How to use Geological in a sentence
They were beautiful and tiny, some sort of geological anomaly.
Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.
Scientific exploration began in 1849, and systematic geological investigation about 1875.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies.
The discovery of a single fossil creature in a geological stratum of a wrong period, the detection of a single anatomical or physiological fact irreconcilable with origin by descent with modification, would have been destructive of the theory and would have made the reputation of the observer.Advertisement
I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.
Both Darwin and Wallace lay great stress on the close relation which obtains between the existing fauna of any region and that of the immediately antecedent geological epoch in the same region; and rightly, for it is in truth inconceivable that there should be no genetic connexion between the two.
E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.
Aichino, of the Geological Survey of Italy, will be found in the Enciclopedia delle arte e industrie (Turin, 1898).Advertisement
Little is known of the early geological history of Asia beyond the fact that a large part of the continent was covered by the sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods.
Farther south, in the Chinese provinces of Shansi and Shensi, the geological succession is similar in some respects to that of the Siberian Palaeozoic plateau, but the sequence is more complete.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
In a more restricted sense it is used to connote certain thin layers of bony fragments, which occur upon welldefined geological horizons.
It is noteworthy that a similar bone bed has been traced on the same geological horizon in Brunswick, Hanover and Franconia.Advertisement
These highlands exhibit very considerable evidences of volcanic activity both in remote geological periods and also since the Tertiary epoch.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
Further details of the geological history of the Hexapoda will be found in the special articles on the various orders.
Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.).Advertisement
It is certain that in previous geological ages Lake Baikal had a much greater extension.
Bitumen is, in its various forms, one of the most widel y -distributed of substances, occurring in strata of every geological age, from the lowest Archean rocks to those now in process of deposition, and in greater or less quantity throughout both hemispheres, from Spitzbergen to New Zealand, and from California to Japan.
It had already been understood that the various genera of the Ratitae were the representatives of so many different groups, each of which was at least equivalent to ordinal rank, and that therefore, if the Ratitae were still to be considered a natural group, this common ancestry must be referred to a remote geological epoch.
He then settled for some years as a medical practitioner at Penzance; there geology engaged his particular attention, and he became secretary of the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall.
The geological surveys of Great Britain and Ireland were connected from 1832 to 1853 with the ordnance survey, but are now carried on independently.Advertisement
The map produced on this large scale numbers over 5000 sheets, and is used as a basis for the geological surveys carried on in several of the states of Germany.
Powell, rightly conceived that it was necessary to produce good topographical maps before a geological survey could be pursued with advantage.
In extent, in altitude, in mass, in complexity and in geological interest, it is much the most important of the three systems. Almost all the mountains are very bold.
Daly estimates that the maximum lowering of ocean level due to this cause would only amount to 36 fathoms, but even that would be the cause of very marked geological effects.
Although rocks wholly or in large part vitreous are known from very ancient geological systems, such as the Devonian, they are certainly most frequent in recent volcanic countries.
These trenches have for successive geological periods been the drainage valleys of immense lakes (probably also of glaciers) which formerly extended over the plateau or fiords of the seas which surrounded it.
Galena occurs in veins in the Cambrian clay-slate, accompanied by copper and iron pyrites, zinc-blende, quartz, calcspar, iron-spar, &c.; also in beds or nests within sandstones and rudimentary limestones, and in a great many other geological formations.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
The theory has not found general acceptance, but it proved of great value to geological science, owing to the extensive additions to the knowledge of the structure of mountain ranges which its author made in endeavouring to find facts to support it.
Probably, however, the best service Elie de Beaumont rendered to science was in connexion with the geological map of France, in the preparation of which he had the leading share.
Brazil is a region which has been free from violent disturbances since an early geological period.
In 1875 a geological commission was organized under the direction of Professor Charles Frederick Hartt, but it was disbanded two years later.
C. White, of the U.S. Geological Survey, who found strata of fairly good coal at depths of 100 to 200 ft.
The general geological structure of Natal and Zululand is simple.
Wollaston became a member of the Geological Society of London in 1812, and served frequently %I the Council and for some time as a vice-president.
Associated with Ray in his work, and more especially occupied with the study of the Worms and Mollusca, was Martin Lister (1638-1712), celebrated also as the author of the first geological map.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
At that time, recent from a geological standpoint, the valley to the north, through which now flows the Semliki river, was blocked.
The Rhine connects the highest Alps with the mud banks of Holland, and touches in its course the most varied geological periods; but the river valley itself is, geologically speaking, of comparatively recent formation.
London lies within the geological area known as the London basin.
The he Board of Education directly administers the following educational institutions - the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington, with its branch at Bethnal Green, from both of which objects are lent to various institutions for educational purposes; the Royal College of Science, South Kensington, with which is incorporated the Royal School of Mines; the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom and the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street; the Solar Physics Observatory, South Kensington; and the Royal College of Art, South Kensington.
Burlington House, in Piccadilly, built in 1872 on the site of a mansion of the earls of Burlington, houses the Royal Society, the Chemical, Geological, Linnaean and Royal Astronomical Societies, the Society of Antiquaries and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which the annual meetings take place at different British or colonial towns in succession.
The prospector is guided in his search by a knowledge of the geological conditions under which useful minerals occur.
A similar condition of strain has been observed in deep mines in different parts of the world - perhaps due to geological movements.
His leisure was dedicated to geological researches in the papal states.
The geological formation of the soil belongs to the Quaternary and Pliocene period in its upper strata, and to the Eocene and Cretaceous in the lower.
An analysis of the innumerable outbreaks in various parts of Europe indicates that the geological features of the affected districts play a less important part in the incidence of the disease than soil dampness.
The imperial natural history museum contains a mineralogical, geological and zoological section, as well as a prehistoric and ethnographical collection.
Not far from these ancient monuments is the new Raetian Museum, which contains a great collection of objects relating to Raetia (including the geological collections of the Benedictine monk of Disentis, Placidus a Spescha (1752-1833), who explored the high snowy regions around the sources of the Rhine).
The coast has been upraised from the ocean at no very distant geological epoch, and is nearly as destitute of vegetation as the Coast.
