilization, including compulsory work on European plantations in certain districts.
The Germans raised levies of Masai and Sudanese, and brought natives from New Guinea to help in suppressing the rising, besides sending naval and military contingents from Germany.
The inhabitants in 1909 numbered about 3,5 00, 000 natives, 3000 British Indians and Arabs, and 507 Europeans (British, French, Germans, Italians and Maltese).
The rebels were defeated, while Mwanga was made a Rebellion of prisoner by the Germans.
Early in January Mwanga escaped from the Germans, and, declaring himself a Mahommedan, reached Buddu with a large force, which Major Macdonald defeated with the aid of the Baganda army.
They turned him over to the secular arm for execution, had been raging between the Bohemians and Germans, was destined to cause Eugenius IV.
After overthrowing the other two walls, Luther invites the attention of the German rulers to the old theme of the pomp of the pope and cardinals, for which the Germans must pay.
The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread Christianity.
The Germans were posted some 5 m.
After a cannonade in which it suffered more severely than its entrenched enemy, the French centre furiously attacked the village of Allerheim; the fighting here was very heavy, and on the whole in favour of the Germans, although Mercy was killed.
It was a marked characteristic of the English colonists, and a strong element in their prosperity, that they were hospitable in welcoming men of other races, - Germans from the Palatinate, and French Huguenots driven out by persecution who brought with them some capital, more intelligence and an enduring hatred of Roman Catholic France.
The grand-duke's connexion with the courts of Russia and Holland - his mother was a Russian grand-duchess and his wife, Sophia Louisa (1824-1897), a princess of the Netherlands - tended to give the Weimar society a cosmopolitan character, and the grand-duke devoted himself largely to encouraging men of intellect, whether Germans or foreigners, who came to visit or to settle in the town.
The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4 were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles.
The Germans first penetrated into Livonia in the 11th century, and in 1158 several Lubeck and Visby merchants landed at the mouth of the Dvina.
Two years later he put down a rising of the Aquitanians in Gaul, and crossed the Rhine to punish the aggressions of the Germans.
They are increasing somewhat faster than the Germans, and the efforts of the colonization commission have done little to promote the immigration of German farmers.
Among the Germans, who are most numerous in the north-east, Low German dialects are spoken, except in a Swabian colony round Kulmsee.
The cracked door-lintel, which shows an eagle on the soffit, was propped up first by Burton, and lately, more securely, by the Germans.
Of the foreign-born, 18,385 were English-Canadians, 16,686 Germans, 12,737 Swedes, 10,481 natives of England, 9891 Norwegians and 7262 Irish.
In 1762 Cassel was captured by the Germans from the French; after this the fortifications were dismantled and New Cassel was laid out by the landgrave Frederick II.
It offered little resistance, however, to the Germans in 1870, and the fortifications have since been razed.
No one probably expected from Nerva a vigorous administration either at home or abroad, although during his reign a successful campaign was carried on in Pannonia against the Germans (Suebi), for which he assumed the name Germanicus.
The next stage was to take one people and train it as the representative par excellence of the State idea; and this people could only be the Germans.
This attempt also failed; for the Germans were numerically too weak, ' For Hungary, as the other constitutional half of the old AustroHungarian Monarchy, see the separate article under that heading; also Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the articles on the different " succession states " which were formed on the break-up of the monarchy in 1918.
The Germans had for long past given up all efforts at Germanization; their watchword was " maintenance of the national status quo " - that is to say, not an aggressive but a defensive principle.
The Germans of the Alpine lands were less ready to carry out the same principle in Tirol and the regions leading down to the Adriatic. The divided policy of the Germans led on all sides to their failure.
It was the liberal-minded Germans who were instrumental in the first place in getting them passed; while the Sla y s from the beginning took up - to their own disadvantage - a hostile or at least passive attitude towards the establishment of these laws."
The claim set up by the Italians to a university of their own within the territory inhabited by them led to various controversies with the Germans and Southern Sla y s.
Since the last election in the spring of 1908 the Bohemian Diet had been unworkable, eventually owing to obstruction on the part of the Germans, who saw themselves handed over hopelessly to the Czech majority, until a rearrangement of the voting groups (curiae) should afford them protection against Czech oppression.
In 1913 the Germans sent in a petition that each nationality should pay the costs of its own educational and cultural institutions, as otherwise one nationality would have to bear the expenses of the other, and vice versa.
