The geography of Northern Italy is described in several popular guide books.
From his sixth to his ninth year he was given over to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
I go to school every day I am studying reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and language.
"A geography lesson!" he muttered as if to himself, but loud enough to be heard.
Markham, Central and South America, in Stanford's " Compendium of Geography and Travel " (London, 1901); G.
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
These valuable additions to Australian geography were gained through humane efforts to relieve the lost explorers.
by Fisher, Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis (Oxford, 1903f 904).
It was not a special subject, like geography or arithmetic, but her way to outward things.
And suddenly he saw vividly before him a long-forgotten, kindly old man who had given him geography lessons in Switzerland.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
The distinctive task of geography as a science is to investigate the control exercised by the crust-forms directly or indirectly upon the various mobile distributions.
It is true that the earths physical geography presents certain broad features to which plants are adapted.
There he began his investigations into the geography, history and antiquities of the district.
His geography was based more immediately on the work of his predecessor, Marinus of Tyre, and on that of Hipparchus, the follower and critic of Eratosthenes.
But not until the voyage of Magellan shook the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to advance.
The fundamental basis of geography is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all mobile distributions.
In 1813-14 Rich spent some time in Europe, and on his return to Bagdad devoted himself to the study of the geography of Asia Minor, and collected much information in Syrian and Chaldaean convents concerning the Yezidis.
subdivided plant geography into floristic plant geography and ecological plant geography.
Tozer 2 as the father of geography on account of his Periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk.
2 History of Ancient Geography (Cambridge, 1897), p. 70.
The applications of anthropogeography to human uses give rise to political and commercial geography, in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages have to be considered, together with historical and other purely human conditions.
Moreover the strategic geography of the country required the greater part of the army to be stationed permanently within reach of the north-eastern and north-western frontiers.
scientific geography than the laborious feeling out of the coast-line of Africa.
Tevere) may be considered as furnishing the key to the geography of all this portion of Italy west of the Apennines.
Humboldt, for example, defined his view of the scope of plant geography as follows:
In a general way, floristic plant geography is concerned with species, ecological plant geography with vegetation.
Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface.
The verbal inter- Geography pretation of Scripture led Lactantius (c. A.D.
Schimper, Plant Geography, transl.
Soon after his time, however, this conception was clearly established, and with so large a generalization the mental horizon was widened to conceive of a geography which was a science.
This gives to it unity and definiteness, and renders superfluous the attemps that have been made from time to time to define the limits which divide geography from geology on the one hand and from history on the other.
It is a singular fact in the geography of Central Italy that the valleys of the Tiber and Arno are in some measure connected by that of the Chiana, a level and marshy tract, the waters from which flow partly into the Arno and partly into the Tiber.
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
" Tinislands"), in ancient geography the name of islands regarded as being situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.
The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
This slender distinction was made much of by most subsequent writers until Nathanael Carpenter in 1625 pointed out that the difference between geography and chorography was simply one of degree, not of kind.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
The fundamental conception of geography is form, including the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief.
The geography of Central Italy is almost wholly determined by the Apennines, which traverse it in a direction from about north-north-east to south-south-west, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara.
The word geography did not appear before Aristotle, Aristotle's the first use of it being in the llepi Kovp.wv, which is one of the writings doubtfully ascribed to him, and H.
Geography he defined as " the description of the whole earth, so far as it is known to us."
A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention of most writers on the history of modern geography was published at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, fellow of Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter.
However, they had not been widely used in human geography.
From the phytogeographical standpoint, ecology is frequently termed ecological plant geography.
To Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) must be given the distinction of founding scientific geography.
(Leipzig, 1900), which is in every way the most complete treatise on the principles of geography.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
Engler, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt; also Beddard, Zoogeography (Cambridge, 1895); and Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899).
This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.
The actual and past distribution of plants must obviously be controlled by the facts of physical geography.
It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
Thus early commenced the separation between what were long called mathematical and political geography, the one subject appealing mainly to mathematicians, the other to historians.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, pp. 152-164 (Cambridge, 1897).
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
P. Patkanow,7 to whom we are indebted for the best text of the Geography, is of opinion that we have in it a writing of the 7th century.
If the limits within which the Geography was composed are to be more nearly defined, we may say that, from isolated traces of Arab rule (which in Armenia dates from 651), it must have been written certainly after that year, and perhaps about the year 657.9 Another extant work of Moses is a Manual of Rhetoric, in ten books, dedicated to his pupil Theodorus.
(28 73, p. 599 seq.) had substantially arrived at the right conclusion when he assigned the portions of the Geography referring to Armenia to the time between Justinian and Maurice.
Marquart edits with commentary under the title Eransahr the sections of the geography relating to Persia).
of Stanfords Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1899 and 1900).
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
i., The Mauritius and its Dependencies (1846); C. P. Lucas, A Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
Richard, Comprehensive Geography of the Chinese Empire (Shanghai, 1908), pp. 39-46, and the authorities there cited.
Geography matters - If you're eyeing a loft bed setup with a wardrobe or built-in cabinets below, pay attention to how the doors and drawers are designed to open and close.
Penck, " Potamology as a Branch of Physical Geography," Geog.
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
The definition of boundaries and their delimitation is one of the most important parts of political geography.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
Chisholm, Manual of Commercial Geography (1890).
logical, political and commercial development of the subject runs the determining control exercised by crust forms acting directly or indirectly on mobile distributions; and this is the essential principle of geography.
188), wrote a sketch of geography in six books.
of Ancient Geography (1879), ii.
Aran j o, Compendio de la Geografia Nacional (Montevideo, 1894); Uruguay, its Geography, History, &c. (Liverpool, 1897); P. F.
European Russia Geography.
'Bibliography of Geography: see Tillo, in Izvestia of Russian Geogr.
Ptolemy, who had access to the treasures of the famous library of Alexandria was able, no doubt, to utilize these cadastral plans when compiling his geography.
Egerton, Geography of South and East Africa (Oxford, 1904); W.
geography as a discipline for students and for staff as teachers?
Keywords: Social geography, cultural geography, Los Angeles, Las Vegas.
geography fieldwork with increased student numbers is outlined.
geography lesson, for example, the teacher embodied the educational service which, in her case, was very physical.
