Genus sentence example

genus
  • They are the starfish proper, and have the typical genus Asterias.
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  • The genus is associated with one long extinct in Europe.
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  • By early writers the word was generally given as an equivalent of the Linnaean Loxia, but that genus has been found to include many forms not now placed in the same family.
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  • The only species of this genus is about the size of a small rat, found in the interior of Australia.
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  • The genus Pyrophorus contains about ninety species, and is entirely confined to America and the West Indies, ranging from the southern United States to Argentina and Chile.
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  • No genus or species of palm, for example, is common to the Old and New Worlds.
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  • The sub-order includes the family Hydridae, containing the common fresh-water polyps of the genus Hydra.
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  • This genus comprises fresh-water polyps of simple structure.
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  • Hence only the genus Hydra can be considered as truly representing the order Eleutheroblastea.
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  • The phylogenetic position of this genus has been discussed above.
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  • A type of the Rhizophysina is the genus Rhizophysa.
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  • Thus in connexion with the subject a genus of workers became possible who may be styled " ur-computers or circle-squarers " - a name which, if it connotes anything uncomplimentary, does so because of the almost entirely fruitless character of their labours.
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  • The typical genus is the well-known hydroid Podocoryne, budding the medusa known as Dysmorphosa; Thamnostylus, Cytaeis, &c., are other medusae with unknown hydroids.
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  • Amphinema is a medusan genus of unknown hydroid.
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  • The genus Myriothela is a solitary polyp with scattered capitate tentacles, producing sporosacs.
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  • Trophosome (only known in one genus), polyps with two tentacles forming a creeping colony; gonosome, free medusae with four, six or more radial canals, giving off one or more lateral branches which run to the margin of the umbrella, with the stomach produced into four, six or more lobes, upon which the gonads are developed; the mouth with four lips or with a folded margin; the tentacles simple, arranged evenly round the margin of the umbrella.
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  • Another medusan genus is Proboscidactyla.
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  • - The genus Monobrachium is a colonyforming hydroid which grows upon the shells of bivalve molluscs, each polyp having but a single tentacle.
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  • The British genus Gemmaria, however, is budded from a hydroid referable to the family Corynidae.
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  • The hydranth almost always has a single circlet of tentacles, like the Bougainvillea-type in the preceding sub-order; an exception is the curious genus Clathrozoon, in which the hydranth has a single tentacle.
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  • - Trophosome only known in one genus (Polycanna), and similar to the preceding; gonosome, free medusae with otocysts and with at least eight radial canals, often a hundred or more, simple or branched.
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  • - Trophosome only known in one genus (Thaumantias), similar to that of the Eucopidae; gonosome, free medusae with otocysts inconspicuous or absent, with usually four, sometimes eight, rarely more than eight, radial canals, simple and unbranched, along which the gonads are developed, with numerous tentacles bearing ocelli and with marginal sense-clubs.
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  • The hydroid genus Lafoea is remarkable for producing gonothecae on the hydrorhiza, each containing a blastostyle which bears a single gonophore; this portion of the colony was formerly regarded as an independent parasitic hydroid, and was named Coppinia.
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  • Solmaris, Pegantha, Polyxenia, &c. To this family should be referred, probably, the genus Hydroctena, described by C. Dawydov [11a] and regarded by him as intermediate between Hydromedusae and Ctenophora.
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  • Goto, who considers the genus to be allied to Olindias.
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  • Thus in Velella free medusae are produced, which have been described as an independent genus of medusae, Chrysomitra.
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  • 69) and its allies; and (3) Velellidae, represented by the well-known genus Velella (figs.
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  • In the members of the typical genus Lemur, as well as in the allied Hapalemur and Lepidolemur, none of the toes or fingers are connected by webs, and all have the hind-limbs of moderate length, and the tail long.
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  • The species of the genus Lemur are diurnal, and may be recognized by the length of the muzzle, and the large tufted ears.
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  • P. canadensis, the "cotton-wood" of the western prairies, and its varieties are perhaps the most useful trees of the genus, often forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the great American plains.
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  • These hairs often occur in tufts, and are so colored and arranged that they were long taken for Fungi and placed in the genus Erineum.
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  • In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.
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  • The arctic flora contains no genus that is peculiar to it, and only some fifty species that are so.
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  • Extensions of the flora occur southwards of the high mountains of tropical Africa; A denocaf pus, a characteristic Mediterranean genus, has been found on Kilimanjaro and 2000 m.
