From his sixth to his ninth year he was given over to the care of learned foreigners, who taught him history, geography, mathematics and French.
The geography of Northern Italy is described in several popular guide books.
I go to school every day I am studying reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and language.
"A geography lesson!" he muttered as if to himself, but loud enough to be heard.
Markham, Central and South America, in Stanford's " Compendium of Geography and Travel " (London, 1901); G.
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
The geography of Ptolemy was also known and is constantly referred to by Arab writers.
These valuable additions to Australian geography were gained through humane efforts to relieve the lost explorers.
by Fisher, Plant Geography upon a Physiological Basis (Oxford, 1903f 904).
It was not a special subject, like geography or arithmetic, but her way to outward things.
And suddenly he saw vividly before him a long-forgotten, kindly old man who had given him geography lessons in Switzerland.
- For Physical Geography: Barton, Australian Physiography (Brisbane, 1895); Wall, Physical Geography of Australia (Melbourne, 1883); Taylor, Geography of New South Wales (Sydney, 1898); Saville Kent, The Great Barrier Reef of Australia (London, 1893); A.
The distinctive task of geography as a science is to investigate the control exercised by the crust-forms directly or indirectly upon the various mobile distributions.
It is true that the earths physical geography presents certain broad features to which plants are adapted.
It is true that the earths physical geography presents certain broad features to which plants are adapted.
There he began his investigations into the geography, history and antiquities of the district.
His geography was based more immediately on the work of his predecessor, Marinus of Tyre, and on that of Hipparchus, the follower and critic of Eratosthenes.
But not until the voyage of Magellan shook the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to advance.
But not until the voyage of Magellan shook the scales from the eyes of Europe did modern geography begin to advance.
The fundamental basis of geography is the vertical relief of the earth's crust, which controls all mobile distributions.
In 1813-14 Rich spent some time in Europe, and on his return to Bagdad devoted himself to the study of the geography of Asia Minor, and collected much information in Syrian and Chaldaean convents concerning the Yezidis.
subdivided plant geography into floristic plant geography and ecological plant geography.
Tozer 2 as the father of geography on account of his Periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk.
Moreover the strategic geography of the country required the greater part of the army to be stationed permanently within reach of the north-eastern and north-western frontiers.
2 History of Ancient Geography (Cambridge, 1897), p. 70.
The applications of anthropogeography to human uses give rise to political and commercial geography, in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages have to be considered, together with historical and other purely human conditions.
Tevere) may be considered as furnishing the key to the geography of all this portion of Italy west of the Apennines.
scientific geography than the laborious feeling out of the coast-line of Africa.
scientific geography than the laborious feeling out of the coast-line of Africa.
Humboldt, for example, defined his view of the scope of plant geography as follows:
The verbal inter- Geography pretation of Scripture led Lactantius (c. A.D.
Aristotle left no work on geography, so that it is impossible to know what facts he associated with the science of the earth's surface.
In a general way, floristic plant geography is concerned with species, ecological plant geography with vegetation.
It is a singular fact in the geography of Central Italy that the valleys of the Tiber and Arno are in some measure connected by that of the Chiana, a level and marshy tract, the waters from which flow partly into the Arno and partly into the Tiber.
This gives to it unity and definiteness, and renders superfluous the attemps that have been made from time to time to define the limits which divide geography from geology on the one hand and from history on the other.
In a general way, floristic plant geography is concerned with species, ecological plant geography with vegetation.
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
Soon after his time, however, this conception was clearly established, and with so large a generalization the mental horizon was widened to conceive of a geography which was a science.
Schimper, Plant Geography, transl.
" Tinislands"), in ancient geography the name of islands regarded as being situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.
The physical and natural sciences are concerned in geography only so far as they deal with the forms of the earth's surface, or as regards the distribution of phenomena.
geography, but, following the model of Strabo, described the world according to its different political divisions, and entered with great zest into the question of the productions ' Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography (2 vols., London, 1879), Muller's Geographi Graeci minores (2 vols., Paris, 1855, 1861) and Berger's Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erdkunde der Griechen (4 vols., Leipzig, 1887-1893) are standard authorities on the Greek geographers.
This slender distinction was made much of by most subsequent writers until Nathanael Carpenter in 1625 pointed out that the difference between geography and chorography was simply one of degree, not of kind.
On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.
The fundamental conception of geography is form, including the figure of the earth and the varieties of crustal relief.
The geography of Central Italy is almost wholly determined by the Apennines, which traverse it in a direction from about north-north-east to south-south-west, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara.
The word geography did not appear before Aristotle, Aristotle's the first use of it being in the llepi Kovp.wv, which is one of the writings doubtfully ascribed to him, and H.
From the phytogeographical standpoint, ecology is frequently termed ecological plant geography.
This mattel- is bound up with the centres of origin and with the past migrations of species; and such questions are usually treated as a part of floristic plant geography.
To Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) must be given the distinction of founding scientific geography.
(Leipzig, 1900), which is in every way the most complete treatise on the principles of geography.
The actual and past distribution of plants must obviously be controlled by the facts of physical geography.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
Thus early commenced the separation between what were long called mathematical and political geography, the one subject appealing mainly to mathematicians, the other to historians.
Geography he defined as " the description of the whole earth, so far as it is known to us."
A little-known book which appears to have escaped the attention of most writers on the history of modern geography was published at Oxford in 1625 by Nathanael Carpenter, fellow of Exeter College, with the title Geographie delineated forth Carpenter.
It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
Such books were in fact not geography, but merely compressed travel.
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
Kant's lectures on physical geography were delivered in the university of Konigsberg from 1765 onwards.'
Geography appealed to him as a valuable educational discipline, the joint foundation with anthropology of that " knowledge of the world " which was the result of reason and experience.
In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
Ptolemy, who had access to the treasures of the famous library of Alexandria was able, no doubt, to utilize these cadastral plans when compiling his geography.
It marks the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
2 The period of the early middle ages is dealt with in Beazley's Dawn of Modern Geography (London; part i., 1897; part ii., 1901; part iii., 1906); see also Winstedt, Cosmos Indicopleustes (1910).
His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.
Physical geography he viewed as a summary of nature, the basis not only of history but also of " all the other possible geographies," of which he enumerates five, viz.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.
Particular importance is given to the vertical relief of the land, on which the various branches of human geography are shown to depend.
stock of first-hand information on which an improved system of geography might be founded.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
Humboldt's contemporary, Carl Ritter (1779-1859), extended and disseminated the same views, and in his interpretation of " Comparative Geography " he laid stress on the importance of Iditter.
Some of his followers showed a tendency to look on geography rather as an auxiliary to history than as a study of intrinsic worth.
During the rapid development of physical geography many branches of the study of nature, which had been included in the cosmography of the early writers, the physiography of Linnaeus and even the Erdkunde of Ritter, had been as so much advanced by the labours of specialists that their connexion was apt to be forgotten.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
Political geography has been too often looked on from both sides as a mere summary of guide-book knowledge, useful in the schoolroom, a poor relation of physical geography that it was rarely necessary to recognize.