Grasslands offer some of the best geography.
Eating habits are also greatly affected by religion, geography and foreign influence.
It marks the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
2 The period of the early middle ages is dealt with in Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography (London; part i., 1897; part ii., 1901; part iii., 1906); see also Winstedt, Cosmos Indicopleustes (1910).
Such books were in fact not geography, but merely compressed travel.
Kant's lectures on physical geography were delivered in the university of Konigsberg from 1765 onwards.'
Geography appealed to him as a valuable educational discipline, the joint foundation with anthropology of that " knowledge of the world " which was the result of reason and experience.
In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, vol.
Sharpe, " Geography and Economic Development of British Central Africa," Geog.
ALTAI (in Mongolian Altain-ula, the "Mountains of Gold"), a term used in Asiatic geography with various significations.
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
Whilst the names we have mentioned are derived from physical geography, there are related names the meaning and origin of which are not so clear.
The stretch from Samsat and Jeziret-ibn- 'Omar to the alluvial plain seems to divide itself naturally into three parallel belts, highland watershed district, un- Geography.
PHOENICIA, in ancient geography, the name given to that part of the seaboard of Syria which extends from the Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir) in the north to Mt Carmel in the south, a distance of rather more than two degrees of latitude.
For the geography and civilization of Canaan about 1400 B.C. we have valuable evidence in the Egyptian papyrus Anastasi I., which mentions Kepuna (Gubna, Gebal-Byblus) the holy city, and continues: " Come then to Berytus, to Sidon, to Sarepta.
Few questions in historical geography have been more keenly discussed than that of the first discovery of Guinea by the navigators of modern Europe.
- vi., geography and ethnography; vii., anthropology and human physiology; viii.
Stevinus wrote on other scientific subjects - optics, geography, astronomy, &c. - and a number of his writings were translated into, Latin by W.
COLCHIS, in ancient geography, a nearly triangular district of Asia Minor.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
A national institution at Leiden for the study of languages, geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies has given place to communal institutions of the same nature as Delft and at Leiden, founded in 1864 and 1877.
In the primary schools instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, history and geography is obligatory.
The Geography is a meagre sketch, based mainly on the Chorography of Pappus of Alexandria (in the end of the 4th century), and indirectly on the work of Ptolemy.
During the wars of Drusus, Tiberius and Germanicus the Romans had ample opportunity of getting to know the tribal geography of Germany, especially the western part, and though most of our authorities lived at a somewhat later period, it is probable that they derived their information very largely from records of that time.
Among editions the first is of 1619, by Gretser; the best, that of 1877, by Tobler, in Itinera et Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae; we may also mention that of 1870, by Delpit, in his Essai sur les anciens pelerinages a Jerusalem; see also Delpit's remarks upon Arculf in the same work, pp. 260-304; Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, i.
The geographical distribution of the great mineral wealth of Ontario has already been indicated (see Physical Geography, above).
The coast is for the most part flat, more regular in outline and less favourable to shipping, while in the east, 1 The name T pcvaKpia was no doubt suggested by the OpcvaKln of Homer (which need not, however, be Sicily), and the geography was then fitted to the apparent meaning given to the name by the change.
His love for mathematical science, geography, &c., in which the Arabs excelled, is noteworthy.
Accordingly we find that Arabian philosophy, mathematics, geography, medicine and philology are all based professedly upon Greek works (Brockelmann, Gesch.
Another of his works was a general geography of the world, which exists in manuscript.
includes Geography, Economics, Government, Inhabitants, Finance and Army.
AuTiioRIrIEs.(a) General descriptions, geography, travel, &c.:
Mardon, Geography of Egypt.
C. Olufsen (1764-1827) was a writer on geography, zoology and political economy.
In Joachim Frederik Schouw (1789-1852), Denmark produced a very eminent botanist, author of an exhaustive Geography of Plants.
FLOOD PLAIN, the term in physical geography for a plain formed of sediment dropped by a river.
In 1675 appeared his Notitia Galliarum ordine litterarum digesta, a work of the highest merit, which laid the foundations of the scientific study of historical geography in France; but, like all the scholars of his age, he had no solid knowledge of philology.
LYCIA, in ancient geography, a district in the S.W.
i18wp, water, and vgaipa, sphere), in physical geography, a name given to the whole mass of the water of the oceans, which fills the depressions in the earth's crust, and covers nearly three-quarters of its surface.
His principal works are: Theatrum Daniae veteris et modernae (4to, 1730), a description of the geography, natural history, antiquities, &c., of Denmark; Gesta et vestigia danorum extra Daniam (3 vols.
The camel, the horse and the donkey are the draught animals; the flesh of the first Geology and Geography of Arabia Petraea, Palestine and adjoining Districts (London, 1886).
iv., and his Jerusalem (London, 1907), are invaluable for the relation between Palestinian geography and history.
Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine (1841), Later Biblical Researches '(1856), Physical Geography (1865); A.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1897); F.
The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lubeck and the mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m.
It does not seem possible to identify it with any city in classical geography: Alexandria ad Caucasum it certainly was not.
Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 1 873), pp. 292-294; J.
Although the work is uncritical, and shows the author's ignorance of geography, chronology and military matters, it is written in a picturesque style.
Of the India of modern geography lying beyond the Indus they practically knew nothing.
His most valuable works include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), and important studies on the geography of northern Africa - in introductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann - and the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
See Sir Clements Markham, Major James Rennell and the Rise of Modern English Geography (London, 1895).
Decotter, Geography of Mauritius and its Dependencies (Mauritius, 1892); H.
FERREL'S LAW, in physical geography.
In his course he included singing, economy, politics, world-history, geography, and the arts and handicrafts.
In the primary schools boys learn arithmetic, and geography and Korean history are taught, with the outlines of the governmental systems of other civilized countries.
The exploration of Greenland has been continued, with few exceptions, by Danes who, besides throwing much light on problems in physical geography and Eskimo ethnography, have practically completed the map of the coasts.
397-5 26; C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii.
Soc., and "Geography of Virginia," pp. 1-60, vol.
This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography, the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; (b) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.
Other works on Finnish history and some inportant works in Finnish geography have also appeared.
Abulfeda, prince of Hamah in the early part of the 14th century, is well known as an authority on Arab geography.