Thus the orographical features of the country correspond broadly with the geological divisions.
Shaler, Geology of Nantucket (Washington, 1889), being U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, No.
Hence the mountain has served as a type for the general popular conception of a volcano, and its history has supplied a large part of the information on which geological theories of volcanic action have been based.
From the geological formation here the name Trenton is applied to the upper series of the Ordovician (or Lower Silurian) system, and, particularly, to the lowest stage of this series.
Nelson Dale, The Chief Commercial Granites of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island (Ibid., 1908), being Bulletin 354 of the U.S. Geological Survey.
The igneous rocks occur at several geological horizons, but the great volcanic eruptions did not begin until the Tertiary period.
In 1761 he went to England, where for a year he devoted himself to a thorough study of the collections and to a geological investigation of part of the coast; and at the age of twenty-three he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Society.
By reason of its unusual geological character and great economic importance this district deserves a more extended description.
But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wahlenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system.
These were formed in different geological ages by the gulf, which had in historical times receded to a distance of 14 m.
The people are industrious, and devote themselves to agriculture, but from the geological structure of the country, and from the insecurity of property, regular husbandry is limited to comparatively few spots.
The geological " Great Fault " stretches from sea to sea at the foot of these hills.
To mineralogy he was likewise attracted, and he was one of the founders of the Geological Society of London, 1807, and honorary secretary, 1812-1817.
The geological formations thus exposed show that the plateaus are composed of a base of eruptive material, overlaid by enormous deposits of reddish sandstones, conglomerates and quartzites, exposed in parts to a depth of 2000 feet.
Lyell demonstrated to the satisfaction, or - perhaps it should rather be said - to the dissatisfaction, of his contemporaries that the story of the geological ages as recorded in the strata of the earth becomes intelligible only when vast stretches of time are presupposed.
The result of the contest was never in doubt, however, for the geological evidence, once it had been gathered, was unequivocal; and by about the middle of the century it was pretty generally admitted that the age of the earth must be measured by an utterly different standard from that hitherto in vogue.
On the south of the plateau we find a similar succession of narrow valleys dividing parallel flexures, or anticlinals, formed under similar geological conditions to those which appear to be universally applicable to the Himalaya, the Hindu Kush, and the Indus frontier mountain systems. From one of these long lateral valleys the Hari Rud receives its principal tributary, which joins the main river below Obeh, 180 m.
It occurs in such abundance in certain geological formations as to give rise to the name of green-sand.
Geologists are agreed that littoral and hemipelagic deposits similar to those now forming are to be found in all geological systems, but the existence in the rocks of eupelagic deposits and especially of the abysmal red clay, though viewed by some as probable, is totally denied by others.
The classification of the different kinds of coal may be considered from various points of view, such as their chemical composition, their behaviour when subjected to heat aa s sifica= or when burnt, and their geological position and iron.
Lignites, as a rule, are generally found in strata of a newer geological age, but there are many instances of perfect coals being found in such strata.
The subsequent change of peaty substance into coal is probably due to geological causes, i.e.
The Coal Measures which form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries north of the equator.
The uppermost portion of the Coal Measures consists of red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation between the two formations.
In connexion with the re-survey in greater detail of the coalfields by the Geological Survey a series of descriptive memoirs were undertaken, those on the North Staffordshire and Leicestershire fields, and nine parts dealing with that of South Wales, having appeared by the beginning of 1908.
The Rhenish-Westphalian coalfield was fully described in all details, geological, technical and economic, in a work called Die Entwickelung des niederrheinisch-westfcilischen Steinkohlen Bergbaues in der zweiten Hcilfte des 19 ten Jahrhunderts (also known by the short title of Sammelwerk) in twelve quarto volumes, issued under the auspices of the Westphalian Coal Trade Syndicate (Berlin, 1902-1905).
Much important information on American coals will be found in the three volumes of Reports on the Coal Testing Plant at the St Louis Exhibition, published by the United States Geological Survey in 1906.
The country is essentially a highland tract, divided naturally into three distinct portions, differing in their superficial aspects, the character of their soil and their geological formation.
In this industry, as in the manufacture of cotton goods, Massachusetts has long been without serious rivalry; Brockton, Lynn, The Green Schists and Associated Granites and Porphyries of Rhode Island, Bulletin, U.S. Geological Survey, No.
The Mexican Geographical Society (Sociedad mexicana de geografia y estadistica), founded in 1833, has rendered invaluable services in the work of exploration and publication; there are also the Geological Society, the Association of Engineers and Architects, and the Society of Natural History.
The geological formation is Devonian.
The accidental use of a single name, America, for the pair of continents that has a greater extension from north to south than any other continuous land area of the globe, has had some recent justification, since the small body of geological opinion has turned in favour of the theory of the tetrahedral deformation of the earth's crust as affording explanation of the grouping of continents and oceans.
There seems to be, however, not a unity but a duality in its plan of construction, for the two parts, North and South America, resemble each other not only in outline but, roughly speaking, in geological evolution also; and the resemblances thus discovered are the more remarkable when it is considered how extremely small is the probability that among all the possible combinations of ancient mountain systems, modern mountain systems and plains, two continents out of five should present so many points of correspondence.
Indeed, some of the chief contrasts of the two continents arise not so much from geological unlikeness as from their unsymmetrical situation with respect to the equator, whereby the northern one lies mostly in the temperate zone, while the southern one lies mostly in the torrid zone.
If the symmetry that is so noticeable in geological history had extended to climate as well, many geographical features might now present likenesses instead of contrasts.
PreColumbian or pre-historic material is further classified into that which had been used by Indians before the discovery, and such as is claimed to be of a prior geological period.
Algonquin-Iroquois Canada, thanks to the Geological Survey and the Department of Education in Ontario, has revealed old Indian camps, mounds and earthworks along the northern drainage of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and pottery in a curved line from Montreal to Lake of the Woods.
Within a recent geological period, central Aragon was undoubtedly submerged by the sea, and the parched chalky soil remains saturated with salt, while many of the smaller streams run brackish.