This argument was tacitly accepted or explicitly avowed by almost every writer on the theory of geography, and Carl Ritter distinctly recognized and adopted it as the unifying principle of his system.
As a student of nature, however, he did not fail to see, and as professor of geography he always taught, that man was in very large measure conditioned by his physical environment.
This was the central theme of Ritter's philosophy; his religion and his geography were one, and the consequent fervour with which he pursued his mission goes far to account for the immense influence he acquired in Germany.
The evolutionary theory, more than hinted at in Kant's " Physical Geography," has, since the writings of Charles Darwin, become the unifying principle in geography.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
In this way also the position of geography, at the point where physical science meets and mingles with mental science, is explained and justified.
The change which took place during the 19th century in the substance and style of geography may be well seen by comparing the eight volumes of Malte-Brun's Geographic universelle (Paris, 1812-1829) with the twenty-one volumes of Reclus's Geographic universelle (Paris, 1876-1895).
In estimating the influence of recent writers on geography it is usual tc assign to Oscar Peschel (1826-1875) the credit of having corrected the preponderance which Ritter gave to the historical element, and of restoring physical geography to its old pre-eminence.2 As a matter of fact, each of the leading modern exponents of theoretical geography - such as Ferdinand von Richthofen, Hermann Wagner, Friedrich Ratzel, William M.
The two conceptions which may now be said to animate the theory of geography are the genetic, which depends upon processes of origin, and the morphological, which depends on facts of form and distribution.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.) rendered the greatest service to geography by the protection and encouragement of Eratosthenes, whose labours gave the first ap proximate knowledge of the true size of the spherical The .
Thus he placed on record the voyages of the merchant Ulfsten in the Baltic, including particulars of the geography of Germany.
In the same year, 1598, a third expedition was despatched under Oliver van Noort, a native of Utrecht, but the voyage contributed nothing to geography.
This voyage proved to be the most important to geography that had been undertaken since the first circumnavigation of the globe.
THE Principles Of Geography As regards the scope of geography, the order of the various departments and their inter-relation, there is little difference of opinion, and the principles of geography 2 are now generally accepted by modern geographers.
The science of geodesy is part of mathematical geography, of which the arts of surveying and cartography are applications.
The deviation is of importance in the movement of air, of ocean currents, and to some extent of rivers.3 In popular usage the words " physical geography " have come to mean geography viewed from a particular standpoint rather than any special department of the subject.
The popular Physical meaning is better conveyed by the word physiography, a geography.
In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.
All these rest upon the facts of mathematical geography, and the three are so closely inter-related that they cannot be rigidly separated in any discussion.
Geomorphology is the part of geography which deals with terrestrial relief, including the submarine as well as the subaerial portions of the crust.
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
Davis, Physical Geography (Boston, 1899).
There is nothing more striking in geography than the perfection of the adjustment of a great river system to its valleys when the land has remained stable for a very lengthened period.
The action of rivers on the land is so important that it has been made the basis of a system of physical geography by Professor W.
It is, however, not the action of the running water on the land, but the function exercised by the land on the running water, that is considered here to be the special province of geography.
Penck, " Potamology as a Branch of Physical Geography," Geog.
Engler, Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt; also Beddard, Zoogeography (Cambridge, 1895); and Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899).
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
The definition of boundaries and their delimitation is one of the most important parts of political geography.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
Commercial geography may be defined as the description of the earth's surface with special reference to the discovery, production, transport and exchange of commodities.
But apart from the applied science, there is an aspect of pure geography which concerns the theory of the relation of economics to the surface of the earth.
P. Marsh in Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as modified by Human Action (London, 1864).
4 For commercial geography see G.
Chisholm, Manual of Commercial Geography (1890).
logical, political and commercial development of the subject runs the determining control exercised by crust forms acting directly or indirectly on mobile distributions; and this is the essential principle of geography.
188), wrote a sketch of geography in six books.
of Ancient Geography (1879), ii.
Aran j o, Compendio de la Geografia Nacional (Montevideo, 1894); Uruguay, its Geography, History, &c. (Liverpool, 1897); P. F.
European Russia Geography.
'Bibliography of Geography: see Tillo, in Izvestia of Russian Geogr.
He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.
" The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
Ramsay, "Historical Geography of Asia Minor" (R.G.S.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land.
Bunbury in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography; R.
Geography The northern boundary of Asia is formed by the Arctic Ocean; the coast-line falls between 70° and 75° N., and so lies within the Arctic circle, having its extreme northern point in Cape Sivero-Vostochnyi (i.e.
Robert Barkley Shaw and George Hayward were the European pioneers of geography into the central dominion of Kashgar, arriving at Yarkand within a few weeks of each other in 1868.
The next great accession to our knowledge of central Asiatic geography was gained with the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1886, when Afghan Turkestan and the Oxus regions were mapped by Colonel Sir T.
Deasy of the 16th Lancers, each striking out a new line, and rendering most valuable service to geography.
No more valuable contribution to the illustration of western Chinese configuration has been given to the public than that of C. C. Manifold who explored and mapped the upper basin of the Yang-tsze river between the years 1900 and 1904, whilst our knowledge of the geography of the Russo-Chinese borderland on the north-east has been largely advanced by the operations attending the RussoJapanese war which terminated in 1905.
Turning our attention westwards, no advance in the progress of scientific geography is more remarkable than that recorded on the northern and north-western frontiers of India.
All this is comparatively new geography, and it goes far to explain why the great trade routes from Peking to the west were pushed so far to the north.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
Blanford, Elementary Geography of India, Burma, and Ceylon (London, 1890); Guide to the Climate and Weather of India (London, 1889); Lord Dunmore, The Pamirs (London, 1892); A.
Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
Astrology, geography, physical science and natural theology were their favourite studies.
Partly as a result of this trade, ever pushing its way farther east, and partly as a result of the Asiatic missions, which were themselves an accompaniment and effect of the Crusades, a third great result of the Crusades came to light in the 13th century - the discovery of the interior of Asia, and an immense accession to the sphere of geography.
Colonization, trade, geography - these then are three things closely connected with the history of the Crusades.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
A kindly old pedant, Fulcher interlards his history with much discourse on geography, zoology and sacred history.
The Koran, sacred and secular law, logic, poetry, arithmetic, with some medicine and geography, are the chief subjects of study.
account of their cost, bulk and weight, but their great use in teaching geography is undeniable.
Among historians who looked upon geography as an important aid in their work are numbered Polybius (c. 210-120 B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (c. 30 B.C.) and Agathachidus of Cnidus (c. 120 B.C.) to whom we are indebted for a valuable account of the Erythrean Sea and the adjoining parts of Arabia and Ethiopia.
Ptolemy (q.v.) was the author of a Geography' (c. A.D.
" Geography," in the sense in which he uses the term, signifies the delineation of the known world, in the shape of a map, while chorography carries out the same objects in fuller detail, with regard to a particular country.
He was he deals with the principles of mathematical geography, map projections, and sources of information with special reference FIG.
They contain about 8000 names, with their 1 The oldest MS. of Ptolemy's Geography is found in the Vatopedi monastery of Mt Athos.
