How to use Geographers in a sentence
Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
Neither of these could be called "small islands" or described as off the north-west coast of Spain, and so the Cassiterides were not identified with either by the Greek and Roman geographers.
Gallaecia, the country of the Galacci, Callaici or Gallaici, seems to have been very imperfectly known to the earlier geographers.
It served as a medium of commercial intercourse between the North Sea and the Baltic, and was known to the Arabian geographers.
The supreme orographic importance of this great Central Asian mountain system was recognized in a fashion even by the geographers of ancient Greece.Advertisement
The next great parallel range is the lofty and imposing Arka-tagh, the Przhevalsky Range of the Russian geographers, which has its eastward continuations in the Marco Polo Range (general altitude 1 5,75 0 - 16, 2 5 0 ft.) and Gurbu-naiji Mountains of Przhevalsky.
With good reason geographers have given reluctant consent to some of the bold restorations of ancient continental outlines by palaeontologists; yet some of the greatest achievements of recent science have been in this field.
For nowhere could he have had a better means of consulting the works of historians, geographers and astronomers, such as Eratosthenes, Posidonius, Hipparchus and Apollodorus.
Strabo chiefly employed Greek authorities (the Alexandrian geographers Polybius, Posidonius and Theophanes of Mytilene, the companion of Pompey) and made comparatively little use of Roman authorities.
The early Moslem geographers knew it as Hisn Ziyad, but the Armenian name was Khartabirt or Kharbirt, whence Kharput.Advertisement
That is practically the sense in which it is treated in this article s We may begin, however, with the definition of Jezira by the Arabic geographers, who take it as representing the central part of the Euphrates-Tigris system, the part, namely, lying between the alluvial plains in the south and the mountainous country in the north.
The Arabian geographers represent the Tharthar as connected at its upper end (by a canal?) with the Khabur system.
Political History and Modern State of the Inhabitants of the Alps.-We know practically nothing of the early dwellers in the Alps, save from the scanty accounts preserved to us by Roman and Greek historians and geographers.
Amravati has been identified with Hsiian Tsang's To-na-kie-tse-kia and with the Rahmi of Arab geographers.
Some modern geographers question this identification, but without sufficient reason (see Capernaum).Advertisement
During the early Tertiary age it belonged to the Sarmatian Ocean, which reached from the middle Danube eastwards through Rumania, South Russia, and along both flanks of the Caucasus to the Aralo-Caspian region, and westwards had open communication with the great ocean, as indeed the ancient geographers Eratosthenes, Strabo and Pliny believed it still had in their day.
The magnificent plateau in which the city of Morocco is situated seems to have been unknown to ancient geographers, and was certainly never included in the Roman Empire.
The steep and narrow crystalline ridge which trends north-eastwards, and is known to geographers by the name of the Peloritan Mountains, does not reach 4000 ft.
It was known to the ancient Arab and Persian geographers as the Sea of Khwarizm or Kharezm, from the neighbouring district of the Chorasmians, and derives its present name from the Kirghiz designation of Aral-denghiz, or Sea of Islands.
The opinion that Lake Aral periodically disappeared, which was for a long time countenanced by Western geographers, loses more and more probability now that it is evident that at a relatively recent period the Caspian Sea extended much farther eastward than it does now, and that Lake Aral communicated with it through the Sary-kamysh depression.Advertisement
The Arab geographers considered it impregnable, and from its steep approaches and well-arranged defences it was able to offer a protracted resistance to the Mongolian conqueror Hulagu and to the armies of Timur.
In this discussion the names of Kaulbars, Lessar, Annenkov, Konshin and other Russian geographers are conspicuous.
Hence some of the later Greek geographers altogether disregarded his statements, and treated his voyage as a fiction.
The statement that he proceeded along the coasts of Europe "from Gades to the Tanais" is evidently based upon the supposition that this would be a simple and direct course along the northern shores of Germany and Scythia - Polybius himself, in common with the other Greek geographers till a much later period, being ignorant of the projection of the Danish or Cimbric peninsula, and the circumnavigation that it involved - of all which no trace is found in the extant notices of Pytheas.
It has been conjectured that the "estuary" here mentioned refers to the Baltic, the existence of which as a separate sea was unknown to all ancient geographers; but the obscure manner in which it is indicated, as well as the inaccuracy of the statements concerning the place from whence the amber was actually derived, both point to the sort of hearsay accounts which Pytheas might readily have picked up on the shores of the German Ocean, without proceeding farther than the mouth of the Ems, Weser or Elbe, which last is supposed by Ukert to have been the limit of his voyage in this direction.Advertisement
The Arab geographers also had a tradition of an early Greek settlement (which they ascribe to Alexander), but also of later Persian influence, followed by a settlement of Mahra tribes, who partly adopted Christianity.
