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germanic

germanic

germanic Sentence Examples

  • It is common to all Germanic languages; cf.

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  • In these circumstances the intrusion of Germanic elements into ecclesiastical law is easy to understand.

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  • The invasion of France by the German armies during the war of 1870-71 attracted his attention to the Germanic invasions under the Roman Empire.

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  • wicu, Germanic *wikOn, probably = change, turn), the name given to periods of time, varying in length in different parts of the world, but shorter than a "month."

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  • Attempts have been made to show that they were of German origin, but although they were doubtless subject to Germanic influences, they spoke a Celtic language.

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  • By heating the metal with chlorine, germanic chloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 86-87° C., it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.

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  • Neilson in The Journal of Germanic Philology (iv.), the note by W.

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  • From 1860 to 1870 he was professor of history at the faculty of letters at Strassburg, where he had a brilliant career as a teacher, but never yielded to the influence exercised by the German universities in the field of classical and Germanic antiquities.

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  • those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.

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  • He was not himself a Goth, belonging to a confederation of Germanic tribes, embracing Alans and Scyrians, which had come under the influence of the Ostrogoths settled on the lower Danube; and his own sympathies are those of a member of this confederation.

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  • Originally Celtic, the population was modified during the Roman period by the arrival of a Germanic people, the Triboci.

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  • Disregarding the neutrality of the Germanic System, Napoleon sent a strong French corps to overrun Hanover, while he despatched General Gouvion St Cyr to occupy Taranto and other dominating positions in the south-east of the kingdom of Naples.

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  • The tsar, as protector of the Germanic System, had already been so annoyed by the seizure of the duc d'Enghien on German territory, and by other high-handed actions against the Hanse cities, as to recall his ambassador from Paris.

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  • On the 17th of July Napoleon signed at Paris a decree that reduced to subservience the Germanic System, the chaotic weakness of which he had in 1797 foreseen to be highly favourable to France.

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  • He manoeuvred so skilfully in the campaign against Radagaisus, who led a large force of various Germanic peoples into Italy in 405, that he surrounded the barbarian chieftain on the rocks of Fiesole near Florence and starved him into surrender.

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  • The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.

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  • GERMANIC LAWS Of those Germanic laws of the early middle ages which are known as leges barbarorum, we here deal with the principal examples other than Frankish, viz.

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  • 822 mm.), which is drawn by hand, and is preserved in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg.

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  • The name Franks seems to have been given in the 4th century to a group of Germanic peoples dwelling north of the Main and reaching as far as the shores of the North Sea; south of the Main was the home of the Alamanni.

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  • All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they had in common.

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  • The place-names became entirely Germanic; the Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans.

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  • Also the articles SALIC LAW and GERMANIC LAWS, EARLY.

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  • There is, comparatively speaking, no great distance of time between the leges barbarorum and the Laws of Wales, while the contents of the latter show a similar, nay almost the same, idea of law as the former; and, apart from the fact that Wales became permanently connected at the end of the 13th century with a Teutonic people, the English, it has been noticed that in Wales Roman and Germanic, but no traces of a specific Welsh, law are found.

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  • Probably the Teutonic pressure began as early as the 4th century before Christ, and the history of the next few hundred years may be summed up as the gradual substitution of a Germanic for a Celtic population along the banks of the Rhine.

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  • The specimen in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg has two lions and a griffin.

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  • What is its position in the legal history of Germanic nations?

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  • It originated with the Salian Franks, often simply called Salians, the chief of that conglomeration of Germanic peoples known as Franks.

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  • The Germanic tribes had no need to use the Latin language until they had coalesced with the Gallo-Roman population.

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  • The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north of the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the various Germanic laws.

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  • Already in the Ripuarian Law the divergences from the old Germanic law are greater than in the Salic Law.

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  • Some writers regard them as a continuation of the Roman collegia and sodalitates, but there is little evidence to prove the unbroken continuity of existence of the Roman and Germanic fraternities.

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  • A more widely accepted theory derives gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian sacrificial banquets.

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  • Dr Max Pappenheim has ascribed the origin of Germanic gilds to the northern "fosterbrotherhood" or "sworn-brotherhood," which was an artificial bond of union between two or more persons.

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  • In many passages his work gives the impression of being not so much an imitation of the ancient Germanic epic, as a genuine example of it, though concerned with the deeds of other heroes than those of Germanic tradition.

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  • The romances of this cycle, of Germanic (Frankish) origin and developed probably in the north of France by the French (probably in the north of France) contain reminiscences of the heroes of the Merovingian period, and in their later development were influenced by the Arthurian cycle.

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  • The old electoral palace (1627-1678), a large building of red sandstone, now contains a valuable collection of Roman and Germanic antiquities, a picture gallery, a natural history museum, the Gutenberg Museum, and a library of 220,000 volumes.

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  • In 1815 Baden became a member of the Germanic confederation established by the Act of the 8th of June, annexed to the Final Act of the congress of Vienna of the 9th of June.

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  • The word, as applied to the animal here described, occurs in most Germanic and Romanic languages: German, marder; Dutch, marter; Swedish, mard; Danish, maar; English, marteron, martern, marten, martin and martlett; French, marte and martre; Italian, martora and martorella; Spanish and Portuguese, marta.

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  • In the course of the 7th century Benedictine life was gradually introduced in Gaul,and in the 8th it was carried into the Germanic lands from England.

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  • Besides the general indication that the Empire was passing through a military crisis, which points to the long struggle waged by Marcus Aurelius against the Marcomanni and other Germanic tribes, there is a reference (Contra Celsum, viii.