In ancient geography the Chersonesus Thracica, Chersonesus Taurica or Scythica, and Chersonesus Cimbrica correspond to the peninsulas of the Dardanelles, the Crimea and Jutland; and the Golden Chersonese is usually identified with the peninsula of Malacca.
contornare, to round off), in physical geography a line drawn upon a map through all the points upon the surface represented that are of equal height above sea-level.
Bergel (Leipzig, 1885), &c. For these subjects, and for law, zoology, geography, &c. &c., see the full and classified bibliographies in M.
Thoth was a voluminous author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, geography and physiology.
The computations of Apollodorus have fixed his birth in 611, and his death shortly after 547 B.C. Tradition, probably correct in its general estimate, represents him as a successful student of astronomy and geography, and as one of the pioneers of exact science among the Greeks.
The museum formed by the Oran Society of Geography and Archaeology (founded in 1878) has a fine collection of antiquities.
DACIA, in ancient geography, the land of the Daci, a large district of central Europe, bounded on the N.
Hartt, Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil (Boston, 1870); and H.
For the geography and numerous details of administration: J.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
Bunbury, Ancient Geography, i.
C. Lukach, A Bibliography of Sierra Leone (Oxford 1911); Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
Geography (physical), geology, climate, flora and fauna.
P. Greswell, Geography of Africa South of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) S.
with special reference to geography.
The importance of these writings as throwing light on the geography and history of India and adjoining countries, during a very dark period, is great, and they have been the subject of elaborate commentaries by modern students.
Beal (1869); The Ancient Geography of India, by Major-General Alex.
The central range of the Suliman hills is the dominant feature in the geography of northern Baluchistan.
The fast-diminishing Sajidis (Sajittae) and Saka (Sacae) are others of the more ancient races of Baluchistan easily recognizable in classical geography.
lower than Everest, affords an excellent example in Asiatic geography of a dominating, peakcrowned water-parting or divide.
Ptolemy in his Geography (ii.
Along with grammar, which had been a prominent branch of study under Chrysippus, philosophy, history, geography, chronology and kindred subjects came to be recognized as fields of activity no less than philology proper.
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.
pp. 409-430 (Paris, 1904); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); United States Consular Reports; Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, vol.
in the constitutional, administrative and judicial organization of the various powers, in international law, commercial law and maritime law, in the history of treaties and in commercial and political geography, in political economy, and in the German and English languages.
Navarino), in ancient geography a town and bay on the west coast of Messenia, noted chiefly for the part it played in the Peloponnesian War.
SATRAE, in ancient geography, a Thracian people, inhabiting part of Mount Pangaeus between the rivers Nestus (Mesta) and Strymon (Struma).
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, ii.
242-246) and in the geography of Yaqut (q.v.).
SENONES, in ancient geography, a Celtic people of Gallia Celtica, who in Caesar's time inhabited the district which now includes the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Loiret and Yonne.
A bibliography of the economic geography has been issued by W.
After travelling in Germany and Poland (where he learnt Polish), he began the study of law at Leiden, but he soon turned his attention to history and geography, which were then taught there by Joseph Scaliger.
The physical geography (see Sumatra) is imperfectly understood.
A flat coast follows as far as Selsey Bill and Spithead, but the south coast 410 [Physical Geography] of the Isle of Wight shows a succession of splendid cliffs.
This distinction is essential, and applies to all the conditions of which geography takes account.
The boundaries of the parishes, the fundamental units of English political geography, are very often either rivers or watersheds, and they frequently show a close relation to the strike of the geological strata.
The position of the various principal coal-fields has been indicated in dealing with the physical geography of England, but the grouping of the fields adopted in the official report may be given here, together with an indication of the counties covered by each, and the percentage of coal to the total bulk raised in each county.
C. Ramsay, Physical Geography and Geology of Great Britain, edited by H.
Reclus, Universal Geography, vol.
part i.; " A Fragment of the Geography of England - South-west Sussex," Geographical Journal, vol.
A new biographical collection, the Gallery of Eminent Persons of Scotland (1799), was succeeded after a short interval by a Modern Geography digested on a New Plan (1802; enlarged, 1807).
Bancroft, Alaska 1730-1885, pp. 59560 9; and various other bibliographies in titles mentioned below, especially in Brooke's The Geography and Geology of Alaska.
United States Department of War, Explorations in Alaska, 1869-1900 (Washington, 1901); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports since 1897 - " The Geography and Geology of Alaska: A Summary of Existing Knowledge," by Alfred H.
eastern land), in ancient geography, the country east of the Aegean, i.e.
- " Geography of the Caucasus (July 1889); " The Caucasian Highlands " (June 1895); " The Hydrography of the Caucasus " (June 1899); " The Riviera of Russia " (June 1904), " The Small Trades of the Caucasus " (March 1892); and " Caucasian Idioms " (June 1888).
Hinde, who was Baron Dhanis's second in command: "The political geography of the upper Congo basin has been completely changed, as a result of the Belgian campaign against the Arabs.
They form, both from the point of view of the physical geography and the commercial development of the colony, its most important feature; but next in importance are the forests.
(241-272) enlarged this re-edited Avesta by collecting and incorporating with it the non-religious tractates on medicine, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
The geography of the Avesta points both to the east and the west, particularly the north-west of Iran, but with a decided tendency to gravitate towards the east.
Bonvalot in 1887, Littledale in 1888, Cumberland, Bower and Dauvergne, followed by Younghusband in succeeding years, extending to 1890; Dunmore in 1892 and Sven Hedin in 1894-1895, have all contributed more or less to Pamir geography; but the honours of successful inquiry in those high altitudes still fall to Lord Curzon, whose researches in 1894 led to a singularly clear and comprehensive description of Pamir geography, as well as to the best map compilation that till then had existed.
The Po is the dominating factor in north Italian geography, north Italy practically consisting of the Po basin, with the surrounding slopes of the Alps and Apennines.
This marked him out as a capable editor for the new edition of L'histoire generale de Languedoc by Dom Vaissete: he superintended the reprinting of the text, adding notes on the feudal administration of this province from 900 to 1250, on the government of Alphonso of Poitiers, brother of St Louis from 1226 to 1271, and on the historical geography of the province of Languedoc in the middle ages.