The name " Hindustan," which was at one time adopted by European geographers, is of Persian origin, meaning " the land of the Hindus," as Afghanistan means " the land of the Afghans."
But it must be remembered that this term was not used by classical geographers (it is first found in Orosius in the 5th century A.D.), and is not in local or official use now.
It is the Galita or Jalita of the Arab geographers.
The Arab geographers throw little light on the condition of the Volga during the great migrations of the 3rd century, or subsequently under the invasion of the Huns, the growth of the Khazar empire in the southern steppes and of that of'Bulgaria on the middle Volga.Advertisement
Of these the most extensive, as well as the most lofty, is that which fills up almost the whole southern portion of the island, and is generally designated by modern geographers as Mount Olympus, though that name appears to have been applied by the ancients only to one particular peak.
Even the name Elburz, which European geographers apply to the chains and ranges that extend for a length of over 500 in.
Modern geographers restrict the term Himalaya to that portion of the mountain region between India and Tibet enclosed within the arms of the Indus and the Brahmaputra.
They form the last link in the chain of mountain ranges, known to Spanish geographers as the Carpetano-Vetonica, which extends across the centre of the Peninsula from east to west.
The site is indicated by ruins of a temple, aqueducts, &c., and inscriptions on the banks of the river Barada at Suk Wadi Barada, a village called by early Arab geographers Abil-es-Suk, between Baalbek and Damascus.Advertisement
Several secondary plateaus of lower altitude are also distinguished by geographers.
In 1885 Ney Elias made his famous journey across the Pamirs from east to west, identifying the Rang Kul as the Dragon Lake of Chinese geographers - a distinction which has also been claimed by some geographers for Lake Victoria.
This branch was considered by many geographers as the main Oxus stream, and Lake Chakmaktin, at its head, was by them regarded as the Oxus source.
The measure of the veracity of Chinese pilgrims and geographers in the early centuries of our era must not be balanced on such points as these.
The older and scantier underlying ruins are supposed to be those of the once large and prosperous city of Itil or Atel (Etel, Idl) of the Arab geographers, a residence of the khan of the Khazars, destroyed by the Russians in 969.Advertisement
The measure of the earth, which had hitherto been accepted by geographers and navigators, was based on the very rough estimate that the length of a degree of latitude of the earth's surface measured along a meridian was .60 m.
There is a difference among geographers as to where the Maranon ends and the Amazon begins, or whether both names apply to the same river.
Modern geographers divide the range into three parts, northern, central and southern.
By some geographers, indeed, it is treated as a part of the central Apennines.
Some geographers divide them into two sections - the higher plains of the Balkash (the Ala-kul and Balkash drainage areas) and the Aral-Caspian depression, which occupies nearly two-thirds of the whole and has been ably described by I.Advertisement
The island is mentioned by several of the early Arabic writers and geographers, but medieval maps show curious ignorance of its size and position.
It was supposed by some geographers to run west, an opinion probably first stated by Idrisi in the 12th century.
Of these chains, to which Spanish geographers give the name Carpetano-Vetonica, the most easterly is the Sierra de Guadarrama, the general trend of which is from south-west to northeast.
To Spanish geographers the coast ranges just mentioned are known collectively as the Sierra Penihetica.
While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.Advertisement
Shunning the difficulties of such methods, geographers have begun to teach applied climatology.
There are, of course, many other networks, mostly concerned with research, which bring geographers together as well.
A lesson where they managed to become geographers rather than just learn the subject.
The conference organizers are keen to encourage geographers from around the world to attend this meeting.
In doing so, the appropriateness of the models developed by geographers to explain the functioning and development of such systems will be assessed.
Despite the growing size and distinctive characteristics of urban Aboriginal populations, they have received relatively little attention among Canadian geographers.
The journal will be of interest to human and physical geographers, and urban planners.
Only today I received a call from Physics wanting to open a discussion on a joint research bid with cultural geographers!
What might art history contribute to such analyzes over and above those of urban geographers or sociologists?
Sixth form geographers enjoy field trips to sites in Europe.
Mike Taylor Typical Icelandic turf house spectacular steam geyser erupting Geographers take time out for a hot swim in the Blue Lagoon!
The general contours exemplify the law of geographers in regard to continents, viz.