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  • They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State - for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality - partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slays, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system.

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  • The predominance of Germanic influence in the city is evidenced by at least 75 musical clubs and numerous Turnverein societies.

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  • At the end of the 6th century all the provinces of the Empire had become independent kingdoms, in which conquerors of Germanic race formed the dominant nationality., The remnants of the Empire showed an uncommonly tough vitality.

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  • The continuity of the political history of Europe was violently interrupted by the Germanic invasion, but not that of the history of the Church.

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  • In the Empire all churches, and all the property of the Church, were at the disposal of the bishops; in Germanic countries, on the contrary, the territorial nobles were looked upon as the owners of churches built upon their lands, and these became " proprietary churches."

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  • This transformation of old institutions is the first great result of Germanic influence in the Christian Church.

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  • Thus the Germanic element in the law regarding appointment to bishoprics was eliminated.

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  • Since the time of Charlemagne Germanic influence had preponderated in the West, as is shown in the expansion of the Church no less than in matters of ecclesiastical law.

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  • The Czechoslovaks have constituted a considerable army, fighting on three different battle-fields and attempting, in Russia and Siberia, to arrest the Germanic invasion.

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  • He subdued also the Germanic tribes; annexed Frisia, where Christianity was beginning to make progress; put an end to the duchy of Alemannia; intervened in the internal affairs of the dukes of Bavaria; made expeditions into Saxony; and in 738 compelled some of the Saxon tribes to pay him tribute.

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  • This appears to be the great Celtic measure, as opposed to the old English, or Germanic, mile.

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  • With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the middle ages - De La feodalite, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la legislation de ce prince (1822); La Germanic au vin e et au ix' siecle, sa conversion au christianisme, et son introduction dans la societe civilisee de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du xi e siècle jusqu'et la fin du xv e (1836); all of these are rough sketches showing only the outlines of the subject.

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  • Teutonic (Germanic) Languages >>

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  • At length, however, he was abandoned by the Germanic court and deposed by a council held at Mantua; and Alexander's position remained unchallenged.

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  • It is to be observed that the term " Teutonic " is of scholastic and not of popular origin, and this is true also of the other terms (" Germanic," " Gothic," &c.) which are or have been used in the same sense.

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  • Gummere, Germanic Origins (New York, 1892); K.

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  • The papacy of that time believed in the political unity of Islam, in a solidarity - which did not exist - among the Mussulmans of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and the Barbary coasts; and if it waited until the year 1095 to carry out this project, it was because the conflict with the Germanic Empire prevented the earlier realization of its dream.

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  • Until the accession of Adrian IV., however, there had been considerable periods of tran- German quillity, years even of unbroken peace and alliance E with the Germanic power.

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  • lacked vigour, and their pontificates were too brief to allow them to pursue a strong policy against the Germanic The Papacy imperialism.

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  • germanic. i.

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  • It lived to flourish anew among the Germanic tribes at the time of the great migrations.

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  • BASTARNAE, the easternmost people of the Germanic race, the first to come into contact with the ancient world and the Sla y s.

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  • Other noteworthy buildings are the provincial museum of antiquities, containing interesting Germanic antiquities, as well as medieval and modern collections of porcelain, pictures, &c.; the courts of justice (transformed in the middle of the 18th century); the old Ommelanderhuis, formerly devoted to the administration of the surrounding district, built in 1509 and restored in 1899; the weigh-house (1874); the civil and military prison; the arsenal; the military hospital; and the concert hall.

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  • On the right bank of the Rhine, between the Main and the Lahn, were the settlements of the Mattiaci, a branch of the Germanic Chat ti, while farther to the north were the Usipetes and Tencteri.

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  • Germany, and the Germanic peoples, take slightly more per person, but the statistics are rather indefinite.

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  • A mythology reminiscent of Italy is the "Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds" in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, founded directly upon the "Hercules and Centaur Nessus" of Pollaiuolo, now at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. Of portraits, besides that of his father already mentioned as done in 1497, there is his own of 1498 at Madrid.

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  • - To the Germanic religions the pilgrimage is unknown.

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  • The young Germanic and Romance nations did precisely as the Greek and Romans had done before them, and the m otives.

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  • The University publishes Bulletins of the Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations; Reports of the State Water Survey, of the State Natural History Survey, of the State Geological Survey, and of the State Entomologist's Office; University Studies; and The Journal of English and Germanic Philology.

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  • Three main periods - the Oriental, the Classical and the Germanic - in which respectively the single despot, the dominant order, and the man as man possess freedom - constitute the history of the world.

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  • Kindred economic conditions prevailed in all the former provinces of the Western empire, while new law concepts were everywhere introduced by the Germanic invaders.

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  • Most of these had never been entirely destroyed during the Germanic invasion.

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  • Hence the terms "burgh," "borough" in English, baurgs in Gothic, the earliest Germanic designations for a town; "burgher," "burgess" for its inhabitants.

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  • Roman law, however, was never quite superseded by Germanic law, as appears from the statuts municipaux.

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  • But in 1815 the Germanic confederation (Deutscher Bund) was established by the congress of Vienna, which in its turn has been displaced by the present German empire.

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  • The Germanic invaders came from no settled state; they maintained loosely, and but for a short while, any form of brotherhood with the allied tribes.

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  • His French thesis for the doctorate of letters, Etude sur les pamphlets politiques et religieux de Milton (1848), showed that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study for which he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and Scandinavian languages.