When the Czechs refused this request the Germans responded with more obstinate obstruction.
The Government stepped in and appointed a mixed commission of Germans and Czechs, which should, as it were, administer the affairs of this country like a trustee for a person incapable of volition.
The Germans were thereby deprived of their weapon of obstruction, and the Czechs lost the power of misusing their majority to oppress the Germans.
Thus Germans, Czechs and Poles were provided for.
The Germans thereupon paralyzed the Prague Diet by means of obstruction, upon which the Czech members of the Beck Cabinet left it, and the prime minister, seeing himself abandoned by both Germans and Czechs, resigned on Nov.
Moreover the three chief nationalities, the Germans, Poles and Czechs, were each represented by a so-called national minister (Landsmann-Minister).
The Germans made their cooperation contingent on various conditions.
They called attention to the fact that the Germans in earlier days were deaf to such requests; they saw in them a " dismemberment of the country," and asserted that in the central public departments of Vienna, too, the Czechs did not occupy a number of official positions in proportion to their population.
In spite of this, Bienerth, with the consent of the Germans, introduced a bill in Jan.
The Viennese Germans saw in this a danger to the hitherto peaceful common life of the population of Vienna.
It was over these demands in connexion with the waterways, which the Minister of Finance declared to be impossible of fulfilment to the extent required by the Poles, that Bienerth's mainstay failed to support him; and on Dec. 12 he sent in his resignation, which was, however, followed by a renewed Bienerth Ministry, composed of Germans, Poles and officials.
It was only to be expected that the Germans, whose very existence was in question, should show themselves to be patriotic. But it was somewhat surprising that at Prague, after the declaration of war, Germans and Czechs sang Die TV acht am Rhein together in the streets, and the burgomaster, a Czech, made a speech in German before the town hall in which he called for cheers for the Emperor William and the fraternization of Germans and Czechs.
The Germans yielded, and the Reichsrat met on May 31.
Since the Northern and Southern Sla y s had absented themselves and the Poles were in opposition, the Reichsrat was adjourned (May 3), and the Germans now again demanded the grant of a revised constitution, with German as the language of State, a special status for Galicia and Dalmatia, access for the Germans to the Adriatic, and the partition of Bohemia.
Of the total foreign-born population of 88,508, 19,788 were Norwegians, 17,873 Germans, 12,365 Russians, 59 06 English Canadians, 5038 Danes, 3862 English and 3298 Irish.
In addition to the statues in Juneau Park there is a statue of Kosciusko in the park of that name; one of Washington and a soldiers' monument on Grand Avenue; a statue of Henry Bergh in front of the city hall; one of Robert Burns in the First Ward Park, and, in Washington Park, a replica of Ernst Rietschel's Schiller-Goethe monument in Jena, given to the city in 1908 by the Germans of Milwaukee.
In 39 he set out with an army to Gaul, nominally to punish the Germans for having invaded Roman territory, but in reality to get money by plunder and confiscation.
To the Anglo-Saxons he was known as Woden and to the Germans as Wodan (Wuotan), which are the regular forms of the same name in those languages.
Afterwards there was a great influx of Germans, particularly after the Revolution of 1848, among them being Carl Schurz, who began the practice of law here.
Germans by birth or descent still constitute a majority of the population.
The " mountains " in this case are the Alps, so that, from the Italian standpoint, Germans and French for instance were " ultramontane."
Napoleon made him a prince of France, and gave him command of a division of South Germans in the campaign of 1806.
Englishmen number about boo; Germans, 190; Danes, 160; Americans, 150, and other nationalities are represented in smaller numbers.
The Germans know it as Fastendienstag.
The city received large additions to its foreign-born population immediately after the revolution of 1848, when many Germans settled here - a German daily newspaper was established in 1857.
At the beginning of the 19th century it was but a poor village, and in 1812 when it was acquired by Russia from Moldavia it had only 7000 inhabitants; twenty years later its population numbered 35,000, while in 1862 it had with its suburbs 92,000 inhabitants, and in 1900 125,787, composed of the most varied nationalities - Moldavians, Walachians, Russians, Jews (43%), Bulgarians, Tatars, Germans and Gypsies.