While the theory of the sphere was being elaborated the efforts of practical geographers were steadily directed towards ascertaining the outline and configuration of the oekumene, or habitable F i tting the world, the only portion of the terrestrial surface known oekumene to the ancients and to the medieval peoples, and still to the retaining a shadow of its old monopoly of geographical sphere.
It had its opponents, however, for Herodotus showed that sea-basins existed cut off from the ocean, and it is still a matter of controversy how far the prePtolemaic geographers believed in a water-connexion between the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
While Arab learning flourished during the darkest ages of European ignorance, the last of the Arab geographers lived to see the dawn of the great period of the European awakening.
The simple classification employed by Professor James Geikie 3 into mountains of accumulation, mountains of elevation and mountains of circumdenudation, is not considered sufficiently thorough by German geographers, who, following Richthofen, generally adopt a classification dependent on six primary divisions, each of which is subdivided.
The sum of the organic life on the globe is termed by some geographers the biosphere, and it has.
Their home was in the spurs of the Caucasus and along the shores of the Caspian - called by medieval Moslem geographers Bahr-al-Khazar ("sea of the Khazars"); their cities, all populous and civilized commercial centres, were Itil, the capital, upon the delta of the Volga, the "river of the Khazars," Semender (Tarkhu), the older capital, Khamlidje or Khalendsch, Belendscher, the outpost towards Armenia, and Sarkel on the Don.
Under the Roman Empire Paphlagonia, with the greater part of Pontus, was united into one province with Bithynia, as we find to have been the case in the time of the younger Pliny; but the name was still retained by geographers, though its boundaries are not distinctly defined by Ptolemy.
Wagner's year-book, Geographische Jahrbuch, published at Gotha, is the best systematic record of the progress of geography in all departments; and Haack's Geografihen Kalender, also published annually at Gotha, gives complete lists of the geographical societies and geographers of the world.
In the restoration of the outlines of ancient and medieval geography in Asia Sven Hedin's discoveries of the actual remains of cities which have long been buried under the advancing waves of sand in the Takla Makan desert, cities which flourished in the comparatively recent period of Buddhist ascendancy in High Asia, is of the very highest interest, filling up a blank in the identification of sites mentioned by early geographers and illustrating more fully the course of old pilgrim routes.
This depression is supposed to be a relic of the former post-Pliocene connexion between the Black Sea and the Caspian, and is accepted by most geographers as the natural frontier between Europe and Asia, while others make the dividing-line coincide with the principal water-parting of the Caucasus mountain system.
His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.
Arab geographers and travellers of the middle ages speak in high terms of the gardens of Nisibis, and the magnificent returns obtained by the agriculturist.
Since, however, the steppe edge on the east is somewhat indefinite, some early Moslem and other geographers have included all the Hamad in Syria, making of the latter a blunt-headed triangle with a base some 700 m.
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
Among geographers should be mentioned Posidonius (13-551), the head of the Stoic school of Rhodes, who is stated to be responsible for having reduced the length of a degree to 500 stadia; Artemidorus of Ephesus, whose " Geographumena " (c. Ioo B.C.) are based upon his own travels and a study of itineraries, and above all, Strabo, who has already been referred to.
Further materials serviceable to the compilers of maps were supplied by numerous Arabian travellers and geographers, among FIG.
The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notices of the flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, regions which appear to have in part corresponded with Badakshan.
With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.
The Royal Geographical Society, occupying a building close to Burlington House in Savile Row, maintains a map-room open to the public, holds lectures by prominent explorers and geographers, and takes a leading part in the promotion of geographical discovery.
The name seems to have become known to European geographers by the Oriental translations of the two Petis de la Croix, and was taken up by Delisle and D'Anville.
Arabia, whose 'name was rendered by the Greek geographers as Abaseni and Abissa.
The bones of the martyred friars had been collected by Friar Jordanus of Severac, a Dominican, who carried them to Supera - the Suppara of the ancient geographers, near the modern Bassein, about 26 m.
It stands on the eastern edge of the Syrian desert, on the north-eastern shore of a deep depression, formerly a sea, the Assyrium Stagnum of the old geographers, but in latter years drained and turned into gardens for the town.
The fame of this Belad-el-Jerid, or "Country of the Date Palms," was so exaggerated during the r 7th and 18th centuries that the European geographers extended the designation from this small area in the south of Tunisia to cover much of inner Africa.
Paz Soldan and other Peruvian geographers give the name of Andes, par excellence, to the Eastern Cordillera.
It was of little importance, and is only mentioned by geographers and in inscriptions.