The singular fact of the existence of animals so closely allied as the Malayan and the American tapirs in such distant regions of the earth and in no intervening places is accounted for by the geological history of the race, for the tapirs once had a very wide distribution.
Phosphatic nodules and concretions, with phosphatized fossils and their casts, occur at various geological horizons in Great Britain.
Strutt has found that phosphatized nodules and bones are rich in radioactive constituents, and has brought this into relation with their geological age.
He also wrote essays and prepared maps on the geology of Seine et Marne and Seine et Oise for the Geological Survey of France (1844).
Unlike Australia, its geological structure is unusually varied, and owing to its instability, it includes, for its size, an unusually complete series of marine sedimentary rocks.
The physical geography of New Zealand is closely connected with its geological structure, and is dominated by two intersecting lines of mountains and earth movements.
The destruction of the forest is telling fatally on the ' See the geological map of New Zealand by Sir James Hector (1884).
A brief sketch of its geological history is given by Hutton, Trans.
Fullest information about the geology of New Zealand is given in the Reports of Geological Explorations issued by the Geological Survey of New Zealand, and the Annual Reports of the mines department.
America, he made observations on the geology, published by the Geological Society in 1860.
Staffordshire, the diorites of Warwickshire, the phonolite of the Wolf Rock (to which he first directed attention), the pitchstones of Arran and the altered igneous rocks near the Land's End were investigated and described by him during the years1869-1879in the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society and in the Geological Magazine.
In that year the Lyell medal was awarded to him by the Geological Society.
In the Great Plains region the geological structure is very simple, consisting of nearly horizontal strata of Cretaceous rock in the middle and western portions, and of Tertiary rock on the eastern border, but in the mountain region the rocks have been folded and faulted until the structure is intricate and obscure.
It has a geological and mineralogical museum and under its supervision is carried on the state geological and natural history survey, the state geologist being head of the department of geology and mineralogy of the university.
In 1820-23 he sent out at his own expense i Professors Amos Eaton (1776-1842) and Edward Hitchcock to make extensive surveys, results of which were published as An Agricultural and Geological Survey of the District adjoining the Erie Canal (Albany, 1824).
He was awarded the Lyell medal by the Geological Society in 1876, and was made Hon.
The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man.
Maastricht contains the provincial archives, a library and geological collections.
In recent times many interesting geological and anthropological investigations have been carried on in Poland.
Slates belong mostly to the older geological systems, being commonest in Pre-Cambrian, Cambrian and Silurian districts, though they may be found of Carboniferous or even of Tertiary age, where mountain-building processes have folded and compressed these more recent formations.
There are ancient rocks, however, in New Caledonia, which .has a geological affinity with New Zealand; old sedimentary rocks are known in New Pomerania, besides granite and porphyry, and slates, sandstone and chalk occur in Fiji, as well as young volcanic rocks.
He was a fellow of the Royal, Linnean and Geological Societies.
Costa Rica is not differentiated from the neighbouring lands by any very, marked peculiarities of geological formation, or of plant and animal life.
Of cannel coal Kentucky is the largest producer in the Union, its output for 1902 being 65,317 short tons, and, according to state reports, for 1903, 72,856 tons (of which 46,314 tons were from Morgan county), and for 1904, 68,400 tons (of which 52,492 tons were from Morgan county); according to the Mineral Resources of the United States for 1907 (published by the United States Geological Survey) the production of Kentucky in 1907 of cannel coal (including 4650 tons of semi-cannel coal) was 77,733 tons, and exclusive of semi-cannel coal the output of Kentucky was much larger than that of any other state.
In 1905 the value of natural cement manufactured in the state (according to the United States Geological Survey) was only $83,000.
Fordescriptionsof physical featuresand accounts of natural resources see Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, the Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, the Reports of the United States Census and various publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, and other publications listed in Bulletin 301 (Bibliography and Index of North American Geology for 1901-1905) and other bibliographies of the Survey.
Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817), the famous exponent of the aqueous theory of earth formation, observed in successive geological formations the gradual approach to the forms of existing species.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
James Hutton (1726-1797) had set forth (1788) the principle that during all geological time there has been no essential change in the character of events, and that uniformity of law is perfectly consistent with mutability in the results.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
Thus all recent discovery tends to carry the centres of origin and of dispersal of all animal types farther and farther back in geological time.
Gregory (Climatic Variations, their Extent and Causes, International Geological Congress, Mexico, 1906), who holds that the extent of climatic changes in past times has been greatly exaggerated.
It is certainly a very striking fact that wherever we have been able to trace genetic series, either of invertebrates or vertebrates, in closely sequent geological horizons, or life zones, we find strong proof of evolution through extremely gradual mutation simultaneously affecting many parts of each organism, as set forth above.
Williams observes (Geological Biology, p. 268) that the evolution of those fundamental characters which mark differences between separate classes, orders, sub-orders, and even families of organisms, took place in relatively short periods of time.
Such sudden appearances may be demonstrated possibly in zoology and embryology but never can be demonstrated by palaeontology, because of the incompleteness of the geological record.
The geological formation is principally of volcanic rocks, with schists and tertiary limestone; and an early physical connexion of the islands with New Zealand is indicated by their geology and biology.
Mexican coal is of a low grade - similar to that found in Texas, but as an official geological report of 1908 estimates the supply in sight at 300,000,000 tons its industrial value to the country cannot be considered inferior to that of the precious metals.
An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1909 finds that the crude Mexican oils are of low grade, but that while not equal to those found in the upper Mississippi basin for refining purposes, they furnish an excellent fuel for railway engines and other industrial purposes.
In early geological times the sequoias occupied a far more important place in the vegetation of the earth.
The northern boundary, after an arbitrary beginning, finds a natural extension along the Great Lakes, and thence continues along the 49th parallel of north latitude to the Pacific (see Bulletin 171, U.S. Geological Survey).
The aboriginal occupants of the greater part of North America were comparatively few in number, and except in Mexico were not advanced beyond the savage state, The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
These large divisions need physiographic subdivision, which will now be made, following the guide of structure, process and stage; that is, each subdivision or province will be defined as part of the earths crust in which some similarity of geological structure prevails, and upon which some process or processes of surface sculpture have worked long enough to reach a certain stage in the cycle of physiographic development.