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  • The original Germanic inhabitants of Rugen were dispossessed by Sla y s; and there are still various relics of the long reign of paganism that ensued.

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  • In a paper published in the volume of Philologische Studien, presented as a " Festgabe " to Professor Sievers in 1896, and in a second paper in the Journal of Germanic Philology, ii.

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  • The epic of Beowulf, the most precious relic of Old English, and, indeed, of all early Germanic literature, has come down to us in a single MS., written about A.D.

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  • There are, however, many other episodes that have nothing to do with Beowulf himself, but seem to have been inserted with a deliberate intention of making the poem into a sort of cyclopaedia of Germanic tradition.

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  • However detrimental these redundancies may be to the poetic beauty of the epic, they add enormously to its interest for students of Germanic history or legend.

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  • The criticism of the Old English epic has therefore for nearly a century been justly regarded as indispensable to the investigation of Germanic antiquities.

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  • The forms of the Danish king's name given by the Frankish historians are corruptions of the name of which the primitive Germanic form was Hugilaikaz, and which by regular phonetic change became in Old English Hygelac, and in Old Norse Hugleikr.

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  • The notion that ancient burial mounds were liable to be inhabited by dragons was common in the Germanic world: there is perhaps a trace of it in the Derbyshire place-name Drakelow, which means " dragon's barrow."

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  • The minstrel of early Germanic times was required to be learned not only in the traditions of his own people, but also in those of the other peoples with whom they felt their kinship. He had a double task to perform.

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  • It had been long preparing in the economic and administrative decline of the Empire, and in the steady influx of Germanic peoples into Roman territory for over two centuries; but the power of the old civilization to absorb the new races was exhausted by the 5th century, and the political history of Europe was turned into a different path.

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  • The Germanic tribes were still adjusting themselves and slowly learning to combine their primitive institutions with the remains of those of Rome; the premature union under Charlemagne gave way before new invasions, and anarchy became crystallized in feudalism.

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  • In legal history there was a distinct medieval period, when Germanic customs superseded Roman law, that most splendid of Rome's legacies.

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  • The process was completed by the misery of the decaying empire, and by the Germanic invasions.

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  • The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.

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  • The Germanic national museum, established in an old Carthusian monastery, has developed into one of the largest and most important institutions of its kind in Germany.

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  • The observations of Spruce are of themselves almost conclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming acclimatized in the tropics; and if it is objected that this evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we are fortunately able to point to facts, almost equally well authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typical Germanic races.

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  • Remigius and Maxentius, now lost; on the annals of Arles and Angers, now lost; and on legends, either collected by Gregory himself from oral tradition, or cantilenes or epics written in the Latin and Germanic languages.

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  • The congress of Vienna in 1815 had declared that that country should form part of the newly formed Germanic Confederation; this was done without consulting the estates of the country, as had been customary even after the battle of the White Hill on the occasion of serious constitutional changes.

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  • The last transaction in which Palmerston engaged arose out of the attack by the Germanic Confederation, and its leading states Austria and Prussia, on the kingdom of Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

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  • There he can reconstruct the splendour of that Minoan age to which Homeric poems look back, as the Germanic epics looked back to Rome or Verona.

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  • Hence the latest of the conquerors, the Saxon and other Germanic tribes, obtained an easy mastery, and spread over the whole country, holding their own against marauding Northmen, except on the northern part of the east coast; and even after the political conquest by the Normans, continuing to form the great mass of the population, though influenced not a little by the fresh blood and new ideas they had assimilated.

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  • Though this kindness towards the Germanic tribes was resented by the Romans, and in some cases ill requited, yet it may be said that it not only averted a great danger to the empire, but considerably strengthened Theodosius' army.

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  • The Germanic tribes moved on similar lines.

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  • After the conquest of the provinces by the Germanic invaders the Roman stock of coloni naturally combined with German tributary peasants to form medieval serfdom.

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  • May collection of works on the history of slavery, the Zarncke library, especially rich in Germanic philology and literature, the Eugene Schuyler collection of Slavic folk-lore, literature and history, the Willard Fiske Rhaeto-Romanic, Icelandic, Dante and Petrarch collections, and the Herbert H.

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  • As governor of Illyricum (17), he set the Germanic tribes against one another, and encouraged Catualda, chief of the Gothones, to drive out Marbod (Maroboduus), king of the Marcomanni.

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  • pp. 2 99 f.), though the word may have the same origin as the Ario- of names like Ariovistus, which is found in both Celtic and Germanic words (Uhlenbeck, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Warterbuch der altindischen Sprache, s.v.).

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  • In 1815 the king joined the Germanic Confederation, but the congress of Vienna made no change in the extent of his lands.

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  • For more than two centuries they had remained prudently entrenched behind the earthworks that extended from Cologne to Ratisbon (Regensburg); but the intestine feuds which prevailed among the barbarians and were fostered by Rome, the organizatipn under bold and turbulent chiefs of the bands greedy for booty, the pressing forward on populations already settled of tribes in their rear; all this caused the Germanic invasion to filter by degrees across the frontier.

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  • The capitals of these four kingsCharibert, who died in 567, Guntram, Sigebert and Chilpericwere Paris, Orleans, Reims and Soissons all near one another and north of the Loire, where the Germanic inhabitants predominated; but their respective boundaries were so confused that disputes were inevitable.

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  • Lot, Etudes sur le regne de Hugues Capet (Paris, 1903); Lesne, La Hierarchie episcopale en Gaule et Germanic (Paris, 1905); for the province of Tours and Le Mans: B.

