Geographical sentence example

geographical
  • The small British province of Ajmere-Merwara is also included within the geographical area of Rajputana.
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  • Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
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  • It has rather been a wide extension of scientific geographical mapping.
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  • This was one of the few great epochs of geographical discovery.
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  • The circular outline had given way in geographical opinion to the elliptical with the long axis lying east and west, and Aristotle was inclined to view it as a very long and relatively narrow band almost encircling the globe in the temperate zone.
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  • Myres, " An Attempt to reconstruct the Maps used by Herodotus," Geographical Journal, viii.
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  • The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
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  • Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
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  • It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
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  • A much more important work in the history of geographical method is the Geographia generalis of Bernhard Varenius, a German medical doctor of Leiden, who died at the age of twentyeight in 1650, the year of the publication of his book.
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  • In this connexion he divided the communication of experience from one person to another into two categories - the narrative or historical and the descriptive or geographical; both history and geography being viewed as descriptions, the former a description in order of time, the latter a description in order of space.
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  • Progress Of Geographical Discovery Exploration and geographical discovery must have started from more than one centre, and to deal justly with the matter one ought to treat of these separately in the early ages before the whole civilized world was bound together by the bonds of modern intercommunication.
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  • The Phoenicians are the earliest Mediterranean people in the consecutive chain of geographical discovery which joins prehistoric time with the present.
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  • The Ptolemies in Egypt showed equal anxiety to extend the bounds of geographical knowledge.
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  • Roman intercourse with India especially led to the extension of geographical knowledge.
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  • The Northmen of Denmark and Norway, whose piratical adventures were the terror of all the coasts of Europe, and who established themselves in Great Britain and Ireland, in France and The Sicily, were also geographical explorers in their rough but Nothmen.
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  • Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
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  • Missionaries continued to do useful geographical work.
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  • In the 15th century the time was approaching when the discovery of the Cape of Good Hope was to widen the scope of geographical enterprise.
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  • The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
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  • From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
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  • West Indies from 1599 to 1602, established his historic connexion with Canada, to the geographical knowledge of which he made a very large addition.
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  • James Bruce of Kinnaird, the contemporary of Niebuhr, was equally devoted to Eastern travel; and his principal geographical Africa .
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  • The great geographical event of the century, as regards that continent, was the measurement of an arc of the So meridian.
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  • The narratives Pacific of such men as Woodes Rogers, Edward Davis, George Shelvocke, Clipperton and William Dampier, can never fail to interest, while they are not without geographical value.
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  • The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
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  • In reviewing the progress of geographical discovery thus far, it has been possible to keep fairly closely to a chronological order.
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  • The first of the existing geographical societies was that of Paris, founded in 1825 under the title Of La Societe de Geographie.
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  • The Berlin Geographical Society (Gesellschaft fiir Erdkunde) is second in order of seniority, having been founded in 1827.
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  • The Royal Geographical Society, which was founded in London in 1830, comes third on the list; but it may be viewed as a direct result of the earlier African Association founded in 1788.
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  • At the close of the 19th century there were upwards of loo such societies in the world, with more than 50,000 members, and over 150 journals were devoted entirely to geographical subjects.'
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  • The fundamental geographical conceptions are mathematical, the relations of space and form.
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  • Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
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  • ' are produced; therefore the geographer must, for strictly geographical purposes, take some account of the processes which are now in action modifying the forms of the crust.
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  • The form-elements are: See Geographical Journal, xxii.
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  • It would be impracticable to go fully into the varieties of each specific form; but, partly as an example of modern geographical classification, partly because of the exceptional import of ance of mountains amongst the features of the land, one exception may be made.
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  • The geographical distribution of mountains is intimately associated with the great structural lines of the continents of which they form the culminating region.
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  • By a re-elevation of a peneplain the rivers of an old land surface may be restored to youthful activity, and resume their shaping action, deepening the old valleys and initiating new ones, starting afresh the whole course of the geographical cycle.
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  • At every stage of the geographical cycle the land forms, as they exist at that stage, are concerned in guiding the condensation and flow of water in certain definite ways.
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  • A well-developed river system has in fact many equally important and widely-separated sources, the most distant from the mouth, the highest, river or even that of largest initial volume not being necessarily of greater geographical interest than the rest.
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  • The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
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  • The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
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  • Plants exhibit the controlling power of environment to a high degree, and thus vegetation is usually in close adjustment to the bolder geographical features of a region.
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  • The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
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  • Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
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  • The ultimate cause of the predominant form of federal government may be the geographical diversity of the country.
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  • In this article (A) the general anatomy of birds is discussed, (B) fossil birds, (c) the geographical distribution.
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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.
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  • The great problems involved in the study of geographical distribution must therefore be based mainly upon the other classes, both vertebrate and invertebrate, which, moreover, enjoy less great facilities of locomotion than the birds.
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  • Especial attention has to be drawn to the article " Geographical Distribution," in Newton's Dictionary of Birds.
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  • Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.
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  • It will therefore be seen from the above that next to the Nearctic area the Palaearctic has a much greater affinity to any other, a fact which might be expected from geographical considerations.
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  • Climate.-Uruguay enjoys the reputation of possessing one of the most healthy climates in the world The geographical position ensures uniformity of temperature throughout the year, the summer heat being tempered by the Atlantic breezes, and severe cold in the winter season being unknown.
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  • The city's central geographical position, its extensive' railway connexions, and its proximity to important coal-fields have combined to make it one of the principal industrial centres of the Middle West.