The erosion of the region must have been far advanced, perhaps practically completed, in very ancient times, for the even surface of the peneplain is overlapped by fossiliferous marine strata of early geological date (Cambrian); and this shows that a depression of the region beneath an ancient sea took place after a long existence as dry land.
The strata are the deposits of an ancient sea, which in the earlier stage of geological investigation was thought to be part of the primeval ocean, while the Laurentian highlands were taken to be the first land that rose from the primeval waters.
An important geological characteristic of most of the Cordilferan region is that the Carboniferous strata, which in western Europe and the eastern United States contain many coal seams, are represented in the western United States by a marine limestone; and that the important unconformity which in Europe and the eastern United States separates the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic eras does not occur in the western United States, where the formations over a great area follow in conformable sequence from early Palaeozoic through the Mesozoic.
The careful study of these fluvial formations is likely to throw much light on the history of the deformative movements and changes in topography in the United States during the late stages of geological history.
Reports of state geological surveys have been published by most of the states east of the Missouri river, and some of those farther west (California, Washington, Kansas, Nebraska and Wyoming) and south (Arkansas, Texas and Louisiana).
Among the more important periodicals are the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America (Rochester, N.Y., 1889 seq.); the American Journal of Science (New Haven, Conn., 1818 seq.); the American Geologist (Minneapolis, i888 seq.); Journal of Geology (Chicago, 1893 seq.); Economic Geology (Lancaster, Pa., 1905 seq.).
The development of the coal and iron interests, and the increasing importance of the gold product of the Appalachian auriferous belt, and also of the lead product of the Mississippi Valley, led to a more general and decided interest in geology and mining; and about 1830 geological surveys of several of the Atlantic states were begun, and more systematic explorations for the ores of the metals, as well as for coal, were carried on over all parts of the country then open to settlement.
Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.
Oil was produced in 1908 in sixteen states., This productive area is divided by the United States Geological Survey into six fields (in addition to some scattering states) with reference to the quality of oil that they produce, such quality determining their uses.
The geological conditions of the different fields, and the details of the composition of the oils yielded, are exceedingly varied, and their study has been little more than begun In 1859 when the total output of the country is supposed to have been only 2000 barrels of oil, production was confined to Pennsylvania and New York.
The production of aluminium rose from 83 lb in 1883 to 7,500,000 lb in 1903, and a consumption (the Geological Survey not reporting the production) of 17,211,000 lb in 1907.
In the United States the principal matters in this department are the management of the public lands, the conduct of Indian affairs, the issue of patents, the administration of pension laws, of the national census and of the geological survey, and the collection of educational information.
The physical geography of Canada is so closely bound up with its geology that at least an outline of the geological factors involved in its history is necessary to understand the present physiography.
As a result of the geological causes just mentioned many parts of Canada are lavishly strewn with lakes of all sizes and shapes, from bodies of water hundreds of miles long and a thousand feet deep to ponds lost to sight in the forest.
The configuration of the hills is mainly conical and the geological formation consists of gneiss, granite (in the south) and red sandstone.
In 1855 he was appointed professor of mineralogy and geology at the Polytechnic Institute at Karlsruhe, and he took part in the geological survey of Baden.
The chief types of Mollusca were already differentiated at the beginning of the geological record, and the metamerism which occurs in the Cephalopoda has been evolved within the limits of that class.
The probable geological connexion with New Guinea would account for the Papuan character of the fauna of the Solomons, which form the eastern limit of certain Papuan types.
In 1856 he was engaged under the United States government, and commenced a series of investigations of the Western Territories, one result of which was his Geological Report of the Exploration of the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers in 1859-1860 (1869).
In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
Upon the reorganization and establishment of the United States Geological Survey in 1879 he acted for seven years as one of the geologists.
Fossil corals fix the geological age of the rock.
Andalusia consists of a great plain, the valley of the Guadalquivir, shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the S.W., where it descends to the Atlantic. This lowland, which is known as Andalucia Baja, or Lower Andalusia, resembles the valley of the Ebro in its slight elevation above sea-level (300-400 ft.), and in the number of brackish lakes or fens, and waste lands (despoblados) impregnated with salt, which seem to indicate that the whole surface was covered by the sea at no distant geological date.
See the Annual Reports (Washington, 1891 sqq.) of the Superintendent of the Park; the Guide to the Yosemite published by the California Geological Survey; John Muir, Our National Parks (Boston, 1901); and Bunnell's Discovery of the Yosemite (New York, 1893).
After the folding the whole region was worn down nearly to sea-level, forming a low plain which bevelled across the geological structure of the entire state, including the Piedmont area to the south-east and the plateau area to the north-west.
The Susquehanna is a wide and shallow stream with a zigzag course and numerous islands, but both the Susquehanna and the Delaware, together with their principal tributaries, flow for the most part transverse to the geological structure, and in the gorges and water-gaps through which they pass ridges in the mountain region, is some of the most picturesque scenery in the state; a number of these gorges, too, have been of great economic importance as passages for railways.
The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.
His careful and detailed maps, lake soundings, hydrographic, geological, meteorological and other investigations gave him the highest rank among modern explorers.
The chief geological formations belong to the Cretaceous system, backed towards the north and east by Jurassic and Triassic formations.
In 1878 a map of the park based upon triangulation was drawn up by the Hayden survey, and in 1883-85 a more detailed map was made by the United States Geological Survey, and a systematic study of its geological phenomena was instituted.
Such a gap is that between the Alps and the Carpathians, but a glance at a geological map of the region will show that the folding was probably at one time continuous.
The chain of the Alps was not raised by a single movement nor in a single geological period.
In 1850 he became professor of geology and mineralogy in the Royal Polytechnic School ' at Dresden, and in 1857 he was made director of the Royal Mineralogical and Geological Museum;.
He was awarded the Murchison medal by the Geological Society of London in 1878.