The first class includes half-castes (who are numerous, for the Dutch are in closer relationship with the natives than is the case with most colonizing peoples), and also Armenians, Japanese, &c. The total number of this class in 1900 was 75, 8 33; 72,019 of these were called Dutch, but 61,022 of them were born in Netherlands India; there were also 1382 Germans, 441 British and 350 Belgians.
Pop. (1900) 24,387, of whom 4200 are Czechs and the remainder Germans.
Not only was there in 1918-21 a sharp contrast in policy between the Czechoslovaks and the minority races living within the republic - the Germans and the Magyars - but each nationality was split up into a multiplicity of factions.
The Germans and the Magyars were also proportionately split up. The strongest party in the republic was that of the Czechoslovak Social Democrats, which up to Sept.
In domestic politics they were strongly Nationalist and suspicious of the Germans.
In 1921 the total number of Socialists of every complexion in the House of Deputies was 141, as opposed to 137 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 199, Germans 72, Magyars 7).
In the Senate the Socialists numbered 68, as against 75 Bourgeois members (Czechoslovaks 103, Germans 37, Magyars 3).
The revival of the Czechs after a hundred years of torpor, due to the loss of their independence in 1620 and subsequent oppression at the hands of the Habsburgs and the dominant Germans, gave birth, from 1780 onwards, to a literary activity which still continues to yield rich fruit.
Pop. (1885), 68,315; (1895), 73, 2 39; (1905), 136,808, of whom nearly one-half are Germans and about one-tenth Jews.
Political as well as religious privileges were attacked; the administration was conducted by Germans; and the result was a considerable amount of discontent which became very pronounced about the opening of the 17th century.
Most of these German citizens in process of time were absorbed by the Polish population, and became devoted, heart and soul, to their adopted country; but these were not the only Germans with whom the young Polish state depressed the land, and, at this very time, another enemy appeared in the east - the Lithuanians.
All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
With this object he fortified the outlying villages, and when the Germans (chiefly Landwehr) began the investment on the 3rd of November 1870, they encountered everywhere a most strenuous resistance.
Throughout the month the garrison made repeated sorties, and the Germans were on several occasions forced by the long range fire of the fortress to evacuate villages which they had taken.
Under these circumstances, and also because of their numerical weakness and the rigour of the weather, the Germans advanced but slowly.
Still, the guns of the attack were now steadily gaining the upper hand, and at last on the 8th of February the Germans entered the two Perches redoubts.
In 1845 began the marked influx of Germans, which lasted in large degree up to 1860; they first limited themselves to the district "Over the Rhine" (the Rhine being the Miami & Erie Canal), in the angle north-east of the junction of Canal and Sycamore streets, but gradually spread throughout the city, although this "Over the Rhine" is still most typically German.
Pop. (1890), 53,230; (igoo), 79, 8 5 o, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born (including 8076 Irish, 2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714 Swedes, 1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 98,915.
In 1730 Germans began to settle in considerable numbers in the west-central part of the colony, where they greatly promoted its industrial development but at the same time added much strength to the opposition.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
The resident foreigners, who are mostly Spaniards, Italians, Germans and British subjects, numbered less than 8000 in 1904; immigration is, however, encouraged by the easy terms on which land can be purchased from the state.
Caesar must have seen that the Germans were preparing to dispute with Rome the mastery of Gaul; but it was necessary to gain time, and in 59 B.C. Ariovistus was inscribed on the roll of the friends of the Roman people.
He at once demanded a conference, which Ariovistus refused, and on hearing that fresh swarms were crossing the Rhine, marched with all haste to Vesontio (Besancon) and thence by way of Belfort into the plain of Alsace, where he gained a decisive victory over the Germans, of whom only a few (including Ariovistus) reached the right bank of the Rhine in safety.
His enemies in Rome accused him of treachery, and Cato even proposed that he should be handed over to the Germans.
It is quite clear that had they not represented the true state of affairs to the authorities the whole of this territory would have gradually been absorbed by the Boers, until they had effected a union with the Germans on the west.
The first settlers were mostly Germans, but the direction of municipal affairs until the outbreak of the War of Independence was in the hands of the English-speaking inhabitants.
The narrow-gauge railway that serves the German plantations in the Vera Paz region is largely owned by Germans.
The chief plantations are owned and managed by Germans; more than half of the crop is sent to Germany, while three-fifths of the remainder go to the United States and one-fifth to Great Britain.
Pop. (1900) 91,310, of which 21,000 were Jews, 5000 Germans and the remainder Poles.