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  • This was located in 1820 in almost the exact geographical centre of the state, where a small settlement had recently been made, and the town of Indianapolis was laid out in the following year.
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  • The Liberian frontier with the adjacent French possessions was defined by the Franco-Liberian treaty of 1892, but as the definition therein given was found to be very difficult of reconciliation with geographical features (for in 1892 the whole of the Liberian interior was unmapped) further negotiations were set on foot.
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  • Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
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  • It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
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  • Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
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  • The chief occupation of approximately seven-eighths of the population of European Russia is agriculture, but its character varies considerably according to the soil, the climate and Agri- the geographical position of the different regions.
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  • On the other hand, the khans of the Crimea were able, partly from their geographical position and partly from having placed themselves under the protection of the sultans of Turkey, to resist annexation for more than two centuries and to give the Muscovites a great deal of trouble, not only by frequent raids and occasional invasions, but also by allying themselves with the Western enemies of the tsars.
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  • The partition of this total between the principal geographical divisions of the world is given in Table I.
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  • Yet the mileage open per Io,000 inhabitants in Australia, as a whole, far surpasses that in any other of the broad geographical divisions.
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  • The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
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  • It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.
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  • No general survey of sacrifice on geographical lines is possible, but some of the more important features in each area may be noticed.
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  • See Geographical Journal, passim; and Atoll of Funafuti: Borings into a Coral Reef (Report of Coral Reef Committee of Royal Society, London, 1904).
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  • The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, 1 See B Stechele, in'Milnchener geographische Studien, xx.(1906), and Geographical Journal (December 1907).
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  • Americans and Europeans began to discuss the question of annexation, recognizing the importance of the geographical position of the islands.
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  • Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
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  • It comprises seven large volumes and a geographical appendix; but the seventh volume, the history of the sultan Husain (1438-1505), together with a short account of some later events down to 1523, cannot have been written by Mirkhond himself, who died in 1498.
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  • It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
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  • To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
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  • Though he was unable to reach Khiva the results of the journey afforded a great deal of political, geographical and military information, especially as to the advance of Russia in central Asia.
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  • Although for the purposes of geographical nomenclature, boundaries formed by a coast-line - that is, by depressions of the earth's solid crust below the ocean level - are most easily recog- Political nized and are of special convenience; and although such divisions.
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  • These far extensions furnish the basis for a vast amount of exploratory survey of a strictly geographical character, and they have contributed largely towards raising the standard of accuracy in Asiatic geographical surveys to a level which was deemed unattainable fifty years ago.
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  • Of scientific geographical exploration in Asia (beyond the limits of actual surveys) the modern period has been so prolific that it is only possible to refer in barest outline to some of the principal Indian expeditions, most of which have been directed either to explorers.
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  • Meanwhile, in the Farther East so rapid has been the progress of geographical research since the first beginnings of investigation into the route connexion between Burma and China in 1874 (when the brave Augustus Margary lost his life), that a gradually increasing tide of exploration, setting from east to west and back again, has culminated in a flood of inquiring experts intent on economic and commercial development in China, essaying to unlock those doors to trade which are hereafter to be propped open for the benefit of humanity.
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  • Meanwhile, the acquisition of Burma and the demarcation of boundaries had opened the way to the extension of geographical surveys in directions hitherto untraversed.
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  • The Afghan war of 1878-80; the Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-1885; the occupation of Gilgit and Chitral; the extension of boundaries east and north of Afghanistan, and again, between Baluchistan and Persia - these, added to the opportunities afforded by the systematic survey of Baluchistan which has been steadily progressing since 1880 - combined to produce a series of geographical maps which extend from the Oxus to the Indus, and from the Indus to the Euphrates.
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  • The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
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  • The adopted value by the Royal Geographical Society is 102° 12".
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  • South and west the bounding territories are well fixed in geographical position by the Indian survey determinations of the value of Himalayan peaks.
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  • The steady advance of scientific inquiry into every corner of Persia, backed by the unceasing efforts of a new school of geographical explorers, has left nothing unexamined that can be subjected to superficial observation.
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  • In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
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  • But extended geographical knowledge does not point to any great practical issue.
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  • While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
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  • There is complete present, and probably previous long-existing, geographical continuity in the area over - which they are found.
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  • The result of trans-border surveys to the north and west of India has been to establish the important geographical fact that it is by two gateways only, one on the north-west and one on the west of India, that the central Asiatic tides of immigration have flowed into the peninsula.
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  • Though the geographical extent of Russian territory and influence is enormous, she has always moved along the line of least resistance.
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  • The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning "on the sea," was given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geographical significance.
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  • Geographical Journal (London, 1904); A Tropical Dependency, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial Office Reports on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works cited under NIGERIA.
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  • But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.
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  • Having founded an observatory there, he returned to Paris in 1747, was appointed geographical astronomer to the naval department with a salary of 3000 livres, and installed an observatory in the Hotel Cluny.
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  • So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.
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  • Subsequent discoveries, however, have made it clear that Mycenae was not its chief centre in its earlier stages, or, perhaps, at any period; and, accordingly, it is more usual now to adopt a wider geographical title.
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  • - The fact that Aegean civilization is distinguished from all others, prior or contemporary, not only by its geographical area, but by leading organic characteristics, has never been in doubt, since its remains came to be studied seriously and impartially.
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  • For possible geographical reasons for this duality of type see Crete.