In this case the carbonaceous beds-coal-seams-naturally appealed most strongly to the imagination, and the name is a good one, notwithstanding the fact that coal-seams occupy but a small fraction of the total thickness of the Carboniferous system; and although subsequent investigations have demonstrated the existence of coal in other geological formations, in none of these does it play so prominent a part.
In prosecuting the study of this part of British geology it is soon discovered, and it is essential to bear in mind, that, during the Carboniferous period, the land whence the chief supplies of sediment were derived rose mainly to the north and north-west, as it seems to have done from very early geological time.
United States, in Missouri, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and elsewhere, there is an unconformable junction between the Lower and Upper Carboniferous, representing an interval of time during which the lower member was strongly eroded; it has even been proposed to regard the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) as a distinct geological period, mainly on account of this break in the succession.
See also, Recent Additions to Geological Literature, published annually by the Geological Society of London since 1893; and Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie (Stuttgart).
They probably belong to several geological periods, but all were folded and denuded before the Carboniferous beds were deposited.
These of course are the oldest of our ores, and from deposits of like age, especially those of the more readily decomposed silicates, has come the iron which now exists in the siderites and red and brown haematites of the later geological formations.
The two assertions are not to be reconciled by pointing out that Professor Tornebohm underestimated, for instance crediting the United States with only 1 1 billion tons, whereas the United States Geological Survey's expert credits that country with from ten to twenty times this quantity; nor by pointing out that only certain parts of Europe and a relatively small part of North America have thus far been carefully explored for iron ore, and that the rest of these two continents and South America, Asia and Africa may reasonably be expected to yield very great stores of iron, and that pyrite, one of the richest and most abundant of ores, has not been included.
Four main periods may be distinguished in the geological history of Rome and the surrounding district.
According to Lyell, Etna is rather older than Vesuvius - perhaps of the same geological age as the Norwich Crag.
Now, whether a real, though undetected, change occurs is a question to be determined from case to case; it is certain, however, that a substance like aragonite (a mineral form of calcium carbonate) has sensibly persisted in geological periods, though the polymorphous calcite is the more stable form.
Their basins, especially in the west, interpenetrate one another in the most intricate way, the whole bearing unmistakable evidences of having been in recent geological, and partly in historical times the bottom of extensive lakes, whose alluvial deposits now yield heavy crops.
In writing and in conversation the geological expression " drift " is now usually understood to mean Glacial drift, including boulder clay and all the varieties of sand, gravel and clay deposits formed by the agency of ice sheets, glaciers and icebergs.
In the opinion of Russian geologists the separation of the Caspian from the great ocean must have taken place at a comparatively recent geological epoch.
A glance at a geological map of Germany will show that the greater part of Prussia and of German Poland is covered by Quaternary deposits.
They resemble the erratic blocks which lost amid alien soils recall, where we find them, the geological conditions of earlier ages.
Their geological formation is metamorphic gneiss, veined with felspar and quartz, and interspersed with reddish porphyrite.
He also described the fossil plants of the Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of Canada for the Geological Survey of that country (1871-1873).
It was found in the Laurentian rocks, regarded as the oldest known geological system.
In his books on geological subjects he maintained a distinctly theological attitude, declining to admit the descent or evolution of man from brute ancestors, and holding that the human species only made its appearance on this earth within quite recent times.
In 1873 he was appointed geologist and naturalist to the North American boundary commission, and two years later he joined the staff of the geological survey of Canada, of which he became assistant director in 1883, and director in 1895.
The island occupies that part of the Mediterranean in which the shallowing of the waters divides that sea into two basins, and in which there are numerous indications of frequent changes in a recent geological period.
The channel between Cape Bon in Tunis and the south-west of Sicily (a distance of 80 m.) is, on the whole, shallower than the Straits of Messina, being for the most part under 100 fathoms in depth, and exceeding 200 fathoms only for a very short interval, while the Straits of Messina, have almost everywhere a depth exceeding 150 fathoms. The geological structure in the neighbourhood of this strait shows that the island must originally have been formed by a rupture between it and the mainland, but that this rupture must have taken place at a period long antecedent to the advent of man, so that the name Rhegium cannot be based even on the tradition of any such catastrophe.
See for geology Carl von Zittel, Beitrage zur Geologie and Palaontologie der libyschen Whste (Cassel, 1883); Reports of the Geological Survey of Egypt (Cairo, 1900, at seq.).
This island agrees in geological structure with the southern part of Sweden, and forms, in fact, the southernmost portion of the Scandinavian system.
The islands are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore.
This elevation was reported by the Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geographical Society calculated the elevation at 17,888 ft., it may be accepted as nearly correct.
A detailed description of the volcano was published by the Mexican geological survey in 1895 according to which the crater is elliptical in form, 2008 by 1312 ft.,, and has a depth of 1657 ft.
Other ascents were made in 1834, 1848 and subsequent years, members of the Mexican geological survey spending two days on the summit in 1895.
Sections of the Missouri flood plain made by the United States geological survey show a great variety of material of varying coarseness, the stream bed being scoured at one place, and filled at another by currents and floods of varying swiftness, so that sometimes the deposits are of coarse gravel, sometimes of fine sand, or of fine silt, and it is probable that any section of such an alluvial plain would show deposits of a similar character.
Such beds of salt are found in strata of very varied geological age; the Salt Range of the Punjab, for instance, is probably of Cambrian age, while the famous saltdeposits of Wieliczka, near Cracow, have been referred to the Pliocene period.
In North America salt is widely distributed at various geological horizons.
The former based his opinion largely on historical evidence, and the latter trusted principally to geological data.
As we descend in the geological series the deer have simpler antlers, as in the European Miocene Dicrocerus; while in the Oligocene Amphitragulus, Dremotherium and Palaeomeryx, constituting the family Palaeomerycidae, antlers were absent, and the crowns of the molars so low that the whole depth of the hollows between the crescentic columns is completely visible.
Cantref y Gwaelod (the hundred of the bottom) is the Welsh literary name of this bay, on the shores of which geological depression has certainly taken place.
Its orography and geological structure are imperfectly known.
The portions of the ridge thus isolated rise into what are regarded as mountains, though they are really only loftier parts of the ridge, along which indeed the geological structure is continued.