Masudi, who saw the maps in the Horismos or Rasm el Ard, a description of which was engraved for King Roger of Sicily upon a silver plate, or the rectangular map in 70 sheets which accompanies his geography (Nushat-ul Mushtat) take rank with Ptolemy's work.
He is called upon more] especially to give a satisfactory delineation of the ground, he must meet the requirements of various classes of the public, and be prepared to record cartographically all the facts of physical or political geography which are capable of being recorded on his maps.
This is due as much to the inspiriting teachings of Ritter and Humboldt as to the general culture and scientific training combined with technical skill commanded by the men who more especially devote themselves to this branch of geography, which elsewhere is too frequently allowed to fall into the hands of mere mechanics.
The greater part is taken from Pliny's Natural History and the geography of Pomponius Mela.
Little is known of him except that he belonged to a family of Yemen, was hold in repute as a grammarian in his own country, wrote much poetry, compiled astronomical tables, devoted most of his life to the study of the ancient history and geography of Arabia, and died in prison at San'a in 945.
His Geography of the Arabian Peninsula (Kitab Jazirat ul- ` Arab) is by far the most important work on the subject.
Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, ii.
Bar (Geography) >>
Soc., General Geography (vol.
Under the name of Mouru this place is mentioned with Bakhdi (Balkh) in the geography of the Zend-Avesta (Vendidad, ed Spiegel, 1852-1863), which dates probably from at least 1200 B.C. Under the name of Margu it occurs in the cuneiform (Behistun) inscriptions of the Persian monarch Darius Hystaspis, where it is referred to as forming part of one of the satrapies of the ancient Persian Empire.
2 His tastes were all for such studies as history, antiquities, and especially geography and natural science.
In geography he found a field hardly touched since Samuel Bochart, in whose footsteps he followed in the Spicilegium geographiae hebraeorum exterae post Bochartum (1769-1780); and to his impulse we owe the famous Eastern expedition conducted by Carsten Niebuhr.
His account of the geography falls into two irreconcilable parts; one (iv.
1-142 (editions of Blakesley, Rawlinson, Macan); Hippocrates, De Aere, &c., c. 24 sqq.; for geography alone: Strabo vii.
rer.); C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii.
His travels had begotten in him a love of geography, and he published in 1633 a "Kosmografi," previously revised by the astronomer Longomontanus.
One result of this and later persecutions of the same kind has been to enrich Syriac literature with a long series of Acts of Persian Martyrs, which, although in their existing form intermixed with much legendary matter, nevertheless throw valuable light on the history and geography of western Persia under Sasanian rule.
paeninsula, from paene, almost, and insula, an island), in physical geography, a piece of land nearly surrounded by water.
Not, however, all diseases of the nervous system conduct themselves on these definite paths, for some of them pay no attention to the geography of structure, but, as one may say, blunder indiscriminately among the several parts; others, again, pick out particular parts definitely enough, but not parts immediately continuous, or even contiguous.
PAMPHYLIA, in ancient geography, the region in the south of Asia Minor, between Lycia and Cilicia, extending from the Mediterranean to Mt Taurus.
CILICIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, extending along the south coast from the Alara Su, which separated it from Pamphylia, to the Giaour Dagh (Mt.
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii.
In natural science, geography, natural history, mathematics and astronomy he took a genuine interest.
So the Armenian Geography ascribed to Moses of Chorene (q.v.
PISIDIA, in ancient geography, the name given to a country in the south of Asia Minor, immediately north of Pamphylia by which it was separated from the Mediterranean, while it was bounded on the N.
PANNONIA, in ancient geography a country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia.
Forbiger, Handbuch der alters Geographie von Europa (Hamburg, 1877); article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, ii.
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, i.
Geography General Features.
His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.
For ancient geography of Arabia: - A.
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography (aondon, 1883); D.
Hamdani (q.v.) was led to write his great geography of Arabia by his love for the ancient history of his land.
The study of Ptolemy's geography led to a wider outlook, and the writing of works on geography (q.v.) in general.
The geography of Tunisia was first treated scientifically by E.
See also C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii.
Ramsay, Historical Geography of Asia Minor (1890); St Paul the Traveller (1895); G.
Richard, Comprehensive Geography of the Chinese Empire (Shanghai, 1908).
Stanley Gardiner and C. Forster Cooper carried out an expedition to the Maldives and Laccadives, for the important results of which see The Fauna and Geography of the Maldive and Laccadive Archipelagoes, ed.
A universal geography (by Uchida Masao); a history of nations (by Mitsukuri Rinsho); a translation of Chamberss Encyclopaedia by the department of education; Japanese renderings of Herbert Spencer and of Guizot and Buckleall these made their appearance duringthe first fourteen years of the epoch.
Geschichte, i., Strassburg, 1893), as being simply an attempt to reconcile the political geography of Homer (i.e.
The usual changes of station and detached duty made him acquainted with the geography of all the Southern states, and Sherman improved the opportunity by making topographical studies which proved of no small value to him later.
Eratosthenes, who in the latter half of the and century B.C. was keeper of the famous Alexandrian library, not only made himself a great name by his important work on geography, but by his treatise entitled Chronographia, one of the first attempts to establish an exact scheme of general chronology, earned for himself the title of "father of chronology."
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, i.; W.
of Ancient Geography, ii.
Oceanography is the science which deals with the ocean, and since the ocean forms a large part of the earth's surface oceanography is a large department of geography.
Like geography, oceanography may be viewed in two different ways, and is conveniently divided into general oceanography, which deals with phenomena common to the whole ocean, and special oceanography, which has to do with the individual characteristics of the various divisions of the ocean.
Maury, The Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology (New York and London, 1860); J.
9 3 7-34; Sir John Murray, " Presidential Address to Section E (Geography)," British A ssociation Report (Dover), 1899; M.
Simonds, Geography of Texas (New York, 1905), W.
SODOM AND GOMORRAH, in biblical geography, two of five cities (the others named Admah, Zeboiim and Bela or Zoar) which were together known as the "cities of the Kikkar" (circle), somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea.
The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.
Blum, New Guinea and der Bismarck Archipel (Berlin); Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel; Malaysia and Pacific Archipelagoes (new issue, edited by Dr F.
These philological labours were of great indirect importance, for they led immediately to the study of the natural sciences, and in particular to a more accurate knowledge of geography andhistory.
A large collection of such curious information is contained in the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus, a pupil of Aristarchus who flourished in the and century B.C. Eratosthenes was the first to write on mathematical and physical geography; he also first attempted to draw up a chronological table of the Egyptian kings and of the historical events of Greece.
Davis, Physical Geography of Southern New England (New York, 1895), and for the western counties, R.
For further treatment of the physical geography of the American continents, see North America, South America.
Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography (London, 1 897), i.
Making it his main object in his "introduction" to set before his readers the previous history of the two nations who were the actors in the great war, he is able in tracing their history to bring into his narrative some account of almost all the nations of the known world, and has room to expatiate freely upon their geography, antiquities, manners and customs and the like, thus giving his work a "universal" character, and securing for it, without trenching upon unity, that variety, richness and fulness which are a principal charm of the best histories, and of none more than his.
