Geographical sentence example
The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
It has rather been a wide extension of scientific geographical mapping.
Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
This was one of the few great epochs of geographical discovery.
Henceforward the name "Scythian" is purely geographical.Advertisement
James Bruce of Kinnaird, the contemporary of Niebuhr, was equally devoted to Eastern travel; and his principal geographical Africa .
The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.
The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
In reviewing the progress of geographical discovery thus far, it has been possible to keep fairly closely to a chronological order.Advertisement
The first of the existing geographical societies was that of Paris, founded in 1825 under the title Of La Societe de Geographie.
The Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde) is second in order of seniority, having been founded in 1827.
The Royal Geographical Society, which was founded in London in 1830, comes third on the list; but it may be viewed as a direct result of the earlier African Association founded in 1788.
At the close of the 19th century there were upwards of loo such societies in the world, with more than 50,000 members, and over 150 journals were devoted entirely to geographical subjects.'
The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.Advertisement
The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
These far extensions furnish the basis for a vast amount of exploratory survey of a strictly geographical character, and they have contributed largely towards raising the standard of accuracy in Asiatic geographical surveys to a level which was deemed unattainable fifty years ago.
Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.Advertisement
Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
Meanwhile, the acquisition of Burma and the demarcation of boundaries had opened the way to the extension of geographical surveys in directions hitherto untraversed.
The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
The result of trans-border surveys to the north and west of India has been to establish the important geographical fact that it is by two gateways only, one on the north-west and one on the west of India, that the central Asiatic tides of immigration have flowed into the peninsula.Advertisement
Though the geographical extent of Russian territory and influence is enormous, she has always moved along the line of least resistance.
Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have been preserved by Strabo and others.
The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860 at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.1 The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
In geographical distribution the Bovidae present a remarkable contrast to the deer tribe, or Cervidae.
Its geographical range nearly coincides with that of the other species, but it is more locally distributed, and its range in northern Asia is not known.
The geographical range of the mammoth was very extensive.
The committee of the Royal Geographical Society settled the existing nomenclature of the three great oceans.
A definite terminology for the larger forms of sub-oceanic relief was put forward by the International Geographical Congress at Berlin in 1899 and adopted by that at Washington in 1004.
According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
For the sake of uniformity it is to be hoped that the system of nomenclature recommended by the International Geographical Congress will ultimately be adopted.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
In 1882 the Royal Geographical Society despatched Joseph Thomson to discover through Masailand the direct route to Victoria Nyanza.
It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
The result of their deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619 and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for the maintenance 1 See The Geographical Journal, ix.
Its geographical position is excellent; built upon alluvial soil 784 ft.
This geographical division was not reproduced by Rome in any administrative partitions of the province.
Although a compass may thus be made practically correct for a given time and place, the magnetism of the ship is liable to changes on changing her geographical position, and especially so when steaming at right angles or nearly so to the magnetic meridian, for then sub-permanent magnetism is developed in the hull.
In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.
Tibet is affected by the south-west monsoon, just as the Pamirs are affected, but in varying degrees according to geographical position.
In 1874 he received a government commission to undertake explorations in Syria, particularly at Tyre, and as a result he published in 1876 Aus Phonicien, a collection of historical and geographical sketches.
See Colonel Miles, Geographical Journal, vol.
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
A well-developed river system has in fact many equally important and widely-separated sources, the most distant from the mouth, the highest, river or even that of largest initial volume not being necessarily of greater geographical interest than the rest.
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country.
It will therefore be seen from the above that next to the Nearctic area the Palaearctic has a much greater affinity to any other, a fact which might be expected from geographical considerations.
Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
The partition of this total between the principal geographical divisions of the world is given in Table I.
The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
No general survey of sacrifice on geographical lines is possible, but some of the more important features in each area may be noticed.
The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, 1 See B Stechele, in'Milnchener geographische Studien, xx.(1906), and Geographical Journal (December 1907).
Americans and Europeans began to discuss the question of annexation, recognizing the importance of the geographical position of the islands.
Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.
Questions of affinity, and the details of geographical distribution, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a trifling pastime.
More than this, he entered upon their geographical distribution, the facts of which important subject are here, almost for the first time, since the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 4 brought to bear practically on classification.
During his long stay in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical description of this province, which was bound to France by so many political and literary associations.
At the same time Alexander himself made it a principal concern to win fresh geographical knowledge, to open new ways.
The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced.
If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration.
The rainfall in the first geographical division is pretty constant, and may reach a yearly average of about 22 in.
Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication.
The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic. Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.
Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
Many of the so-called genera, or groups of genera, are consequently not to be used either as witnesses of blood-relationship or of geographical distribution.
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
He was trained for the military profession, but turned his attention to science and geographical exploration.
Of the species known not one has so wide a geographical range, and has so well been studied, as the common British threespined stickleback (Gastrosteus aculeatus).
Between that date and the Revolution there had been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a geographical division of the globe into northern and southern departments.
The Lhobrak was finally identified with the Manas river, a geographical discovery of some importance.
