Geographical sentence example

geographical
  • The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
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  • In 1879 a congress assembled in the rooms of the Geographical Society at Paris, under the presidency of Admiral de la Ronciere le Noury, and voted in favour of the making of the Panama Canal.
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  • The factors of the habitat may be grouped as follows: geographical, physical, and biological.
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  • Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
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  • A valuable extension of geographical knowledge had been gained by this circuitous journey of more than Boo m.
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  • Its complexity reflects the corresponding intricacy of geographical and geological evolution.
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  • As Clement Reid remarked: World-wide floras, such as seem to characterize some of the older periods, have ceased to be, and plants are distributed more markedly according to geographical provinces and in climatic zones.
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  • Such a summary of the salient facts in the, geographical distributio~ of plants sufficiently indicates the tangled fabric of the earths existing floral covering.
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  • The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.
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  • Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.
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  • This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
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  • The observation of the facts of geographical distribution.
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  • Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
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  • We arrive thus at the essential aim of geographical botany, which, as stated by Schimper, is an inquiry into the causes of differences existing among the various floras.
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  • Austin, and the brothers Gregory, whose discoveries have great importance from a geographical point of view.
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  • From the geographical position of the Netherlands, Presbyterianism there took its tone from France.
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  • The motives alike of geographical convenience and of the advantages to be gained by recognizing these movements of Roman subjects combined to urge a forward policy at Rome, and when the vigorous Vespasian had succeeded the fool-criminal Nero, a series of advances began which gradually closed up the acute angle, or at least rendered it obtuse.
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  • Dessalles looked in amazement at the prince, who was talking of the Niemen when the enemy was already at the Dnieper, but Princess Mary, forgetting the geographical position of the Niemen, thought that what her father was saying was correct.
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  • Her ancient prestige, her geographical position and the intellectual primacy of her most noble children rendered Italy the battleground of principles that set all Christendom in motion, and by the clash of which she found herself for ever afterwards divided.
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  • A geographical botany based on such resemblances is only in reality a study of adaptations.
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  • It is said that some plants may be calcicoles in one geographical district and not in another.
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  • Its geographical situation has made it a place of commercial importance throughout history.
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  • - The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries, which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing, mainly, to their different geological structures.
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  • The "Mediterranean region," as a geographical unit, includes all this area; the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora are within its submerged portion, and the climate of the whole is controlled by the oceanic influences of the Mediterranean Sea.
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  • Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
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  • By these means, the unknown region of Mid Australia was simultaneously entered from the north, south, east and west, and important additions were made to geographical knowledge.
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  • The state representatives are usually apportioned among the several counties according to population and not by geographical position.
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  • In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
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  • The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
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  • In the intermediate belt between the two high-pressure areas the meteorological equator remains permanently north of the geographical equator, moving between it and about i r° N.
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  • Flahault and Schroter,2 in defining the term habitat, appear to exclude all geographical factors.
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  • From 1701 to 17 21 Collier was employed on his Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical and Poetical Dictionary, founded on, and partly translated from, Louis Moreri's Dictionnaire historique, and in the compilation and issue of the two volumes folio of his own Ecclesiastical History of Great Britian from the first planting of Christianity to the end of the reign of Charles II.
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  • The Swiss, owing to their peculiar geographical position and to certain political circumstances, early manifested independence in ecclesiastical matters, and became accustomed to the Statistics.
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  • Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
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  • Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.
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  • The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
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  • Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical Journal, vi.
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  • Geographical FactorsGeographical position determines the particular species of plants which grow in any particular locality.
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  • of the study of geographical theory.
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  • The geographical position of Italy, extending from about 46° to 38° N., renders it one of the hottest countries in Europe.
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  • He explored the remains of Babylon, and projected a geographical and statistical account of the pashalic of Bagdad.
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  • It has rather been a wide extension of scientific geographical mapping.
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  • At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
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  • While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.
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  • The former is concerned with the division of the earths surface into major districts characterized by particular plants or taxonomic groups of plants, with the subdivision of these floristic districts, and with the geographical distribution (both past and present) of the various taxonomic units, such as species, genera, and families.
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  • For example, rae Arenarion in one climatic or geographical region might be in~~ med an a-Arenarion and one in a different region a a-Arena- ~j1j ri, and so on (Moss, bc. cit.).
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  • For vei Lmple, the sand dunes of North America and those of western am rope are widely separated in geographical position and there- ge~ e in floristic composition, yet they are related by common rai:
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  • The numerous facts, geological, geographical and biological, which when linked together lend great support to this theory, have been well worked out in Australia by Mr Charles Hedley of the Australian Museum, Sydney.
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  • Since the war of 1870 many geographical societies have been established on the continent of Europe.
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  • This enterprising and deserving man, on the completion of his journey in 1875, was rewarded by the Indian government with a pension and grant of land, and afterwards received the gold medal of the Royal Geographical Society and the Companionship of the Star of India.
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  • In 1899 they were edited by the Royal Geographical Society and in 1902 published.
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  • The distinguishing feature of these explorations, led by Russian officers, is their high scientific value and the contributions they have offered to the botany, natural history, geology and meteorology of the regions under investigation in addition to the actual geographical data attained.
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  • In May 1900 Kozlov, in command of the Russian Geographical Society's expedition to Central Asia and Tibet, left Barong Tsaidam, and travelling southwards, came to the Dre Captain chu (his Ndu chu, or.
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  • History is silent as to the fate of the eastern king, the other son of Lang-dharma, and his successors, but the geographical names of the chieftainships enumerated above make it clear that the western kingdom had 'extended its power to the east.
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  • "Macassar oil" is a trade name, not geographical: see Antimacassar.
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  • Es rip, is not used in the island itself, but is commonly employed in geographical works.
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  • The geographical situation of the island also favoured an early introduction of the new faith.
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  • Like many other geographical designations the use of which is controlled neither by natural nor political boundaries, the name has been very differently employed by different writers and at different periods.
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  • About the middle of the 3rd century an abstract of the geographical portions of Pliny's work was produced by Solinus; and, early in the 4th, the medical passages were collected in the Medicina Plinii.
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  • Detlefsen (Berlin, 1866-1873), and critical edition of the geographical books (Berlin, 1905); Mayhoff (Leipzig, 1906); Eng.
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  • Trimen is that of Papilio dardanus which is widely distributed in Africa and is represented by several sub-species or geographical races.
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  • Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
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  • Myres, " An Attempt to reconstruct the Maps used by Herodotus," Geographical Journal, viii.
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  • The circular outline had given way in geographical opinion to the elliptical with the long axis lying east and west, and Aristotle was inclined to view it as a very long and relatively narrow band almost encircling the globe in the temperate zone.