The earliest account is in Flint's Geography (1831); the first official report of it was by Dr R.
He had a passion for geography and travellers' tales, for descriptions of natural wonders and ruined cities, and was himself a practised fictitious narrator and fabulist, as other passages in his MSS.
Questions of physical geography and engineering engrossed him as much as ever.
some portion of his labours in those sciences and give them to the world, an incalculable impulse would have been given to all those enquiries by which mankind has since been striving to understand the laws of its being and control the conditions of its environment, - to mathematics and astronomy, to mechanics, hydraulics, and physics generally, to geology, geography, and cosmology, to anatomy and the sciences of life.
of the Alps), in ancient geography, that portion of northern Italy north of Liguria and Umbria and south of the Alps, which was inhabited by various Celtic and other peoples, of whom the Celts were in continual hostility to Rome.
Busching's works (on geography, history, education and religion) amount to more than a hundred.
The first class comprehends those upon which his fame chiefly rests; for although he did not possess the genius of D'Anville, he may be regarded as the creator of modern Statistical Geography.
His Geography is, like much of the history, founded on the works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of Ptolemy.
The name Bengal is derived from Sanskrit geography, and applies strictly to the country stretching southwards from Bhagalpur to the sea.
From 1864 to 1866 he taught geography at the military school at Warsaw, and in 1867 he was admitted to the general staff and sent to Irkutsk, where he started to explore the highlands on the banks of the Usuri, the great southern tributary of the Amur.
The results in geography and in natural science in all its departments were abundant and accurate; his observations necessitated a reconstruction of the map of Central Africa.
No single African explorer has ever done so much for African geography as Livingstone during his thirty years' work.
But the direct gains to geography and science are perhaps not the greatest results of Livingstone's journeys.
Theal's History and Geography of South Africa (3rd ed., London, 1878), from which this account is condensed.
(a) Descriptive accounts, geography, commerce and economics: - The best early accounts of the colony are found in de la Caille's Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne Espe'rance (Paris, 1763), the Nouvelle Description du Cap de Bonne Esperance (Amsterdam, 1778); F.
P. Greswell's Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) deals specially with Cape Colony; the Illustrated Official Handbook of the Cape and South Africa (Cape Town, 1893) includes chapters on the zoology, flora, productions and resources of the colony.
It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, geography, optics, statics, or some other mathematical subject, and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with.
NORICUM (Noricus ager), in ancient geography, a district bounded on the N.
By the time when the smallest and most barbarous of the Saxon statesSussexaccepted Christianity in the year 686, the political geography of England had reached a stage from which it was not to vary in any marked degree for some 200 years.
Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899); R.
Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 1873), pp. 287-292; E.
C. Case's Wisconsin, its Geology and Physical Geography (Milwaukee, 1907).
Her other works are the Connexion of the Physical Sciences (1834), Physical Geography (1848), and Molecular and Microscopic Science (1869).
Bunbury, Ancient Geography (ii.
The history of Thessaly is closely connected with its geography.
Another theory is that, as the knowledge of geography extended, travellers brought back reports of tribes ruled entirely by women, who carried out the duties which elsewhere were regarded as peculiar to man, in whom alone the rights of nobility and inheritance were vested, and who had the supreme control of affairs.
Johnston Lavis, " Notes on the Geography, Geology, Agriculture and Economics of Iceland," Scott.
1 334), and the geography of Ivar Bardsson, a Norwegian (c. 1340), are of course of foreign origin.
A few tracts on geography, &c., in Hauk's book, and a Guide to the Holy Land, by Nicholas, abbot of Thwera (d.
In geography and geology porvaldr Thoroddsen has acquired a European fame for his researches and travels in Iceland, especially in the rarely-visited interior.
Of his numerous writings in Icelandic, Danish and German, the History of Icelandic Geography is a monumental work.
Names borrowed from geography and classical mythology are assigned to the regions and features.
See Angola (including Cabinda) (London 1920), a British Foreign Office handbook with bibliography; Hugo Marquardsen, Angola (Berlin 1920), a careful study of the geography and people, by the geographer of the Reichskolonialamt; the Anuario Colonial (Lisbon) and the Boletim of the Lisbon Geog.
Barnes also wrote a number of educational books, such as Elements of Perspective, Outlines of Geography, and in 1833 first began his poems in the Dorsetshire dialect, among them the two eclogues " The'Lotments "and" A Bit o'Sly Coorten," in the pages of the local paper.
Hull, Physical Geology and Geography of Ireland (2nd ed., London, 1891); G.
Simms, Geography of South Carolina (Charleston, 1843).
In this general article the geography of Austria - physical, economical and political - has been treated in its broad aspects, and those points insisted upon which give an adequate idea of the country as a whole.
It accords with this that the elaborate tribal-lists and boundaries prove to be of greater value for the geography than for the history of Palestine, and the attempts to use them as evidence for the early history of Israel have involved numerous additional difficulties and confusion .3 The book of Joshua has ascribed to one man conquests which are not confirmed by subsequent history.
See the Annual Reports on the colony published by the colonial office, London, which give the latest official information; C. P. Lucas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
He also wrote or edited various Chinese works on geography, the celestial and terrestrial spheres, geometry and arithmetic. And the detailed history of the mission was drawn out by him, which after his death was brought home by P. Nicolas Trigault, and published at Augsburg, and later in a complete form at Lyons under the name De Expeditione Christiana apud Sinas Suscepta, ab Soc. Jesu, Ex P. Mat.
Physical Geography The main structural lines of the continent show both the east-to-west direction characteristic, at least in the eastern hemisphere, of the more northern parts of the world, and the north-to-south direction seen in the southern peninsulas.
The fact that the physical geography of Africa affords fewer natural obstacles to racial movements on the side most exposed to foreign influence, renders it obvious that the culture most characteristically African must be sought on the other side.
His communications to the Academie des Inscriptions being coldly received and seldom accorded the honour of print, he inserted them in a vast compilation in 24 volumes, which he called Le Philologue, containing a mass of ill-digested notes on Greek grammar, geography, archaeology, and various authors.
He laid the foundation of mathematical geography in his Geographica, in three books.