The south-eastern region of the Highlands, having a more diversified geological structure, offers greater variety of scenery.
The central Lowlands are thus of great geological antiquity.
Though on the whole transverse, these depressions furnish another notable example of that independence of geological structure already referred to.
This uniformity of aspect is doubtless traceable to the prevalence of the same kind of rocks and the same geological structure.
For this, however, there is an obvious geological reason.
The watershed of the Southern Uplands is of much interest in relation to their geological history.
Although the rocks throughout the Southern Uplands have a persistent northeasterly and south-westerly strike, and though this trend is apparent in the bands of more rugged hills that mark the outcrop of hard grits and greywackes, nevertheless geological structure has been much less effective in determining the lines of ridge and valley than in the Highlands.
The longitudinal valleys, which run in the same general direction as the ridges - that is, north-east and south-west--have had their trend defined by geological structure, such as a line of dislocation (the Great Glen), or the plications of the rocks (Lochs Ericht, Tay and Awe, and most of the sea lochs of Argyllshire).
The transverse valleys run north-west or south-east and are for the most part independent of geological structure.
Determined by the inequalities of surface of the overlying mantle of sedimentary material, they would be wholly independent of the geological structure of the rocks lying.
This is probably the explanation of the striking independence of geological structure exhibited by the Tweed and the Nith.
That these high plateaus are planes of erosion is shown by their independence of geological structure, the upturned edges of the vertical and contorted schists having been abruptly shorn off and the granite having been wasted and levelled along its exposed surface.
Geological structure alone will not account for these contrasts.
In the progress of this erosion full scope has been afforded for the modification of form by variation in geological structure.
No feature in Highland scenery is more characteristic than the corries, and in none can the influence of geological structure be better understood.
In any circumstances the lakes must be of recent geological date.
The explanation of this contrast must be sought in geological structure.
The bed of the North Sea, which at no distant date in geological history was a land surface across which plants and animals migrated freely into Great Britain, sank beneath the sea-level, while the Atlantic advanced upon the western margin of the continent and filled the seaward ends of what had previously been valleys open to the sun.
The Inner Hebrides form a much less definite group. They may be regarded as beginning with the Shiant Isles in the Minch and stretching to the southern headlands of Islay, and their irregularity has no doubt been chiefly brought about by the remarkable diversity of geological structure.
Not only external configuration but geological structure also has profoundly influenced the progress of the inhabitants.
Other influences have of course contributed largely to the development of the country, but among them all the chief place must be assigned to that fortunate geological structure which, amid the revolutions of the past, has preserved in the centre of Scotland those fields of coal and ironstone which are the foundations of the national industry.
This great series of metamorphic rocks, the geological age of which is still unsettled, has had a powerful effect on the scenery, especially along the Highland line.
They have been uncovered, indeed, only at a comparatively recent geological date.
The volcanic episode to which these plateaus owe their origin was one of the most important in the geological history of Great Britain.
When Darwin and Wallace framed their theories it was practically assumed that acquired characters were inherited, and the continuous slow action of the environment, moulding each generation to a slight extent in the same direction, was readily accepted by a generation inspired by Sir C. Lyell's doctrine of uniformi tarianism in geological change, as a potent force.
The geological structure of the mountain furnishes no evidence of volcanic activity.
Associated with the University are the State Laboratory of Natural History, the State Water Survey, the State Geological Survey, the State Entomologist's Office, and Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations.
The University publishes Bulletins of the Agricultural and Engineering Experiment Stations; Reports of the State Water Survey, of the State Natural History Survey, of the State Geological Survey, and of the State Entomologist's Office; University Studies; and The Journal of English and Germanic Philology.
The geological formation of the bottom of the Persian Gulf and the temperature and shallowness of its waters appear to be favourable in a high degree to the growth of the pearl oyster.
Kidd was a popular and instructive lecturer, and through his efforts the geological chair, first held by Buckland, was established.
The name of Archaeopteryx litho graphica was based by Hermann von Meyer upon a feather (Gr.irrEpv, wing) found in 1861 in the lithographic slate quarries of Solenhofen in Bavaria, the geological horizon being that of the Kimmeridge clay of the Upper Oolite or Jurassic system.
The surface is for the most part undulating, but on the whole little above sea-level; the highest elevations are in the south-east, where Cretaceous hills (the oldest geological formation on the island) reach heights of upwards of 350 ft.
The geological structure of the country is very simple in its broad features, but of exceptional interest.
Perennial streams are, and in the recent geological ages always have been, rare in the country.
So far as we know at present the geological history of Afghanistan differs widely from that of India.
The highlands which shut off the Turkestan provinces from Southern Afghanistan have afforded the best opportunities for geological investigation, and as might be expected from their geographical position, the general result of the examination of exposed sections leads to the identification of geological affinity with Himalayan, Indian and Persian regions.
There is, however, ample evidence that at several distinct geological periods the region has been the seat of great volcanic activity.
Griesbach, and a summary of his researches will be found in Records of the Geological Survey of India, vol.
Having obtained pecuniary assistance from the Danish government, he travelled through all Iceland for scientific purposes in the years 1837-1842, and made many interesting geological observations.
The alluvial deposits prove depression in quite recent geological times; and within the Himalayan region earthquakes are still common, whilst in Peninsular India they are rare.
The enormous mass of basaltic rock known as the Deccan Trap is of great importance in the geological structure of the Indian Peninsula.
Melbourne, on the lower slopes of which much geological work was done.
This is also the case as to geology, and the bearings of geological evidence on the probable nature and extent of the Antarctic continent, and the relations of that land mass to the other continents.
Thenceforward he devoted his whole time to a systematic examination of the French caves, his first publication on the subject being The Antiquity of Man in Western Europe (1860), followed in 1861 by New Researches on the Coexistence of Man and of the Great Fossil Mammifers characteristic of the Last Geological Period.
In 1857 he had been elected a foreign member of the Geological Society of London, and a few weeks before his death he had been made professor of palaeontology at the museum of the Jardin des Plantes.