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  • We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
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  • Others again cite the old-established power and productivity of Crete; the immense advantage it derived from insularity, natural fertility and geographical relation to the wider area of east Mediterranean civilizations; and the absence of evidence elsewhere for the gradual growth of a culture powerful enough to dominate the Aegean.
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  • Geographical Distribution The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders.
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  • Hitherto, from the nature of the case, the works aforesaid treated of scarcely any but the birds belonging to the orbis veteribus notus; but the geographical discoveries of the 16th century began to bear fruit, and many animals of kinds un suspected were, about one hundred years later, made known.
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  • Buffon was the first man who formed any theory that may be called reasonable of the geographical distribution of animals.
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  • Questions of affinity, and the details of geographical distribution, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a trifling pastime.
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  • More than this, he entered upon their geographical distribution, the facts of which important subject are here, almost for the first time, since the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 4 brought to bear practically on classification.
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  • Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
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  • Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
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  • The local drawbacks and difficulties once surmounted, Venice by her geographical position became the seaport nearest the heart of Europe.
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  • The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
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  • Medals were authorized by Congress, and in the following year Dr Kane received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and, two years later, a gold medal from the Paris Geographical Society.
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  • The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.
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  • While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
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  • All have been arranged in geographical order without reference to productive capacity or importance.
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  • Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the mission save an increase of geographical knowledge.
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  • Under the present Ottoman distribution " Syria " is the province of Sham or Damascus, exclusive of the vilayets of Aleppo and Beirut and the sanjaks of Lebanon and Jerusalem, which all fall in what is called Syria is the wider geographical sense.
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  • Taking Syria as the strip limited by the sea, the edge of the Hamad, the Taurus and the Sinaitic desert, we have a remarkably homogeneous geographical area with very obvious natural boundaries; but these, for various reasons, have proved very Scale, 1:7.soo.000
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  • Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.
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  • Something about the ancient political and geographical relations of Syria can be gleaned from Egyptian sources, especially in connexion with the campaigns of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
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  • Moreover, we possess enumerations of towns in the geographical lists of the temple of Karnak and in a hieratic papyrus dating about 200 years after Tethmosis III.
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  • The line of geographical progress first followed the valley of the Trent.
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  • During his long stay in Catalonia he made preparations for a geographical and historical description of this province, which was bound to France by so many political and literary associations.
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  • At the same time Alexander himself made it a principal concern to win fresh geographical knowledge, to open new ways.
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  • The following simple rules, laid down by a Committee of the Royal Geographical Society, will be found sufficient as a rule; according to this system the vowels are to be sounded as in Italian, the consonants as in English, and no redundant letters are to be introduced.
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  • The geographical knowledge of Anaximander was naturally more ample than that of Homer, for it extended from the Cassiterides or Tin Islands in the west to the Caspian in the east, which he conceived to open out into Oceanus.
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  • Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have been preserved by Strabo and others.
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  • The geographical ideas which prevailed at the time Columbus started in search of Cathay may be most readily gathered from two contemporary globes, the one known as the Laon globe because it was picked up in 1860 at a curiosity shop in that town, the other produced at Nuremberg in 1492 by Martin Behaim.1 The Laon globe is of copper gilt, and has a diameter of 170 mm.
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  • In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
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  • Among the geographical establishments of Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the highest rank.
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  • In addition to these collections, numerous single maps have been published in geographical periodicals or separately.
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  • For reports on the progress of cartography, see Geographisches Jahrbuch (Gotha, since 1866); for announcements of new publications, Bibliotheca geographica, published annually by the Berlin Geographical Society, and to the geographical Journal (London).
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  • Pullar, was completed in 1908, and the results published by the Royal Geographical Society.
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  • In Norway a geographical survey (Opmaaling) has been in progress since 1783, but the topographical map of the kingdom on a scale of :ioo,000 in 340 sheets, has not yet been completed.
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  • Kiepert (1:300,000), was published by the Military Geographical Institute of Vienna in 1885.
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  • Kiepert's Asia Minor (1:400,000; 1904-1908), a map of eastern Turkey in Asia, Syria and western Persia (1:2,000,000; 1910), published by the Royal Geographical Society, or a Russian general map (1:630,000, published 1880-1885).
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  • Holdich's map of Persia (1:1,014,000, Simla, 1897-1899), or a smaller map (1:2,028,000 and 1:4,056,000), published by the geographical division of the general staff.
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  • The geographical section of the British general staff is publishing maps of all Africa on scales of i: 250,000 and i: 1,000,000.
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  • Piper and Ficus, since the number of cosmopolitan or very widely distributed species is comparatively few, a geographical grouping is found specially convenient by those who are constantly receiving parcels of plants from known foreign sources.
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  • In North America rhinoceroses became extinct before the close of the Pliocene period; but in the Old World, although their geographical distribution has become greatly restricted, at least five well-marked species survive.
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  • So far as geographical description is concerned, the separate articles on Asia Minor, Albania, Armenia, and other areas mentioned below - constituting the Turkish Empire - may be consulted.
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  • In these he seems suddenly to have cut adrift from every principle the truth of which he had himself so brilliantly demonstrated, and we find him discussing plans based on hypothesis, not knowledge, and on the importance of geographical points without reference to the enemy's field army.
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  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.
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  • A few Devonian forms have also been recorded from the Parry Archipelago, and Nathorst has shown the existence of Old Red Sandstone facies of Devonian in Traill Island, Geographical Society Island, Ymer Island and Gauss Peninsula.