More particularly, "minute" is used of the sixtieth part of any unit); in time, of an hour; and in astronomy, geometry, geography, &c., of a degree in the measurement of a circle.
LYDIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, the boundaries of which it is difficult to fix, partly because they varied at different epochs.
Condra, Geography of Nebraska (Lincoln, 1906); R.
1841), but the cuneiform texts imply that there was only one city of the name, and Takht-i-Suleiman is the Gazaca of classical geography.
IONIA, in ancient geography, the name given to a portion of the W.
SCORDISCI, in ancient geography, a Celtic tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia between the Savus, Dravus and Danuvius.
(London, 1900); Paul Kruger, Die chilenische Renihue Expedition (Berlin, 1900); Carl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillera argentino-chilienne," Anaies del Museo de La Plata (1900); Argentine-Chilian Boundaries in the Cordillera de los Andes, Argentine Evidence (London, 1900); " South America; Outline of its Physical Geography," Geogr.
His investigations must embrace not only the comparative morphology and anatomy of fossil plants, but also their distribution over the earth's surface at different periods - a part of the subject which, besides its direct biological interest, has obvious bearings on ancient climatology and geography.
Therefore, without a knowledge of the physical geography of any particular period, we cannot know whether like or unlike floras might be expected in neighbouring areas during that period.
ditions into correspondence with those now existing, t i ll towards the end of the period neither climate nor physical geography differed greatly from those now existing.
While so employed Gordon took the opportunity to make himself well acquainted with the geography and people of Armenia, and the knowledge of dealing with eastern nations then gained was of great use to him in after life.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land; Encyclopaedia Biblica, art.
Of Polybius's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be given than his conscientious investigation of original documents and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography - both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his successor Livy, conspicuously failed.
As instances of his careful attention to geography and topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his history.
Davis's Physical Geography of Southern New England (National Geographical Society Publications, 1895).
His Lectures on Logic, on Physical Geography, on Paedagogics, were edited during his lifetime by his friends and pupils.
A constant restlessness oppressed him; his sight gave way; his conversation became an extraordinary mixture of metaphors; and it was only at intervals that gleams of his former power broke out, especially when some old chord of association was struck in natural science or physical geography.
He was especially intimate with the families of two English merchants of the name of Green and Motherby, where he found many opportunities of meeting ship-captains, and other travelled persons, and thus gratifying his passion for physical geography.
Lectures on Physical Geography (1822): published from notes of Kant's lectures, with the approval of the author.
C. Hewett, Geography of Tennessee (no place, 1878).
In 1853 Maury had published his Letters on the Amazon and Atlantic Slopes of South America, and the most widely popular of his works, the Physical Geography of the Sea, was published in London in 1855, and in New York in 1856; it was translated into several European languages.
Among works published by Maury, in addition to those mentioned, are the papers contributed by him to the Astronomical Observations of the United States Observatory, Letter concerning Lanes for Steamers crossing the Atlantic (1855); Physical Geography (1864) and Manual of Geography (1871).
Robinson, Physical Geography of the Holy Land (1865); E.
Geography of the Holy Land (1894); W.
Throughout the meal, Giddon was amiable, keeping his questions and comments to benign things like the weather and geography.
Do I sound like a geography teacher?
"Your geography isn't even right," Sackler answered.
The editor would like to thank the Journal of Geography for allowing us to reproduce abstracts from their publication.
Your guide will be knowledgeable about all aspects of your tour, from geography through history.
Malta geography Malta comprises an archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea, some 93 km south of Sicily.
Key areas include architecture, planning, landscape architecture, art and design disciplines, geography, interior design and marketing.
For A Level For A level see Advanced Geography - the definitive textbook for the AS/A2 syllabuses and written by award-winning author Garrett Nagle.
They're dressed like geography teachers and look thoroughly bashful.
Peter has a degree in Fine Art and is a keen amateur botanist with a wide knowledge of wildlife and geography.
clearinghouse for educational resources and materials that may be shared by geography students and academics world wide.
Thus variety and breadth of learning and teaching methods characterize the geography curriculum (Jenkins, 1998 ).
Scottish demography: Migration between Scotland and SE England -- Dr. Donald Houston (University of Dundee -- Geography ).
desertification issues, is Professor of Geography at Kenyatta University.
Key words: protocol analysis, geography in history, GENIP, classroom discourse, learning geography.
Geography The geography of the New Land seems not dissimilar to our own civilized world.
The first is what we mean by ' evolutionary economic geography ' .
envision doing something similar, but make it sortable by date, topic, geography and language.
euphausiids infested by apostomes have been studied in relation to species, geography, body size and season.
The school also arranges local field trips for practical work in science and geography.
The problems of maintaining geography fieldwork with increased student numbers is outlined.
More information on dissertation fieldwork safety is available on our Health and Safety webpages. [OUCE Only] Copyright © 2006 School of Geography.
Today, Dundee captains and the city's whaling fleet have a permanent place in the geography of the world.
ABSTRACT: Rather than use fantasy games to teach geography, teachers can use real world events to construct their own games.
Students ' photographs and commentary can be a great way of exploring the geography of a school.
Much of Brazil's physical geography is actually unknown due to being inaccessible to humans.
Keywords: urban geography, statistics, Census data.
The focus of this paper is geography students ' drawings of what they expect to do on geography fieldtrips.
geography teacher colleagues was second to none.
None of which would be very surprising had not the pass rate for A-level geography this year been something just over 100% .
In general, that is doubtless right, but I consider that dialect geography is not the whole explanation for antlingen in Tatian.
geography in higher education is limited.
A review of the physical geography of Malta and its significance for tectonic geomorphology.
historical geography In 1835 Gorton was a township in the parish of Manchester.
Only a quarter of 13 and 14-year-olds had access to textbooks to help in doing English, history and geography homework.
However, given the chronic American inability to understand geography, they were reported as coming from Lapland rather than Iceland.
A web-based interface allows a user to select data from various data sources for a specified target geography.
Candidates must have a Degree in meteorology or a Degree in mathematics, physics or geography plus an M.S. or Diploma in applied meteorology.
This group exhibition brings together a diverse mix of artists, both in terms of personal geography and artistic preoccupation.
In the geography lesson, for example, the teacher embodied the educational service which, in her case, was very physical.
physical geography of the country offers the tourist everything from beaches to rivers to forests to mountains.