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  • California and Arizona have each a soecies of Platanus, a dying-out genus.
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  • Nor, with perhaps the interesting exception of Castanopsis chrysophylla, the solitary representative in the New World of an east Asiatic genus, which ranges from Oregon to California, has it any affinity with the Chino-Japanese sub-region.
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  • Hemsley remarks that the northerr genus Erica, which covers thousands of square miles in Europe with very few species, is represented by hundreds of species in I comparatively small area in South Africa.
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  • The Proteaceous genus, Faurea, occurs in Angola and Madagascar.
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  • The characteristic genus Pelargonium has a few Mediterranean representatives, and one even occurs in Asia Minor.
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  • The Proteaceous genus Helicia reaches as far north as China, but whether it is starting or returning must as inothercases be left an open question.
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  • The Magnoliaceous genus Drimys, with a single species in the new world, follows the same track.
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  • The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
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  • It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
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  • Provisionally this genus has been grouped with the Ratitae, which at any rate are a heterogenous assembly.
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  • There is an owl, type of the genus Sceloglaux.
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  • Acrulocercus is a Meliphagine, and a peculiar genus.
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  • C. autumnale and its numerous varieties as well as other species of the genus, are well known in cultivation, forming some of the most beautiful of autumn-flowering plants.
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  • They are well known in cultivation, and owing to the wide distribution of the genus different methods are adopted with different species.
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  • The land tortoises chiefly belong to the genus Cynyxis.
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  • In this order is the genus Strophanthus,.
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  • A genus much represented is Culcasia, and swampy localities are thickly set with the giant Cyrtosperma arum, with flower spathes that are blotched with deep purple.
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  • Many trees offer magnificent displays of flowers at certain seasons of the year; perhaps the loveliest effect is derived from the bushes and trailing creepers of the Combretum genus, which, during the "winter" months from December to March, cover the scrub and the forest with mantles of rose colour.
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  • Very beautiful also are the red velvet or white velvet sepals of the Mussaenda genus.
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  • Bamboos of the genus Oxytenanthera are indigenous.
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  • The Nitidulidae are a large family with 1600 species, among which members of the genus Meligethes are often found in numbers feeding on blossoms, while others live under the bark of trees and prey on the grubs of boring beetles.
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  • All that do not happen to attach themselves to a bee of the genus Anthophora perish, but those that succeed in reaching the right host are carried to the nest, and as the bee lays an egg in the cell the triungulin slips off her body on to the egg, which floats on the surface of the honey.
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  • Homogenesis means simply that such organism comes into existence directly from a parent organism of the same race, and hence of the same species, sub-species, genus and so forth.
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  • The American hornbeam, blue or water beech, is Carpinus americana (also known as C. caroliniana); the common hophornbeam, a native of the south of Europe, is a member of a closely allied genus, Ostrya vulgaris, the allied American species, 0.
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  • Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
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  • He further found that only mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles had these cells, and that they did not get them when fed on healthy blood.
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  • These mosquitoes or gnats - the terms are synonymous - belong to the family Culicidae and the genus Anopheles, which was first classified by Meigen in 1818.
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  • The genus with which Anopheles is most likely to be confounded is Culex, which is the commonest of all mosquitoes, has a world-wide distribution, and is generally a greedy blood-sucker.
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  • Their alternate hosts are mosquitoes of the Culex genus.
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  • As a rule flies are of small or moderate size, and many, such as certain blood-sucking midges of the genus Ceratopogon, are even minute; as extremes of size may be mentioned a common British midge, Ceratopogon varius, the female of which measures only 14 millimetre, and the gigantic Mydaidae of Central and South America as well as certain Australian robber-flies, which have a body 1-11n.
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  • C. McCook in the American genus Myrmecocystus, and by later observers in Australian and African species of Plagiolepis and allied genera.
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  • The word Orchis is used in a special sense to denote a particular genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae); very frequently, also, it is employed in a more general way to indicate any member of that large and very interesting group. It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.
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  • In addition there is in this particular genus, as indeed in many others, a long tubular spur or horn projecting downwards from the back of the lip, whose office it is to secrete and store a honeyed juice; the forepart of the lip forms an expanded plate, usually larger and more brightly coloured than the other parts of the flower, and with hairs or ridges and spots of various kinds according to the species.
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  • It contains two small genera of tropical Asia and Africa with almost regular flowers, and the large genus Cypripedium containing about 80 species in the north-temperate zone and tropical Asia and America.
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  • Liparis is a large genus widely distributed in the tropics.