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  • One of the most singular facts concerning the geographical distribution of Enteropneusta has recently been brought to light by Benham, who found a species of Balanoglossus, sensu stricto, on the coast of New Zealand hardly distinguishable from one occurring off Japan.
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  • The real greatness of the town dates from the time when Constantinople became the metropolis of the Roman world: then its geographical situation raised it to a position of importance which it retained throughout the middle ages.
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  • They were desired by France because of their geographical position, Konakry, the capital of French Guinea, being built on an islet but 3 m.
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  • Bohemia, which had first received Christianity from the East, was from geographical and other causes long but very loosely connected with the Church of Rome.
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  • Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
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  • The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
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  • The angle which the magnetic axis makes with the plane of the horizon is called the inclination or Along an irregular line encircling the earth in the neighbourhood of the geographical equator the needle takes up a horizontal position, and the dip is zero.
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  • To be consistent with the terminology adopted in Britain, it is necessary to regard the pole which is geographically north as being the south pole of the terrestrial magnet, and that which is geographically south as the north pole; in practice however the names assigned to the terrestrial magnetic poles correspond with their geographical situations.
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  • The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
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  • In the bibliography at the close of this article (referred to by leaded arabic numerals in brackets throughout these pages), the titles of works are given which contain detailed information as to the genera and species of each order or sub-order, their geographical distribution and their habits and economy so far as they have been ascertained.
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  • References to works dealing with the taxonomy and geographical distribution of scorpions are given at the end of this article (28).
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  • Of this legend the author of the Acts of Paul made use, and introduced into it certain historical and geographical facts.
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  • With such an enormous geographical range the species must of necessity present itself under a considerable number of local phases, differing from one another to a greater or less degree in the matters of size and colouring.
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  • This is precisely the geographical standpoint of the post-exile author of Gen.
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  • Like that of other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of confusion.
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  • The two are, however, so nearly allied that they might almost be considered geographical races of a single species.
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  • Lack of information regarding the geographical features of the interior, however, led to some indefinite descriptions, and these have been fruitful sources of dispute ever since.
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  • The most active are the geographical societies, but very little has been done in the direction of scientific exploration.
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  • The In- stituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro, though devoted chiefly to historical research, has rendered noteworthy service in its encouragement of geographical exploration and by its publication of various scientific memoirs.
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  • Sydney has a great number of learned, educational and charitable institutions; it possesses a Royal Society, a Linnean Society and a Geographical Society, a women's college affiliated to the university, an astronomical observatory, a technical college, a school of art with library attached, a bacteriological institute at Rose Bay, a museum and a free public library.
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  • Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity.
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  • The central plains, which have the most fertile soil, and from the geographical conditions of the country form its centre of gravity, are occupied almost exclusively by the Magyars, the most numerous and the dominant race.
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  • At the head of the learned and scientific societies stands the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1830; the Kisfaludy Society, the Petofi Society, and numerous societies of specialists, as the historical, geographical, &c., with their centre at Budapest.
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  • Henceforward the name "Scythian" is purely geographical.
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  • In the beginning of the 8th century David of Beth Rabban, also a Nestorian monk, wrote, besides a geographical work, " a monastic history, called The Little Paradise, which is frequently cited by Thomas of Marga."
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  • Several grades are produced in Venezuela, determined by geographical position, altitude and method of curing and preparing for market.
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  • The geographical name is sometimes extended over all these branches, and so reaches from Aetolia to the Gulf of Lamia.
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  • The Royal Geographical Society, occupying a building close to Burlington House in Savile Row, maintains a map-room open to the public, holds lectures by prominent explorers and geographers, and takes a leading part in the promotion of geographical discovery.
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  • The value of Chitral as an outpost of British India may be best gauged by its geographical position.
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  • The Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884 and the Chitral expedition of 1895 opened up a vast area for geographical investigation, and the information collected is to be found in the reports and gazetteers of the Indian government.
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  • The puma has an exceedingly wide range of geographical distribution, extending over a hundred degrees of latitude, from Canada in the north to Patagonia in the south, and formerly was generally diffused in suitable localities from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, but the advances of civilization have curtailed the extent of the districts which it inhabits.
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  • He was made fellow of the Royal and the Royal Geographical Societies.
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  • In Semitic times Urra was pronounced Uri and confounded with uru, " ciiy "; as a geographical term, however, it was replaced by Akkadu (Akkad), the Semitic form of Agadewritten Akkattim in the Elamite inscriptions - the name of the elder Sargon's capital, which must have stood close to Sippara, if indeed it was not a quarter of Sippara itself.
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  • Its cosmology was the result of its geographical position: the earth, it was believed, had grown out of the waters of the deep, like the ever-widening coast at the mouth of the Euphrates.
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  • In geographical distribution the Bovidae present a remarkable contrast to the deer tribe, or Cervidae.
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  • If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
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  • If the journeys detailed above be traced on the map they will be found to cover the northern half of the peninsula above the line Mecca-Hofuf, with a network of routes, General which, though sometimes separated by wide intervals, results are still close enough to ensure that no important of ex- geographical feature can have been overlooked, ploration.
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  • Tuwek in any case forms an important geographical feature in eastern Nejd, interrupting by a transverse barrier 200 m.
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  • - The writing of geographical books naturally began with the description of the Moslem world, and that for practical purposes.
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  • A third class of Arabian geographical works were those written to explain the names of places which occur in the older poets.