His interests include motorcycling, walking, physical geography and recreation management in sensitive areas.
regenerate declining neighborhoods, a larger problem is that the economic geography of the UK has become more polarized.
The inadequacies of ' the new regionalism ' in economic geography.
The digital age heralds the renaissance of the still image for geography teaching.
Students take core modules in biology, geography and earth sciences but the course also offers considerable choice through a range of module options.
Keywords: Applied geography, active learning, promoting student self-awareness, environmental values, land reclamation, south Wales.
Local Geography - Loch Na Meal is located 2 km southeast of Tobermory amid the stepped hills which dominate northern Mull.
specialityre three groupings of perspective which emerged, namely specialty, geography and sector.
Sports Geography: the Athens Games is a fine example of how geography can showcase itself in the context of world sporting events.
The 1+3 studentships are four year awards whereby students spend their first year studying for the MSc in Research (Human Geography ).
Report on current situation with regard to the teaching of key skills in A-level geography syllabi.
Sweden geography Sweden enjoys a mostly temperate climate despite its northern latitude, mainly due to the Gulf Stream.
The MGI is like feeding steroids to a geography undergraduate... you just can't help getting into it.
He has worked on research relating to Los Angeles, post modern urbanism, and political and social geography.
In addition, they are also limited by geography - wave power is only technically viable in coastal locations.
Play for five minutes and learn a few quick facts, or spend some time and become a geography whiz.
Third year After two gap years I started my geography degree.
From his sixth to his ninth year Alexius was educated by the diffuse and pedantic Vyazemsky, but after the removal of his mother to the Suzdal Prokovsky Monastery he was confided to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
Church, " Argentine Geography and the Ancient Pampean Sea " (Geogr.
p. 386); " South America: an Outline of its Physical Geography " (Geogr.
Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899); Ridgway, "Birds of the Galapagos Archipelago," Proc. U.S. Nat.
Physical Geography Physiography.
Australian geography, must yield in importance to the Stuart grand achievement of Mr Stuart in 1862.
P. Thomson, The Physical Geography of Australia (Smithsonian Report, Washington, 1898); J.
After the time of Ptolemy no advance in knowledge concerning the geography of south-eastern Asia was made until Cosmas Indicopleustes, a monk and an Alexandrian Greek, wrote from personal knowledge between A.D.
TRIBALLI, in ancient geography, a Thracian people whose earliest home was near the junction of the Angrus and Brongus (the east and west Morava), and included towards the south "the Triballian plain" (Herodotus iv.
While the Alps thus constitute the northern boundary of Italy, configuration and internal geography are determined almost entirely by the great chain of the Apennines, which branches off from the Maritime Alps between Nice and Genoa, and, after etching in an unbroken line from the Gulf of Genoa to the Adriatic, turns more to the south, and is continued throughout Central and Southern Italy, of which it forms as it were the back-bone, until it ends in the southernmost extremity of Calabria at Cape Spartivento.
The geography of Northern Italy will be best described by following the course of the Po.
On ancient Italian geography in general see articles in PaulyWissowa, Realer.cyclopadie (1899, sqq.); Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum (Berlin, 1862 sqq.); G.
Catherine Beecher, who was eager to establish what should be in effect a pioneer college for women, accompanied him; and with her went Harriet as an assistant, taking an active part in the literary and school life, contributing stories and sketches to local journals and compiling a school geography.
Geography is a synthetic science, dependent for the data with which it deals on the results of specialized sciences such as astronomy, geology, oceanography, meteorology, biology and anthropology, as well as on topographical description.
It is essential to classify the subject-matter of geography in such a manner as to give prominence not only to facts, but to their mutual relations and their natural and inevitable order.
Hence mathematical geography (see MAP), including cartography as a practical application, comes first.
It merges into physical geography, which takes account of the forms of the lithosphere (geomorphology), and also of the distribution of the hydrosphere and the rearrangements resulting from the workings of solar energy throughout the hydrosphere and atmosphere (oceanography and climatology).
The evolutionary idea has revolutionized and unified geography as it did biology, breaking down the old hard-and-fast partitions between the various departments, and substituting the study of the nature and influence of actual terrestrial environments for the earlier motive, the discovery and exploration of new lands.
early The earliest theoretical problem of geography was the B form of the earth.
The division of the sphere into parallel zones and some of the consequences of this generalization seem to have presented themselves to Parmenides (c. 450 B.C.); but these ideas did not influence the Ionian school of philosophers, who in their treatment of geography preferred to deal with facts demonstrable by flecataeus .
He introduced the simile that geography represented an artist's sketch of a whole portrait, while chorography corresponded to the caref and detailed drawing of an eye or an ear.'
Discovery had outrun theory; the rush of new facts made Ptolemy practically obsolete in a generation, after having been the fount and origin of all geography for a millennium.
The earliest evidence of the reincarnation of a sound theoretical geography is to be found in the text-books by Peter Apian and Sebastian Munster.
He followed Ptolemy closely, enlarging on his distinction between geography and chorography, and expressing the artistic analogy in a rough diagram.
Varenius was reluctant to include the human side of geography in his system, and only allowed it as a concession to custom, and in order to attract readers by imparting interest to the sterner details of the science.
His division of geography was into two parts - (i.) General or universal, dealing with the earth in general, and explaining its properties without regard to particular countries; and (ii.) Special or particular, dealing with each country in turn from the chorographical or topographical point of view.
General geography was divided into - (I) the Absolute part, dealing with the form, dimensions, position and substance of the earth, the distribution of land and water, mountains, woods and deserts, hydrography (including all the waters of the earth) and the atmosphere; (2) the Relative part, including the celestial properties, i.e.
Varenius does not treat of special geography, but gives a scheme for it under three heads- (i) Terrestrial, including position, outline, boundaries, mountains, mines, woods and deserts, waters, fertility and fruits, and living creatures; (2) Celestial, including appearance of the heavens and the climate; (3) Human, but this was added out of deference to popular usage.
The compilation of " geography books " by uninstructed writers led to the pernicious habit, which is not yet wholly overcome, of reducing the general or " physical " part to a few pages of concentrated information, and expanding the particular or " political " part by including unrevised travellers' stories and uncritical descriptions of the various countries of the world.