The geological processes that placed a much narrower ocean between North America and western Europe than between North America and eastern Asia secured to the New World the good fortune of being colonized by the leading peoples of the occidental Old World, instead of by the less developed races of the Orient.
Among the other indications of great geological disturbances on the Pacific Coast may also be mentioned the earthquakes to which California like the rest of the coast is liable.
Browne, Report on " Mineral Resources of the States and Territories west of the Rocky Mountains " (United States Treasury, 2 vols., Washington, 1867-1868); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports, Mineral Resources; consult also the bibliographies of, publications of the Survey, issued as Bulletins; California State Mining Bureau, Bulletins from 1888, note especially No.
The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.
The original coal supply of the present state has been estimated (by the United States Geological Survey) at 424,085,000,000 short tons of the bituminous or sub-bituminous variety, this amount being second only to that for North Dakota, 500,000,000,000 short tons, which, however, is entirely lignite.
So far, the two workers had been in agreement; but in his presidential address to the Geological Society of London in 1842 Murchison stated his opinion that the Cambrian contained no fossils that differed from those of the Lower Silurian.
Most of the Cambrian rocks were coloured as Silurian on the British official geological maps.
The land rises to 1,500 ft., is heavily glaciated, and in geological structure is similar to the mainland.
The university of Pavia has long been famous as a medical school, and has the oldest anatomical cabinet in Italy; in addition it has a natural history museum founded under Spallanzini in 1772, a botanical garden, begun in 1774, and excellent geological, palaeontological and mineralogical collections.
Besides these there is a vast amount of material in the collections of the Bureau of Education, the Bureau of Ethnology, the Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum, the House of Representatives, the Patent Office, the Department of Agriculture, the Botanic Gardens, the Bureau of Fisheries, the Naval Observatory, the Geological Survey and the Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Under this zoological title are included several groups of Crustacea, united by characters which attest their common origin, though some, and probably all of them, were already separated in distant geological ages, and some have now attained a peculiar isolation.
Other features of the town are the pleasant promenades and gardens on West Cliff, the antiquarian and geological museum, and an excellent golf course.
Connected with it are a library of over 200,000 volumes, geological, anatomical and mineralogical institutions, a hospital, several clinical establishments, laboratories and a botanical garden.
The aggregate area of beds is estimated by the United States Geological Survey at 18,100 sq.
Rivers, see Index to Reports of the Chief of Engineers, United States Army (3 vols., 1900, covering 1866-1900); publications United States Geological Survey.
All of these, as also the Finnish Geological Survey, the Forestry Administration, &c., issue publications well known to the scientific world.
Powell, formerly director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and owns the Torrance Mine at the foot of Socorro Mountain, 2 m.
Minor collections deserving mention are the museums of the geological survey and the Caroline Medical Institute, and the archives in the record office (Riksarkivet).
The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfj ?,ll.
Chile may be divided longitudinally into two regions which differ from each other in their geological structure.
Roman remains have been found in the vicinity; and, the geological formations exhibiting the process of silting up of a former river channel are exposed in the quarries, and contain large mammalian remains.
In the following year he collected geological and mineralogical specimens in Missouri and Arkansas, and in 1819 he published his View of the Lead Mines of Missouri.
The geological structure is remarkably uniform, the plateau consisting mainly of sedimentary deposits resting on crystalline rocks.
The geological structure, consisting chiefly of eruptive rocks and crystalline limestone, is similar to that of northern Amboyna.
Immediately on the west of the Kaisargarh there towers the Shingarh Mountain, a geological repetition of the Kaisargarh ridge, black with pines towards the summit and crowned with crags of coral limestone.
The Baluch Siwaliks afford us strange glimpses into a recent geological past, when the same gigantic mammals roamed along the foot of these wild hills as once inhabited the tangled forests below the Himalaya.
Interspersed between these main geological axes are many other minor ridges, on some of which are peaks of great elevation.
In fact, the geological axis seldom coincides with the line of highest elevation, nor must it be confused with the main lines of water-divide of the Himalaya.
In the Himalaya the geological sequence, from the Ordovician to the Eocene, is almost entirely marine; there are indeed occasional breaks in the series, but during nearly the whole of this long period the Iimalayan region, or at least its northern part, must have been beneath the sea - the Central Mediterranean Sea of Neumayr or Tethys of Suess.
Descriptions of the fossils, with some notes on stratigraphical questions, will be found in several of the volumes of the Palaeontologia Indica, published by the Geological Survey of India, Calcutta.
The geological structure of the central region is of the most varied description.
It is, however, not improbable that the series may represent more than one geological system.
Farther north the Altai highlands are continued in the Kuznetsk district, which has a slightly different geological aspect, but still belongs to the Altai system.
In 1802 he was appointed professor of botany in the new lyceum of Brescia; but he more especially devoted himself to geological researches in the adjacent districts.
Christy joined the Geological Society, and in company with his friend Edouard Lartet explored the caves in the valley of the Vezere, a tributary of the Dordogne in the south of France.
The more ancient geological formations are scarcely met with in Schleswig-Holstein.
The' four topographic belts of the state correspond very closely to the outcrops of its geological formations; the rocks of the Appalachian belt being of Palaeozoic age; the formation of the Highlands, Archaean; that of the Triassic Lowland, Triassic; that of the irregular hills of the Coastal Plain, Cretaceous and Tertiary.
Leighton, The Passaic Flood of 1903 (Washington, 1904), being numbers 88 and 92 of the Water Supply and Irrigation Papers of the U.S. Geological Survey.
The most extensive and important studies of the region, however, are those by Grove Karl Gilbert of the United States Geological Survey, who in 1879-1890 studied especially the earlier and greater lake.
Talmage, The Great Salt Lake, Present and Past (Salt Lake City, 1900); and Grove Karl Gilbert, Lake Bonneville, monograph i of United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1890), containing (pp. 12-19) references to the earlier literature.
The geology of New South Wales has been described in the Monographs, Memoirs and Records of the Geological Survey, which in the fullness and high scientific character form the most valuable contribution to Australasian geology.
Numerous geological memoirs have appeared in the Rep. Austral.
Further, many important groups were already differentiated when the geological record began.