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  • The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
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  • Nubia, however, has no strictly defined limits, and is little more than a geographical expression.
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  • For a long time the Austrian government, by failing to keep the Danube in a proper state for navigation, let slip the opportunity of making the city the great Danubian metropolis which its geographical position entitles it to be.
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  • In reply, Graslin (De l'Iberie, Paris, 1839), maintained that the name Iberia was nothing but a Greek misnomer of Spain, and that there was no proof that the Basque people had ever occupied a wider area than at present; and Blade (Origine des Basques, Paris, 1869) took the same line of argument, holding that Iberia is a purely geographical term, that there was no.
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  • The rainfall in the first geographical division is pretty constant, and may reach a yearly average of about 22 in.
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  • Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication.
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  • The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic. Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.
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  • In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
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  • It owes its development to its geographical situation in the north-east angle of the Adriatic Sea at the end of the deeply indented gulf, and to its harbour, which was more accessible to large vessels than that of Venice.
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  • This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
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  • Many of the so-called genera, or groups of genera, are consequently not to be used either as witnesses of blood-relationship or of geographical distribution.
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  • A little better is his contemporary, Rufius Festus Avienus, who made some free translations of astronomical and geographical poems in Greek.
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  • These were grouped into five main geographical divisions (from 443 to 436; afterwards four, Caria being merged in Ionia).
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  • All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
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  • He was trained for the military profession, but turned his attention to science and geographical exploration.
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  • Of the species known not one has so wide a geographical range, and has so well been studied, as the common British threespined stickleback (Gastrosteus aculeatus).
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  • Its geographical range nearly coincides with that of the other species, but it is more locally distributed, and its range in northern Asia is not known.
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  • Between that date and the Revolution there had been only two secretaries of state, whose duties were divided by a geographical division of the globe into northern and southern departments.
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  • The geographical range of the mammoth was very extensive.
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  • There has also been a certain amount of geographical sketching combined with trigonometrical observations; and there are the route surveys of native explorers.
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  • The Lhobrak was finally identified with the Manas river, a geographical discovery of some importance.
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  • East of Bhutan, amongst the semi-independent hill states which sometimes own allegiance to Tibet and sometimes assert complete freedom from all authority, the geographical puzzle of the course of the Tsanpo, the great river of Tibet, has been solved by the researches of Captain Harman, and the explorations of the native surveyor "K.
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  • As the forgotten history of Oriental antiquity has been restored to us, it has come to be understood that, politically speaking, the Hebrews were a relatively insignificant people, whose chief importance from the standpoint of material history was derived from the geographical accident that made them a sort of buffer between the greater nations about them.
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  • After having travelled extensively, he settled in his native city, where he occupied a high position, and devoted his time to the composition of geographical and historical works.
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  • Originally the name may have been a geographical term for the central portion of Palestine.
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  • A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
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  • The committee of the Royal Geographical Society settled the existing nomenclature of the three great oceans.
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  • A definite terminology for the larger forms of sub-oceanic relief was put forward by the International Geographical Congress at Berlin in 1899 and adopted by that at Washington in 1004.
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  • According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
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  • For the sake of uniformity it is to be hoped that the system of nomenclature recommended by the International Geographical Congress will ultimately be adopted.
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  • It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
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  • Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
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  • In 1882 the Royal Geographical Society despatched Joseph Thomson to discover through Masailand the direct route to Victoria Nyanza.
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  • It was seriously contended in one part of the house that, as eminent men of geographical and ethnographical science had settled the question whether New Guinea belongs to Asia or Polynesia in favour of the latter, a New Guinea colonization scheme could not properly be proposed and decided upon in a section of the Dutch-Indian budget.
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  • The Mexican Geographical Society (Sociedad mexicana de geografia y estadistica), founded in 1833, has rendered invaluable services in the work of exploration and publication; there are also the Geological Society, the Association of Engineers and Architects, and the Society of Natural History.
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  • If the symmetry that is so noticeable in geological history had extended to climate as well, many geographical features might now present likenesses instead of contrasts.
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  • It is necessary to use geographical terms in the case of California and the North Pacific, the Caucasus or cloaca gentium of the western hemisphere, where were pocketed forty out of one hundred or more families of native tribes.
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  • Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
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  • In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
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  • The third subfamily is the Antilopinae, the members of which, have a much wider geographical range than either of the foregoing groups.
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  • Varro was also the author of a Cosmographia, or Chorographia, a geographical poem imitated from the Greek of Eratosthenes or of Alexander of Ephesus, surnamed Lychnus; and of an Ephemeris, a hexameter poem on weather-signs after Aratus, from which Virgil has borrowed.
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  • Chertsey owed its importance primarily to the abbey, but partly to its geographical position.
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  • Participation in the war involved the Ottoman Empire in hostilities on every front of her territory; it was the penalty of her action and her geographical situation.
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  • The volcanic activity of the Taupo district lasted into the Pleistocene, and the last eruptions contributed many of its chief geographical features.'
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  • His mathematical writings, which account for some forty entries in the Royal Society's catalogue of scientific papers, cover a wide range of subjects, such" s the theory of probabilities, quadratic forms, theory of integrals, gearings, the construction of geographical maps, &c. He also published a Traite de la theorie des nombres.
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  • As the geographical knowledge of the Greeks extended, the name was applied to the outer sea (especially the Atlantic).
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  • Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
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  • The historical and geographical researches of Kremer and Sprenger gave a fresh impulse to inquiry.