Here there is a clear and formal statement of the interaction and causal relation of all the phenomena of distribution on the earth's surface, including the influence of physical geography upon the various activities of mankind from the lowest to the highest.
Notwithstanding the form of this classification, Kant himself treats mathematical geography as preliminary to, and therefore not dependent on, physical geography.
The impulse given to the study of natural history by the example of Linnaeus; the results brought back by Sir Joseph Banks, Dr Solander and the two Forsters, who accompanied Cook in his voyages of discovery; the studies of De Saussure in the Alps, and the lists of desiderata in physical geography drawn up by that investigator, combined to ' Printed in Schriften zur physischen Geographie, vol.
The science of geography, passed on from antiquity by Ptolemy, re-established by Varenius and Newton, and systematized by Kant, included within itself definite aspects of all those terrestrial phenomena which are now treated exhaustively under the heads of geology, meteorology, oceanography and anthropology; and the inclusion of the requisite portions of the perfected results of these sciences in geography is simply the gathering in of fruit matured from the seed scattered by geography itself.
The study of geography was advanced by improvements in cartography (see MAP), not only in the methods of survey and projection, but in the representation of the third dimension by means of contour lines introduced by Philippe Buache in 1737, and the more remarkable because less obvious invention of isotherms introduced by Humboldt in 1817.
The great outburst of Mahommedan conquest in the 7th century was followed by the Arab civilization, having its centres at Bagdad The Arabs and Cordova, in connexion with which geography again .
Physical geography naturally falls into three divisions, dealing respectively with the surface of the lithosphere - geomorphology; the hydrosphere - oceanography; and the atmosphere - climatology.
Keane in International Geography, p. 108.
The modes of government amongst civilized peoples have little influence on political geography; some republics are as arbitrary and exacting in their frontier regulations as some absolute monarchies.
Attention must also be paid to the artificial restrictions of political geography, to the legislative restrictions bearing on labour and trade as imposed in different countries, and, above all, to the incessant fluctuations of the economic conditions of supply and demandand the combinations of capitalists or workers which affect the market.4 The term " applied geography " has been employed to designate commercial geography, the fact being that every aspect of scientific geography may be applied to practical purposes, including the purposes of trade.
after 1173), whose Massa`oth are of great value for the history and geography of his time, and (though not belonging to Spain) Pethahiah of Regensburg (d.
The extreme north of Liberia is still for the most part a very well-watered country, covered with a rich vegetation, but there are said to be a few breaks that are rather stony and that have a very well-marked dry season in which the vegetation is a good deal burnt up. In the main Liberia is the forest country par excellence of West Africa, and although this region of dense forests overlaps the political frontiers of both Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast, it is a feature of physical geography so nearly coincident with the actual frontiers of Liberia as to give this country special characteristics clearly marked in its existing fauna.
Dictionary of the Russian Empire (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-84), the most trustworthy source for the geography of Russia; the official Svod Materialov, with regard to Russian rivers (1876); Statistical Sbornik of the Ministry of Communications, vol.
Parker Snow, Two Years' Cruise off the Tierra del Fuego, the Falkland Islands, &c. (1857); Sir C. Wyville Thomson, Voyage of the " Challenger " (1877); C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
In its charter this institution is described as "an academy for the purpose of promoting piety and virtue, and for the education of youth in the English, Latin and Greek languages, in writing, arithmetic, music and the art of speaking, practical geometry, logic and geography, and such other of the liberal arts and sciences or languages, as opportunity may hereafter permit."
Accordingly, his supernatural revelations resemble a course of lessons in celestial geography more than a description of the beatific vision.
Geography The northern boundary of Asia is formed by the Arctic Ocean; the coast-line falls between 70Ã‚° and 75Ã‚° N., and so lies within the Arctic circle, having its extreme northern point in Cape Sivero-Vostochnyi (i.e.
The geography of the region in which the mountains of Cochin-China and Siam join Tibet is still imperfectly known, but there is no ground left for doubting that the great river of eastern Tibet, the Tsanpo, supplies the main stream of the Brahmaputra.
The arid nature of the trans-Caspian deserts has proved an insuperable obstacle to those rigorous methods of geodetic survey which distinguish Russian methods in Europe, so that Russian geography in central Asia is dependent on other means than that of direct measurement for the co-ordinate values in latitude and longitude for any given point.
He first defined the geography of Tsaidam, and mapped the hydrography of that remarkable region, from which emanate the great rivers of China, Siam and Burma.
Supplementary Papers R.G.S., 1882-1885; Sir C. Wilson, " Notes on Physical and Historical Geography of Asia Minor," vol.
He then proceeds to adduce elaborate and sometimes slightly grotesque reasons tending to prove that mathematical knowledge is essential in theology, and closes this section of his work with two comprehensive sketches of geography and astronomy.
MacGonigle's " Geography of Florida " (National Geographic Magazine, vol.
Their variety is considerable, for they are designed to illustrate physical and political geography, travel and navigation, trade and commerce, and, in fact, every subject connected with geographical distribution and capable of being illustrated by means of a map. We thus have (1) physical maps in great variety, including geological, orographical and hydrographical maps, maps illustrative of the geographical distribution of meteorological phenomena, of plants and animals, such as are to be found in Berghaus's " Physical Atlas," of which an enlarged English edition is published by J.
Scientific geography profited largely from the labours of Eratosthenes of Cyrene, whom Ptolemy Euergetes appointed The gnomon was known to the Chinese in the 5th century B.C., and reached the Greeks (Anaximander) through Babylon.
The celestial globe of Hipparchus still existed in the Alexandrian library in the time of Ptolemy, who himself refers to globes in his Almagest, as also in the Geography.
The language of various treatises was doubtful and ambiguous, largely owing to the ignorance of the diplomatists who drew up the articles of the exact geography of the territory in question.
In the native schools - almost all maintained by Christian missions - Zulu and English are taught, the subjects taken being usually reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, geography and history.