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  • Nepenthes may be mentioned as a genus specially developed in the Malayan area, and extending from New Caledonia to Madagascar; it is found as far north as the Khasi hills, and in Ceylon, but does not appear on the Himalaya or in the peninsula of India.
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  • Of these the only genus that is not found on the Himalaya is Fagus.
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  • The great order of Ungulata is represented by various forms of sheep, as many as ten or twelve wild species of Ovis being met with in the mountain chains of Asia; and more sparingly by several peculiar forms of antelope, such as the saiga (Saiga tatarica), and the Gazella gutturosa, or yellow sheep. Coming to the deer, we also meet with characteristic forms in northern Asia, especially those belonging to the typical genus Cervus.
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  • One of the most peculiar of these is the genus Phasianus, of which splendid birds all the species are restricted in their wild state to northern Asia.
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  • Deer do not extend into New Guinea, in which island the genus Sus appears to have its eastern limit.
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  • Of the sea fishes of Asia, among the Acanthopterygii, or spinyrayed fishes, the Percidae, or perches, are largely represented; the genus Serranus, which has only one species in Europe, is Fishes.
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  • On the other hand, in certain Polychaeta the bundles of setae are so extensive that they nearly form a complete circle surrounding the body; and in the Oligochaet genus Perichaeta (=Pheretima), and some allies, there is actually a complete circle of setae in each segment broken only by minute gaps, one dorsal, the other ventral.
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  • It has been men, tioned that in the Nereids a sexual form occurs which differs structurally from the asexual worms, and was originally placed in a separate genus, Heteronereis; hence the name "Heteronereid" for the sexual worm.
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  • This latter arrangement characterizes many genera of the family Megascolicidae and one genus (Periscolex) of the Glossoscolicidae.
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  • The body wall consists of an epidermis which secretes a delicate cuticle and is only ciliated in Aeolosoma, and in that genus only on the under surface of the prostomium.
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  • - Diagrams of various Earth of several Geoscolicidae, the nephridiopores indicate the segments; to each segment corresponds internally a chamber of the coelom which is separated from adjacent segments by transverse septa,which are only unrecognizable in the genus Aeolosoma and in the head region of other Oligochaeta.
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  • Among the purely aquatic families such structures are very rare, and are represented by two caeca in the genus Limnodriloides.
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  • The intestine has a pair of caeca or two or three pairs (but all lie in one segment) in the genus Pheretima and in one species of Rhinodrilus.
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  • This family consists of only one well-known genus, Aeolosoma, which contains several species.
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  • This genus also propagates asexually, like Ctenodrilus, which may possibly belong to the same family.
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  • - The leeches are more particularly to be compared with the Oligochaeta, and the following definition embraces the main features in which they agree and disagree with that group. Setae are only present in the genus Acanthobdella.
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  • Neither in this genus nor in the last is there any communication between coelom and vascular system.
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  • In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.
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  • Genus includes several hundred extinct species ranging from the Silurian to the Tertiary.
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  • The terrestrial Streptoneura (represented in England by the common genus Cyclostoma) FIG.
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  • In other slugs, namely, Limax and Anion, the shell-sac remains permanently closed over the shell-plate, which in the latter genus consists of a granular mass of carbonate of lime.
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  • Whilst the Pulmonata are essentially a terrestrial and fresh-water group, there is one genus of slug-like °:ti FIG.
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  • Representatives of the family occur in many parts of Europe, but the typical genus is unknown in North America, where, however, other forms occur.
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  • Among a few of the beetles or Coleoptera, and also in the neuropterous genus Mantispa, are found life-histories in which the earliest instar is campodeiform and the succeeding larval stages eruciform.
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  • To the Permian period belongs a remarkable genus Eugereon, that combines hemipteroid jaws with orthopteroid wing-neuration.
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  • More than this, he seems to be the earliest ornithologist, perhaps the earliest zoologist, to conceive the idea of each genus possessing what is now called a " type " - though such_a term does not occur in his work; and, in like manner, without declaring it in so many words, he indicated unmistakably the existence of subgenera - all this being effected by the skilful use of names.
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  • In 1783 Boddaert printed at Utrecht a Table des planches enlumineez, 9 in which he attempted to refer every species of bird figured in that extensive series to its proper Linnaean genus, and to assign it a scientific name if it did not already possess one.
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  • To some of the Linnaean genera he dare not, however, assign a place, for instance, Buceros, Haematopus, Merops, Glareola (B risson's genus, by the by) and Palamedea.