Each county is treated in a separate article in the topographical, geological, economical and historical aspects.
The study of the scenery of England and Wales as a whole, or the study of orographical and geological maps of the country, allows a broad distinction to be drawn between the types of land-forms in the west and in the east.
The history of the origin of the land-forms of England, as far as they have been deduced from geological studies, is exceedingly complicated.
The fact that every known geological formation (except the Miocene) is represented, proves of itself how long the history has been, and how multifarious the changes.
They are all similar in the great features of their land-forms, which have been impressed upon them by the prolonged action of atmospheric denudation rather than by the original order and arrangement of the rocks; but each group has its own geological character, which has imparted something of a distinctive individuality to the scenery.
The rivers exhibit a remarkably close relation to the geological structure, and thus contrast with the rivers of the Western Division.
In almost every case the plain along the foot of an escarpment bears a line of villages and small towns, and on a good map of density of population the lines of the geological map may be readily discerned.
The dissection of the great east and west anticline in the south-east of England has resulted in a remarkable piece of country, occupying the east of Hampshire and practically the whole of Sussex, Surrey and Kent, in which each geological stratum produces its own type of scenery, and exercises its own specific influence on every natural distribution.
The boundaries of the parishes, the fundamental units of English political geography, are very often either rivers or watersheds, and they frequently show a close relation to the strike of the geological strata.
For an area so small, England is peculiarly rich in geological interest.
Almost every one of the principal geological formations may be studied in England with comparative ease.
If we lay aside for the moment all the minor irregularities, we find, upon examination of a geological map of England, two structural features of outstanding importance.
Throughout the whole period of its geological history, volcanic activity has found expression with varying degrees of intensity along what is now the western side of the island, with the exception that in the Mesozoic era this activity was in abeyance.
Raised shore-lines, occasional earthquakes, and slow measurable elevation of the land about active volcanoes, indicate that elevation is now in progress, but the geological evidence shows no sign of former submergence of a connecting isthmus.
Since 1895, however, the explorations of the United States Geological Survey and the Department of War, and other departments of the government, have fully established the main features of its physiography.
The gold product of the Canadian Yukon territory from 1896-1903 was about $96,000,000, as estimated by the Canadian Geological Survey.
The geological sequence begins with the granite and schists of the central zone, which form a band extending from Fisht on the west to a point some distance beyond Kasbek on the east.
The wide acceptance of the Darwinian theory, as applied to, the descent of man, has naturally roused anticipation that geological research, which provides evidence of the animal life of incalculably greater antiquity, would furnish fossil remains of some comparatively recent being intermediate between the anthropomorphic and the anthropic types.
This geological claim for a vast antiquity of the human race is supported by the similar claims of prehistoric archaeology and the science of culture, the evidence of all three departments of inquiry being intimately connected, and in perfect harmony.
Human bones and objects of human manufacture have been found in such geological relation to the remains of fossil species of elephant, rhinoceros, hyena, bear, &c., as to lead to the distinct inference that man already existed at a remote period in localities where these mammalia are now and have long been extinct.
Their immensely greater antiquity was proved by their geological position and their association with a long extinct fauna, and they were not, like the Neoliths, recognizable as corresponding closely to the implements used by modern tribes.
The existence of man in remote geological time cannot now be questioned, but, despite much effort made in likely localities, no bones, with the exception of those of the much-discussed Pithecanthropus, have been found which can be regarded as definitely bridging the gulf between man and the lower creation.
While numerous remains of grass-like leaves are a proof that grasses were widespread and abundantly developed in past geological ages, especially in the Tertiary period, the fossil remains are in most cases too fragmentary and badly preserved for the determination of genera, and conclusions based thereon in explanation of existing geographical distribution are most unsatisfactory.
Most of the metal was produced in the Bingham, or West Mountain district, Salt Lake county, where there were four mines in 1908 with an output of more than 1,000,000 ib; the Tintic district in Juab county; the Frisco district in Beaver county; and the Lucin district I The 1907 and 1908 statistics are from the Mineral Resources of the United States, published by the United States Geological Survey.
It comprises five faculties (literature and philosophy, jurisprudence, mathematics, natural science and medicine), and is well equipped with zoological, mineralogical and geological museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, and botanical gardens.
The Philosophical and Literary Society, established in 1820, possesses a handsome building in Park Row, known as the Philosophical Hall, containing a laboratory, scientific library, lecture room, and museum, with excellent natural history, geological and archaeological collections.
In 1865 he was appointed professor of geology and palaeontology in the Berlin University, where he was eminently successful as a teacher; and when the Prussian Geological Survey was instituted in 1873 he was appointed co-director with Wilhelm Hauchecorne (1828-1900).
The geological core of the system consists of primitive argillaceous schists, capped by quartzite and broken through in places by basalt.
Among Palaeozoic genera there are some which bear a close resemblance to the recent type in Geological the form of the leaves; and petrified Palaeozoic seeds, almost identical with those of the maidenhair tree, have been described from French and English localities.
Partial exploration in this region was conducted by the French Mission du Cap Horn in 1882-1883, and the geological foundations are granite and basic volcanic rocks.
The islands are regarded as a remnant of the continental land which in remote geological ages united South Africa and India.
The geological history of the state covers the period from Algonkian to late Carboniferous time, after which there is a gap in the record until Tertiary time, except that there was apparently a temporary depression of the north-western and southwestern corners in the Cretaceous age.
Thus the state is to be conceived, in geological history, as gradually built up around an Archean island in successive seas, the whole of the state becoming dry land after the post-Carboniferous uplift.
The fall of meteoric matter into the sun must be a certain source of energy; if considerable, this external supply would retard the sun's contraction and so increase its estimated age, but to bring about a reconciliation with geological theory, very nearly the whole amount must be thus supplied.
The geology of Colombia is very imperfectly known, and it is only by a comparison with the neighbouring regions that it is possible to fmrm any clear idea of the geological structure and succession.
Structurally, the four main chains of Colombia differ considerably from one another in geological constitution.
Geologische Studien in der Republik Colombia (Berlin, 18 9 2 - 18 99), - a good geological bibliography will be found in part ii.