Ingram, Natalia, a Condensed History of the Exploration and Colonization of Natal and Zululand (London, 1897); C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
As compilers and authors of works in various scientific branches allied to history, may be particularly mentioned-in statistics and geography, Alexius Fenyes, Emeric Palugyay, Alexander Konek, John Hunfalvy, Charles Galgoczy, Charles Keleti, Leo Beothy, Joseph Korosi, Charles Ballagi and Paul Kiraly, and, as regards Transylvania, Ladislaus Kovary; in travel, Arminius Vambery, Ignatius Goldziher, Ladislaus Magyar, John Xantus, John Jerney, Count Andrassy, Ladislaus Podmaniczky, Paul Hunfalvy; in astronomy, Nicholas Konkoly; in archaeology, Bishop Arnold Ipolyi, Florian Romer, Emeric Henszlmann, John Erdy, Baron Albert Nyary, Francis Pulszky and Francis Kiss; in Hungarian mythology, Bishop Ipolyi, Anthony Csengery,' and Arpad Kerekgyarto; in numismatics, John Erdy and Jacob Rupp; and in jurisprudence, Augustus Karvassy, Theodore Pauler, Gustavus Wenczel, Emeric Csacsk6, John Fogarasi and Ignatius Frank.
discuss the psychology, physiology and anatomy of man, the five senses and their organs, sleep, dreams, ecstasy, memory, reason, &c. The remaining four books seem more or less supplementary; the last (xxxii.) is a summary of geography and history down to the year 1250, when the book seems to have been given to the world, perhaps along with the Speculum Historiale and possibly an earlier form of the Speculum Doctrinale.
The chief of these are: Bibliography and Librarianship: Bibliographie des Buch- and Bibliothekswesens (1905); Chemistry: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der Chemie (1847); Classical Archaeology and Philology: Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft (1873); Education: Jahrbuch der peidagogischen Literatur (1901); Geography: Geographisches Jahrbuch (1874); Bibliotheca geographica (1891); History: Jahresberichte der Geschichtswissenschaft (1878); Fine Arts: Internationale Bibliographie der Kunstwissenschaft (1902); Law and Political Economy: Uebersicht der gesamten staatsand rechtswissenschaftlichen Literatur (1868); Jurisprudentia Germaniae (1905); Bibliographic des birgerlichen Rechts (1888); Bibliographie der Sozialwissenschaften (1905); Bibliographic fur Sozialand Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1903); Bibliographic fur Volkswirtschaftslehre and Rechtswissenschaft (1906); Literature and Languages: Bibliographic der vergleichenden Literaturgeschichte (1903); Jahresberichte fiir neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte (1890); Jahresbericht fiber die Erscheinungen auf dem Gebiete der germanischen Philologie (1879); Uebersicht fiber die auf dem Gebiete der englischen Philologie erschienenen Bucher, Schriften, and Aufseitze (1878); Kritischer Jahresbericht fiber die Fortschritte der romanischen Philologie (1875); Bibliographie fur romanische Philologie-Supl.
It is convenient to divide the subject-matter of physical geography into the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere, and in this sense the ocean is less than the hydrosphere in so far as the latter term includes also the water lying on or flowing over the surface of the land.
revised appeared in 1867 under the title Les Forets de la Gaule et de l'ancienne France); La Terre et l'homme, a general historical sketch of geology, geography and ethnology, being the introduction to the Histoire universelle, by Victor Duruy (1854); Histoire des religions de la Grece antique, (3 vols., 1857-1859); La Magie et l'astrologie dans l'antiquite et dans le moyen age (1863); Histoire del' ancienne academie des sciences (1864); Histoire de l'Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres (1865); a learned paper on the reports of French archaeology, written on the occasion of the universal exhibition (1867); a number of articles in the Encyclopedie moderne (1846-1851), in Michaud's Biographie universelle (1858 and seq.), in the Journal des savants in the Revue des deux mondes (1873, 1877, 1879-1880, &c.).
Bellin, Description ge'ographique des debouquements au nord de St Dominique (1768); the Jamaica Handbook (London, yearly) and Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
MAGNESIA, in ancient geography the name of two cities in Asia Minor and of a district in eastern Thessaly, lying between the Vale of Tempe and the Pagasaean Gulf.
He made a collection of the speeches and letters of the Romans of the older republican period, probably including a corpus of proceedings of the senate (Ada senatus), and was the author of a work, chiefly dealing with the natural history and geography of the East, which is often quoted by Pliny as an authority, especially for fabulous statements.
In 1872, under the Third Republic, Jules Simon found time for hygiene, geography and modern languages by abolishing Latin verse composition and reducing the number of exercises in Latin prose, while he insisted on the importance of studying the inner meaning of the ancient classics.
See Notice sur Mayotte et les Comores, by Emile Vienne, one of the memoirs on the French colonies prepared for the Paris Exhibition of 190o; Le Sultanat d'Anjouan, by Jules Repiquet (Paris, 1901), a systematic account of the geography, ethnology and history of Johanna; Les colonies franraises (Paris, 1900), vol.
Richard, Comprehensive Geography of the Chinese Empire (Shanghai, 1908), pp. 798 9, and authorities there cited.
He edited Stanford's Compendium of Geography and, besides many papers in the journals of learned societies and in encyclopaedias, published Man, Past and Present (1899); Ethnology (1896 and later editions); The Gold of Ophir (1901), etc. He was professor of Hindustani at University College, London, till 1885.
Roughly speaking, Phrygia comprised the western part of the great central plateau of Anatolia, extending as far east as the river Halys; but its boundaries were vague, 2 and varied so much at different periods that a sketch of its history must precede any account of the geography.
There is also a special doctorate, the " doctorat d'Universite," awarded on a thesis and an oral examination; and there are diplomas (Diplo nes d'Etudes superieures) awarded on dissertations and examinations on subjects in philosophy, history and geography, classics or modern languages, selected mainly by the candidate and approved by the faculty.
This central desert is the Kir, Kej, Katz or Kash Kaian of Arabic medieval geography and a part of the ancient Kaiani kingdom; the prefix Kej or Kach always denoting lowlevel flats or valleys, in contradistinction to mountains or hills.
Oldham, " The Evolution of Indian Geography," vol.
There we spent many happy hours and played at learning geography.
Despite all the efforts to regenerate declining neighborhoods, a larger problem is that the economic geography of the UK has become more polarized.
Creative subjects such as art, geography and music were relegated in favor of English, maths and science, he said.