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  • The " Accipitres " are divided into two groups, Diurnal and Nocturnal; but the first of these divisions is separated into three sections: (1) the Vultures of the New World, (2) those of the Old World, and (3) the genus Falco of Linnaeus.
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  • Men's minds began to figure to themselves the original type of some well-marked genus or family of birds.
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  • Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
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  • The Dromaeognathae resemble the Ratitae, and especially the genus Dromaeus, in their palatal structure, and are composed of the Tinamous (q.v.).
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  • The seventh order, Proceres, is divided into 2 " cohorts " - Veri with 2 families, ostriches and emeus; and Subnobiles, consisting of the genus Apteryx.
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  • The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
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  • The mackerel proper (genus Scomber) are readily recognized by their elegantly shaped, well-proportioned body, shining in iridescent colours.
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  • Some tropical members of the family belonging to the genus Nephela, however, spin a web which is intermediate in structure between that of Aranea and the complete sheet-like web of Agalena.
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  • It covers an area of about one third of a circle and its radiating threads diverge from the mouth of a funnel-shaped tube resembling in every respect the tube of the last-mentioned genus.
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  • One genus of Thomisidae (Phognarachne), which inhabits the Oriental region, adopts the clever device of spinning on the surface of a leaf a sheet of web resembling the fluid portions of a splash of bird's dung, the more solid central portions being represented by the spider itself, which waits in the middle of the patch to seize the butterflies or other insects that habitually feed on birds' excrement and are attracted to the patch mistaking it for their natural food.
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  • The greatest disparity in size between the sexes is met with in the tropical genus Nephila, the females of which are gigantic representatives of the Argyopidae.
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  • There is one possible exception, however, to the innocuous nature of the poison and this is supplied by the species of the genus Lathrodectus, one of the Theridiidae.
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  • As instances of procryptic or celative coloration may be mentioned that of the species of the genus Dolomedes, one of the Lycosidae, which lives amongst reeds and is marked with a pair of longitudinal yellow lines which harmonize with the upright stalks of the vegetation, and Lycosa pitta, which lives on the sand, can scarcely be seen on account of its mottled pattern: Sparassus smargdulus and the species of Pecucetia, which are found amongst grass or low green herbage, are mostly green in colour, and Salticus scenicus is banded with white and black to match the grey tint of the rocks and stone walls on which it hunts its prey.
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  • Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius.
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  • The genus Gossypium includes herbs and shrubs, which have been cultivated from time immemorial, and are now found widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.
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  • The Egyptian cotton seed bug or cotton stainer belongs to another genus, being Oxycarenus hyalinipennis.
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  • We now return to exchange " future " transactions regarded as a genus.
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  • As such a novum salutis genus, the Crusades connect themselves with the history of the penitentiary system; as the foreign policy of the Church they belong to that clerical purification and direction of feudal society and its instincts, which appears in the institution of "God's Truce" and in chivalry itself.
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  • The fact is that not only have the larger subdivisions a different arrangement and even number of the muscular layers, but even within the same genus, nay, in the same species, well-marked differences occur.
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  • The difference in the appearance of the basement membrane - sometimes wholly homogeneous, sometimes eminently fibrillar = can more especially be observed in differently preserved specimens of the genus Polia.
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  • In others there is an approximation of the lateral stems towards the median ventral line (Drepanophorus); in a genus of Heteronemertines (Langia), on the other hand, an arrangement occurs by which the longitudinal stems are no longer lateral, but have more or less approached each other dorsally.
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  • As to the Mesonemertini, in the most primitive genus, Carinella, we do not find any lateral organs answering to the description above given.
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  • Two lateral, shallow pits occur on the side of the body about the level of the hinder end of the proboscis in some species of the genus Carinella, which are termed side-organs.
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  • The eggs of these species are not enveloped by such massive gelatinous P.o.d strings as are those of the genus Lineus.
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  • The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
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  • The fresh-water snails which are not Pulmonates are the Paludinidae, Valvatidae and Ampullaridae, together with Neritina, a genus of the Neritidae.
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  • The commoner European slugs of small size all belong to the genus Limax, in which the opening of the mantle-chamber is posterior.
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  • In Paludina the whorls of the spiral are very prominent; the genus is viviparous.
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  • The genus Avena contains about fifty species mostly dispersed through the temperate regions of the Old World.
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  • All the mole-rats of the genus Spalax are characterized by the want of distinct necks, small or rudimentary ears and eyes, and short limbs provided with powerful digging claws.