East of Bhutan, amongst the semi-independent hill states which sometimes own allegiance to Tibet and sometimes assert complete freedom from all authority, the geographical puzzle of the course of the Tsanpo, the great river of Tibet, has been solved by the researches of Captain Harman, and the explorations of the native surveyor "K.
Originally the name may have been a geographical term for the central portion of Palestine.
Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
The third subfamily is the Antilopinae, the members of which, have a much wider geographical range than either of the foregoing groups.
Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
Glaser have done most for epigraphy, while Manzoni is to be remembered for his excellent geographical work.
The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration.
In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877.
Several geographical races are recognized.
The probability is that there are three, corresponding to the geographical regions involved, (1) Rome and Italy, (2) N.E.
All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
With the decline of the Roman Empire the demand for parrots in Europe lessened, and so the supply dwindled, yet all knowledge of them was not wholly lost, and they are occasionally mentioned by one writer or another until in the i 5th century began that career of geographical discovery which has since proceeded uninterruptedly.
Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
Both these expeditions yielded most valuable geographical results.
But apart from this the limits are seen to accord fairly closely with the geographical definition of the area under consideration.
They are undoubtedly a very hybrid race, owing this characteristic to their geographical position in the area where the dominating races of the Pacific, Malays, Polynesians, Melanesians, Japanese 1 From these the three main divisions of the islands are named Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia.
Their geographical distribution comprises a large portion of Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya.
Madoz was distinguished from most of the politicians of his generation by the fact that in middle life he compiled what is still a book of value - a geographical, statistical and historical dictionary of Spain and its possessions oversea, Diccionario geogra Pico, estadistico y historico de Espana, y sus posesiones de Ultramar (Madrid, 1848-1850).
The geographical range of the leopard embraces practically all Africa, and Asia from Palestine to China and Manchuria, inclusive of Ceylon and the great Malay Islands as far as Java.
This local divergence may proceed as rapidly as through wide geographical segregation or isolation.
There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
On this and other local variations a number of nominal species have been founded; but it is preferable to regard them in the light of geographical phases or races, such as the above-mentioned C. latrans estor of Nevada and Utah, C. 1.
The three books of the older work formed a strictly technical geographical treatise.
The geographical position of Canada, its railway systems and steamship service for freight across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, are favourable to the extension of the export trade in farm products to European and oriental countries.
On his return to England, he was employed in investigating the title of the crown to the countries recently discovered by British subjects, and in furnishing geographical descriptions.
In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.
The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
To these regions the Napoleonic regime had given a certain measure of unity; but Metternich, dominant after 1815, held Italy to be merely a geographical term.
For an estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, see Classical Review (April 1904) and Quarterly Review (April 1905).
We may broadly distinguish two main geographical elements in the alpine flora, namely, the northern element and the endemic element.
These do not, however, form an " element," in the strict geographical sense in which this term is otherwise used here.
The question, too, in the case of this element, is necessarily of genetic rather than purely geographical scope.
As characteristic birds of the snow-region may be mentioned the alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax alpinus), which is frequently seen at the summits even of the loftiest mountains, the alpine swift (Cypselus melba), the wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), snow-finch (Montifringilla nivalis) and ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus); the geographical distribution of this last being similar to that of the mountain hare.
The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
But it is possible that the terms at an early date were interchangeable, Canaan being geographical and Amorite ethnical.
The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
The area within which the Carboniferous rocks of Britain occur is sufficiently extensive to contain more than one type of the system, and thus to cast much light on the varied geographical conditions under which these rocks were accumulated.
The inhabitants of the waters of this geographical phase include mollusca, which are supposed to have lived in brackish or fresh water, such as Anthracomya, Naiadites, Carbonicola, and many forms of Crustacea, e.g.
Of this interior very little was known until the scientific expedition despatched by the Dutch Royal Geographical Society towards the end of the 'seventies, but in 1901 an armed Dutch expedition, necessitated by frequent disturbances, penetrated right into the Jambi hinterland, the Gajo districts, where until then no European had ever trod.
The name Holland is that of the former countship, which forms part of the political, as well as the geographical centre of the kingdom (see the next article).
On the east a natural geographical boundary was formed by the long line of marshy fens extending along the borders of Overysel, Drente and Groningen.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
As regards their geographical distribution, fungi, like flowering plants, have no doubt their centres of origin and of dispersal; but we must not forget that every exchange of wood, wheat, fruits, plants, animals, or other commodities involves transmission of fungi from one country to another; while the migrations of birds and other animals, currents of air and water, and so forth, are particularly efficacious in transmitting these minute organisms. Against this, of course, it may be argued that parasitic forms can only go where their hosts grow, as is proved to be the case by records concerning the introduction of Puccinia malvacearum, Peronospora viticola, Hemileia vastatrix, &c. Some fungi - e.g.
When we remember that many parts of the world are practically unexplored as regards fungi, and that new species are constantly being discovered in the United States, Australia and northern Europe - the best explored of all - it is clear that no very accurate census of fungi can as yet be made, and no generalizations of value as to their geographical distribution are possible.