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  • Glaser have done most for epigraphy, while Manzoni is to be remembered for his excellent geographical work.
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  • The State authorities were divided on geographical lines into central, intermediate and local, and side by side with this there was a division of the offices for the transaction of business according to the various branches of the administration.
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  • He wrote many historical and geographical works, of which some seem to have been voluminous and of considerable value on account of the sources to which their author had access: (I)`Pwµai,u (2) 'AvvuptaKet: (3) (4) De Arabia sive De expeditione arabica; (5) Physiologa; (6) De Euphorbia herba; (7) IIEpi Ora: (8) IIEpl (IIEpi i'wypci wv): (10) ` Oµo&ornTEs: (II) IIEpi 400pas: (12) 'E?riypaµµa.
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  • In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of Peru, which was published in 1877.
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  • Of 1500 species of herbaceous plants in the Red river basin, it is estimated that fully half reach here their geographical limit or limit of frequent occurrence.
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  • The result of their deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619 and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for the maintenance 1 See The Geographical Journal, ix.
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  • Several geographical races are recognized.
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  • The probability is that there are three, corresponding to the geographical regions involved, (1) Rome and Italy, (2) N.E.
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  • All the Baltic powers were more or less interested in the apportionment of this vast tract of land, whose geographical position made it not only the chief commercial link between east and west, but also the emporium whence the English, Dutch, Swedes, Danes and Germans obtained their corn, timber and most of the raw products of Lithuania and Muscovy.
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  • With the decline of the Roman Empire the demand for parrots in Europe lessened, and so the supply dwindled, yet all knowledge of them was not wholly lost, and they are occasionally mentioned by one writer or another until in the i 5th century began that career of geographical discovery which has since proceeded uninterruptedly.
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  • Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
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  • Both these expeditions yielded most valuable geographical results.
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  • In 1867 he quitted the army and returned to St Petersburg, where he entered the university, becoming at the same time secretary to the physical geography section of the Russian Geographical Society.
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  • In 1871 he explored the glacial deposits of Finland and Sweden for the Russian Geographical Society, and while engaged in this work was offered the secretaryship of that society.
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  • Hence the Pacific basin may be regarded as a stable and homogeneous geographical unit, clearly marked off round nearly all its margin by steep sharp slopes, extending in places through the whole known range of elevation above sea-level and of depression below it - from the Cordilleras of South America to the island chains of Siberia and Australia.
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  • But apart from this the limits are seen to accord fairly closely with the geographical definition of the area under consideration.
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  • They are undoubtedly a very hybrid race, owing this characteristic to their geographical position in the area where the dominating races of the Pacific, Malays, Polynesians, Melanesians, Japanese 1 From these the three main divisions of the islands are named Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia.
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  • Their geographical distribution comprises a large portion of Europe and Asia north of the Himalaya.
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  • Madoz was distinguished from most of the politicians of his generation by the fact that in middle life he compiled what is still a book of value - a geographical, statistical and historical dictionary of Spain and its possessions oversea, Diccionario geogra Pico, estadistico y historico de Espana, y sus posesiones de Ultramar (Madrid, 1848-1850).
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  • The geographical position of the old town is 37° 8' N., 58° 25' E., elevation 4100 ft.
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  • The geographical range of the leopard embraces practically all Africa, and Asia from Palestine to China and Manchuria, inclusive of Ceylon and the great Malay Islands as far as Java.
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  • This local divergence may proceed as rapidly as through wide geographical segregation or isolation.
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  • There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
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  • With respect to the first moves made in the struggle, and the negotiations for peace at the outset of hostilities, Caesar's account sometimes conflicts with the testimony of Cicero's correspondence or implies movements which cannot be reconciled with geographical facts.
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  • This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
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  • Their name Toltecatl signifies an inhabitant of Tollan (land of reeds), a place which has a definite geographical site in the present Tulan or Tula, north of the valley of Anahuac, where a Toltec kingdom seems to have had its centre.
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  • The geographical distribution is cosmopolitan, as is the case with Protozoa and Protophyta of similar habits.
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  • In the present writer's opinion this is supported by the study of the historical and geographical facts.'
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  • On this and other local variations a number of nominal species have been founded; but it is preferable to regard them in the light of geographical phases or races, such as the above-mentioned C. latrans estor of Nevada and Utah, C. 1.
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  • Similar doubts have also been entertained with regard to the African bush-pigs or river-hogs, but from geographical considerations alone these are but regarded as representing a separate genus, Potamochoerus, although they are nearly allied to the verrucosus group of Sus.
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  • Archelaus was said to have been the author of a geographical work, and to have written treatises On Stones and Rivers.
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  • It was, as far as we know, the first attempt to " collect all the geographical knowledge at the time attainable, and to compose a general treatise on geography.
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  • The three books of the older work formed a strictly technical geographical treatise.
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  • " Strabo indeed appears to be the first who conceived a complete geographical treatise as comprising the four divisions of mathematical, physical, political and historical geography, and he endeavoured, however imperfectly, to keep all these objects in view."
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  • The geographical position of Canada, its railway systems and steamship service for freight across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, are favourable to the extension of the export trade in farm products to European and oriental countries.
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  • In a geographical sense the region around Orleans is sometimes known as Orleanais, but this is somewhat smaller than the former province.
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  • The order contains nine families, most of which are wide in their geographical distribution.