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  • 150) concentrated in his writings the final outcome of all Greek geographical learning, and passed it across the gulf of the middle ages by the hands of the Arabs, Ptolemy.
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  • The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
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  • Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
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  • It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
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  • A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
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  • In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
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  • Progress Of Geographical Discovery Exploration and geographical discovery must have started from more than one centre, and to deal justly with the matter one ought to treat of these separately in the early ages before the whole civilized world was bound together by the bonds of modern intercommunication.
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  • The Phoenicians are the earliest Mediterranean people in the consecutive chain of geographical discovery which joins prehistoric time with the present.
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  • This was one of the few great epochs of geographical discovery.
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  • The Ptolemies in Egypt showed equal anxiety to extend the bounds of geographical knowledge.
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  • Roman intercourse with India especially led to the extension of geographical knowledge.
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  • The Northmen of Denmark and Norway, whose piratical adventures were the terror of all the coasts of Europe, and who established themselves in Great Britain and Ireland, in France and The Sicily, were also geographical explorers in their rough but Nothmen.
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  • Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
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  • Missionaries continued to do useful geographical work.
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  • In the 15th century the time was approaching when the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope was to widen the scope of geographical enterprise.
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  • The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
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  • From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
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  • West Indies from 1599 to 1602, established his historic connexion with Canada, to the geographical knowledge of which he made a very large addition.
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  • James Bruce of Kinnaird, the contemporary of Niebuhr, was equally devoted to Eastern travel; and his principal geographical Africa .
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  • The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.
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  • The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
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  • The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
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  • In reviewing the progress of geographical discovery thus far, it has been possible to keep fairly closely to a chronological order.
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  • The first of the existing geographical societies was that of Paris, founded in 1825 under the title Of La Societe de Geographie.
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  • The Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde) is second in order of seniority, having been founded in 1827.
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  • The Royal Geographical Society, which was founded in London in 1830, comes third on the list; but it may be viewed as a direct result of the earlier African Association founded in 1788.
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  • At the close of the 19th century there were upwards of loo such societies in the world, with more than 50,000 members, and over 150 journals were devoted entirely to geographical subjects.'
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  • The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.
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  • Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
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  • ' are produced; therefore the geographer must, for strictly geographical purposes, take some account of the processes which are now in action modifying the forms of the crust.
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  • been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."
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  • The form-elements are: See Geographical Journal, xxii.
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  • It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
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  • The geographical distribution of mountains is intimately associated with the great structural lines of the continents of which they form the culminating region.
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  • By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
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  • At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
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  • Davis, " The Geographical Cycle," Geog.
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  • A well-developed river system has in fact many equally important and widely-separated sources, the most distant from the mouth, the highest, river or even that of largest initial volume not being necessarily of greater geographical interest than the rest.
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  • The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
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  • Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals and Island Life; A.
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  • Heilprin, Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals (1887); O.
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  • Plants exhibit the controlling power of environment to a high degree, and thus vegetation is usually in close adjustment to the bolder geographical features of a region.
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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
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  • Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
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  • The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country.
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  • Chisholm, " On the Distribution of Towns and Villages in England," Geographical Journal (1897), ix.
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  • In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.
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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
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  • The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
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  • Especial attention has to be drawn to the article " Geographical Distribution," in Newton's Dictionary of Birds.
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  • Heilprin, The Geographical and Zoological Distribution of Animals (New York, 1887); W.
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  • Sclater on the general geographical distribution of the members of the class " A y es," 2.
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  • Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.
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  • the Tyrannidae, has evidently been led by the geographical continuity of its soil with that of the Neotropical region, such forms do not occur elsewhere.
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  • It will therefore be seen from the above that next to the Nearctic area the Palaearctic has a much greater affinity to any other, a fact which might be expected from geographical considerations.
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  • Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
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  • fork of the White river, in Marion county, of which it is the county-seat, and at almost the exact geographical centre of the state.
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  • The city's central geographical position, its extensive' railway connexions, and its proximity to important coal-fields have combined to make it one of the principal industrial centres of the Middle West.
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  • This was located in 1820 in almost the exact geographical centre of the state, where a small settlement had recently been made, and the town of Indianapolis was laid out in the following year.
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  • The Liberian frontier with the adjacent French possessions was defined by the Franco-Liberian treaty of 1892, but as the definition therein given was found to be very difficult of reconciliation with geographical features (for in 1892 the whole of the Liberian interior was unmapped) further negotiations were set on foot.
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  • Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
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  • It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
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  • Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
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  • The chief occupation of approximately seven-eighths of the population of European Russia is agriculture, but its character varies considerably according to the soil, the climate and Agri- the geographical position of the different regions.
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  • A general popular description of Russia entitled Rossiya, containing excellent geographical, geological and other descriptions of separate regions, and very well-chosen illustrations, was begun in 1899 under the editorship of V.
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  • On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
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  • The partition of this total between the principal geographical divisions of the world is given in Table I.
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  • Yet the mileage open per Io,000 inhabitants in Australia, as a whole, far surpasses that in any other of the broad geographical divisions.
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  • The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
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  • It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.
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  • No general survey of sacrifice on geographical lines is possible, but some of the more important features in each area may be noticed.
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  • See Geographical Journal, passim; and Atoll of Funafuti: Borings into a Coral Reef (Report of Coral Reef Committee of Royal Society, London, 1904).
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  • The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, 1 See B Stechele, in'Milnchener geographische Studien, xx.(1906), and Geographical Journal (December 1907).
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  • Naphtali and Dan are "brothers," perhaps partly on geographical grounds, but Dan also had a seat in the south (south-west of Ephraim), and the name of the "mother" Bilhah is apparently connected with Bilhan, an Edomite and also a Benjamite name (Gen.
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  • Americans and Europeans began to discuss the question of annexation, recognizing the importance of the geographical position of the islands.
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  • Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
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  • Libby, Geographical Distribution of the Vote of the Thirteen States on the Federal Constitution, 1787-1788 (Madison, Wis., 1894); the Memoirs of Oliver Wolcott (ed.
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  • It comprises seven large volumes and a geographical appendix; but the seventh volume, the history of the sultan Husain (1438-1505), together with a short account of some later events down to 1523, cannot have been written by Mirkhond himself, who died in 1498.
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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
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  • To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
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  • For the relation between the geographical characteristics and the political history, see G.
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  • Though he was unable to reach Khiva the results of the journey afforded a great deal of political, geographical and military information, especially as to the advance of Russia in central Asia.
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  • Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
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  • These far extensions furnish the basis for a vast amount of exploratory survey of a strictly geographical character, and they have contributed largely towards raising the standard of accuracy in Asiatic geographical surveys to a level which was deemed unattainable fifty years ago.
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  • Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
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  • The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.
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  • Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
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  • Meanwhile, the acquisition of Burma and the demarcation of boundaries had opened the way to the extension of geographical surveys in directions hitherto untraversed.