It should be added here in passing that the geographical or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never been established.
These communities may be briefly described according to their geographical arrangement.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation.
For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in practical geographical expansion was at a standstill.
During 6th and 7th centuries, Irish anchorites, in their "passion fc_ solitude," found their way to the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes and Iceland, but they were not interested in colonization or geographical knowledge.
The Saone (q.v.), which has received (left) the Doubs, is the real continuation of the Rhone, both from a geographical and a commercial point of view, and it is by means of canals branching off from the course of the Saone that the Rhone communicates with the basins of the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine and the Moselle.
Even within the historic period the geographical range of the lion covered the whole of Africa, the south of Asia, including Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Persia and the greater part of northern and central India.
See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
The proof is furnished on the one hand by the geographical and ethnographical nomenclature of a later period tions of MSS.
The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite coincide with the German frontiers.
From the above table little can be inferred as to the geographical distribution of the two chief confessions.
The geographical distribution of the great mineral wealth of Ontario has already been indicated (see Physical Geography, above).
The Ottawa river was chosen as the main boundary between them, but the retention by Lower Canada of the seigneuries of New Longueuil and Vaudreuil, on the western side of the river, is a curious instance of the triumph of social and historical conditions over geographical.
Its area, exclusive of the adjacent small islands belonging to the compartimento, is, according to the calculations of the Military Geographical Institute of Italy, 9860 sq.
Caltanissetta, which occupies the middle point in elevation as well as in respect of geographical situation, stands 1900 ft.
On the other hand they are rich in geographical and ethnographical information.
The former he imitates in the maxims (-yv14at) he throws in and the speeches which he puts into the mouth of the chief actors; the latter in his frequent geographical digressions, in the personal anecdotes, in the tendency to collect and attach some credence to marvellous tales.
Its chief value lies in the geographical notices which it contains.
His best-known work is the dictionary of geographical names which occur in the poets, with an introduction on the seats of the Arabian tribes.
Trade Routes and CommunicationsIts geographical position gives Egypt command of one of the most important trade routes in the world.
They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
In a few cases, such as the West, the Beginning of the East, it is obvious that the names are derived solely from their geographical situation.
It is quite possible that the divisions are geographical in the main, but it seems likely that there were also religious, tribal and other historical reasons for them.
Isis was perhaps the 1 goddess of Buto, a town not far distant from Busiris; geographical proximity would suffice to explain her conon with Osiris in the tale.
Owing to its geographical isolation, the development of Drente has remained behind that of every other province in the Netherlands, and there are few centres of any importance, either agricultural or industrial.
Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading.
But we must bear in mind that one very important consequence of the Viking raids was to annihilate the geographical remoteness which had hitherto separated Denmark from the Christian world.
Nay, more, Denmark's possession of the Scanian provinces deprived Sweden of her proper geographical frontiers.
See Geographical Journal, vol.
This elevation was reported by the Mexican geological survey in 1895, and as the Mexican Geographical Society calculated the elevation at 17,888 ft., it may be accepted as nearly correct.
Lord Broughton was a partner in Whitbread's brewery, a fellow of the Royal Society, and one of the founders of the Royal Geographical Society.
This is the Momotus brasiliensis of modern ornithologists, and from its geographical range cannot be the original Motmot of Hernandez, but is most likely the "Guira guainumbi" of Marcgrave.
Russia and France, he urged, were " geographical allies "; there was, and could be, between them no true conflict of interests; together they might rule the world.
He used it, in the first instance, to remove " the geographical enemy " from the gates of St Petersburg by wresting Finland from the Swedes (1809); and he hoped by means of it to make the Danube the southern frontier of Russia.
This family contains numerous species, having a wide geographical distribution, ranging in the New World from the Arctic circle as far south as Patagonia, and in the Old World throughout the whole of Europe and Asia, but absent in Africa south of the Sahara, and, of course, Australasia.
In the manifesto the three ministers asserted that " from the peculiarity of its geographical position, and the considerations attendant upon it, Cuba is as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present members "; spoke of the danger to the United States of an insurrection in Cuba; asserted that " we should be recreant to our duty, be unworthy ingly on his return from England in 1856 he was nominated by the Democrats as a compromise candidate for president, and was elected, receiving 174 electoral votes to 114 for John C. Fremont, Republican, and 8 for Millard Fillmore, American or " Know-Nothing."
The geographical character of the district north and north-east of the elbow of Orontes makes it the natural centre of Syria, so long as that country is held by a western power; and only Asiatic, and especially Arab, dynasties have neglected it for the oasis of Damascus.
In spite of the existence of a number of more or less well-marked geographical forms, reindeer from all parts of the northern hemisphere present such a marked similarity that it seems preferable to regard them as all belonging to a single widespread species, of which most of the characters will be the same as those of the genus.