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  • Wednesday was assigned to the planet Mercury, the equivalent of the Germanic god Woden; Thursday to Jupiter, the equivalent of Thor; and Friday to Friga, the goddess of love, who is represented by Venus among the Romans and among the Babylonians by Ishtar.

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  • He next entered upon campaigns against the Juthungi, Alamanni, and other Germanic tribes, over whom, after a severe defeat which was said to have imperilled the very existence of the empire, he at length obtained a complete victory.

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  • The region enclosed between the Rhine and the Waal and watered by the Linge is called the Betuwe ("good land"), and gave its name to the Germanic tribe of Batavians, who are sometimes wrongly regarded as the parent stock of the Dutch people.

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  • Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian Zollverein.

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  • Germanic male they are being sporting event the.

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  • Like modern German which comes from the same Germanic language family Old English is highly inflected.

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  • Bryson highlights the lunacy of applying Latin grammar to a Germanic language and the smug, slimy pedants it has given us.

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  • Bryson highlights the lunacy of applying Latin grammar to a Germanic language and the smug, slimy pedants it has given us.

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  • I joined the Department in 1990 after lecturing at Glasgow University where I taught Older and Modern Scots, Old English and Germanic philology.

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  • That the numerous Germanic tribes practiced human sacrifice in sacred groves is beyond doubt.

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  • In old Western Germanic it occurs, for instance, so early as from A.D.

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  • It is common to all Germanic languages; cf.

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  • In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.

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  • Eberian influence in the south-west, Ligurian on the shores of the Mediterranean, Germanic immigrations from east of the Rhine and Scandinavian immigrations in the north-west have tended to produce ethnographical diversities which ease of intercommunication and other modern conditions have failed to obliterate.

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  • The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.

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  • He found the country peopled partly by tribes of Gallo-Celtic, partly by tribes of Germanic stock, the river Rhine forming roughly the line of demarcation between the races.

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  • To the north of the Meuse, and more especially in the low-lying ground enclosed between the Waal and the Rhine (insula Batavorum) lived the Batavi, a clan of the great Germanic tribe, the Chatti.

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  • Eng., ac), a word found, variously modified, in all Germanic languages, and applied to plants of the genus Quercus, natural order Fagaceae (Cupuliferae of de Candolle), including some of the most important timber trees of the north temperate zone.

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  • wicu, Germanic *wikOn, probably = change, turn), the name given to periods of time, varying in length in different parts of the world, but shorter than a "month."

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  • Attempts have been made to show that they were of German origin (see Belgae), but although they were doubtless subject to Germanic influences, they spoke a Celtic language.

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  • Watson further brought out the striking fact that the west and east of Britain each had species peculiar to it; the former he characterized as Atlantic, the latter as Germanic. The Cornish heath (Erica vagans) and the maiden-hair fern (Adiantum CapillusVeneris) may serve as instances of the one, the man-orchis (Aceras anthropophora) and Reseda lutea of the other.

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  • By heating the metal with chlorine, germanic chloride, GeCl4, is obtained as a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 86-87° C., it is decomposed by water forming a hydrated germanium dioxide.

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  • Neilson in The Journal of Germanic Philology (iv.), the note by W.

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  • From 1860 to 1870 he was professor of history at the faculty of letters at Strassburg, where he had a brilliant career as a teacher, but never yielded to the influence exercised by the German universities in the field of classical and Germanic antiquities.

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  • The invasion of France by the German armies during the war of 1870-71 attracted his attention to the Germanic invasions under the Roman Empire.

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  • those on the Germanic mark and on the allodium and beneficium) were models of learning and sagacity, all were dominated by his general idea and characterized by a total disregard for the results of such historical disciplines as diplomatic. From this crucible issued an entirely new work, less well arranged than the original, but richer in facts and critical comments.

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  • The dissertations not embodied in his great work were collected by himself and (after his death) by his pupil, Camille Jullian, and published as volumes of miscellanies: Recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1885), dealing with the Roman colonate, the land system in Normandy, the Germanic mark, and the judiciary organization in the kingdom of the Franks; Nouvelles recherches sur quelques problemes d'histoire (1891); and Questions historiques (1893), which contains his paper on Chios and his thesis on Polybius.

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  • He was not himself a Goth, belonging to a confederation of Germanic tribes, embracing Alans and Scyrians, which had come under the influence of the Ostrogoths settled on the lower Danube; and his own sympathies are those of a member of this confederation.

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  • Originally Celtic, the population was modified during the Roman period by the arrival of a Germanic people, the Triboci.

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  • Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.

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  • The Emperor Francis renounced all claims to his former Netherland provinces, which had been occupied by the French since the summer of 1794; he further ceded the Breisgau to the dispossessed duke of Modena, agreed to summon a congress at Rastatt for the settlement of German affairs, and recognized the independence of the Cisalpine republic. In secret articles the emperor bound himself to use his influence at the congress of Rastatt in order to procure the cession to France of the Germanic lands west of the Rhine, while France promised to help him to acquire the archbishopric of Salzburg and a strip of land on the eastern frontier of Bavaria.

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  • Disregarding the neutrality of the Germanic System, Napoleon sent a strong French corps to overrun Hanover, while he despatched General Gouvion St Cyr to occupy Taranto and other dominating positions in the south-east of the kingdom of Naples.

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  • The tsar, as protector of the Germanic System, had already been so annoyed by the seizure of the duc d'Enghien on German territory, and by other high-handed actions against the Hanse cities, as to recall his ambassador from Paris.