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  • The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
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  • The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
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  • The adopted value by the Royal Geographical Society is 102° 12".
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  • South and west the bounding territories are well fixed in geographical position by the Indian survey determinations of the value of Himalayan peaks.
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  • interests, the material progress of the Eastern world has appeared to remain stationary, yet large accessions to geographical knowledge have at least been made, and in some instances a deeper knowledge of the surface of the country and modern conditions of life has led to the straightening of many crooked paths in history, and a better appreciation of the slow processes of advancing civilization.
    0
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  • The steady advance of scientific inquiry into every corner of Persia, backed by the unceasing efforts of a new school of geographical explorers, has left nothing unexamined that can be subjected to superficial observation.
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  • In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
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  • But extended geographical knowledge does not point to any great practical issue.
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  • While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
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  • There is complete present, and probably previous long-existing, geographical continuity in the area over - which they are found.
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  • The result of trans-border surveys to the north and west of India has been to establish the important geographical fact that it is by two gateways only, one on the north-west and one on the west of India, that the central Asiatic tides of immigration have flowed into the peninsula.
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  • Though the geographical extent of Russian territory and influence is enormous, she has always moved along the line of least resistance.
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  • The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning "on the sea," was given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geographical significance.
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  • Geographical Journal (London, 1904); A Tropical Dependency, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial Office Reports on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works cited under NIGERIA.
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  • But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.
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  • Having founded an observatory there, he returned to Paris in 1747, was appointed geographical astronomer to the naval department with a salary of 3000 livres, and installed an observatory in the Hotel Cluny.
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  • So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.
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  • Subsequent discoveries, however, have made it clear that Mycenae was not its chief centre in its earlier stages, or, perhaps, at any period; and, accordingly, it is more usual now to adopt a wider geographical title.
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  • - The fact that Aegean civilization is distinguished from all others, prior or contemporary, not only by its geographical area, but by leading organic characteristics, has never been in doubt, since its remains came to be studied seriously and impartially.
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  • For possible geographical reasons for this duality of type see Crete.
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  • We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
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  • Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.
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  • Geographical Distribution The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders.
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  • Hitherto, from the nature of the case, the works aforesaid treated of scarcely any but the birds belonging to the orbis veteribus notus; but the geographical discoveries of the 16th century began to bear fruit, and many animals of kinds un suspected were, about one hundred years later, made known.
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  • Buffon was the first man who formed any theory that may be called reasonable of the geographical distribution of animals.
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    0
  • Questions of affinity, and the details of geographical distribution, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a trifling pastime.
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  • More than this, he entered upon their geographical distribution, the facts of which important subject are here, almost for the first time, since the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 4 brought to bear practically on classification.
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  • Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
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  • Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
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  • The local drawbacks and difficulties once surmounted, Venice by her geographical position became the seaport nearest the heart of Europe.
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    0
  • The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
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  • See Geographical Journal (Sept.
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  • Here, off the coast of Greenland, the expedition passed two winters, accomplishing much useful geographical, as well as scientific, work, including the attainment of what was to remain for sixteen years the highest northern latitude, 80° 35' N.
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  • Medals were authorized by Congress, and in the following year Dr Kane received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and, two years later, a gold medal from the Paris Geographical Society.
    0
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  • The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.
    0
    0
  • While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
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  • All have been arranged in geographical order without reference to productive capacity or importance.
    0
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  • Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the mission save an increase of geographical knowledge.
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  • Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
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  • Taking Syria as the strip limited by the sea, the edge of the Hamad, the Taurus and the Sinaitic desert, we have a remarkably homogeneous geographical area with very obvious natural boundaries; but these, for various reasons, have proved very Scale, 1:7.soo.000
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  • Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.
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  • Something about the ancient political and geographical relations of Syria can be gleaned from Egyptian sources, especially in connexion with the campaigns of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
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  • Moreover, we possess enumerations of towns in the geographical lists of the temple of Karnak and in a hieratic papyrus dating about 200 years after Tethmosis III.
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  • The line of geographical progress first followed the valley of the Trent.
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  • 9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
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  • During his long stay in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical description of this province, which was bound to France by so many political and literary associations.
    0
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  • Mill, "Bathymetrical Survey of the English Lakes," Geographical Journal, vi.
    0
    0
  • At the same time Alexander himself made it a principal concern to win fresh geographical knowledge, to open new ways.
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  • 21), and to a king Nicomedes the geographical poem of the Pseudo-Scymnus is dedicated.
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  • The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced.
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  • When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the areas for which are given in the " Smithsonian Geographical Tables " (1894), in Professor H.
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    0
  • Wagner's tables in the geographical Jahrbuch, or similar works.
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  • The geographical knowledge of Anaximander was naturally more ample than that of Homer, for it extended from the Cassiterides or Tin Islands in the west to the Caspian in the east, which he conceived to open out into Oceanus.
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  • Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have been preserved by Strabo and others.
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  • gives further details with reference to the principal towns of each map, as to geographical position, length of day, climata, &c.
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  • The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860 at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.1 The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm.
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  • In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
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  • dei Argonauti, the earliest geographical society, and Diogo Hornem, a Portuguese settled at Venice (1558-1574); Denmark by J.
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  • 1724) founded a geographical establishment in 1702, which depended at first upon copies of British and French maps, but in course of time published also original maps such as J.
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  • Among the geographical establishments of Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the highest rank.
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  • Among other geographical institutes in Germany which deserve mention are the Weimar Institut, founded in 17 9 1 by F.
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  • In addition to these collections, numerous single maps have been published in geographical periodicals or separately.
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    0
  • For reports on the progress of cartography, see Geographisches Jahrbuch (Gotha, since 1866); for announcements of new publications, Bibliotheca geographica, published annually by the Berlin Geographical Society, and to the geographical Journal (London).
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  • Pullar, was completed in 1908, and the results published by the Royal Geographical Society.
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  • but as it no longer met modern requirements as to accuracy the director of the military geographical establishment at Vienna, Field Marshal Chr.
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    0
  • In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.
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    0
  • Kiepert (1:300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna in 1885.
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  • Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 1880-1885).
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  • Holdich's map of Persia (1:1,014,000, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by the geographical division of the general staff.
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  • The geographical section of the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of i: 250,000 and i: 1,000,000.
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  • In Argentina an official geographical institute was established in 1879, but neither A.
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  • From a geographical point of view nothing is more likely, for the takin forms a type confined to Eastern Asia (Tibet and Szechuen), and it would be reasonable to expect that, like so many other peculiar forms from the same region, they should have representatives on the American side of the Pacific. (R.
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  • Piper and Ficus, since the number of cosmopolitan or very widely distributed species is comparatively few, a geographical grouping is found specially convenient by those who are constantly receiving parcels of plants from known foreign sources.