Among works of value illustrative of Herodotus may be mentioned Bouhier, Recherches sur Herodote (Dijon, 1746); Rennell, Geography of Herodotus (London, 1800); Niebuhr, Geography of Herodotus and Scythia (Eng.
of Ancient Geography, i.
Among his works are The Book of Isaiah (2 vols., 1888-1890); The Book of the Twelve Prophets (2 vols., 1876-1877); Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1894); Jerusalem (2 vols., 1907); The Preaching of the Old Testament to the Age (1893); The Life of Henry Drummond (1898).
In early life he devoted himself to astronomy and physical geography, and in consequence he was appointed astronomer to various expeditions, among others that of Sir J.
Tarr, Physical Geography of New York State (New York, 1902), with a chapter on climate by E.
The physical geography of New Zealand is closely connected with its geological structure, and is dominated by two intersecting lines of mountains and earth movements.
These two volumes deal with the history, geography, zoology and economic condition of the Ivory Coast.
Agrippa was also known as a writer, especially on geography.
may be a secondary addition " written from specially intimate acquaintance with the (later ?) Egyptian geography " (J.
Green, " A Contribution to the Geology and Physical Geography of the Cape Colony," Quart.
The investigation of triangles and other figures drawn upon the surface of a sphere is all-important in the sciences of astronomy, geodesy and geography.
In mathematical geography the problem of representing the surface of a sphere on a plane is of fundamental importance; this subject is treated in the article MAP.
The origin and subsequent formation of rivers and the valleys along which they flow are considered under Geography, § Principles of Geography, and Geology, § viii.
29 a other geographers, attracted Varenius to geography.
The work is divided into - (1) absolute geography, (2) relative geography and (3) comparative geography.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
He had married the daughter of a Paris 'working-man, Justine Eleanore Ruffin, by whom he had, before his marriage, two children: (I) Roland Napoleon, born on the 19th of May 1858, who entered the army, was excluded from it in 1886, and then devoted himself to geography and scientific explorations; (2) Jeanne, wife of the marquis de Vence.
Annual Report for 1872, containing The Physical Geography and Agricultural Resources of Minnesota, Dakota and Nebraska (Washington, 1873), by Cyrus Thomas; publications by the U.S. Geological Survey (consult the bibliographies in Bulletins, Nos.
This theory was combated in later days, and caused great confusion in the province of historical geography.
Keane, Eastern Geography: Asia; Dr Keith, Journal Royal Asiatic Society (1892); C. S.
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.
The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.
He retired in 1862 with the rank of colonel, and devoted his leisure to the 'medieval history and geography of Central Asia.
For about three years from 1849 he was professor of geography in the university of Cracow.
Apart from his special interest in the history of the Old Attic comedy, he was a man of vast and varied learning; the founder of astronomical geography and of scientific chronology; and the first to assume the name of 4aX6Xo a yos.
The range of studies was widened, however, at Rugby in 1828-1842 by Thomas Arnold, whose interest in ancient history and geography, as a necessary part of classical learning, is attested by his edition of Thucydides; while his influence was still further extended when those who had been trained in his traditions became head masters of other schools.
In these schools the subjects of study included mathematics and natural sciences, geography and history, and modern languages (especially French), with riding, fencing and dancing; Latin assumed a subordinate place, and classical composition in prose or verse was not considered a sufficiently courtly accomplishment.
In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
Keane, in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1908); and W.
of the Historical Geography of the British Colonies, edited by Sir C. P. Lucas (Oxford, 1907); T.
Among the institutions connected with the university are the national institution for East Indian languages, ethnology and geography; the fine botanical gardens, founded in 1587; the observatory (1860); the natural history museum, with a very complete anatomical cabinet; the museum of antiquities (Museum van Oudheden), with specially valuable Egyptian and Indian departments; a museum of Dutch antiquities from the earliest times; and three ethnographical museums, of which the nucleus was P. F.
Gergovie), in ancient geography, the chief town of the Arverni, situated on a hill in the Auvergne, about 8 m.
Clarke, Charles Schuchert and others have re-entered the study of the Palaeozoic geography of the North American continent with work of astonishing precision.
Egloffstein, Contributions to the Geology and Physical Geography of Mexico (New York, 1864); C. Reginald Enock, Mexico, its Ancient and Modern Civilization, &c. (London, 1909); Hans Gadow, Travels in Southern Mexico (London, 1908); Ernst von Hesse-Wartegg, Mexico, Land and Leute (Vienna, 1890); W.
Keane, " Mexico " in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1904); H.
He also assisted in August Bekker's edition of the Byzantine historians, and delivered courses of lectures on ancient history, ethnography, geography, and on the French Revolution.
owing to insufficient knowledge of the geography of the coast - that both William Alexander, earl of Stirling, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges, proprietor of Maine, claimed Martha's Vineyard.
See also C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography ii.
Bernard, De Adamo Bremensi (Paris, 189J); Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, ii.
Reclus with the appearance of "a stormy sea breaking into parallel billows" (Universal Geography, ed.
Under the older-fashioned methods of treating physical geography, the prairies were empirically described as level prairies, rolling prairies, and so on.
______ The close of the Pennsylvanian period was marked by the beginning of profound changes, changes in geography and climate, and therefore changes in the amount and habitat of life, and in the sites of erosion and sedimentation.
aequator, from aequare to make equal), in geography, that great circle of the earth, equidistant from the two poles, which divides the northern from the southern hemisphere and lies in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the earth; this is termed the "geographical" or "terrestrial equator."
LUCANIA, in ancient geography, a district of southern Italy, extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Tarentum.
We cannot tell where his Geography was written, but it was at least finally revised between A.D.
The Geography is the most important work on that science which antiquity has left us.
It was, as far as we know, the first attempt to " collect all the geographical knowledge at the time attainable, and to compose a general treatise on geography.
In general outline it follows necessarily the work of the last-named geographer, who had first laid down a scientific basis for geography.
" Strabo indeed appears to be the first who conceived a complete geographical treatise as comprising the four divisions of mathematical, physical, political and historical geography, and he endeavoured, however imperfectly, to keep all these objects in view."
He designed his geography as a sequel to his historical writings, and it had as it were grown out of his historical materials, which were chiefly Greek.
With respect to physical geography, his work is a great advance on all preceding ones.
In respect of mathematical geography, his lack of scientific training was no great hindrance.
He accepted also the division into five zones; he quotes approvingly the assertion of Hipparchus that it was impossible to make real advances in geography without astronomical observations for determining latitudes and longitudes.
Napoleon I., an admirer of Strabo, caused a French translation of the Geography to be made by Coraes, Letronne and others (Paris 1805-1819); Grosskurd's German translation(Berlin, 1831-1834), with notes, is a monumental work.
Bunbury's History of Ancient Geography, vol.
Mvvia and Mvaia rt Ev Eupdnrp, to distinguish it from Mysia in Asia), in ancient geography, a district inhabited by a Thracian people, bounded on the S.
Kiepert, Lehrbuch der alten Geographie (1878), §§ 298, 299; article in Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1873).