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  • On the 17th of July Napoleon signed at Paris a decree that reduced to subservience the Germanic System, the chaotic weakness of which he had in 1797 foreseen to be highly favourable to France.

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  • When this consonantal u (English w as seen in words borrowed very early from Latin like wall and wine) passed into the sound of English v (labio-dental) is not certain, but Germanic words borrowed into Latin in the 5th century A.D.

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  • have in their Latin representation gu- for Germanic w-, guisa corresponding to English wise and reborrowed indirectly as guise.

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  • However, his title of grand-duke was confirmed, and as grandduke of Hesse and of the Rhine he entered the Germanic confederation.

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  • He manoeuvred so skilfully in the campaign against Radagaisus, who led a large force of various Germanic peoples into Italy in 405, that he surrounded the barbarian chieftain on the rocks of Fiesole near Florence and starved him into surrender.

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  • The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.

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  • After traversing Gaul he visited the Germanic provinces on the Rhine, and crossed over to Britain (spring, 122), where he built the great rampart from the Tyne to the Solway, which bears his name (see Britain: Roman).

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  • Afterwards it was inhabited by the Germanic Quadi, who accompanied the Vandals in their westward migration; and they were replaced in the 5th century by the Rugii and Heruli.

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  • GERMANIC LAWS Of those Germanic laws of the early middle ages which are known as leges barbarorum, we here deal with the principal examples other than Frankish, viz.

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  • For the whole body of the Germanic laws see P. Canciani, Barbarorum leges antiquae (Venice, 1781-1789); F.

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  • The compilers knew Roman law, but drew upon it only for their method of presentation and for their terminology; and the document presents Germanic law in its purity.

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  • 822 mm.), which is drawn by hand, and is preserved in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg.

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  • The name Franks seems to have been given in the 4th century to a group of Germanic peoples dwelling north of the Main and reaching as far as the shores of the North Sea; south of the Main was the home of the Alamanni.

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  • All these Germanic tribes, which were known from the 3rd century onwards by the generic name of Franks, doubtless spoke a similar dialect and were governed by customs which must scarcely have differed from one another; but this was all they had in common.

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  • The place-names became entirely Germanic; the Latin language disappeared; and the Christian religion suffered a check, for the Franks were to a man pagans.

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  • Also the articles SALIC LAW and GERMANIC LAWS, EARLY.

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  • There is, comparatively speaking, no great distance of time between the leges barbarorum and the Laws of Wales, while the contents of the latter show a similar, nay almost the same, idea of law as the former; and, apart from the fact that Wales became permanently connected at the end of the 13th century with a Teutonic people, the English, it has been noticed that in Wales Roman and Germanic, but no traces of a specific Welsh, law are found.

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  • Probably the Teutonic pressure began as early as the 4th century before Christ, and the history of the next few hundred years may be summed up as the gradual substitution of a Germanic for a Celtic population along the banks of the Rhine.

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  • The specimen in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg has two lions and a griffin.

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  • What is its position in the legal history of Germanic nations?

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  • The Salic Law is one of those early medieval Frankish laws which, with other early Germanic laws (see Germanic Laws), are known collectively as leges barbarorum.

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  • It originated with the Salian Franks, often simply called Salians, the chief of that conglomeration of Germanic peoples known as Franks.

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  • The Germanic tribes had no need to use the Latin language until they had coalesced with the Gallo-Roman population.

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  • The principle of personality, however, gradually gave way to that of territoriality; and in every district, at least north of the Loire, customs were formed in which were combined in varying proportions Roman law, ecclesiastical law and the various Germanic laws.

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  • Already in the Ripuarian Law the divergences from the old Germanic law are greater than in the Salic Law.

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  • Some writers regard them as a continuation of the Roman collegia and sodalitates, but there is little evidence to prove the unbroken continuity of existence of the Roman and Germanic fraternities.

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  • A more widely accepted theory derives gilds wholly or in part from the early Germanic or Scandinavian sacrificial banquets.

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  • Dr Max Pappenheim has ascribed the origin of Germanic gilds to the northern "fosterbrotherhood" or "sworn-brotherhood," which was an artificial bond of union between two or more persons.

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  • In many passages his work gives the impression of being not so much an imitation of the ancient Germanic epic, as a genuine example of it, though concerned with the deeds of other heroes than those of Germanic tradition.

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  • The romances of this cycle, of Germanic (Frankish) origin and developed probably in the north of France by the French (probably in the north of France) contain reminiscences of the heroes of the Merovingian period, and in their later development were influenced by the Arthurian cycle.

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  • The old electoral palace (1627-1678), a large building of red sandstone, now contains a valuable collection of Roman and Germanic antiquities, a picture gallery, a natural history museum, the Gutenberg Museum, and a library of 220,000 volumes.

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  • In 1815 Baden became a member of the Germanic confederation established by the Act of the 8th of June, annexed to the Final Act of the congress of Vienna of the 9th of June.

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  • The word, as applied to the animal here described, occurs in most Germanic and Romanic languages: German, marder; Dutch, marter; Swedish, mard; Danish, maar; English, marteron, martern, marten, martin and martlett; French, marte and martre; Italian, martora and martorella; Spanish and Portuguese, marta.

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  • In the course of the 7th century Benedictine life was gradually introduced in Gaul,and in the 8th it was carried into the Germanic lands from England.

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  • Besides the general indication that the Empire was passing through a military crisis, which points to the long struggle waged by Marcus Aurelius against the Marcomanni and other Germanic tribes, there is a reference (Contra Celsum, viii.