The Germans were already near 6%.
Germans, Irish, British, Canadians, Scandinavians, Slays and Italians were the leading elements in 1900.
The attack upon it by the Prussians in 1793 was repulsed; in 1815 they had to be content with blockading it; and in 1870, though it was closely invested by the Germans after the battle of Worth, it held out until the end of the war.
St Epiphanius, bishop of Milan, patched up a truce, but in 472 Ricimer was again before Rome with an army of Germans,.
Before the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the part of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Germans under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them (71 B.e.).
The Sequani then appealed to Caesar, who drove back the Germans (58), but at the same time obliged the Sequani to surrender all that they had gained from the Aedui.
According to nationality about two-thirds were Slovenes, and the remainder Italians, with only about 2200 Germans.
Pop. (1890) 2354; (1900) 5774 of whom 1559 were foreign-born, chiefly Germans and Swedes; (1905 state census) 5856.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
Like his father, a pro-Austrian by conviction, he contrived even in this respect to carry the Polish nation, always so distrustful of the Germans, entirely along with him, thereby avoiding all serious complications with the ever dangerous Turk.
After 1836 there was a large influx of Anglo-Americans and Germans, and the Mexican element long ago ceased to predominate.
To put it shortly, the Germans have taught their soldiers to think, and not merely to obey.
The Romans and Germans protected themselves in this way.
As part of compensation for the murder of two German missionaries in 1897 in this province - Protestant mission work in Shan-tung dates from 1860 - the Germans took possession on lease of the port of Kiao-chow, 300 m.
In Germany, since the victory of Kant over Wolff, realism has always been in difficulties, which we can appreciate when we reflect that the Germans by preference apply the term " realism " to the paradoxes of Herbart (1776-1841), who, in order to avoid supposed contradictions, supposed that bodies are not substances, but show (Schein), while " reals" are simple substances, each with a simple quality, and all preserving themselves against disturbance by one another, whether physically or psychologically, but not known to be either material or spiritual because we do not know the simple quality in which the nature of the real consists.
Here, on the 26th of July 1870, the first engagement between the Germans and the French in the Franco-German war took place.
In contrast with later Scandinavian usage Tacitus states that the ancient Germans had no images of the gods.
The Germans formed 44.69% of the population, 33.21% were Poles and 22.05% Czechs and Sla y s.
In December 1763 six Christian Indians, Conestogas, were massacred by the " Paxton boys " from Paxton near the present Harrisburg; the Indians who had escaped were taken to Lancaster for safe keeping but were seized and killed by the " Paxton boys," who with other backwoodsmen marched upon Philadelphia early in 1764, but Quakers and Germans gathered quickly to protect it and civil war was averted, largely by the diplomacy of Franklin.
There were Dutch, Swedes, English, Germans, Welsh, Irish and Scotch-Irish; Quakers, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Catholics, Lutherans (Reformed), Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, and Moravians.
A split among the Democrats in 1835, due to the opposition of the Germans to internal improvements and to the establishment of a public school system, resulted in the election as governor of Joseph Ritner, the antiMasonic candidate.
The dream prompted Pliny to begin forthwith a history of all the wars between the Romans and the Germans.
Czernowitz has a mixed population, which consists of Germans, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Poles, Jews, Armenians and Gypsies.
The Germans and Scandinavians have also been ardent workers in South Africa, and the Dutch Reformed Church has not entirely neglected the natives.
The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners.
Polybius and the authors who copy him regard the Bastarnae as Galatae; Strabo, having learned of the Romans to distinguish Celts and Germans, first allows a German element; Tacitus expressly declares their German origin but says that the race was degraded by intermarriage with Sarmatians.
No doubt they were an outpost of the Germans, and so had absorbed into themselves strong Getic, Celtic and Sarmatian elements.
It may be questioned whether there is any other writer to whom the Germans owe a deeper debt of gratitude.
In England, for instance, the dressing of sables, martens, foxes, otters, seals, bears, lions, tigers and leopards is first rate; while with skunk, mink, musquash, chinchillas, beavers, lambs and squirrels, the Germans show better results, particularly in the last.
In Paris, too, they obtain beautiful results in the "topping" or colouring Russian sables and the Germans are particularly successful in dyeing Persian lambs black and foxes in all blue, grey, black and smoke colours and in the insertion of white hairs in imitation of the real silver fox.