The name Scotland for this geographical area of northern Britain (the Caledonia of the ancients - a name still poetically used for Scotland) originated in the 11th century, when (from the tribe of Scots) part of it was called Scotia (a name previously applied to what is now Ireland); and the name of Scotland became established in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Physically, Scotland is divided into three geographical regions - the " Highlands " (subdivided by Glen More into the NorthWestern and South-Eastern Highlands); the Central Plain or " Lowlands " (a tract of south-westerly to north-easterly trend, between a line drawn roughly from Girvan to Dunbar and a line drawn from Dumbarton to Stonehaven); and the Southern Uplands.
On the other hand, the work of modern systematists shows an extraordinarily exact relation between their species and geographical locality, and the fact of divergent evolution can be almost demonstrated in museum collections when localities have been recorded exactly.
Its geographical position gives it strategic value as a naval base; and as a commercial centre it is without a rival in this part of Asia.
Phrygia contains several well-marked geographical districts.
Prior to the meeting of the commissions appointed for the determination of the Russo-Afghan boundary in 1885, no very accurate geographical knowledge of the upper Oxus regions existed, and the course of the river itself was but roughly mapped.
Russian explorers and natives of India trained for geographical reconnaissance, and employed in connexion with the great trigonometrical survey of India, had done so much towards clearing away the mists which enveloped the actual course of the river, that all the primary affluents were known, although their relative value was misunderstood, but the nature of the districts which bordered the river in Afghan Turkestan was so imperfectly mapped as to give rise to considerable political complication in framing the boundary agreement between Great Britain and Russia.
For many years a lively geographical controversy circled about the sources of the Oxus, and the discussion derived some political, significance from the fact that the true source, wherever Sources.
The general conclusions are ably summed up by P. Kropotkin in the September number of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society for 1898.
We see then that in virtue of some quite historical misfortune to the viking invaders, connected with a mist and with a great sickness which invaded the army, the place they have come to (in reality Paris) is in Scandinavian tradition identified with the mythic Bjarmaland; and later, in the history of Saxo Grammaticus, it is identified with the geographical Bjarmaland or Perm.
Its geographical distribution is of the widest, and its rapidity of breeding, in manure and dooryard filth, so great that, as a carrier of germs of disease, especially cholera and typhoid, the house-fly is now recognized as a potent source of danger; and various sanitary regulations have been made, or precautions suggested, for getting rid of it.
Students of international politics are familiar with the claims of nations to a position of preference in certain regions, based upon historic, economic or geographical considerations.
These seven islands (for details of which see their separate headings) are often described also as the Heptanesus (" Seven Islands"), but they have no real geographical unity.
Referring the collapse of the empire to the retention of feudal forms and to the action of religious animosities, Hegel looked forward to reorganization by a central power (Austria) wielding the imperial army, and by a representative body elected by the geographical districts of the empire.
In 1918 she received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society.
There is no ancient geographical term that covers all this area.
Notwithstanding its small size, Palestine presents a variety of geographical detail so unusual as to be in itself sufficient to mark it out as a country of especial interest.
These are separated by a very ambiguous frontier, and have their geographical and political links to the south and north respectively.
It is to be observed, however, that the meaning of geographical and ethnical terms for culture in general must be properly tested - the term " Phoenician " is a conspicuous case in point.
A map of the boundary will be found in the Geographical Journal (1907), xxix.
In the course of the 17th century the port became the great 1 Dr Carlos Finlay of Havana, arguing from the coincidence between the climatic limitation of yellow fever and the geographical limitation of the mosquito, urged (1881 sqq.) that there was some relation between the disease and the insect.
The second Afghan war of 1878-80 afforded an opportunity for the extension of wide geographical surveys on a scientific basis.
The bond is geographical and political rather than racial.
The geographical divisions of the country are created by the basins of its chief rivers, the Kabul, the Helmund, the Hari Rud and the Oxus.
The highlands which shut off the Turkestan provinces from Southern Afghanistan have afforded the best opportunities for geological investigation, and as might be expected from their geographical position, the general result of the examination of exposed sections leads to the identification of geological affinity with Himalayan, Indian and Persian regions.
This chain may be regarded as a single geographical feature, forming one of the principal watersheds of the peninsula, the waters to the north draining chiefly into the Nerbudda and the Ganges, those to the south into the Tapti, the Mahanadi, the Godavari and some smaller streams. In a meteorolgical point of view it is of considerable importance.
Unlike many other large geographical areas, India is remarkable for having no distinctive botanical features peculiar to itself.
The following account of the earlier period follows the main outlines of the traditional facts, corrected as far as possible by the inscriptional record; and further details will be found in the separate biographical, racial and linguistic articles, and those on the geographical areas into which India is administratively divided.
Its original use was the determination of geographical latitudes in the field work of geodetic operations; more recently it has been extensively employed for the determination S of variation of latitude, at fixed stations, under the auspices of the International Geodetic Bureau, and for the astronomical determination of the constant of aberration.
But as yet the idea of unity made but little headway, for southern Italy was too widely separated by geographical conditions, history, tradition and custom from the rest of the peninsula, and the majority of the Liberals - themselves a minority of the population - merely aspired to a constitutional Neapolitan monarchy, possibly forming part of a confederation of Italian states.