    0
    0
  • In North America rhinoceroses became extinct before the close of the Pliocene period; but in the Old World, although their geographical distribution has become greatly restricted, at least five well-marked species survive.
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    0
  • Andrusov, "Physical Exploration of the Black Sea," in Geographical Journal, vol.
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    0
  • So far as geographical description is concerned, the separate articles on Asia Minor, Albania, Armenia, and other areas mentioned below - constituting the Turkish Empire - may be consulted.
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    0
  • In these he seems suddenly to have cut adrift from every principle the truth of which he had himself so brilliantly demonstrated, and we find him discussing plans based on hypothesis, not knowledge, and on the importance of geographical points without reference to the enemy's field army.
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  • Kinneir, Geographical Memoir of the Persian Empire (1813); F.
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    0
  • de Foucauld, Reconnaissance au Maroc 1883-1884 (Paris, 1888, almost the sole authority for the geography of the Atlas; his book gives the result of careful surveys, and is illustrated with a good collection of maps and sketches); Hooker, Ball and Maw, Marocco and the Great Atlas (London, 1879, a most valuable contribution, always scientific and trustworthy, especially as to botany and geology); Joseph Thomson, Travels in the Atlas and Southern Morocco (London, 1889, valuable geographical and geological data); Louis Gentil, Mission de Segonzac, &c. (Paris, 1906; the author was geologist to the 1905 expedition); Gerhard Rohlfs, Adventures in Morocco (London, 1874); Walter B.
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  • 13 The Geographical Journal, xiv.
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  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.
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  • A few Devonian forms have also been recorded from the Parry Archipelago, and Nathorst has shown the existence of Old Red Sandstone facies of Devonian in Traill Island, Geographical Society Island, Ymer Island and Gauss Peninsula.
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  • See also Geographical Journal, passim.
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  • One of the most singular facts concerning the geographical distribution of Enteropneusta has recently been brought to light by Benham, who found a species of Balanoglossus, sensu stricto, on the coast of New Zealand hardly distinguishable from one occurring off Japan.
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  • JEFFERSON CITY (legally and officially the City of Jefferson), the capital of Missouri, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Cole county, on the Missouri river, near the geographical centre of,the state, about 125 m.
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  • Holdich, India (” Regions of the World " series, 1903); Ryder, Geographical Journat, 1905; Rawlings, The Great Plateau (1906).
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  • The real greatness of the town dates from the time when Constantinople became the metropolis of the Roman world: then its geographical situation raised it to a position of importance which it retained throughout the middle ages.
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  • Soc. (London, 1899); "On Geographical and Individual Variation in Mus sylvaticus and its Allies," op. cit.
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  • They were desired by France because of their geographical position, Konakry, the capital of French Guinea, being built on an islet but 3 m.
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    0
  • Bohemia, which had first received Christianity from the East, was from geographical and other causes long but very loosely connected with the Church of Rome.
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  • Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
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  • The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
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  • Schrenck, Reisen and Forschungen im Amurgebiet (St Petersburg, 1858-1891); Trudy of the Siberian expedition - mathematical part (also geographical) by Schwarz, and physical part by Schmidt, Glehn and Brylkin (1874, seq.); G.
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  • of the geographical north.
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  • The angle which the magnetic axis makes with the plane of the horizon is called the inclination or Along an irregular line encircling the earth in the neighbourhood of the geographical equator the needle takes up a horizontal position, and the dip is zero.
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  • To be consistent with the terminology adopted in Britain, it is necessary to regard the pole which is geographically north as being the south pole of the terrestrial magnet, and that which is geographically south as the north pole; in practice however the names assigned to the terrestrial magnetic poles correspond with their geographical situations.
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  • The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
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  • In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
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  • References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
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  • Of this legend the author of the Acts of Paul made use, and introduced into it certain historical and geographical facts.
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  • With such an enormous geographical range the species must of necessity present itself under a considerable number of local phases, differing from one another to a greater or less degree in the matters of size and colouring.
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  • This is precisely the geographical standpoint of the post-exile author of Gen.
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  • Like that of other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of confusion.
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    0
  • the 8th century the term comitatus begins to denote a geographical area, though there was little difference in its extent under the Merovingian kings and the early Carolings.
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  • The two are, however, so nearly allied that they might almost be considered geographical races of a single species.
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  • Lack of information regarding the geographical features of the interior, however, led to some indefinite descriptions, and these have been fruitful sources of dispute ever since.
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  • The most active are the geographical societies, but very little has been done in the direction of scientific exploration.
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    0
  • The In- stituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro, though devoted chiefly to historical research, has rendered noteworthy service in its encouragement of geographical exploration and by its publication of various scientific memoirs.
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  • Sydney has a great number of learned, educational and charitable institutions; it possesses a Royal Society, a Linnean Society and a Geographical Society, a women's college affiliated to the university, an astronomical observatory, a technical college, a school of art with library attached, a bacteriological institute at Rose Bay, a museum and a free public library.
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  • Woyeikoff, Climates of the Earth (1884); Mongolia and Kham (Imperial Russian Geographical Society's Expedition, 1899-1901).
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    0
  • Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity.
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  • The central plains, which have the most fertile soil, and from the geographical conditions of the country form its centre of gravity, are occupied almost exclusively by the Magyars, the most numerous and the dominant race.
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  • At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
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  • and those of Wakhan being no longer coincident with their geographical limits.
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  • 3 (7) mentions Scythae) of the land and its inhabitants, tries to restrict this merely geographical usage and to confine the word Scyth to a certain race or at any rate to that race and its subjects, but even he seems to slip back into the wider use.
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  • Henceforward the name "Scythian" is purely geographical.
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  • 12; Archer, Report on a Journey in the Mekong Valley; Prince Henri d'Orleans, Around Tonkin and Siam (1894); M`Carthy, Report on a Survey in Siam (1894); Bulletins, Paris Geographical Society: H.
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  • The valuable geographical results are exhibited in G.
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    0
  • In the beginning of the 8th century David of Beth Rabban, also a Nestorian monk, wrote, besides a geographical work, " a monastic history, called The Little Paradise, which is frequently cited by Thomas of Marga."
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  • Several grades are produced in Venezuela, determined by geographical position, altitude and method of curing and preparing for market.
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  • Veloz Goiticoa, Venezuela: Geographical Sketch, Natural Resources, Laws, &c. [[[Bur]].
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  • The geographical name is sometimes extended over all these branches, and so reaches from Aetolia to the Gulf of Lamia.
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  • The Royal Geographical Society, occupying a building close to Burlington House in Savile Row, maintains a map-room open to the public, holds lectures by prominent explorers and geographers, and takes a leading part in the promotion of geographical discovery.