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  • Its enormous railway facilities and its geographical situation as the junction of the great trunk lines running north and south, tapping also the Staffordshire potteries on the one side and the great mineral districts of Wales on the other, constitute Crewe station one of the most important links of railway and postal communication in the kingdom.
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  • Its geographical position is excellent; built upon alluvial soil 784 ft.
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  • Lyon, in which by far the largest number of species of the family are retained in the original genus Lepus, which has also the widest geographical distribution of all the genera.
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  • On his return to England, he was employed in investigating the title of the crown to the countries recently discovered by British subjects, and in furnishing geographical descriptions.
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  • In 1867 he was appointed geologist-in-charge of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, and from his twelve years of labour there resulted a most valuable series of volumes in all branches of natural history and economic science; and he issued in 1877 his Geological and Geographical Atlas of Colorado.
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  • The geographical position of Winnipeg is unique for the purposes of trade.
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  • The measurement of the declination involves two separate observations, namely, the determination of (a) the magnetic meridian and (b) the geographical meridian, the angle between the two being the declination.
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  • The telescope B serves to observe the scale attached to the magnet when determining the magnetic meridian, and to observe the sun or star when determining the geographical meridian.
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  • Hence if the readings of the verniers on the azimuth circle are made when the transit is observed we can deduce the reading corresponding to the geographical meridian.
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  • The above method of determining the geographical meridian has the serious objection that it is necessary to know the error of the chronometer with very considerable accuracy, a matter of some difficulty when observing at any distance from a fixed observatory.
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  • Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
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  • In order to obtain the declination a pivoted magnet is used to obtain the magnetic meridian, the geographical meridian being obtained by observations on the sun or stars.
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  • This geographical division was not reproduced by Rome in any administrative partitions of the province.
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  • See, for information specially relating to the whole subject, the Abbe Desgodin's Mission du Thibet de 1855 a 1870 (Verdun, 1872); and "Account of the Pundit's Journey in Great Tibet," in the Royal Geographical Society's Journal for 1877.
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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about various locations and other geographical entities.
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  • The direction assumed by the needle is not generally towards the geographical north, but diverges towards the east or west of it, making a horizontal angle with the true FIG.
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  • In the usual navigable waters of the world the variation alters from 30° to the east to 45° to the west of the geographical meridian, being westerly in the Atlantic and Indian oceans, easterly in the Pacific. The vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of such a needle is known as the magnetic meridian.
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  • Although a compass may thus be made practically correct for a given time and place, the magnetism of the ship is liable to changes on changing her geographical position, and especially so when steaming at right angles or nearly so to the magnetic meridian, for then sub-permanent magnetism is developed in the hull.
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  • To these regions the Napoleonic regime had given a certain measure of unity; but Metternich, dominant after 1815, held Italy to be merely a geographical term.
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  • That would provide a useful name for an important geographical unit, but is too misleading.
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  • In view of historical and geographical facts there is much to be said for applying the name Mesopotamia to the country drained by the Khabur, the Belikh, and the part of the Euphrates connected therewith.
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  • (Moawiya is said to have rebuilt the dome of the great church at Edessa after an earthquake in 678.) Fortunately for Mesopotamia the seats of the factions which immediately broke the peace of Islam were elsewhere; but it could not escape the fate of its geographical position.
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  • Ethnographical and geographical excursuses are a special feature of the work.
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  • He wrote The Races of Man and their Geographical Distribution (1848), Geographical Distribution of Animals and Man (1854), Geographical Distribution of Plants (1861) and Chronological History of Plants (1879).
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  • Tibet is affected by the south-west monsoon, just as the Pamirs are affected, but in varying degrees according to geographical position.
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    0
  • The climate of southern Tibet is, however, subject to considerable modifications from that of the northern and central regions, owing doubtless to its geographical connexion with northern India.
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  • Huc was, indeed, not only without science, perhaps without accurate knowledge of any kind, but also without that geographical sense which sometimes enables a traveller to bring back valuable contributions to geographical knowledge though unable to make instrumental observations.
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  • In 1874 he received a government commission to undertake explorations in Syria, particularly at Tyre, and as a result he published in 1876 Aus Phonicien, a collection of historical and geographical sketches.
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  • - In Africa, as in the South Seas, mission work has gone hand in hand with geographical discovery.
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  • See Colonel Miles, Geographical Journal, vol.
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  • For an estimate of this work, the interest of which is mainly geographical, see Classical Review (April 1904) and Quarterly Review (April 1905).
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  • We may broadly distinguish two main geographical elements in the alpine flora, namely, the northern element and the endemic element.
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  • These do not, however, form an " element," in the strict geographical sense in which this term is otherwise used here.
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  • The question, too, in the case of this element, is necessarily of genetic rather than purely geographical scope.
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  • As characteristic birds of the snow-region may be mentioned the alpine chough (Pyrrhocorax alpinus), which is frequently seen at the summits even of the loftiest mountains, the alpine swift (Cypselus melba), the wallcreeper (Tichodroma muraria), snow-finch (Montifringilla nivalis) and ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus); the geographical distribution of this last being similar to that of the mountain hare.
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  • The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
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  • But it is possible that the terms at an early date were interchangeable, Canaan being geographical and Amorite ethnical.
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  • The geographical position of electoral Saxony hardly less than her high standing among the German Protestants gave her ruler much importance during the Thirty Years' War.
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  • The area within which the Carboniferous rocks of Britain occur is sufficiently extensive to contain more than one type of the system, and thus to cast much light on the varied geographical conditions under which these rocks were accumulated.