The remaining fifty-three years of his life were spent in London, and were devoted to geographical research chiefly among the materials in the East India House.
His most valuable works include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), and important studies on the geography of northern Africa - in introductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann - and the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
A study of their geographical distribution has demonstrated that the islands may be divided into fairly well-marked groups, in each of which the birds show a degree of specialization closely correlated with diversity of environment and completeness and probable duration of separation from adjacent groups.
For statistics, general description and material on administration, see Census of the Philippine Islands in 1903 (4 vols., Washington, 1905);; Pronouncing Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary of the Philippine Islands (Washington, 1902); Ethnological Survey Publications of the.
Our knowledge of the geographical distribution of several of them is still incomplete.
The amount of papers on Korea scattered through English, German, French and Russian magazines, and the proceedings of geographical societies, is very great, and for the last three centuries Japanese writers have contributed largely to the sum of general knowledge of the peninsula.
The district of Weimar, which is at once the largest division and the geographical and historical kernel of the grand-duchy, is a roughly circular territory, situated on the plateau to the north-east of the Thuringian Forest.
Necessarily the name had for a long time no definite geographical meaning.
In no country is there such a clear grouping of the towns on geographical lines as in France, these geographical lines, of course, having in the first instance been drawn by historical causes Another feature is the extent to which, in the unruly times preceding the civic movement, serfdom had spread among the inhabitants even of the towns throughout the greater part of the country, and the application of feudal ideas to town government.
As far as is known, Borneo never formed a political unity, and even its geographical unity as an island is a fact unappreciated by the vast majority of its native inhabitants.
Any attempt to picture the geographical conditions of the Cambrian period must of necessity be very imperfect.
This makes the Euphrates the main eastern limit, with radii to the north-east angle of the Levant and the south-east angle of the Black Sea, and roughly agrees with the popular conception of Asia Minor as a geographical region.
Asia Minor owes the peculiar interest of its history to its geographical position.
Also numerous articles in all leading archaeological periodicals, the Geographical Journal, Deutsche Rundschau, Petermann's Geog.
The dates are often wrong, and little attention is paid to geographical details, which makes the narrative of military expeditions beyond the borders of the empire difficult to understand.
The geographical location of the city is unfavourable to any great development in commerce and manufactures beyond local needs.
It is more probable, surely, that the name Artacia occurred independently (as most geographical names are found to occur) in more than one place.
The geographical distribution of the population of the world is therefore extremely irregular, and, omitting from consideration areas but recently colonized, the density is regulated by the means of subsistence within reach.
Sweden falls below its geographical neighbours owing to its low birth-rate, and Finland because of its higher mortality.
Thus the geographical isolation of England, and the comparatively late adoption by the English of matured Italian and German influences, give peculiar complexity to the phenomena of Reformation and Renaissance simultaneously developed on our island.
There is no official classification of the Burgundy wines, but the following is a list comprising some of the finest growths in geographical order, from north to south, together with the localities in or near which they are situated.
The great inequalities observed in the different vintages and the exceptionally fine character of the wines in good years are, generally, due to the same cause, namely, to the geographical position of the vineyards.
Owing to its geographical position, nearer to Canada than any other group of colonies, New England had to stand the brunt of the fighting during the wars between the English and the French (aided by their Indian allies) in America, terminating with the conquest of Canada by the English in 1759-1760, and a sense of common danger helped to create a certain solidarity, which made easier the union of the colonies for common action against the mother country at the time of the War of American Independence.
The fauna has been explored in great detail both as regards the vertebrates and the invertebrates, and specialists will find the necessary bibliographical indications in Travaux geographiques en Finlande, published for the London Geographical Congress of 1895.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
The Atlas de Finlande, published in 1899 by the Geographical Society of Finland, is a remarkably well executed and complete work.
P. P. Semenov's Geographical and Statistical Dictionary (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-85) contains a full bibliography of the Volga and tributaries.
For the most part they are linked together according to geographical distribution in associations, such as the "Metropolitan Association of Strict Baptist Churches," and the "Suffolk and Norfolk Association of Particular Baptist Churches."
The greater number of the churches are united in association voluntarily formed, all of them determined by geographical limits.
The ties which united Lot (the "father" of Ammon and Moab), Ishmael, Midian and Edom (Esau) with the southern tribes Judah and Simeon, as manifested in the genealogical lists, are intelligible enough on geographical grounds alone, and the significance of this for the history of Judah and Palestine cannot be ignored.
He taught, if he did not discover, the obliquity of the ecliptic, is said to have introduced into Greece the gnomon (for determining the solstices) and the sundial, and to have invented some kind of geographical map. But his reputation is due mainly to his work on nature, few words of which remain.
From its geographical position Khartum is admirably adapted as a commercial and political centre.
Geographical terms are similarly suffixed to names, thus Dalelfven, the river Dal.
The number of species decreases according to geographical distribution from south to north; thus while upwards of 1000 are found in Skane, there are only about 700 in the midlands, 500 in the lower parts of southern Norrland and less than 200 in the extreme north.