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  • The geographical boundary between the Pathan and Baluch races in the hills nearly corresponds with the northern limit of the district.
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  • The value of Chitral as an outpost of British India may be best gauged by its geographical position.
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  • The Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884 and the Chitral expedition of 1895 opened up a vast area for geographical investigation, and the information collected is to be found in the reports and gazetteers of the Indian government.
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  • 65), assigns the discovery of glass to Syria, and the geographical position of that country, its forests as a source of fuel, and its deposits of sand add probability to the tradition.
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  • The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
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  • He was made fellow of the Royal and the Royal Geographical Societies.
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  • In Semitic times Urra was pronounced Uri and confounded with uru, " ciiy "; as a geographical term, however, it was replaced by Akkadu (Akkad), the Semitic form of Agadewritten Akkattim in the Elamite inscriptions - the name of the elder Sargon's capital, which must have stood close to Sippara, if indeed it was not a quarter of Sippara itself.
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  • Its cosmology was the result of its geographical position: the earth, it was believed, had grown out of the waters of the deep, like the ever-widening coast at the mouth of the Euphrates.
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  • In geographical distribution the Bovidae present a remarkable contrast to the deer tribe, or Cervidae.
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  • Burckhardt's Travels in Syria and the Holy Land with valuable geographical notes.
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  • in width, situated on the eastern slopes of the coast ranges and extending from north to south for 260 geographical miles, between the latitudes 25° 45' and 19° 12' S.
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  • a view to botanical research, but the next advance in geographical knowledge in south Arabia was due to the French officers, M.
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    0
  • advance geographical interests in south Arabia, continued Wellsted's work in Oman; starting from Sohar on the Batina coast he crossed the dividing range into the Dhahira, and reached Birema, one of its principal oases.
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  • If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
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  • If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration.
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  • Tuwek in any case forms an important geographical feature in eastern Nejd, interrupting by a transverse barrier 200 m.
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  • 1274 or 1286) is famous for his histories, but still more for his geographical writings.
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  • The geographical and historical Masalik al-Absar of Ibn Fadlallah (d.
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    0
  • - The writing of geographical books naturally began with the description of the Moslem world, and that for practical purposes.
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  • A third class of Arabian geographical works were those written to explain the names of places which occur in the older poets.
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    0
  • It was in the early Abbasid period that the scientific works of Greece were translated into Arabic, 1 The chief Arabian geographical works have been edited by M.
    0
    0
  • The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
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    0
  • Nubia, however, has no strictly defined limits, and is little more than a geographical expression.
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    0
  • For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be.
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  • In reply, Graslin (De l'Iberie, Paris, 1839), maintained that the name Iberia was nothing but a Greek misnomer of Spain, and that there was no proof that the Basque people had ever occupied a wider area than at present; and Blade (Origine des Basques, Paris, 1869) took the same line of argument, holding that Iberia is a purely geographical term, that there was no.
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  • The rainfall in the first geographical division is pretty constant, and may reach a yearly average of about 22 in.
    0
    0
  • - Of Arabic sources accessible in translations the geographical works of Ya`kubi (Descriptio al Magribi, by De Goeje, Leiden, 1860), Al-Bakri (Descr.
    0
    0
  • Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication.
    0
    0
  • The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic. Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.
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    0
  • In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
    0
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  • a-, privative, and ywvia, an angle), the term given to the imaginary lines on the earth's surface connecting points at which the magnetic needle points to the geographical north and south.
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  • It owes its development to its geographical situation in the north-east angle of the Adriatic Sea at the end of the deeply indented gulf, and to its harbour, which was more accessible to large vessels than that of Venice.
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  • Wolfe, Journal of Geographical Society (London), iii.
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  • Gardiner, "Formation of the Maldives," in Geographical Journ.
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  • I (1900), and the Geographical Journ., loc. cit., &c. A French adventurer, Francois Pyrard de la Val, was wrecked in the Maldives in 1602 and detained there five years; he wrote an interesting account of the archipelago, Voyage de F.
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  • This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
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  • Many of the so-called genera, or groups of genera, are consequently not to be used either as witnesses of blood-relationship or of geographical distribution.
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  • A little better is his contemporary, Rufius Festus Avienus, who made some free translations of astronomical and geographical poems in Greek.
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  • These were grouped into five main geographical divisions (from 443 to 436; afterwards four, Caria being merged in Ionia).
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  • All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
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  • He was trained for the military profession, but turned his attention to science and geographical exploration.
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  • Of the species known not one has so wide a geographical range, and has so well been studied, as the common British threespined stickleback (Gastrosteus aculeatus).
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  • Its geographical range nearly coincides with that of the other species, but it is more locally distributed, and its range in northern Asia is not known.
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  • Between that date and the Revolution there had been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a geographical division of the globe into northern and southern departments.
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  • The geographical range of the mammoth was very extensive.
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  • There has also been a certain amount of geographical sketching combined with trigonometrical observations; and there are the route surveys of native explorers.
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  • The Lhobrak was finally identified with the Manas river, a geographical discovery of some importance.
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  • East of Bhutan, amongst the semi-independent hill states which sometimes own allegiance to Tibet and sometimes assert complete freedom from all authority, the geographical puzzle of the course of the Tsanpo, the great river of Tibet, has been solved by the researches of Captain Harman, and the explorations of the native surveyor "K.
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  • 9) have more a geographical than a chronological bearing, the stricter canon of Palestine excluding these apocryphal books of 90 B.C. to A.D.
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  • As the forgotten history of Oriental antiquity has been restored to us, it has come to be understood that, politically speaking, the Hebrews were a relatively insignificant people, whose chief importance from the standpoint of material history was derived from the geographical accident that made them a sort of buffer between the greater nations about them.
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  • His writings consist of travels and astronomical, geographical and mathematical works.
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  • After having travelled extensively, he settled in his native city, where he occupied a high position, and devoted his time to the composition of geographical and historical works.
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  • Originally the name may have been a geographical term for the central portion of Palestine.
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  • A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
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  • The committee of the Royal Geographical Society settled the existing nomenclature of the three great oceans.
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  • A definite terminology for the larger forms of sub-oceanic relief was put forward by the International Geographical Congress at Berlin in 1899 and adopted by that at Washington in 1004.
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  • According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
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  • For the sake of uniformity it is to be hoped that the system of nomenclature recommended by the International Geographical Congress will ultimately be adopted.
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  • It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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  • respecting the geographical position of the potentate whom he addressed from Venice in 1177, the only real person to whom the letter can have been sent was the king of Abyssinia.
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  • In 1882 the Royal Geographical Society despatched Joseph Thomson to discover through Masailand the direct route to Victoria Nyanza.