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  • Bamboorats, of which one genus (Rhizomys) is Indian and Burmese, and the other (Tachyoryctes) East African, differ by the absence of skin over the eyes, the presence of short ears, and a short, sparsely-haired tail.
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  • Till recently the rabbit has generally been known scientifically as Lepus cuniculus, but it is now frequently regarded, at least by systematic naturalists, as the representative of a genus by itself, under the The Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
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  • Some zoologists, indeed, include in the same genus the South African thick-tailed hare, but by others this is separated as Pronolagus crassicaudatus.
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  • In North America about thirty species and twice as many geographic races (subspecies) are known, and the occurrence of several distinct fossil forms shows that the genus has long been established.
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  • Other encyclicals, such as those on Christian marriage (Arcanum divinae sapientiae, 10th February 1880), on the Rosary (Supremi apostolatus oficii, 1st September 1883, and Superiore anno, 5th September 1898), and on Freemasonry (Humanism genus, 20th April 1884), dealt with subjects on which his predecessor had been accustomed to pronounce allocutions, and were on similar lines.
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  • The birds of the genus Leucosticte seem to be more terrestrial in their habit than those of Linota, perhaps from their having been chiefly observed where trees are scarce; but it is possible that the mutual relationship of the two groups is more apparent than real.
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  • This, however, is not all, for Mr Osgood points out that a skull discovered many years ago in the vicinity of Fort Gibson, Oklahoma, and then named Ovibos or Bootherium cavifrons, evidently belongs to the same genus.
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  • A third type of musk-ox skull is, however, known from North America, namely one from the celebrated Big-Bone Lick, Kentucky, on which the genus and species Bootherium bombifrons was established, which differs from all the others by its small size, convex forehead and rounded horn-cores, the latter being very widely separated, and arising from the sides of the skull.
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  • The species of each genus are then arranged either systematically or alphabetically in separate covers of stout, usually light brown paper, or, if the genus be large, in several covers with the name of the genus clearly indicated in the lower left-hand corner of each, and opposite it the names or reference numbers of the species.
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  • Undetermined species are relegated to the end of the genus.
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  • The characters of the genus may be expressed as follows in a more detailed manner.
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  • In Europe the group is represented by the long-known and typical genus Lophiodon with three premolars in each jaw, of which the upper are simpler than the molars.
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  • The genus is especially characteristic of the Middle and Upper Eocene, and some of the species attained the size of a rhinoceros.
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  • Considerable difference of opinion exists with regard to the best classification of the family, some authorities including most of the species in the typical genus Rhinoceros, while others recognize quite a number of sub-families and still more genera.
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  • Possibly they belonged to the Amynodontidae, but they may have been related to the Upper Oligocene Diceratherium, in which the nasal bones formed a transverse pair; this genus being common to Europe and North America.
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  • Hornless rhinoceroses, with five fronttoes, ranging from the Oligocene to the Lower Pliocene in Europe, represent the genus Aceratherium, which may also occur in America, as it certainly does in India.
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  • Of the sharks the genus Squalus is represented by individuals that grow to a length of 26 to 30 ft.
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  • Under the general heading "Geometry" occur the subheadings "Foundations," with the topics principles of geometry, non-Euclidean geometries, hyperspace, methods of analytical geometry; "Elementary Geometry," with the topics planimetry, stereometry, trigonometry, descriptive geometry; "Geometry of Conics and Quadrics," with the implied topics; "Algebraic Curves and Surfaces of Degree higher than the Second," with the implied topics; "Transformations and General Methods for Algebraic Configurations," with the topics collineation, duality, transformations, correspondence, groups of points on algebraic curves and surfaces, genus of curves and surfaces, enumerative geometry, connexes, complexes, congruences, higher elements in space, algebraic configurations in hyperspace; "Infinitesimal Geometry: applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry," with the topics kinematic geometry, curvature, rectification and quadrature, special transcendental curves and surfaces; "Differential Geometry: applications of Differential Equations to Geometry," with the topics curves on surfaces, minimal surfaces, surfaces determined by differential properties, conformal and other representation of surfaces on others, deformation of surfaces, orthogonal and isothermic surfaces.
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  • These do not occur on the west coast, but on the east coast the German expedition discovered marls and sandstones on Kuhn Island, resembling those of the Russian Jurassic, characterized by the presence of the genus Aucella, Olcostephanus Payeri, 0.
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  • Others have classed it with the almond as a distinct genus, Amygdalus; while others again have considered it sufficiently distinct to constitute a separate genus, Persica.