The physical geography of Canada is so closely bound up with its geology that at least an outline of the geological factors involved in its history is necessary to understand the present physiography.
HIBERNIA, in ancient geography, one of the names by which Ireland was known to Greek and Roman writers.
SEQUANI, in ancient geography, a Celtic people who occupied the upper basin of the Arar (Saone), their territory corresponding to Franche-Comte and part of Burgundy.
Soon, however, he turned his attention to the study of geography.
In 1858 he obtained an appointment as teacher of geography at the Sorbonne, and henceforth devoted himself to that subject.
It was not till 1876 that he published, in two volumes, his remarkable Histoire de la formation territoriale des etats de l'Europe centrale, in which he showed with a firm, but sometimes slightly heavy touch, the reciprocal influence exerted by geography and history.
CYRENAICA, in ancient geography, a district of the N.
The first ten books are each occupied with a history of the kings of one of the provinces; the eleventh book gives an account of the Mussulmans of Malabar; the twelfth a history of the Mussulman saints of India; and the conclusion treats of the geography and climate of India.
There is no doubt that Leucas fits the Homeric descriptions much better than Ithaca; but, on the other hand, many scholars maintain that it is a mistake to treat the imaginary descriptions of a poet as if they were portions of a guide-book, or to look, in the author of the Odyssey, for a close familiarity with the geography of the Ionian islands.
with the physical geography and natural history of Mexico and Peru; books V., VI.
The death of his mother in 1762 having deprived him of his means of support, he went in 1763 on the invitation of the pastor of the Lutheran community, Anton Friedrich Biisching, the founder of the modern historic statistical method of geography, to teach natural history in the Lutheran academy, St Petersburg.
of Ancient Geography, vol.
Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 18 73), pp. 233-238 W.
Whilst the names we have mentioned are derived from physical geography, there are related names the meaning and origin of which are not so clear.
The stretch from Samsat and Jeziret-ibn- 'Omar to the alluvial plain seems to divide itself naturally into three parallel belts, highland watershed district, un- Geography.
PHOENICIA, in ancient geography, the name given to that part of the seaboard of Syria which extends from the Eleutherus (Nahr el-Kebir) in the north to Mt Carmel in the south, a distance of rather more than two degrees of latitude.
For the geography and civilization of Canaan about 1400 B.C. we have valuable evidence in the Egyptian papyrus Anastasi I., which mentions Kepuna (Gubna, Gebal-Byblus) the holy city, and continues: " Come then to Berytus, to Sidon, to Sarepta.
Few questions in historical geography have been more keenly discussed than that of the first discovery of Guinea by the navigators of modern Europe.
- vi., geography and ethnography; vii., anthropology and human physiology; viii.
Stevinus wrote on other scientific subjects - optics, geography, astronomy, &c. - and a number of his writings were translated into, Latin by W.
COLCHIS, in ancient geography, a nearly triangular district of Asia Minor.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
A national institution at Leiden for the study of languages, geography and ethnology of the Dutch Indies has given place to communal institutions of the same nature as Delft and at Leiden, founded in 1864 and 1877.
LATIUM,' in ancient geography, the name given to the portion of central Italy which was bounded on the N.W.
Freeman (London, 1898); Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
In the primary schools instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, history and geography is obligatory.
papyrifera of many botanists), the discrepancies in geography, ethnology and zoology, which have been so troublesome in the past, will disappear; other features, usually considered obscure, will become luminous; and the older and less distorted sagas, at least in their main incidents, will become vivid records of actual geographic exploration."
geographie (June 1870); Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, i.
Mushketov, Turkestan (St Petersburg, 1886), with bibliographical references; Ivashintsev, Hydrographic Exploration of the Caspian Sea (in Russian), with atlas (2 vols., 1866); Philippov, Marine Geography of the Caspian Basin (in Russian, 1877); Memoirs of the Aral-Caspian Expedition of 1876-1877 (2 vols., in Russian), edited by the St Petersburg Society of Naturalists; Andrusov, "A Sketch of the Development of the Caspian Sea and its Inhabitants," in Zapiski of Russ.
(For physical geography, see MoRocco.) Mauretania, or Maurusia as it was called by Greek writers, signified the land of the Mauri, a term still retained in the modern name of Moors.
Geography of Tea.
Unfortunately, Diodorus does not always quote his authorities, but his general sources of information were - in history and chronology, Castor, Ephorus and Apollodorus; in geography, Agatharchides and Artemidorus.
and similar anachronisms, 1 which run through the whole book and are often closely incorporated with the narrative itself, and on the other hand by the identity of the author of the History with that of Geography, a point on which all doubt is excluded by a number of individual affinities, 2 not to speak of the similarity in geographical terminology.
The critical decision as to the authorship of the Geography must settle the question for the History also.
The Geography is a meagre sketch, based mainly on the Chorography of Pappus of Alexandria (in the end of the 4th century), and indirectly on the work of Ptolemy.
P. Patkanow,7 to whom we are indebted for the best text of the Geography, is of opinion that we have in it a writing of the 7th century.
If the limits within which the Geography was composed are to be more nearly defined, we may say that, from isolated traces of Arab rule (which in Armenia dates from 651), it must have been written certainly after that year, and perhaps about the year 657.9 Another extant work of Moses is a Manual of Rhetoric, in ten books, dedicated to his pupil Theodorus.
(28 73, p. 599 seq.) had substantially arrived at the right conclusion when he assigned the portions of the Geography referring to Armenia to the time between Justinian and Maurice.
Marquart edits with commentary under the title Eransahr the sections of the geography relating to Persia).
of Stanfords Compendium of Geography and Travel (London, 1899 and 1900).
During the wars of Drusus, Tiberius and Germanicus the Romans had ample opportunity of getting to know the tribal geography of Germany, especially the western part, and though most of our authorities lived at a somewhat later period, it is probable that they derived their information very largely from records of that time.
Among editions the first is of 1619, by Gretser; the best, that of 1877, by Tobler, in Itinera et Descriptiones Terrae Sanctae; we may also mention that of 1870, by Delpit, in his Essai sur les anciens pelerinages a Jerusalem; see also Delpit's remarks upon Arculf in the same work, pp. 260-304; Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, i.
The geographical distribution of the great mineral wealth of Ontario has already been indicated (see Physical Geography, above).
The coast is for the most part flat, more regular in outline and less favourable to shipping, while in the east, 1 The name T pcvaKpia was no doubt suggested by the OpcvaKln of Homer (which need not, however, be Sicily), and the geography was then fitted to the apparent meaning given to the name by the change.
His love for mathematical science, geography, &c., in which the Arabs excelled, is noteworthy.
Accordingly we find that Arabian philosophy, mathematics, geography, medicine and philology are all based professedly upon Greek works (Brockelmann, Gesch.
Another of his works was a general geography of the world, which exists in manuscript.
includes Geography, Economics, Government, Inhabitants, Finance and Army.
AuTiioRIrIEs.(a) General descriptions, geography, travel, &c.:
Mardon, Geography of Egypt.
C. Olufsen (1764-1827) was a writer on geography, zoology and political economy.
In Joachim Frederik Schouw (1789-1852), Denmark produced a very eminent botanist, author of an exhaustive Geography of Plants.