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  • Roscoe in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute between 1900 and 1908; the duke of the Abruzzi, " The Snows of the Nile," in The Geographical Journal (February 1907); De Filippi, Ruwenzori (1908); J.
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  • the geographical features of the coast, except in the region of MacCluer Inlet and Geelvink Bay, are very little known, and those of the interior even less.
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  • It was seriously contended in one part of the house that, as eminent men of geographical and ethnographical science had settled the question whether New Guinea belongs to Asia or Polynesia in favour of the latter, a New Guinea colonization scheme could not properly be proposed and decided upon in a section of the Dutch-Indian budget.
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  • xvi., xvii.; " Geographische Untersuchungen in der Westhalfte von New Guinea," in Report of Sixth International Geographical Congress (London, 1895); J.
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  • The Mexican Geographical Society (Sociedad mexicana de geografia y estadistica), founded in 1833, has rendered invaluable services in the work of exploration and publication; there are also the Geological Society, the Association of Engineers and Architects, and the Society of Natural History.
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  • If the symmetry that is so noticeable in geological history had extended to climate as well, many geographical features might now present likenesses instead of contrasts.
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  • It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
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  • Geographical Society (May 1906); also Mem.
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  • Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
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  • In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
    0
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  • The third subfamily is the Antilopinae, the members of which, have a much wider geographical range than either of the foregoing groups.
    0
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  • Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
    0
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  • Chertsey owed its importance primarily to the abbey, but partly to its geographical position.
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  • Participation in the war involved the Ottoman Empire in hostilities on every front of her territory; it was the penalty of her action and her geographical situation.
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  • The volcanic activity of the Taupo district lasted into the Pleistocene, and the last eruptions contributed many of its chief geographical features.'
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  • His mathematical writings, which account for some forty entries in the Royal Society's catalogue of scientific papers, cover a wide range of subjects, such" s the theory of probabilities, quadratic forms, theory of integrals, gearings, the construction of geographical maps, &c. He also published a Traite de la theorie des nombres.
    0
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  • The geographical position of Iquitos is 3° 44' S., 73° W.
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  • As the geographical knowledge of the Greeks extended, the name was applied to the outer sea (especially the Atlantic).
    0
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  • Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
    0
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  • The historical and geographical researches of Kremer and Sprenger gave a fresh impulse to inquiry.
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  • Glaser have done most for epigraphy, while Manzoni is to be remembered for his excellent geographical work.
    0
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  • p. 332) attaches much importance to his geographical investigations, and praises him for being the first to separate the historical from the merely geographical element.
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  • in fact, from its geographical position reaped the benefits without incurring the anxieties consequent on the settlement of a large uitlander population on the Rand.
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  • (1890); Geographical Journal, passim.
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  • The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration.
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  • He wrote many historical and geographical works, of which some seem to have been voluminous and of considerable value on account of the sources to which their author had access: (I)`Pwµai,u (2) 'AvvuptaKet: (3) (4) De Arabia sive De expeditione arabica; (5) Physiologa; (6) De Euphorbia herba; (7) IIEpi Ora: (8) IIEpl (IIEpi i'wypci wv): (10) ` Oµo&ornTEs: (II) IIEpi 400pas: (12) 'E?riypaµµa.
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  • In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877.
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  • Of 1500 species of herbaceous plants in the Red river basin, it is estimated that fully half reach here their geographical limit or limit of frequent occurrence.
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  • (1908) of the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society (New York).
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  • Prince Damrong," The Foundation of Ayuthia,"Siam Society Journal (1905); Diplomatic and Consular Reports for Bangkok and Chien Mai (1888-1907); Directory for Bangkok and Siam (Bangkok Times Office Annual);- Francis Garnier, Voyage d'exploration en Indo-Chine (Paris, 1873); Geographical Journal, papers by J.
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  • Graham," Brief History of the R.C. Mission in Siam,"Asiatic Quarterly Review (1901); Mrs Grindrod, Siam: a Geographical Summary; H.
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  • The department of geographical botany made rapid advance by means of the various scientific expeditions which have been sent to all quarters of the globe, as well as by individual effort (see Plants: Distribution) since the time of A.
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  • Distribution or Geographical Botany, the consideration of the distribution of plants on the earth's surface (see Plants: Distribution).
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  • The result of their deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619 and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for the maintenance 1 See The Geographical Journal, ix.
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  • of the Moluccas, but by a geographical fiction the Philippines were included within the Spanish sphere.
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  • Several geographical races are recognized.
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  • Although the use of the name is thus restricted in geographical usage, the mountain system so designated does, as a fact, extend eastwards as far as the great depression of Tsaidam (say 95° E.), though it is uncertain whether its direct orographical continuation eastwards is to be identified with the Astin-tagh, or, as F.
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  • The probability is that there are three, corresponding to the geographical regions involved, (1) Rome and Italy, (2) N.E.
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  • All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
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  • With the decline of the Roman Empire the demand for parrots in Europe lessened, and so the supply dwindled, yet all knowledge of them was not wholly lost, and they are occasionally mentioned by one writer or another until in the i 5th century began that career of geographical discovery which has since proceeded uninterruptedly.
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  • a panegyric on Anastasius in 312 hexameters with a short iambic introduction, and a faithful translation into 1087 hexameters of Dionysius's Periegesis or geographical survey of the world.
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  • CRIPPLE CREEK, a city and the county-seat of Teller county, almost at the geographical centre of Colorado, U.S.A., one of the phenomenal mining camps of the West.
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  • Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
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  • Both these expeditions yielded most valuable geographical results.
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  • In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
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  • In 1871 he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Russian Geographical Society, and while engaged in this work was offered the secretaryship of that society.
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  • C.) History From a geographical point of view Algeria, together with Morocco and Tunisia, from which it is separated only by artificial and purely political frontiers, forms a distinct country, Africa which it is convenient to designate by the name of Africa Minor.
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  • The poetical descriptions of the character, or geographical position, of the various tribes, now grouped together as the Blessings of Jacob (Gen.
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  • Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.
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  • But apart from this the limits are seen to accord fairly closely with the geographical definition of the area under consideration.
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  • For the same reason the British and Dutch fleets which sailed with the object of harrying the Spaniards, under Sir Francis Drake (1577-1580), Thomas Cavendish (1586-1593)593) and Oliver van Noort (1598-1601), were not, as regards the Pacific, of prime geographical importance.
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  • They are undoubtedly a very hybrid race, owing this characteristic to their geographical position in the area where the dominating races of the Pacific, Malays, Polynesians, Melanesians, Japanese 1 From these the three main divisions of the islands are named Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia.
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  • Their geographical distribution comprises a large portion of Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya.
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  • of the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London, 1897); and, by Dr E.