They were in German, not in Latin; they were expositions of his own experience, of his own views, of his own methods of curing, adapted to the diseases that afflicted the Germans in the year 1527, and they were not commentaries on the text of Galen or Avicenna.
The number of foreigners resident in Belgium in 1900 with their nationalities were Germans, 42,079; English, 5096; French, 85,735; Dutch, 54,49 1; Luxemburgers, 9762; and all other nationalities, 14,411.
It traces its origin to the great German immigration of the 17th century, especially to Pennsylvania, where, although the German Lutherans afterwards outnumbered them, the Reformed element was estimated in 1730 to be more than half the whole number of Germans in the colony.
Disunion, however, was at work in the rebel camp. The Gauls and Germans, who had withdrawn from the main body, were attacked and destroyed.
On this northern line the Germans come in contact with the Danes who inhabit the northern parts of Schleswig within the limits of the German empire.
In the south the Germans come into contact with Rhaeto-Romans and Italians, the former inhabiting the valley of the Vorder-Rhein and the Engadine, while the latter have settled on the southern slopes of the Alps, and are continually advancing up the valley of the Adige.
In subsequent years the emigration of native Germans greatly decreased and, in 1905, amounted only to 28,075.
To this fact is largely due the excellence of the Germans in grandiose decorative painting and sculpture, a talent for the exercise of which plenty of scope has been given them by the numerous public buildings and memorials raised since the war of 1870.
The Rhine practically formed the boundary between Gauls and Germans, though one Gaulish tribe, the Menapii, is said to have been living beyond the Rhine at its mouth, and shortly before the arrival of Caesar an invading force of Germans had seized and settled down in what is now Alsace, 72 B.C. At this time the Gauls were being pressed by the Germans along the whole frontier, and several of Caesars campaigns were occupied with operations, either against the Germans, or against Gaulish tribes set in motion by the Germans.
It appears to be a Gaulish term, and there is no evidence that it was ever used by the Germans themselves.
It is probable, therefore, that in other directions also the Germans had considerably advanced their frontier southwards at a comparatively recent period.
Pippin and his son Charles Martel, who was mayor of the palace from 717 to 741, renewed the struggle with the Germans and were soon successful in re-establishing the central power which the Merovingian kings had allowed to slip from their grasp. The ducal office was abolished in Thuringia, a series of wars reduced the Alamanni to strict dependence, and both countries were governed by Frankish officials.
It was during the time of Pippin of Heristal and his son and grandson that the conversion of the Germans to Christianity was mainlyeffected.
Appointed bishop of the Germans byPopeGregory II., and supported byCharles Martel,hepreached with much success in Bavaria and Thuringia, notwithstanding some hostility from the clergy who disliked the influence of Rome.
In 924 they returned, and this time by good fortune one of their greatest princes fell into the hands of the Germans.
Hitherto the Germans had fought mainly on foot, and, as the Magyars came on horseback, the nation was placed at an immense disadvantage.
Margrave Billung, who looked after th Abotrites on the lower Elbe, was less fortunate, mainly becaus of the neighborhood of the Danes, who, after the death of King Henry, often attacked the hated Germans, but some progress was made in bringing this district under German influence.
Thc Magyars were as usual stimulated to action by the disunion of their enemies; and Conrad and Ludolf made the blunder of inviting their help, a proceeding which disgusted the Germans, many of whom fell away from their side and rallied to thi head and protector of the nation.
After a fierce and obstinate fight, in which Conrad and many other nobles fell the Germans were victorious; the Magyars were even mon thoroughly scourged than in the battles in which Ottos fathe had given them their first real check.
Instead of strengthening the allegiance of the Germans towards their sovereign, the imperial title was the means of steadily undermining it.
During nearly the whole of this reign the Germans were fighting the Poles.
Since the death of Otto the Great the Slavonic lands to the east of the Elbe had been very imperfectly held in subjection by the Germans.
While the signatories of the peace of Prague were making ready to assist the emperor the only Germans on the other side were found in the army under Bernhard of SaxeBernhard Weimar.
Before the Reformation, and even for some time after it, the princes were thorough Germans in sympathies and habits; they now began to be separated by a wide gulf from their people.
Germans of all states and ranks were indignant at so gross a humiliation, but even the loss of Strassburg did not suffice to move the diet.