FLOOD PLAIN, the term in physical geography for a plain formed of sediment dropped by a river.
In 1675 appeared his Notitia Galliarum ordine litterarum digesta, a work of the highest merit, which laid the foundations of the scientific study of historical geography in France; but, like all the scholars of his age, he had no solid knowledge of philology.
LYCIA, in ancient geography, a district in the S.W.
i18wp, water, and vgaipa, sphere), in physical geography, a name given to the whole mass of the water of the oceans, which fills the depressions in the earth's crust, and covers nearly three-quarters of its surface.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, vol.
Tozer, History of Ancient Geography, pp. 152-164 (Cambridge, 1897).
Sharpe, " Geography and Economic Development of British Central Africa," Geog.
His principal works are: Theatrum Daniae veteris et modernae (4to, 1730), a description of the geography, natural history, antiquities, &c., of Denmark; Gesta et vestigia danorum extra Daniam (3 vols.
The camel, the horse and the donkey are the draught animals; the flesh of the first Geology and Geography of Arabia Petraea, Palestine and adjoining Districts (London, 1886).
iv., and his Jerusalem (London, 1907), are invaluable for the relation between Palestinian geography and history.
Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine (1841), Later Biblical Researches '(1856), Physical Geography (1865); A.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land (1897); F.
The peninsula (Chersonese or Cimbric peninsula of ancient geography) extends northward, from a line between Lubeck and the mouth of the Elbe, for 270 m.
It does not seem possible to identify it with any city in classical geography: Alexandria ad Caucasum it certainly was not.
Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 1 873), pp. 292-294; J.
Although the work is uncritical, and shows the author's ignorance of geography, chronology and military matters, it is written in a picturesque style.
Of the India of modern geography lying beyond the Indus they practically knew nothing.
His most valuable works include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), and important studies on the geography of northern Africa - in introductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann - and the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
See Sir Clements Markham, Major James Rennell and the Rise of Modern English Geography (London, 1895).
Decotter, Geography of Mauritius and its Dependencies (Mauritius, 1892); H.
FERREL'S LAW, in physical geography.
In his course he included singing, economy, politics, world-history, geography, and the arts and handicrafts.
In the primary schools boys learn arithmetic, and geography and Korean history are taught, with the outlines of the governmental systems of other civilized countries.
The exploration of Greenland has been continued, with few exceptions, by Danes who, besides throwing much light on problems in physical geography and Eskimo ethnography, have practically completed the map of the coasts.
397-5 26; C. Raymond Beazley, Dawn of Modern Geography, iii.
Soc., and "Geography of Virginia," pp. 1-60, vol.
This is of two main kinds: (a) evidence of history, consisting in a comparison of the political and social condition, the geography, the institutions, the manners, arts and ideas of Homer with those of other times; (b) evidence of language, consisting in a comparison with later dialects, in respect of grammar and vocabulary.
Other works on Finnish history and some inportant works in Finnish geography have also appeared.
Abulfeda, prince of Hamah in the early part of the 14th century, is well known as an authority on Arab geography.
In ancient geography the Chersonesus Thracica, Chersonesus Taurica or Scythica, and Chersonesus Cimbrica correspond to the peninsulas of the Dardanelles, the Crimea and Jutland; and the Golden Chersonese is usually identified with the peninsula of Malacca.
contornare, to round off), in physical geography a line drawn upon a map through all the points upon the surface represented that are of equal height above sea-level.
Bergel (Leipzig, 1885), &c. For these subjects, and for law, zoology, geography, &c. &c., see the full and classified bibliographies in M.
Thoth was a voluminous author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, geography and physiology.
The computations of Apollodorus have fixed his birth in 611, and his death shortly after 547 B.C. Tradition, probably correct in its general estimate, represents him as a successful student of astronomy and geography, and as one of the pioneers of exact science among the Greeks.
The museum formed by the Oran Society of Geography and Archaeology (founded in 1878) has a fine collection of antiquities.
DACIA, in ancient geography, the land of the Daci, a large district of central Europe, bounded on the N.
Hartt, Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil (Boston, 1870); and H.
For the geography and numerous details of administration: J.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
Bunbury, Ancient Geography, i.
C. Lukach, A Bibliography of Sierra Leone (Oxford 1911); Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
Geography (physical), geology, climate, flora and fauna.
Egerton, Geography of South and East Africa (Oxford, 1904); W.
P. Greswell, Geography of Africa South of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) S.
with special reference to geography.
The importance of these writings as throwing light on the geography and history of India and adjoining countries, during a very dark period, is great, and they have been the subject of elaborate commentaries by modern students.
Beal (1869); The Ancient Geography of India, by Major-General Alex.
The central range of the Suliman hills is the dominant feature in the geography of northern Baluchistan.
The fast-diminishing Sajidis (Sajittae) and Saka (Sacae) are others of the more ancient races of Baluchistan easily recognizable in classical geography.
lower than Everest, affords an excellent example in Asiatic geography of a dominating, peakcrowned water-parting or divide.
Ptolemy in his Geography (ii.
Along with grammar, which had been a prominent branch of study under Chrysippus, philosophy, history, geography, chronology and kindred subjects came to be recognized as fields of activity no less than philology proper.
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.
pp. 409-430 (Paris, 1904); British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports (London); United States Consular Reports; Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel, vol.
in the constitutional, administrative and judicial organization of the various powers, in international law, commercial law and maritime law, in the history of treaties and in commercial and political geography, in political economy, and in the German and English languages.
Navarino), in ancient geography a town and bay on the west coast of Messenia, noted chiefly for the part it played in the Peloponnesian War.
SATRAE, in ancient geography, a Thracian people, inhabiting part of Mount Pangaeus between the rivers Nestus (Mesta) and Strymon (Struma).
Bunbury, History of Ancient Geography, ii.
ALTAI (in Mongolian Altain-ula, the "Mountains of Gold"), a term used in Asiatic geography with various significations.
242-246) and in the geography of Yaqut (q.v.).
SENONES, in ancient geography, a Celtic people of Gallia Celtica, who in Caesar's time inhabited the district which now includes the departments of Seine-et-Marne, Loiret and Yonne.
A bibliography of the economic geography has been issued by W.
After travelling in Germany and Poland (where he learnt Polish), he began the study of law at Leiden, but he soon turned his attention to history and geography, which were then taught there by Joseph Scaliger.
The physical geography (see Sumatra) is imperfectly understood.
A flat coast follows as far as Selsey Bill and Spithead, but the south coast 410 [Physical Geography] of the Isle of Wight shows a succession of splendid cliffs.
This distinction is essential, and applies to all the conditions of which geography takes account.
The boundaries of the parishes, the fundamental units of English political geography, are very often either rivers or watersheds, and they frequently show a close relation to the strike of the geological strata.
The position of the various principal coal-fields has been indicated in dealing with the physical geography of England, but the grouping of the fields adopted in the official report may be given here, together with an indication of the counties covered by each, and the percentage of coal to the total bulk raised in each county.