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  • Madoz was distinguished from most of the politicians of his generation by the fact that in middle life he compiled what is still a book of value - a geographical, statistical and historical dictionary of Spain and its possessions oversea, Diccionario geogra Pico, estadistico y historico de Espana, y sus posesiones de Ultramar (Madrid, 1848-1850).
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  • The geographical position of the old town is 37° 8' N., 58° 25' E., elevation 4100 ft.
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  • The geographical range of the leopard embraces practically all Africa, and Asia from Palestine to China and Manchuria, inclusive of Ceylon and the great Malay Islands as far as Java.
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  • This local divergence may proceed as rapidly as through wide geographical segregation or isolation.
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  • There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
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  • With respect to the first moves made in the struggle, and the negotiations for peace at the outset of hostilities, Caesar's account sometimes conflicts with the testimony of Cicero's correspondence or implies movements which cannot be reconciled with geographical facts.
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  • Several fossil or subfossil avian forms, very interesting from the point of view of geographical distribution, have been discovered by Dr H.
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  • This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
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  • Noll, A Short History of Mexico (Chicago, 1903); Santiago Ramirez, Noticia historica de la riqueza mineira de Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Friedrich Ratzel, Aus Mexico: Reiseskizzen aus den Jahren 1874-1876 (Breslau, 1878); Matias Romero, Geographical and Statistical Notes on Mexico (New York, 1898); idem, Mexico and the United States (New York, 1898); E.
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  • Their name Toltecatl signifies an inhabitant of Tollan (land of reeds), a place which has a definite geographical site in the present Tulan or Tula, north of the valley of Anahuac, where a Toltec kingdom seems to have had its centre.
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  • The geographical distribution is cosmopolitan, as is the case with Protozoa and Protophyta of similar habits.
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  • i.; Juul Dieserud, "Norse Discoveries in America," in the Bulletin of the American Geographical Society (February, 1901); G.
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  • In the present writer's opinion this is supported by the study of the historical and geographical facts.'
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  • On this and other local variations a number of nominal species have been founded; but it is preferable to regard them in the light of geographical phases or races, such as the above-mentioned C. latrans estor of Nevada and Utah, C. 1.
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  • 5.1 Geographical Growth of the Nation.
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  • Hayden, Reports of the U.S. Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (12 vols., Washington, 1873I883); Clarence King, Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel (~ vols.
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  • Wheeler, Geographical and Geological Exploration and Surveys West of the iooth Meridian (7 vols.
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  • c. Within each state powers of taxation, to a determinate or to an indeterminate extent, as the case may be, are by the constitution and laws of the state conferred, almost always for strictly defined purposes, (1) upon counties, (2) upon cities, boroughs and incorporate villages, and (3) in nearly all the states, though in widely varying degrees, upon the primary geographical divisions of counties, such as the town of New England and the township of the Middle and Western states.
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  • Similar doubts have also been entertained with regard to the African bush-pigs or river-hogs, but from geographical considerations alone these are but regarded as representing a separate genus, Potamochoerus, although they are nearly allied to the verrucosus group of Sus.
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  • aequator, from aequare to make equal), in geography, that great circle of the earth, equidistant from the two poles, which divides the northern from the southern hemisphere and lies in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the earth; this is termed the "geographical" or "terrestrial equator."
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  • Archelaus was said to have been the author of a geographical work, and to have written treatises On Stones and Rivers.
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  • It was, as far as we know, the first attempt to " collect all the geographical knowledge at the time attainable, and to compose a general treatise on geography.
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  • The three books of the older work formed a strictly technical geographical treatise.
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  • " Strabo indeed appears to be the first who conceived a complete geographical treatise as comprising the four divisions of mathematical, physical, political and historical geography, and he endeavoured, however imperfectly, to keep all these objects in view."
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  • The geographical position of Canada, its railway systems and steamship service for freight across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, are favourable to the extension of the export trade in farm products to European and oriental countries.
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  • In a geographical sense the region around Orleans is sometimes known as Orleanais, but this is somewhat smaller than the former province.
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  • The order contains nine families, most of which are wide in their geographical distribution.
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  • Its enormous railway facilities and its geographical situation as the junction of the great trunk lines running north and south, tapping also the Staffordshire potteries on the one side and the great mineral districts of Wales on the other, constitute Crewe station one of the most important links of railway and postal communication in the kingdom.
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  • Their geographical range extends from Guiana to the river Plate.
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  • Its geographical position is excellent; built upon alluvial soil 784 ft.
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  • Lyon, in which by far the largest number of species of the family are retained in the original genus Lepus, which has also the widest geographical distribution of all the genera.
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  • On his return to England, he was employed in investigating the title of the crown to the countries recently discovered by British subjects, and in furnishing geographical descriptions.
    0
    0
  • the north and south poles occupy permanent geographical positions, yet the axis is not directed towards a fixed point in the heavens; variation of latitude, however, is associated with the shifting of the axis within the earth, i.e.
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  • the geographical position of the north pole varies.
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  • In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
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  • The geographical position of Winnipeg is unique for the purposes of trade.
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  • The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
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  • axis of a freely suspended magnet is observed; while, in the absence of a distant mark of which the azimuth is known, the geographical meridian is obtained from observations of the transit of the sun or a star.
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  • The telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when determining the geographical meridian.
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  • To obtain the geographical meridian the box A is removed, and an image of the sun or a star is reflected into the telescope B by means of a small transit mirror N.
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    0
  • Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.
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    0
  • The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
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  • Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
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  • In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
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  • This geographical division was not reproduced by Rome in any administrative partitions of the province.
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  • PATROCLES (c. 312 -261 B.C.), a Macedonian general and writer on geographical subjects, who lived during the reigns of Seleucus I.
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  • See, for information specially relating to the whole subject, the Abbe Desgodin's Mission du Thibet de 1855 a 1870 (Verdun, 1872); and "Account of the Pundit's Journey in Great Tibet," in the Royal Geographical Society's Journal for 1877.
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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about various locations and other geographical entities.
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  • The direction assumed by the needle is not generally towards the geographical north, but diverges towards the east or west of it, making a horizontal angle with the true FIG.
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  • In the usual navigable waters of the world the variation alters from 30° to the east to 45° to the west of the geographical meridian, being westerly in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, easterly in the Pacific. The vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of such a needle is known as the magnetic meridian.
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  • in which the ship is steering and the north point of the compass or course is at once seen; and if the magnetic variation and the disturbing effects of the ship's iron are known, the desired angle between the ships's course and the geographical meridian can be computed.
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  • vertical magnets are used; (3) is partly corrected by the soft iron correctors of D; (2) and the remaining part of (3) cannot be conveniently corrected for more than one geographical position at a time.
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  • Although a compass may thus be made practically correct for a given time and place, the magnetism of the ship is liable to changes on changing her geographical position, and especially so when steaming at right angles or nearly so to the magnetic meridian, for then sub-permanent magnetism is developed in the hull.