Her area embraced 16,800 geographical square miles, a mass of land 7000 sq.
Yet the Swedish Empire was rather a geographical expression than a state with natural and national boundaries.
Sweden's peculiar geographical position made her virtually invulnerable for six months out of the twelve, her Pomeranian possessions afforded her an easy ingress into the very heart of the moribund empire, while her Finnish frontier was not many leagues from the Russian capital.
Philippi and Hans Steffen, who deserves special mention for his excellent geographical work in the southern Andes.
Nor is there any valid geographical difficulty.
Persia of the present day is not only, in the matter of geographical definition, far from the vast empire of Sacred Writ and remote history, but it is not even the less extensive dominion of the Safawi kings and Nadir Shah.
That Babylonia permanently remained a Sassanian province was due merely to the geographical conditions and to the political situation of the Roman Empire, not to the strength of the Persians.
Persias great aim was to recover in the north-west, as in the northeast of her empire, the geographical limits obtained for her by the Safawid kings; and this was no easy matter when she had to contend with a strong European power whose territorial limits touched her own.
He wrote a detailed narrative of his expedition, of which a full abstract was embodied by Arrian in his Indica - one of the most interesting geographical treatises of antiquity.
The text, with copious geographical notes, is published in C. Mailer's Geographi Graeci Minores, i.
The Windward Islands, which, as a geographical division, properly include Barbados, derive their name from the fact that they are the most exposed of the Lesser Antilles to the N.E.
But the results of the saner researches of Randall Maclver, announced first at the South Africa meeting of the British Association (1905) and later communicated to the Royal Geographical Society, have robbed these structures of much of their glamour; from being the centres of Phoenician and Hebrew industry they have sunk to be mere magnified kraals, not more than three or four hundred years old.
The pundit Mohammed Hamid visited it in 1863 and determined its geographical position and altitude.
As a geographical unit South Africa is usually held to be that part of the continent south of the middle course of the Zambezi.
His account of the many small states into which the Tukhara empire had broken up is of great interest, as many of them are identical in name and topography with the high valley states and districts on the Upper Oxus, which are at this day the object of so much geographical and political interest.
These again have been connected by links of more or less regularity, so that, if the Baluchistan triangulation lacks the rigid accuracy of a " first class " system, it at least supports good topography on geographical scales.
He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, but states that, together with six other tribes, including the Varini (the Warni of later times), they worshipped a goddess named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on "an island in the Ocean."
Periodicals containing valuable historical matter are the Archivo historico portuguez (Lisbon, 1903, &c.), the Boletim of the Lisbon Geographical Society (1873, &c.), and Portugalia (Oporto, 1898, &c.).
Its geographical position and history have rendered Portugal very dependent for intellectual stimulus and literary culture on foreign countries, and writers on Portuguese literature are wont to divide their subjects into periods corresponding to the literary currents from abroad which have modified its evolution.
Julio Cesar Machado and Fialho de Almeida made their mark by many humorous publications, and, in the domain of pure literary criticism, mention must be made of Antonio Pedro Lopes de Mendonga, Rebello da Silva, Dr Joaquim de Vasconcellos, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Silva Pinto, the favourite disciple of Castello Branco, and of Luciano Cordeiro, founder of the Lisbon Geographical Society, whose able monograph, Soror Marianna, vindicated the authenticity of the Letters of a Portuguese Nun and showed Marianna Alcoforado to be their authoress.
Novaya Zemlya seems to have been known to Novgorod hunters in the 11th century; but its geographical discovery dates from the great movement for the discovery of the N.E.
A new era of scientific exploration began in 1868, while Norwegian seahunters brought in valuable geographical information.
The geographical position limits the exports to mineral, forest and some pastoral products, owing to cost of transportation and the tariffs of neighbouring countries.
Geographical conditions and a hard struggle against nature fixed the character of this " aridian " culture, and determined its migrations; the onslaughts of nomad Indians determined the sedentary civilization of the cliff dwellers.
Situated in the geographical centre of the European continent, at about equal distance from all the European seas, enclosed by high mountains, and nevertheless easily accessible through Moravia from the Danubian plain and opened by the valley of the Elbe to the German plain, Bohemia was bound to play a leading part in the cultural development of Europe.
In their habits and geographical distribution also the two shads are similar.
This geographical fact has had a great deal to do in determining the character of the Eastern Church.
Not much is known of the mandrill's habits in the wild state, nor of the exact limits of its geographical distribution; the specimens brought to Europe coming from the west coast of tropical Africa, from Guinea to the Gaboon.
These tracts had practically never been traversed before, and on the appearance of the published account of his journey and experiences under the title of Narrative of an Explorer in Tropical South Africa (1853) Galton was awarded the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society.
Zacli published Tables of the Sun (Gotha, 1792; new and improved edition, ibid., 1804), and numerous papers on geographical subjects, particularly on the geographical positions of many towns and places, which he determined on his travels with a sextant.