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  • They can be explained, partly by the origin of the State - for the most part through a voluntary union of countries possessed by a strong sense of their own individuality - partly by the influence in Austria of the Germanic spirit, well understood by the Slays, which has nothing of the Latin tendency to reduce all questions of administration to clear-cut formulae as part of a logically consistent system.

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  • The predominance of Germanic influence in the city is evidenced by at least 75 musical clubs and numerous Turnverein societies.

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  • At the end of the 6th century all the provinces of the Empire had become independent kingdoms, in which conquerors of Germanic race formed the dominant nationality., The remnants of the Empire showed an uncommonly tough vitality.

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  • The continuity of the political history of Europe was violently interrupted by the Germanic invasion, but not that of the history of the Church.

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  • In these circumstances the intrusion of Germanic elements into ecclesiastical law is easy to understand.

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  • In the Empire all churches, and all the property of the Church, were at the disposal of the bishops; in Germanic countries, on the contrary, the territorial nobles were looked upon as the owners of churches built upon their lands, and these became " proprietary churches."

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  • This transformation of old institutions is the first great result of Germanic influence in the Christian Church.

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  • Thus the Germanic element in the law regarding appointment to bishoprics was eliminated.

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  • Since the time of Charlemagne Germanic influence had preponderated in the West, as is shown in the expansion of the Church no less than in matters of ecclesiastical law.

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  • The Czechoslovaks have constituted a considerable army, fighting on three different battle-fields and attempting, in Russia and Siberia, to arrest the Germanic invasion.

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  • He subdued also the Germanic tribes; annexed Frisia, where Christianity was beginning to make progress; put an end to the duchy of Alemannia; intervened in the internal affairs of the dukes of Bavaria; made expeditions into Saxony; and in 738 compelled some of the Saxon tribes to pay him tribute.

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  • This appears to be the great Celtic measure, as opposed to the old English, or Germanic, mile.

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  • With the exception of his description of the French Revolution, which was chiefly a political manifesto, all his early works refer to the middle ages - De La feodalite, des institutions de Saint Louis et de l'influence de la legislation de ce prince (1822); La Germanic au vin e et au ix' siecle, sa conversion au christianisme, et son introduction dans la societe civilisee de l'Europe occidentale (1834); Essai sur la formation territoriale et politique de la France depuis la fin du xi e siècle jusqu'et la fin du xv e (1836); all of these are rough sketches showing only the outlines of the subject.

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  • Teutonic (Germanic) Languages >>

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  • At length, however, he was abandoned by the Germanic court and deposed by a council held at Mantua; and Alexander's position remained unchallenged.

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  • It is to be observed that the term " Teutonic " is of scholastic and not of popular origin, and this is true also of the other terms (" Germanic," " Gothic," &c.) which are or have been used in the same sense.

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  • Gummere, Germanic Origins (New York, 1892); K.

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  • The papacy of that time believed in the political unity of Islam, in a solidarity - which did not exist - among the Mussulmans of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and the Barbary coasts; and if it waited until the year 1095 to carry out this project, it was because the conflict with the Germanic Empire prevented the earlier realization of its dream.

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  • Until the accession of Adrian IV., however, there had been considerable periods of tran- German quillity, years even of unbroken peace and alliance E with the Germanic power.

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  • lacked vigour, and their pontificates were too brief to allow them to pursue a strong policy against the Germanic The Papacy imperialism.

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  • germanic. i.

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  • It lived to flourish anew among the Germanic tribes at the time of the great migrations.

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  • BASTARNAE, the easternmost people of the Germanic race, the first to come into contact with the ancient world and the Sla y s.

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  • Other noteworthy buildings are the provincial museum of antiquities, containing interesting Germanic antiquities, as well as medieval and modern collections of porcelain, pictures, &c.; the courts of justice (transformed in the middle of the 18th century); the old Ommelanderhuis, formerly devoted to the administration of the surrounding district, built in 1509 and restored in 1899; the weigh-house (1874); the civil and military prison; the arsenal; the military hospital; and the concert hall.

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  • On the right bank of the Rhine, between the Main and the Lahn, were the settlements of the Mattiaci, a branch of the Germanic Chat ti, while farther to the north were the Usipetes and Tencteri.

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  • Germany, and the Germanic peoples, take slightly more per person, but the statistics are rather indefinite.

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  • A mythology reminiscent of Italy is the "Hercules and the Stymphalian Birds" in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg, founded directly upon the "Hercules and Centaur Nessus" of Pollaiuolo, now at New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A. Of portraits, besides that of his father already mentioned as done in 1497, there is his own of 1498 at Madrid.

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  • - To the Germanic religions the pilgrimage is unknown.

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  • The young Germanic and Romance nations did precisely as the Greek and Romans had done before them, and the m otives.

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  • The University publishes Bulletins of the Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations; Reports of the State Water Survey, of the State Natural History Survey, of the State Geological Survey, and of the State Entomologist's Office; University Studies; and The Journal of English and Germanic Philology.

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  • Three main periods - the Oriental, the Classical and the Germanic - in which respectively the single despot, the dominant order, and the man as man possess freedom - constitute the history of the world.

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  • Kindred economic conditions prevailed in all the former provinces of the Western empire, while new law concepts were everywhere introduced by the Germanic invaders.

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  • Most of these had never been entirely destroyed during the Germanic invasion.

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  • Hence the terms "burgh," "borough" in English, baurgs in Gothic, the earliest Germanic designations for a town; "burgher," "burgess" for its inhabitants.