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  • To these regions the Napoleonic regime had given a certain measure of unity; but Metternich, dominant after 1815, held Italy to be merely a geographical term.
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  • That would provide a useful name for an important geographical unit, but is too misleading.
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  • In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.
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  • 348), whence the vagueness of the geographical terminology in all times.
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  • (Moawiya is said to have rebuilt the dome of the great church at Edessa after an earthquake in 678.) Fortunately for Mesopotamia the seats of the factions which immediately broke the peace of Islam were elsewhere; but it could not escape the fate of its geographical position.
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  • Ethnographical and geographical excursuses are a special feature of the work.
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  • He wrote The Races of Man and their Geographical Distribution (1848), Geographical Distribution of Animals and Man (1854), Geographical Distribution of Plants (1861) and Chronological History of Plants (1879).
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  • Tibet is affected by the south-west monsoon, just as the Pamirs are affected, but in varying degrees according to geographical position.
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    0
  • The climate of southern Tibet is, however, subject to considerable modifications from that of the northern and central regions, owing doubtless to its geographical connexion with northern India.
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  • Huc was, indeed, not only without science, perhaps without accurate knowledge of any kind, but also without that geographical sense which sometimes enables a traveller to bring back valuable contributions to geographical knowledge though unable to make instrumental observations.
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  • In 1874 he received a government commission to undertake explorations in Syria, particularly at Tyre, and as a result he published in 1876 Aus Phonicien, a collection of historical and geographical sketches.
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  • Weed, "Formation of Travertine and Siliceous Sinter by the Vegetation of Hot Springs," in the 9th Annual Report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey (Washington, 1889); descriptions in the 5th, 6th and 12th Reports of the Hayden Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (ibid., 1871, 1872 and 1878); J.
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  • - In Africa, as in the South Seas, mission work has gone hand in hand with geographical discovery.
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  • See Colonel Miles, Geographical Journal, vol.
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  • (1896); Commander Stiffe, Geographical Journal (1899).
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  • For an estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, see Classical Review (April 1904) and Quarterly Review (April 1905).
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  • We may broadly distinguish two main geographical elements in the alpine flora, namely, the northern element and the endemic element.
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  • These do not, however, form an " element," in the strict geographical sense in which this term is otherwise used here.
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  • The question, too, in the case of this element, is necessarily of genetic rather than purely geographical scope.
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  • As characteristic birds of the snow-region may be mentioned the alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax alpinus), which is frequently seen at the summits even of the loftiest mountains, the alpine swift (Cypselus melba), the wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), snow-finch (Montifringilla nivalis) and ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus); the geographical distribution of this last being similar to that of the mountain hare.
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  • The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
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  • But it is possible that the terms at an early date were interchangeable, Canaan being geographical and Amorite ethnical.
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  • The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
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  • The area within which the Carboniferous rocks of Britain occur is sufficiently extensive to contain more than one type of the system, and thus to cast much light on the varied geographical conditions under which these rocks were accumulated.
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  • The inhabitants of the waters of this geographical phase include mollusca, which are supposed to have lived in brackish or fresh water, such as Anthracomya, Naiadites, Carbonicola, and many forms of Crustacea, e.g.
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  • Of this interior very little was known until the scientific expedition despatched by the Dutch Royal Geographical Society towards the end of the 'seventies, but in 1901 an armed Dutch expedition, necessitated by frequent disturbances, penetrated right into the Jambi hinterland, the Gajo districts, where until then no European had ever trod.
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  • The name Holland is that of the former countship, which forms part of the political, as well as the geographical centre of the kingdom (see the next article).
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  • On the east a natural geographical boundary was formed by the long line of marshy fens extending along the borders of Overysel, Drente and Groningen.
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  • Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
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  • Bibliography.-The chief place is due to the following geographical publications:-Dr H.
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  • Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
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  • As regards their geographical distribution, fungi, like flowering plants, have no doubt their centres of origin and of dispersal; but we must not forget that every exchange of wood, wheat, fruits, plants, animals, or other commodities involves transmission of fungi from one country to another; while the migrations of birds and other animals, currents of air and water, and so forth, are particularly efficacious in transmitting these minute organisms. Against this, of course, it may be argued that parasitic forms can only go where their hosts grow, as is proved to be the case by records concerning the introduction of Puccinia malvacearum, Peronospora viticola, Hemileia vastatrix, &c. Some fungi - e.g.
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  • When we remember that many parts of the world are practically unexplored as regards fungi, and that new species are constantly being discovered in the United States, Australia and northern Europe - the best explored of all - it is clear that no very accurate census of fungi can as yet be made, and no generalizations of value as to their geographical distribution are possible.
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  • It should be added here in passing that the geographical or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never been established.
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  • These communities may be briefly described according to their geographical arrangement.
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  • Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
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  • During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation.
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  • For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in practical geographical expansion was at a standstill.
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  • During 6th and 7th centuries, Irish anchorites, in their "passion fc_ solitude," found their way to the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes and Iceland, but they were not interested in colonization or geographical knowledge.
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  • (Boston, 1892); Juul Dieserud, "Norse Discoveries in America," in Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, vol.
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  • The Saone (q.v.), which has received (left) the Doubs, is the real continuation of the Rhone, both from a geographical and a commercial point of view, and it is by means of canals branching off from the course of the Saone that the Rhone communicates with the basins of the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine and the Moselle.
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  • Even within the historic period the geographical range of the lion covered the whole of Africa, the south of Asia, including Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Persia and the greater part of northern and central India.
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  • See Skinner, Century Bible, " Kings," ad loc. 2 The geographical indications imply that in one account the journey to Damascus and the anointing of Hazael and Jehu must have intervened, and were omitted because another account ascribed these acts to Elisha (2 Kings viii.
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  • to 35° N.) and about 73° of longitude (67° to 140° E.), while the consumption shows itself to a large extent to have strictly geographical limitations.
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  • See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
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  • The proof is furnished on the one hand by the geographical and ethnographical nomenclature of a later period tions of MSS.
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  • and similar anachronisms, 1 which run through the whole book and are often closely incorporated with the narrative itself, and on the other hand by the identity of the author of the History with that of Geography, a point on which all doubt is excluded by a number of individual affinities, 2 not to speak of the similarity in geographical terminology.
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  • The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite coincide with the German frontiers.
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  • From the above table little can be inferred as to the geographical distribution of the two chief confessions.
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  • Otherwise the geographical limits of the confessions have been but little altered since the Thirty Years ~Var.
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  • See also among English publications on geographical and statistical matter:
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  • See Gelzer, Der Patriarchat von Achrida (Leipzig, 1902); and "Dr Jovan Cvijic's Researches in Macedonia, &c.," in The Geographical Journal, vol.
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