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  • The most aberrant type of larva is that of the genus Prosopistoma, which was originally described as an entomostracous crustacean on account of the presence of a large carapace overlapping the greater part of the body.
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  • Species of this genus occur in Europe, Africa and Madagascar.
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  • There are reasons for supposing that the truncal coelom was at one time provided with pore-canals, but supposed vestiges of these structures have only been described for one genus, Spengelia,in which they lie near the anterior end of the truncal coelom.
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  • Zoologically, there is no distinction between mice and rats; these names being employed respectively for most or all of the smaller and larger "mouselike" and "rat-like" representatives of the Muridae, whether they belong to the genus Mus or not.
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  • With the exception of Madagascar, the genus Mus ranges over practically the whole of the Old World, having indigenous representatives even in Australasia; while the house-mouse, with man's involuntary aid, has succeeded in establishing itself throughout the civilized world.
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  • The following is a brief notice of the species of true mice (that is to say, those generally included in the genus Mus) inhabiting the British Isles.
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  • History (April 1899); "On the Species of the genus Mus inhabiting St Kilda," Proc. Zool.
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  • The genus Hevea was formerly called Siphonia, and the tree named Pao de Xerringa by the Portuguese, from the use by the Omaqua Indians of squirts or syringes made from a piece of pipe inserted in a hollow flask-shaped ball of rubber.
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  • Most of the native Sapiums have been destroyed by reckless tapping, and the merits of this genus have been somewhat overlooked and deserve reinvestigation.
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  • In all species it has the same shape, a shape which has been retained in the adult by the Lower Cambrian genus Iphidea.
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  • The protegulum has been found in members of almost all the families of Brachiopod, and it is thought to occur throughout the group. It resembles the shell of the Cambrian .4 genus Iphidea [Paterina], and the Phylembryo is frequently referred to as the Paterina stage.
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  • The third genus Rhabdogaster has no such distinct head, though the body may be swollen anteriorly.
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  • The violets comprise a large botanical genus (Viola) - in which more than 200 species have been described - found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few are found in Australasia.
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  • The fact that the single pair of prae-oral appendages of trilobites, known only as yet in one genus, is in that particular case a pair of uni-ramose antennae - does not render the association of trilobites and Arachnids improbable.
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  • The single pair of palpiform appendages in front of the mouth has been found in one instance to be antenniform, whilst the numerous post-oral appendages in the same genus were bi-ramose.
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  • In this genus ten free somites (mesosoma) occur between the prosomatic and metasomatic carapaces.
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  • The genus Agnostus, which belongs to the last category, occurs abundantly in Cambrian strata and is one of the earliest forms A known.
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  • Recently the genus has been found in Texas, U.S.A. Only one genus of the order is known.
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  • A fact of special interest in regard to them is that the genus Poliochera, from the Coal Measures, appears to be a member of the same group. The name Cryptostemma, given to the first-known genus of the order, described by Guerin-Meneville, refers to the supposed concealment of the eyes by the movable cephalic sclerite.
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  • (4) x., 1872, p. 413; Cook, " Hubbardia, a New Genus of Pedipalpi," Proc. Entom.
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  • Tofieldia, an arctic and alpine genus of small herbs with a slender scape springing from a tuft of narrow ensiform leaves and bearing a raceme of small green flowers; Narthecium (bog-asphodel), herbs with a habit similar to Tofieldia, but with larger golden-yellow flowers; and Colchicum, a genus with about 30 species including b the meadow saffron or autumn crocus (C. autumnale).
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  • Veratrum is an alpine genus of the north temperate zone.
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  • Asphodelus (asphodel) is a Mediterranean genus; Simethis, a slender herb with grassy radical leaves, is a native of west and southern Europe extending into south Ireland.
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  • The typical genus Lilium and Fritillaria are widely distributed in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere.
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  • Smilax is a characteristic tropical genus containing about 200 species; the dried roots of some species are the drug sarsaparilla.
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  • The so-called foxes of South America, such as the crab-eating fox (C. thous), Azara's fox (C. azarae), and the colpeo (C. magellanicus), are aberrant members of the typical genus Canis.
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  • On the other hand, the long-eared fox or Delalande's fox (Otocyon megalotis) of south and east Africa represents a totally distinct genus.
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  • The genus Pelecanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the 1 This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even so long ago as Sir Thomas Browne's days; for he, recording the occurrence of a pelican in Norfolk, was careful to notice that about the same time one of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles II.) in St James's Park, had been lost.