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  • The inhabitants of the waters of this geographical phase include mollusca, which are supposed to have lived in brackish or fresh water, such as Anthracomya, Naiadites, Carbonicola, and many forms of Crustacea, e.g.
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  • Of this interior very little was known until the scientific expedition despatched by the Dutch Royal Geographical Society towards the end of the 'seventies, but in 1901 an armed Dutch expedition, necessitated by frequent disturbances, penetrated right into the Jambi hinterland, the Gajo districts, where until then no European had ever trod.
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  • The name Holland is that of the former countship, which forms part of the political, as well as the geographical centre of the kingdom (see the next article).
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  • On the east a natural geographical boundary was formed by the long line of marshy fens extending along the borders of Overysel, Drente and Groningen.
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  • Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
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  • Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
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  • As regards their geographical distribution, fungi, like flowering plants, have no doubt their centres of origin and of dispersal; but we must not forget that every exchange of wood, wheat, fruits, plants, animals, or other commodities involves transmission of fungi from one country to another; while the migrations of birds and other animals, currents of air and water, and so forth, are particularly efficacious in transmitting these minute organisms. Against this, of course, it may be argued that parasitic forms can only go where their hosts grow, as is proved to be the case by records concerning the introduction of Puccinia malvacearum, Peronospora viticola, Hemileia vastatrix, &c. Some fungi - e.g.
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  • When we remember that many parts of the world are practically unexplored as regards fungi, and that new species are constantly being discovered in the United States, Australia and northern Europe - the best explored of all - it is clear that no very accurate census of fungi can as yet be made, and no generalizations of value as to their geographical distribution are possible.
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  • It should be added here in passing that the geographical or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never been established.
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  • These communities may be briefly described according to their geographical arrangement.
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  • Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
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  • During the middle ages the Scandinavians were the first to revive geographical science and to practise pelagic navigation.
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  • For six centuries previous to about 800, European interest in practical geographical expansion was at a standstill.
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  • During 6th and 7th centuries, Irish anchorites, in their "passion fc_ solitude," found their way to the Hebrides, Orkneys, Shetlands, Faroes and Iceland, but they were not interested in colonization or geographical knowledge.
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  • The Saone (q.v.), which has received (left) the Doubs, is the real continuation of the Rhone, both from a geographical and a commercial point of view, and it is by means of canals branching off from the course of the Saone that the Rhone communicates with the basins of the Loire, the Seine, the Rhine and the Moselle.
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  • Even within the historic period the geographical range of the lion covered the whole of Africa, the south of Asia, including Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Persia and the greater part of northern and central India.
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  • See also parliamentary papers and official publications of Indian government; Monographs on brick tea, Formosa tea and other special studies, prepared for the Tea Cess Committees of India and Ceylon; Journals of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal of the Society of Arts, Geographical Journal, Tea and Coffee Trade Journal (New York), &c. For practical planting details, see Tea; its Cultivation and Manufacture, by David Crole (1897), with a full bibliography; also Rutherford's Planter's Handbook.
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  • The proof is furnished on the one hand by the geographical and ethnographical nomenclature of a later period tions of MSS.
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  • The geographical limits of the German language thus do not quite coincide with the German frontiers.
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  • From the above table little can be inferred as to the geographical distribution of the two chief confessions.
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  • Otherwise the geographical limits of the confessions have been but little altered since the Thirty Years ~Var.
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  • The geographical distribution of the great mineral wealth of Ontario has already been indicated (see Physical Geography, above).
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  • The Ottawa river was chosen as the main boundary between them, but the retention by Lower Canada of the seigneuries of New Longueuil and Vaudreuil, on the western side of the river, is a curious instance of the triumph of social and historical conditions over geographical.
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  • Its area, exclusive of the adjacent small islands belonging to the compartimento, is, according to the calculations of the Military Geographical Institute of Italy, 9860 sq.
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  • Caltanissetta, which occupies the middle point in elevation as well as in respect of geographical situation, stands 1900 ft.
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  • On the other hand they are rich in geographical and ethnographical information.
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  • The former he imitates in the maxims (-yv14at) he throws in and the speeches which he puts into the mouth of the chief actors; the latter in his frequent geographical digressions, in the personal anecdotes, in the tendency to collect and attach some credence to marvellous tales.
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  • Its chief value lies in the geographical notices which it contains.
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  • His best-known work is the dictionary of geographical names which occur in the poets, with an introduction on the seats of the Arabian tribes.
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  • Trade Routes and CommunicationsIts geographical position gives Egypt command of one of the most important trade routes in the world.
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  • They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
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  • In a few cases, such as the West, the Beginning of the East, it is obvious that the names are derived solely from their geographical situation.
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  • It is quite possible that the divisions are geographical in the main, but it seems likely that there were also religious, tribal and other historical reasons for them.
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  • Isis was perhaps the 1 goddess of Buto, a town not far distant from Busiris; geographical proximity would suffice to explain her conon with Osiris in the tale.
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  • Owing to its geographical isolation, the development of Drente has remained behind that of every other province in the Netherlands, and there are few centres of any importance, either agricultural or industrial.
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  • Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading.
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  • But we must bear in mind that one very important consequence of the Viking raids was to annihilate the geographical remoteness which had hitherto separated Denmark from the Christian world.
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  • Nay, more, Denmark's possession of the Scanian provinces deprived Sweden of her proper geographical frontiers.
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  • See Geographical Journal, vol.
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