But the Germans had had no experience of free political life.
This excited vehement opposition among the Germans, on the ground that Holstein, although subject to the king of Denmark, was a member of the German confederation, and that in virtue of ancient treaties it could not be severed from Schleswig.
Then was a universal wish that the Austrian Germans should hi included in the German state; on the other hand, it was fel that if all the various nationalities of Austria formed a unite monarchy, and if this monarchy as a whole were included ir the confederation, it would necessarily overshadow Germany and expose her to unnecessary external dangers.
This wretched fiasco was hardly less satisfactory to the majority of Germans than the manner in which the national claims in Schleswig-Holstein were maintained.
To counteract this, a conference of five hundred Great Germans assembled at Frankfort and, on the 22nd of October 1862, founded the German Reform Union (Deutscher Reformverein), which, consisting mainly of South German elements, supported the policy of Austria and the smaller states.
Great as were these results, they did not satisfy the aspirations of patriotic Germans, who, having so suddenly and so unexpectedly approached unity, longed that the work should be completed.
There was, indeed, plentiful need for some show of concession to Libera sentiment, if a union of hearts was to be established between the South and North Germans.
On the 26th of February 1908 the discussion on this bill was continued, Count Arnim defending it on the ground that conciliation had failed and other measures must now be triedl The Poles were aiming at raising their standard of civilization and learning and thus gradually expelling the Germans, and this, together with the rapid growth of the Polish population, constituted a grave danger.
Since 1890 there has been, especially in the neighborhood of Strassburg, evidence of a spread of national German feeling, probably to a great extent due to the settlement of Germans from across the Rhine.
He was satisfied that the Germans should profit by the commercial liberty allowed in the British colonies.
Many of the Germans were, however, not contented with this, and disputes regarding the rights of German settlers in Fiji caused some change of feeling.
During the same year Dr Nachtigal was despatched to the west coast, and stealing a march on his British and French rivals he secured not only Togoland but Cameroon for the Germans.
In every spot at which the Germans acquired territory they found themselves in opposition to British interests.
It was, however, in South-West Africa that the Germans had their chief and most bitter experience in colonial warfare.
To their surprise the Germans now found that, against an inferior foe operating in a more restricted area, they were unable to do as well as the British army had done.
The story of the war is told elsewhere (see GERMAN SOUTH-WEST AFRICA); it lasted well into 1908 and the Germans were indebted to the Cape Mounted Police for material help in bringing it to an end.
As it progressed the Germans adopted many of the methods employed by the British in their colonial wars, and they learned to appreciate more accurately the immensity of the task which Lord Kitchener accomplished in overcoming the guerrilla warfare in the Boer republics.
Stringent measures were taken to stamp out German nationality in the Baltic provinces, similar to those used by the Germans against the Poles.
There was below the surface much discontent and subdued criticism of the exaggeration of the monarchical power, which the Germans called Byzantinismus; but after all the nation seemed to welcome the government of the emperor, as it did that of Bismarck.
The persecution of the Poles in Prussia naturally iroused indignation in Austria, where the Poles had for long been among the strongest elements on which the government depended; and it was not always easy to prevent the agitation on behalf of the Germans in Bohemia from assuming a dangerous aspect.
It came about that in the minds of many Germans the whole national regeneration was regarded as a liberation from British influence.
This feeling was deliberately fostered by publicists and historians, and was intensified by commercial rivalry, since in the struggle for colonial expansion and trade Germans naturally came to look on Great Britain, who held the field, as their rival.
It was used by the Nationalist parties, in Austria as well as in Germany, to spiead the conception of Pan-Germanism; the Boer3 as Low Germans were regarded as the representatives of Teutonic civilization, and it seemed possible that the conception might be used to bring about a closer friendship, and even alliance, with Holland.
In the dark and disordered centuries which followed there are only a few scanty notices of the Germans, mainly in the works of foreign writers like Gregory of Tours and Jordanes; and then the 8th and 9th centuries, the time of the revival of learning which is associated with the name of Charlemagne, is reached.
In this field of scientific research the Germans were the pioneers, and in it they are still pre-eminent, with Ranke as their most famous name and the Monumenta Germaniae historica as their greatest production.
Apart from political histories there are useful collections of laws and other official documents of importance, and also a large number of valuable works on the laws and constitutions of the Germans and on German institutions generally.