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  • The author interprets Boetius's meaning to be " Quod eadem res individuum et species et genus est, et non esse universalia individuis quasi quoddam diversum."
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  • A genus, they said, is essentially something which is predicated of a subject; but a thing cannot be a predicate (res enim non praedicatur).
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  • If we restrict attention to these non-different elements, the individual becomes for us the species, the genus, &c.; everything depends on the point of view from which we regard it.
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  • " Nihil omnino est praeter individuum, sed et illud aliter et aliter attentum species et genus et generalissimum est."
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  • Adelard of Bath (whose treatise De eodem et diverso must have been written between 1105 and 1117) was probably the author or at all events the elaborator of this doctrine, and he sought by its means to effect a reconciliation between Plato and Aristotle: - " Since that which we see is at once genus and species and individual, Aristotle rightly insisted that the universals do not exist except in the things of sense.
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  • Holding fast then on the one hand to the individual as the only true substance, and on the other to the traditional definition of the genus as that which is predicated of a number of individuals (quod praedicatur de pluribus), Abelard declared that this definition of itself condemns the Realistic theory; only a name, not a thing, can be so predicated - not the name, however, as a flatus vocis or a collection of letters, but the name as used in discourse, the name as a sign, as having a meaning - in a word, not vox but sermo.
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  • Just as the genus becomes the species by the addition of formal determinations called the difference, so the species becomes the individual by the addition of fresh forms of difference.
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  • The most characteristic members of the order are twining plants with generally smooth heart-shaped leaves and large showy white or purple flowers, as, for instance, the greater bindweed of English hedges, Calystegia sepium, and many species of the genus Ipomaea, the largest of the order, including the "convolvulus major" of gardens, and morning glory.
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  • The largest genus, Ipomaea, has about 400 species distributed throughout the warmer parts of the earth.
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  • Convolvulus has about tso to 200 species, mainly in temperate climates; the genus is principally developed in the Mediterranean area and western Asia.
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  • Linnaeus adopted Ray's conception of species, but he made species a practical reality by insisting that every species shall have a double Latin name - the first half to be the name of the genus common to several species, and the second half to be the specific name.
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  • Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
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  • This rodent, Coelogenys (or Agouti) paca, together with one or two other tropical American species, represents a genus near akin to the agoutis and included in the family Caviidae.
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  • The presence of the volva, and the clear white gills and spores, distinguish this genus from all other agarics.
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  • Before the end of the 19th century this discovery of the blood parasite of malaria was crowned by the hypothesis of Patrick Manson, proved by Ronald Ross, that malaria is propagated by a certain genus of gnat, which acts as an intermediate host of the parasite.
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  • In his classification it was included in the same genus as the orang-utan; and it has recently been suggested that the name Simia pertains of right to the chimpanzee rather than to the orang-utan.
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  • The louse of monkeys is now generally considered as forming a separate genus (Pedicinus), but the greater part of those infesting domestic and wild quadrupeds are mostly grouped in the large genus Haematopinus, and very rarely is the same species found on different kinds of animals.
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  • It differs from typical rats of the genus Mus by its broader incisors, and the less distinct cusps on the molars.
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  • Other species of the genus are found from Palestine to Formosa, as well as in central Asia.
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  • In former times a high specific gravity used to be quoted as one of the characters of the genus; but this no longer holds, since we now know a series of metals lighter than water.
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  • The typical genus Tragulus, which is Asiatic, contains the smallest representatives of the family, the animals having more of the general aspects and habits of some rodents, such as the agoutis, than of other ruminants.
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  • The second genus, Dorcatherium (or Hyomoschus), is African, and distinguished chiefly by the feet being stouter and shorter, the outer toes better developed, and the two middle metacarpals not welded together.
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  • The grape-vine, botanically Vitis, is a genus of about thirty species, widespread in the north temperate zone, but richest in species in North America.
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  • It typifies not only the genus Chinchilla, but the family Chinchillidae, for the distinctive features of which see RODENTIA.
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  • The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.
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  • In one genus (Polypocephalus) the place of a rostellum is taken by a crown of retractile tentacles.
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  • In the first stage the ammonium compounds are oxidized to nitrites by the agency of very minute motile bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrosomonas.
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  • The services rendered by Nicot in spreading a knowledge of the plant have been commemorated in the scientific name of the genus Nicotiana.
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  • A very different animal is the Patagonian cavy, or mara (Dolichotis patachonica), the typical representative of a genus characterized by long limbs, comparatively large ears, and a short tail.