C. Ramsay, Physical Geography and Geology of Great Britain, edited by H.
Reclus, Universal Geography, vol.
part i.; " A Fragment of the Geography of England - South-west Sussex," Geographical Journal, vol.
A new biographical collection, the Gallery of Eminent Persons of Scotland (1799), was succeeded after a short interval by a Modern Geography digested on a New Plan (1802; enlarged, 1807).
Bancroft, Alaska 1730-1885, pp. 59560 9; and various other bibliographies in titles mentioned below, especially in Brooke's The Geography and Geology of Alaska.
United States Department of War, Explorations in Alaska, 1869-1900 (Washington, 1901); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports since 1897 - " The Geography and Geology of Alaska: A Summary of Existing Knowledge," by Alfred H.
eastern land), in ancient geography, the country east of the Aegean, i.e.
- " Geography of the Caucasus (July 1889); " The Caucasian Highlands " (June 1895); " The Hydrography of the Caucasus " (June 1899); " The Riviera of Russia " (June 1904), " The Small Trades of the Caucasus " (March 1892); and " Caucasian Idioms " (June 1888).
Hinde, who was Baron Dhanis's second in command: "The political geography of the upper Congo basin has been completely changed, as a result of the Belgian campaign against the Arabs.
They form, both from the point of view of the physical geography and the commercial development of the colony, its most important feature; but next in importance are the forests.
(241-272) enlarged this re-edited Avesta by collecting and incorporating with it the non-religious tractates on medicine, astronomy, geography and philosophy.
The geography of the Avesta points both to the east and the west, particularly the north-west of Iran, but with a decided tendency to gravitate towards the east.
Bonvalot in 1887, Littledale in 1888, Cumberland, Bower and Dauvergne, followed by Younghusband in succeeding years, extending to 1890; Dunmore in 1892 and Sven Hedin in 1894-1895, have all contributed more or less to Pamir geography; but the honours of successful inquiry in those high altitudes still fall to Lord Curzon, whose researches in 1894 led to a singularly clear and comprehensive description of Pamir geography, as well as to the best map compilation that till then had existed.
The Po is the dominating factor in north Italian geography, north Italy practically consisting of the Po basin, with the surrounding slopes of the Alps and Apennines.
This marked him out as a capable editor for the new edition of L'histoire generale de Languedoc by Dom Vaissete: he superintended the reprinting of the text, adding notes on the feudal administration of this province from 900 to 1250, on the government of Alphonso of Poitiers, brother of St Louis from 1226 to 1271, and on the historical geography of the province of Languedoc in the middle ages.
The earliest account is in Flint's Geography (1831); the first official report of it was by Dr R.
He had a passion for geography and travellers' tales, for descriptions of natural wonders and ruined cities, and was himself a practised fictitious narrator and fabulist, as other passages in his MSS.
Questions of physical geography and engineering engrossed him as much as ever.
some portion of his labours in those sciences and give them to the world, an incalculable impulse would have been given to all those enquiries by which mankind has since been striving to understand the laws of its being and control the conditions of its environment, - to mathematics and astronomy, to mechanics, hydraulics, and physics generally, to geology, geography, and cosmology, to anatomy and the sciences of life.
of the Alps), in ancient geography, that portion of northern Italy north of Liguria and Umbria and south of the Alps, which was inhabited by various Celtic and other peoples, of whom the Celts were in continual hostility to Rome.
Busching's works (on geography, history, education and religion) amount to more than a hundred.
The first class comprehends those upon which his fame chiefly rests; for although he did not possess the genius of D'Anville, he may be regarded as the creator of modern Statistical Geography.
His Geography is, like much of the history, founded on the works of his predecessors, and so ultimately on the work of Ptolemy.
The name Bengal is derived from Sanskrit geography, and applies strictly to the country stretching southwards from Bhagalpur to the sea.
From 1864 to 1866 he taught geography at the military school at Warsaw, and in 1867 he was admitted to the general staff and sent to Irkutsk, where he started to explore the highlands on the banks of the Usuri, the great southern tributary of the Amur.
The results in geography and in natural science in all its departments were abundant and accurate; his observations necessitated a reconstruction of the map of Central Africa.
No single African explorer has ever done so much for African geography as Livingstone during his thirty years' work.
But the direct gains to geography and science are perhaps not the greatest results of Livingstone's journeys.
Theal's History and Geography of South Africa (3rd ed., London, 1878), from which this account is condensed.
(a) Descriptive accounts, geography, commerce and economics: - The best early accounts of the colony are found in de la Caille's Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne Espe'rance (Paris, 1763), the Nouvelle Description du Cap de Bonne Esperance (Amsterdam, 1778); F.
P. Greswell's Geography of Africa south of the Zambesi (Oxford, 1892) deals specially with Cape Colony; the Illustrated Official Handbook of the Cape and South Africa (Cape Town, 1893) includes chapters on the zoology, flora, productions and resources of the colony.
It was his duty as professor to lecture at least once a week in term time on some portion of geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, geography, optics, statics, or some other mathematical subject, and also for two hours in the week to allow an audience to any student who might come to consult with the professor on any difficulties he had met with.
NORICUM (Noricus ager), in ancient geography, a district bounded on the N.
By the time when the smallest and most barbarous of the Saxon statesSussexaccepted Christianity in the year 686, the political geography of England had reached a stage from which it was not to vary in any marked degree for some 200 years.
Sclater, The Geography of Mammals (London, 1899); R.
Tozer, Geography of Greece (London, 1873), pp. 287-292; E.
C. Case's Wisconsin, its Geology and Physical Geography (Milwaukee, 1907).
Her other works are the Connexion of the Physical Sciences (1834), Physical Geography (1848), and Molecular and Microscopic Science (1869).
Bunbury, Ancient Geography (ii.
The history of Thessaly is closely connected with its geography.
Another theory is that, as the knowledge of geography extended, travellers brought back reports of tribes ruled entirely by women, who carried out the duties which elsewhere were regarded as peculiar to man, in whom alone the rights of nobility and inheritance were vested, and who had the supreme control of affairs.
Johnston Lavis, " Notes on the Geography, Geology, Agriculture and Economics of Iceland," Scott.
1 334), and the geography of Ivar Bardsson, a Norwegian (c. 1340), are of course of foreign origin.
A few tracts on geography, &c., in Hauk's book, and a Guide to the Holy Land, by Nicholas, abbot of Thwera (d.
In geography and geology porvaldr Thoroddsen has acquired a European fame for his researches and travels in Iceland, especially in the rarely-visited interior.
Of his numerous writings in Icelandic, Danish and German, the History of Icelandic Geography is a monumental work.
Names borrowed from geography and classical mythology are assigned to the regions and features.
See Angola (including Cabinda) (London 1920), a British Foreign Office handbook with bibliography; Hugo Marquardsen, Angola (Berlin 1920), a careful study of the geography and people, by the geographer of the Reichskolonialamt; the Anuario Colonial (Lisbon) and the Boletim of the Lisbon Geog.
Barnes also wrote a number of educational books, such as Elements of Perspective, Outlines of Geography, and in 1833 first began his poems in the Dorsetshire dialect, among them the two eclogues " The'Lotments "and" A Bit o'Sly Coorten," in the pages of the local paper.