This last name has almost disappeared from geographical literature, but the name Tatars, in the above limited sense, remains in full use.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
One of the greatest of his publications was the Geographical Distribution of Animals (1876), a monumental work, which every student will maintain fully justifies its author's hope that it may bear "a similar relation to the eleventh and twelfth chapters of the Origin of Species as Mr Darwin's Animals and Plants under Domestication bears to the first."
The three geographical regions above described constitute three distinct climatic divisions.
Geographical usage confines to the southern part of the island of Great Britain the name commonly given to the great insular power of western Europe.1 In this restricted sense the present article deals with England, the predominant partner in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, both as containing the seat of government and in respect of extent, population and wealth.
As an introduction to the discussion of the natural regions into which England is divided (Section II.), and for the sake of comparison of altitudes, size of rivers and similar details, the salient geographical features may be briefly summarized.
But the most remarkable plain is that in Somersetshire, enclosed by the Mendips, the Western Downs, Blackdown Hills and the Quantocks and entered by the Parrett and other streams. The midlands, owing to the comparatively slight elevation of the land, are capable of geographical consideration as a plain.
When we attempt to decipher the physical history of the country from the complicated record afforded by the stratigraphical palimpsest, we are checked at the outset by the dearth of information from being able to picture the geographical condition in the older Palaeozoic periods.
First for consideration, though not in geographical extent, stands the area round London, in Middlesex, Surrey, Kent, Essex and Hertfordshire.
London gained its paramount importance from its favourable geographical position in respect of the rest of England on the one hand and the Continent on the other, and the populous district of the " home counties " owes its existence to that importance; whereas other populous districts have generally grown up at the point where some source of natural wealth, as coal or iron, lay to hand.
The following list indicates the year of foundation, termini, chief offices and geographical sphere of the chief railways of England and Wales.
Geographical considerations govern these conditions to a very great extent; thus the counties first indicated lie almost entirely within the area of the low-lying and fertile Eastern Plain, while the smallest areas of cultivation are found in the counties covering the Pennine hill-system, with its high-lying uncultivated moors.
The geographical distribution of the principal crops, &c., may now be followed.
These figures are furnished as demonstration of the geographical distribution of the but are based on the returns for 1903.
The geographical distribution of the remaining more important English minerals may be passed in quicker review.
The geographical analysis of the cotton industry in England is simple.
The immediate neighbourhood of a coal-supply influenced the geographical settlement of this industry, like others; and the importance to the manufacture of a moist climate, such as is found on the western slope of the Pennines (in contradistinction to the eastern), must also be considered.
The metal-working industries also follow a geographical distribution, mainly governed by the incidence of the coal-fields, as well as by that of the chief districts for the production of - iron-ore already indicated, such as the Cleveland and Durham and the Furness districts.
For ordinary detailed work the best series of maps is found in Bartholomew's Survey Atlas of England and Wales (Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1903), which, besides small distributional, physical and other maps and letterpress, contains a magnificent series of colouredcontour maps on the scale of z in.
This boundary did not fit in with geographical facts; hence the adjudication was based upon the motive of the treaty and not upon the literal interpretation of such elastic terms as " ocean," " shore " and " coast-line."
Although the style is sometimes bombastic, he is considered trustworthy and is one of the most valuable authorities for the history of the 6th century, especially on geographical and ethnographical matters.
Maine was in general well governed as a part of Massachusetts, but a geographical separation, a desire to be rid of the burden of a large state debt, and a difference of economic interests as well as of politics (Maine was largely Democratic and Massachusetts was largely Federalist) created a desire for an independent commonwealth.
The book trade is represented by about a dozen firms, including that of the great geographical house of Justus Perthes, founded in 1785.
But a very great amount of most valuable imformation about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and scientific periodicals, especially the Izvestia and Zapiski of the Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P. P. Semenov's Geographical Dictionary (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884), and in the Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar (1894), and in the Kavkazskiy kalendar (annually at Tiflis).
In 1876 King Leopold summoned a conference at Brussels of the leading geographical experts in Europe, which resulted in the creation of "The International Association for the Exploration and Civilization of Africa."
Except for its short coast-line, and for a comparatively small area on its eastern frontier, the colony lies wholly within the geographical basin of the Congo.
Forsyth to Yarkand led to the first systematic geographical exploitation of the Pamir country.
Then Lockhart and Woodthorpe in 1886 passed along the Wakhan tributary of the Oxus from its head to Ishkashim in Badakshan, and completed an enduring record of most excellent geographical research.
Since then other travellers have visited the Pamirs, but the junction of the Russian and British surveys (the latter based on triangulation carried across the Hindu Kush from India) disposes of any further claim to the honours of geographical exploration.
Within the limits of these partially explored highlands, lying between the Pamirs and the Tibetan table-land, exact geographical definition is impossible.
The Taghdumbash Pamir occupies a geographical position of some political significance.
While numerous remains of grass-like leaves are a proof that grasses were widespread and abundantly developed in past geological ages, especially in the Tertiary period, the fossil remains are in most cases too fragmentary and badly preserved for the determination of genera, and conclusions based thereon in explanation of existing geographical distribution are most unsatisfactory.