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  • Roman law, however, was never quite superseded by Germanic law, as appears from the statuts municipaux.

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  • But in 1815 the Germanic confederation (Deutscher Bund) was established by the congress of Vienna, which in its turn has been displaced by the present German empire.

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  • The Germanic invaders came from no settled state; they maintained loosely, and but for a short while, any form of brotherhood with the allied tribes.

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  • His French thesis for the doctorate of letters, Etude sur les pamphlets politiques et religieux de Milton (1848), showed that he was attracted towards foreign history, a study for which he soon qualified himself by mastering the Germanic and Scandinavian languages.

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  • The original Germanic inhabitants of Rugen were dispossessed by Sla y s; and there are still various relics of the long reign of paganism that ensued.

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  • In a paper published in the volume of Philologische Studien, presented as a " Festgabe " to Professor Sievers in 1896, and in a second paper in the Journal of Germanic Philology, ii.

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  • The epic of Beowulf, the most precious relic of Old English, and, indeed, of all early Germanic literature, has come down to us in a single MS., written about A.D.

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  • There are, however, many other episodes that have nothing to do with Beowulf himself, but seem to have been inserted with a deliberate intention of making the poem into a sort of cyclopaedia of Germanic tradition.

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  • However detrimental these redundancies may be to the poetic beauty of the epic, they add enormously to its interest for students of Germanic history or legend.

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  • The criticism of the Old English epic has therefore for nearly a century been justly regarded as indispensable to the investigation of Germanic antiquities.

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  • The forms of the Danish king's name given by the Frankish historians are corruptions of the name of which the primitive Germanic form was Hugilaikaz, and which by regular phonetic change became in Old English Hygelac, and in Old Norse Hugleikr.

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  • The notion that ancient burial mounds were liable to be inhabited by dragons was common in the Germanic world: there is perhaps a trace of it in the Derbyshire place-name Drakelow, which means " dragon's barrow."

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  • The minstrel of early Germanic times was required to be learned not only in the traditions of his own people, but also in those of the other peoples with whom they felt their kinship. He had a double task to perform.

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  • It had been long preparing in the economic and administrative decline of the Empire, and in the steady influx of Germanic peoples into Roman territory for over two centuries; but the power of the old civilization to absorb the new races was exhausted by the 5th century, and the political history of Europe was turned into a different path.

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  • The Germanic tribes were still adjusting themselves and slowly learning to combine their primitive institutions with the remains of those of Rome; the premature union under Charlemagne gave way before new invasions, and anarchy became crystallized in feudalism.

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  • In legal history there was a distinct medieval period, when Germanic customs superseded Roman law, that most splendid of Rome's legacies.

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  • The process was completed by the misery of the decaying empire, and by the Germanic invasions.

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  • The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.

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  • The Germanic national museum, established in an old Carthusian monastery, has developed into one of the largest and most important institutions of its kind in Germany.

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  • The observations of Spruce are of themselves almost conclusive as to the possibility of Europeans becoming acclimatized in the tropics; and if it is objected that this evidence applies only to the dark-haired southern races, we are fortunately able to point to facts, almost equally well authenticated and conclusive, in the case of one of the typical Germanic races.

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  • Remigius and Maxentius, now lost; on the annals of Arles and Angers, now lost; and on legends, either collected by Gregory himself from oral tradition, or cantilenes or epics written in the Latin and Germanic languages.

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  • The Indo-European or Indo-Germanic languages are divided by Brugmann into (1) Aryan, with sub-branches (a) Indian, (b) Iranian; (2) Armenian; (3) Greek; (4) Albanian; (~) Italic; (6) Celtic; (7) Germanic, with sub-branches (a) Gothic, (b) Scandinavian, (c) West Germanic; and (8) Balto-Slavonic. (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the Asiatic base-language) is subdivided into (1) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages, (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN) Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian.

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  • The congress of Vienna in 1815 had declared that that country should form part of the newly formed Germanic Confederation; this was done without consulting the estates of the country, as had been customary even after the battle of the White Hill on the occasion of serious constitutional changes.

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  • The last transaction in which Palmerston engaged arose out of the attack by the Germanic Confederation, and its leading states Austria and Prussia, on the kingdom of Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

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  • There he can reconstruct the splendour of that Minoan age to which Homeric poems look back, as the Germanic epics looked back to Rome or Verona.

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  • Hence the latest of the conquerors, the Saxon and other Germanic tribes, obtained an easy mastery, and spread over the whole country, holding their own against marauding Northmen, except on the northern part of the east coast; and even after the political conquest by the Normans, continuing to form the great mass of the population, though influenced not a little by the fresh blood and new ideas they had assimilated.

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  • Though this kindness towards the Germanic tribes was resented by the Romans, and in some cases ill requited, yet it may be said that it not only averted a great danger to the empire, but considerably strengthened Theodosius' army.

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  • The Germanic tribes moved on similar lines.

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  • After the conquest of the provinces by the Germanic invaders the Roman stock of coloni naturally combined with German tributary peasants to form medieval serfdom.

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  • May collection of works on the history of slavery, the Zarncke library, especially rich in Germanic philology and literature, the Eugene Schuyler collection of Slavic folk-lore, literature and history, the Willard Fiske Rhaeto-Romanic, Icelandic, Dante and Petrarch collections, and the Herbert H.

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  • As governor of Illyricum (17), he set the Germanic tribes against one another, and encouraged Catualda, chief of the Gothones, to drive out Marbod (Maroboduus), king of the Marcomanni.