Hull, Physical Geology and Geography of Ireland (2nd ed., London, 1891); G.
Simms, Geography of South Carolina (Charleston, 1843).
In this general article the geography of Austria - physical, economical and political - has been treated in its broad aspects, and those points insisted upon which give an adequate idea of the country as a whole.
It accords with this that the elaborate tribal-lists and boundaries prove to be of greater value for the geography than for the history of Palestine, and the attempts to use them as evidence for the early history of Israel have involved numerous additional difficulties and confusion .3 The book of Joshua has ascribed to one man conquests which are not confirmed by subsequent history.
See the Annual Reports on the colony published by the colonial office, London, which give the latest official information; C. P. Lucas's Historical Geography of the British Colonies, vol.
He also wrote or edited various Chinese works on geography, the celestial and terrestrial spheres, geometry and arithmetic. And the detailed history of the mission was drawn out by him, which after his death was brought home by P. Nicolas Trigault, and published at Augsburg, and later in a complete form at Lyons under the name De Expeditione Christiana apud Sinas Suscepta, ab Soc. Jesu, Ex P. Mat.
Physical Geography The main structural lines of the continent show both the east-to-west direction characteristic, at least in the eastern hemisphere, of the more northern parts of the world, and the north-to-south direction seen in the southern peninsulas.
The fact that the physical geography of Africa affords fewer natural obstacles to racial movements on the side most exposed to foreign influence, renders it obvious that the culture most characteristically African must be sought on the other side.
His communications to the Academie des Inscriptions being coldly received and seldom accorded the honour of print, he inserted them in a vast compilation in 24 volumes, which he called Le Philologue, containing a mass of ill-digested notes on Greek grammar, geography, archaeology, and various authors.
He laid the foundation of mathematical geography in his Geographica, in three books.
More particularly, "minute" is used of the sixtieth part of any unit); in time, of an hour; and in astronomy, geometry, geography, &c., of a degree in the measurement of a circle.
LYDIA, in ancient geography, a district of Asia Minor, the boundaries of which it is difficult to fix, partly because they varied at different epochs.
Condra, Geography of Nebraska (Lincoln, 1906); R.
1841), but the cuneiform texts imply that there was only one city of the name, and Takht-i-Suleiman is the Gazaca of classical geography.
IONIA, in ancient geography, the name given to a portion of the W.
SCORDISCI, in ancient geography, a Celtic tribe inhabiting the southern part of lower Pannonia between the Savus, Dravus and Danuvius.
(London, 1900); Paul Kruger, Die chilenische Renihue Expedition (Berlin, 1900); Carl Burckhardt, " Profils geologiques transversaux de la Cordillera argentino-chilienne," Anaies del Museo de La Plata (1900); Argentine-Chilian Boundaries in the Cordillera de los Andes, Argentine Evidence (London, 1900); " South America; Outline of its Physical Geography," Geogr.
His investigations must embrace not only the comparative morphology and anatomy of fossil plants, but also their distribution over the earth's surface at different periods - a part of the subject which, besides its direct biological interest, has obvious bearings on ancient climatology and geography.
Therefore, without a knowledge of the physical geography of any particular period, we cannot know whether like or unlike floras might be expected in neighbouring areas during that period.
ditions into correspondence with those now existing, t i ll towards the end of the period neither climate nor physical geography differed greatly from those now existing.
While so employed Gordon took the opportunity to make himself well acquainted with the geography and people of Armenia, and the knowledge of dealing with eastern nations then gained was of great use to him in after life.
Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land; Encyclopaedia Biblica, art.
Of Polybius's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be given than his conscientious investigation of original documents and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography - both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his successor Livy, conspicuously failed.
As instances of his careful attention to geography and topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his history.
Davis's Physical Geography of Southern New England (National Geographical Society Publications, 1895).
His Lectures on Logic, on Physical Geography, on Paedagogics, were edited during his lifetime by his friends and pupils.
A constant restlessness oppressed him; his sight gave way; his conversation became an extraordinary mixture of metaphors; and it was only at intervals that gleams of his former power broke out, especially when some old chord of association was struck in natural science or physical geography.
He was especially intimate with the families of two English merchants of the name of Green and Motherby, where he found many opportunities of meeting ship-captains, and other travelled persons, and thus gratifying his passion for physical geography.
Lectures on Physical Geography (1822): published from notes of Kant's lectures, with the approval of the author.
C. Hewett, Geography of Tennessee (no place, 1878).
In 1853 Maury had published his Letters on the Amazon and Atlantic Slopes of South America, and the most widely popular of his works, the Physical Geography of the Sea, was published in London in 1855, and in New York in 1856; it was translated into several European languages.
Among works published by Maury, in addition to those mentioned, are the papers contributed by him to the Astronomical Observations of the United States Observatory, Letter concerning Lanes for Steamers crossing the Atlantic (1855); Physical Geography (1864) and Manual of Geography (1871).
Robinson, Physical Geography of the Holy Land (1865); E.
Geography of the Holy Land (1894); W.
Throughout the meal, Giddon was amiable, keeping his questions and comments to benign things like the weather and geography.
Do I sound like a geography teacher?
"Your geography isn't even right," Sackler answered.
The editor would like to thank the Journal of Geography for allowing us to reproduce abstracts from their publication.
Your guide will be knowledgeable about all aspects of your tour, from geography through history.
Malta geography Malta comprises an archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea, some 93 km south of Sicily.
Key areas include architecture, planning, landscape architecture, art and design disciplines, geography, interior design and marketing.
For A Level For A level see Advanced Geography - the definitive textbook for the AS/A2 syllabuses and written by award-winning author Garrett Nagle.
They're dressed like geography teachers and look thoroughly bashful.
Peter has a degree in Fine Art and is a keen amateur botanist with a wide knowledge of wildlife and geography.
clearinghouse for educational resources and materials that may be shared by geography students and academics world wide.
Thus variety and breadth of learning and teaching methods characterize the geography curriculum (Jenkins, 1998 ).
Scottish demography: Migration between Scotland and SE England -- Dr. Donald Houston (University of Dundee -- Geography ).
desertification issues, is Professor of Geography at Kenyatta University.
Key words: protocol analysis, geography in history, GENIP, classroom discourse, learning geography.
However, a quiz on history or geography would yield equally dismal results among the general population.
Geography The geography of the New Land seems not dissimilar to our own civilized world.
The first is what we mean by ' evolutionary economic geography ' .
envision doing something similar, but make it sortable by date, topic, geography and language.
euphausiids infested by apostomes have been studied in relation to species, geography, body size and season.
The school also arranges local field trips for practical work in science and geography.
fieldwork in geography is outlined.
The problems of maintaining geography fieldwork with increased student numbers is outlined.
More information on dissertation fieldwork safety is available on our Health and Safety webpages. [OUCE Only] Copyright © 2006 School of Geography.
Today, Dundee captains and the city's whaling fleet have a permanent place in the geography of the world.
ABSTRACT: Rather than use fantasy games to teach geography, teachers can use real world events to construct their own games.
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