The other towns of Abyssinia worthy of mention may be grouped according to their geographical position.
One who did much at the time to extend our geographical knowledge of the country was Dr C. T.'Beke, who was there from 1840 to 1843.
Lefebvre, charged (1839) with political and geographical missions, and Captains Galinier and Ferret, who completed for him a useful triangulation and survey of Tigre and Simen (1840-1842).
For latest geographical and kindred information consult the Geographical Journal (London), especially "A Journey through Abyssinia," vol.
On this journey he resolved to devote his life to the improvement of geographical science.
A long introduction on various geographical matters is followed by twenty-eight sections dealing in tabular form with the chief towns of the world.
To the three geographical divisions correspond three well-marked ethnical groups - the Onas of the main island, the Yagans (Yahgans) of the south and the Alakalufs of the west.
To these admirable surveys is due most of the present geographical terminology of the archipelago.
There are also geographical differences of a serious kind.
On the other hand, the consumption by the income tax paying classes of customs and excise articles must vary indefinitely amongst themselves, according to personal habits, size of families, and even their geographical distribution.
The Russian Geographical Society presented him with the great Constantine medal, and from all parts of Europe he received medals and honorary diplomas.
Prague was by its geographical situation naturally destined to become the capital of Bohemia, as it lies in the centre of the country.
Of the rivers of the great eastern plains, whose waters pass through the Orinoco and Amazon to the Atlantic, little can be said beyond the barest geographical description.
Above the lowland plains the seasons vary in character according to geographical position and elevation.
The geographical position of Colombia gives to it a fauna and flora largely characteristic of the great tropical region of the Amazon on the south-east, and of the mountainous regions of Central America on the north-west.
These animals, together with the smaller ocelot, have a wide geographical range, and are very numerous in the valley of the Magdalena.
We are indebted to Humboldt for our earliest geographical descriptions of the northern part of the continent, but to the Italian, Augustin Codazzi, who became a Colombian after the War of Independence, Colombia is indebted for the first systematic exploration of her territory.
Geographical description has had a peculiar fascination for Colombian writers, and there have been a number of books issued since the appearance of Codazzi's Resumen and Atlas.
From Loanda Livingstone sent his astronomical observations to Sir Thomas Maclear at the Cape, and an account of his journey to the Royal Geographical Society, which in May 18J5 awarded him its patron's medal.
Still the geographical results, though not in extent to be compared to those of his first and his final expeditions, were of high importance, as were those in various departments of science, and he had unknowingly laid the foundations of the British protectorate of Nyasaland.
The Geographical Society contributed 50o.
Livingstone was no hurried traveller; he did his journeying leisurely, carefully observing and recording all that was worthy of note, with rare geographical instinct and the eye of a trained scientific observer, studying the ways of the people, eating their food, living in their huts, and sympathizing with their joys and sorrows.
Blaikie's Life (1880), the publications of the London Missionary Society from 1840, the Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, the despatches to the Foreign Office sent home by Livingstone during his last two expeditions, and Stanley's Autobiography (1909) and How I Found Livingstone (1872).
The species of the Graptoloidea have individually a remarkably short range in geological time; but the geographical distribution of the group as a whole, and that of many of its species, is almost world-wide.
The remaining territories may conveniently be divided into a small cluster of independent zamindaris, situated in the wild and hilly tracts at the northern extremity of the Sahyadri range, and certain principalities which, from their history or geographical position, are to some extent isolated from the rest of the presidency.
Karstens gives the area as 48,182,413 square kilometres, or 14,001,000 geographical square miles; of these 10,842,000 square kilometres, or 3,150,000 geographical square miles, about 22% of the whole, lie north of the equator.
Murray estimates the total land area draining to the Indian Ocean at 5,050,000 geographical square miles, almost the same as that draining to the Pacific. The annual rainfall draining from this area is estimated at 4380 cubic miles.
Finally Margaropus annulatus, of which there are several geographical races, is the carrier of the germ causing the de tructive cattle-disease variously known as "Texas" or "red water" fever in America, South Africa and Australia.
There is another point of view from which mammals are of especial importance in regard to geographical distribution, namely their comparatively late rise and dispersal, or " radiation," as compared with reptiles.
The Rodentia have a wider geographical range than any other order of terrestrial mammals, being, as already mentioned, represented by numerous members of the mouse-tribe (Muridae) even in Australasia.
The great difference in the manner of life of the sea-cows, or Sirenia, as compared with that of the Cetacea, causes a corresponding difference in their geographical distribution.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
In this case a different specific name has been given to the northern form, but the characters by which it is distinguished are of little importance, and probably, except for the abnormal geographical distribution, would never have been discovered.
In1906-1908Dr Stein made a second and more important journey, principally for the purpose of antiquarian research, though he also carried out important geographical investigations, with the assistance of a native surveyor, in the Eastern Pamirs (about Mustagh-ata), in the Nissa valley south of Khotan, and elsewhere.