The Ionian geographers looked on the circular disk of the habitable world as surrounded by a mighty stream named Oceanus, the name of the primeval god, father of gods and men, and thus the bond of union between heaven and earth.
The latter view prevailed and was as a rule held by the Arab geographers of the middle ages, so that until the discovery of America and of the Pacific Ocean the belief was general that the land surface was greater than the water surface, or that at least the two were equal, as Mercator and Varenius held.
Although put forward by the highest international authority recognized by geographers the system of nomenclature has not been adopted universally.
Many of these names are found on the inscriptions or in the Arabic geographers - Sheba (Saba'), Hazarmaveth (Hadramut), Abimael (Abime`athtar), Jobab (Yuhaibib, according to Halevy), Jerah (Warah of the geographers), Joktan (Arab Qahtan; wagata=gahata).
South-west of Ma'in, on the west of the mountain range and commanding the road from San'a to the north, lies Baraqish, anciently Yathil, which the inscriptions and Arabic geographers always mention with Main.
It was known to Ptolemy and the Arabian geographers, and was at one time supposed to be a mouth of the Nile, and, later (18th century), a branch of the Niger.
Jerba is the Lotophagitis or Lotus-eaters' Island of the Greek and Roman geographers, and is also identified with the Brachion of Scylax.
Medieval writers, for whom the tale was preserved by the Arabian geographers, believed it true, and were fortified in their belief by numerous traditions of islands in the western sea, which offered various points of resemblance to Atlantis.
Geographers are practically helpless as historians, and problems of the former elevation and distribution of the land and sea masses depend for their solution chiefly upon the palaeontologist.
It is usually regarded as the Chretes or Chremetes of Hanno, and the Nachyris and Bambotus of the Greeks and Romans, but it is not possible definitely to identify it with any of the rivers on Ptolemy's map. Idrisi and other medieval Arabian geographers undoubtedly refer to it.
At that period geographers regarded the Senegal as the termination of the Niger, a theory held until Mungo Park's demonstration of the eastward course of that stream.
From it the exact time is conveyed each day at one o'clock by electric signal to the chief towns throughout the country; British and the majority of foreign geographers reckon longitude from its meridian.
After voyaging westward for nearly three weeks, Cook, on the 19th of April 1770, sighted the eastern coast of Australia at a point which he named after his lieutenant, who discovered it, Point Hicks, and which modern geographers identify with Cape Everard.
This continued to be the opinion of geographers until 1798, when Bass discovered the strait which bears his name.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
It is hardly mentioned except by the geographers until the middle of the 6th century, when it was captured by Totila after a long siege.
Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
No such line of separation exists farther south, and the terms Central and Southern Italy, though in general use among geographers and convenient for descriptive purposes, do not correspond to any natural divisions.
Such terms as hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes had been used by plant geographers before Warmings time e.g., by Schouw;4 and the terms evidently supply a want felt by botanists as they have come into general use.
He divides geography into The Spherical Part, or that for the study of which mathematics alone is required, and The Topical Part, or the description of the physical relations of parts of the earth's surface, preferring this division to that favoured by the ancient geographers - into general and special.
The absurd attempt was, and sometimes is still, made by geographers to include all natural science in geography; but it is more common for specialists in the various detailed sciences to think, and sometimes to assert, that the ground of physical geography is now fully occupied by these sciences.
The Greco-Persian wars had made the remoter parts of Asia Minor more than a name to the Greek geographers before the time of Alexander the Great, but the campaigns of that conqueror from 329 to 325 B.C. opened up the greater Asia to the knowledge of Europe.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
The geographers who have hitherto given most attention to the forms of the land have been trained as geologists, and consequently there is a general tendency to make origin or structure the basis of classification rather than form alone.
Some geographers distinguish a mountain from a hill by origin; thus Professor Seeley says " a mountain implies elevation and a hill implies denudation, but the external forms of both are often identical."
Its time of greatest prosperity and importance was the period of the Abbasid caliphate, and Arabic geographers as late as A.D.
Under the Arabs the old designation again prevailed and the Euphrates is always described by the Arabian geographers as the river which flows direct to Kufa, while the present stream, passing along the ruins of Babylon to Hillah and Diwanieh, has been universally known as the Nahr Sura.
Occidental geographers, however, have followed the Greek use, and so to-day we call the river of Babylon or Nahr Sura the Euphrates and the older westerly channel the Hindieh canal.
Some of the earliest Greek geographers divided their known world into two portions only, Europe and Asia, in which last Libya (the Greek name for Africa) was included.