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  • pp. 2 99 f.), though the word may have the same origin as the Ario- of names like Ariovistus, which is found in both Celtic and Germanic words (Uhlenbeck, Kurzgefasstes etymologisches Warterbuch der altindischen Sprache, s.v.).

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  • In 1815 the king joined the Germanic Confederation, but the congress of Vienna made no change in the extent of his lands.

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  • For more than two centuries they had remained prudently entrenched behind the earthworks that extended from Cologne to Ratisbon (Regensburg); but the intestine feuds which prevailed among the barbarians and were fostered by Rome, the organizatipn under bold and turbulent chiefs of the bands greedy for booty, the pressing forward on populations already settled of tribes in their rear; all this caused the Germanic invasion to filter by degrees across the frontier.

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  • The capitals of these four kingsCharibert, who died in 567, Guntram, Sigebert and Chilpericwere Paris, Orleans, Reims and Soissons all near one another and north of the Loire, where the Germanic inhabitants predominated; but their respective boundaries were so confused that disputes were inevitable.

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  • Lot, Etudes sur le regne de Hugues Capet (Paris, 1903); Lesne, La Hierarchie episcopale en Gaule et Germanic (Paris, 1905); for the province of Tours and Le Mans: B.

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  • The Leges Wisi got horuni were elaborated in these councils (see GERMANIC LAW).

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  • Wednesday was assigned to the planet Mercury, the equivalent of the Germanic god Woden; Thursday to Jupiter, the equivalent of Thor; and Friday to Friga, the goddess of love, who is represented by Venus among the Romans and among the Babylonians by Ishtar.

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  • He next entered upon campaigns against the Juthungi, Alamanni, and other Germanic tribes, over whom, after a severe defeat which was said to have imperilled the very existence of the empire, he at length obtained a complete victory.

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  • The region enclosed between the Rhine and the Waal and watered by the Linge is called the Betuwe ("good land"), and gave its name to the Germanic tribe of Batavians, who are sometimes wrongly regarded as the parent stock of the Dutch people.

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  • Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian Zollverein.

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  • That the numerous Germanic tribes practiced human sacrifice in sacred groves is beyond doubt.

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  • Germanic nudism was a proletarian movement, mostly communitarian and ascetic in style.

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  • Although Pudor, for example, was overtly anti-Semitic, Karl Toepfer warns that there was no "deep, inherent connection" between Germanic body culture and Nazism (p. 9).

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  • Nakedness is the older word, coming from the Germanic family of languages.

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  • "Thor's Oak" of Scandinavian mythology and "Yggdrasil," the "Tree of Life," of the early Germanic tribes closely resemble the modern Christmas tree.

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  • Legend says that he was preaching to a group of Germanic Druids and wanted to prove to them that nature isn't sacred.

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  • Early Germanic people honored Hertha, the Norse goddess of the home, by baking yeast cakes filled with gifts to distribute among the household.

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  • The first known use of this triangle-shaped knot is on runestones and early Germanic coins, but this type of knot was really immortalized in the Book of Kells, an ornately illustrated religious text from about 800 AD.

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  • In many of the old Germanic languages, the word for man sounds very similar, for instance, Gothic wair, Old Norse verr and High German wer.

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  • Some Germanic cultures believed that the werewolf could be cured by a sort of exorcism, and in medieval Europe, many believed that converting to Christianity was a cure.

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  • While elves are considered creatures of folklore and myth today by most cultures, the Norse, and later Germanic cultures, believed that these creatures were more than just imagination.

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  • Tolkien used many of the original Norse and Germanic legends and incorporated them into his fiction.

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  • However, the concept of small, mythical creatures called "elves" originated from Norse and Germanic mythology and legend.

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  • While texts of Norse and Germanic texts mention them briefly, fictional stories elaborate a great deal more to the point where few people know where the myth ends and the fiction begins.

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  • Germanic mythology mentions young, beautiful men and women living in the forests, called wood elves.

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  • In Ulfilas' Gothic version of the Bible, the earliest extant literary monument of the Germanic languages, the Syrophoenician woman (Mark vii.

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  • Eberian influence in the south-west, Ligurian on the shores of the Mediterranean, Germanic immigrations from east of the Rhine and Scandinavian immigrations in the north-west have tended to produce ethnographical diversities which ease of intercommunication and other modern conditions have failed to obliterate.

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  • The tall, fair and blue-eyed individuals who are found to the north-east of the Seine and in Normandy appear to be nearer in race to the Scandinavian and Germanic invaders; a tall and darker type with long faces and aquiline noses occurs in some parts of Franche-Co1nt and Champagne, the Vosges and the Perche.

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  • He found the country peopled partly by tribes of Gallo-Celtic, partly by tribes of Germanic stock, the river Rhine forming roughly the line of demarcation between the races.

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  • To the north of the Meuse, and more especially in the low-lying ground enclosed between the Waal and the Rhine (insula Batavorum) lived the Batavi, a clan of the great Germanic tribe, the Chatti.

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  • Decaisne, who made the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as to form now six races: (I) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising P. Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis.

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  • When this consonantal u (English w as seen in words borrowed very early from Latin like wall and wine) passed into the sound of English v (labio-dental) is not certain, but Germanic words borrowed into Latin in the 5th century A.D.

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  • have in their Latin representation gu- for Germanic w-, guisa corresponding to English wise and reborrowed indirectly as guise.

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  • However, his title of grand-duke was confirmed, and as grandduke of Hesse and of the Rhine he entered the Germanic confederation.

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