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  • Of particular zoological interest in this connexion is a Ceylonese genus Dyscritina, in which the cercopods are long, many-jointed and filiform during the early stages of growth, and only assume at the last moult the forcipate structure characteristic of the family.
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  • The old genus Anopheles (characterized by the palpi being long in both sexes) is now divided into a number of genera according to the character and shape of the scales on the different regions of the body and on the wings.
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  • The genus Culex, from which the family takes its name, though it has been similarly split up, is still in its restricted sense larger than any other, and some 200 species are comprised in it alone.
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  • In addition to these noxious and obtrusive forms, England has a few indigenous species belonging to the genus Ectobia, which live under stones or fallen trees in fields and woods.
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  • The genus Cedrus contains two other species closely allied to C. Libani - Cedrus Deodara, the deodar, or "god tree" of the Himalayas, and Cedrus atlantica, of the Atlas range, North Africa.
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  • The genus Widdringtonia of tropical and South Africa is also known locally as cedar.
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  • In the vast untrodden forests farther east there are timber trees of many kinds, incense trees, a great wealth of rubber trees of the Hevea genus, numerous varieties of beautiful palms, sarsaparilla, vanilla, ipecacuanha and copaiba.
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  • The genus is represented in Britain by the fritillary or snake's head, which occurs in moist meadows in the southern half of England, especially in Oxfordshire.
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  • Thus in the recently discovered arctic genus Prosorhynchus the muscular and glandular extremity is protrusible, but in the allied Gasterostomum this organ is represented by a sucker with fimbriated or tentacular margins.
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  • The Cryptostomata are also Palaeozoic, and include the abundant and widely-distributed genus Fenestella.
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  • The rigid Cheilostomes which have this habit were formerly placed in the genus Eschara, but the bilaminar type is common to a number of genera, and there can be no doubt that it is not in itself an indication of affinity.
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  • The body-wall is extensively calcified in the Cyclostomata and in most Cheilostomata, which may form elegant network-like colonies, as in the unilaminar genus Retepora, or may consist of wavy anastomosing plates, as in the bilaminar Lepralia foliacea of the British coasts, specimens of which may have a diameter of many inches.
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  • The form of the colony may thus be a good generic character, or, on the contrary, a single genus or even species may assume a variety of different forms. While nearly all Polyzoa are permanently fixed to one spot, the colonies of Cristatella and Lophopus among the Phylactolaemata can crawl slowly from place to place.
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  • Shaw's generic name, although having priority to that of Blumenbach, could not be retained, as it had been used at a still earlier time (1793) by Herbst for a genus of Coleoptera.
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  • It is believed that in the genus Limosa the female is larger than the male.
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  • For practical purposes the northern limit of Glossina, as at present known, may be shown on the map by drawing a line from Cape Verde to the Nile a little to the south-east of El Obeid, and thence to the coast of Somaliland at 4° N; while the southern boundary of the genus may similarly be represented by the Cunene river, in the south of Angola, and a line thence to the north-eastern end of St Lucia lake, in Zululand.
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  • The hoop-petticoat narcissi, sometimes separated as the genus Corbularia, are not more than from 3 to 6 in.
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  • This group or genus is represented at the present day only by the Sumatran rhinoceros, Rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus) sumatrensis, with its sub-species.
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  • To the third group or genus (Diceros) belong the two African rhinoceroses, which have two horns, the skin without definite folds, and no lower tusks.
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  • The chief genus is Typhlops, FIG.
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  • The;sakis, which form the genus Pithecia, are specially characterized by their long and generally bushy tails, distinct whiskers and beard, and the usually elongated hair on the crown of the head, which may either radiate from a point in the centre, or be divided by a median parting.
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  • The plants are generally herbaceous, often, however, reaching a gigantic size, but are sometimes shrubby, as in Pothos, a genus of shrubby climbing plants, chiefly Malayan.
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  • In other species of the genus the seed germinates on a branch, and the seedling produces clasping roots, and roots which grow downwards hanging like stout cords, and ultimately reaching the ground.
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  • In Arum the blade is simple, as also in the so-called arum-lily (Richardia), a South African species common in Britain as a greenhouse plant, and in Caladium, a tropical South American genus, and Alocasia (tropical Asia), species of which are favourite warm-greenhouse plants on account of their variegated leaves.
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  • The East Indian genus Amorphophallus has a similar habit.
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  • Some species, however, are alleged to be carnivorous, and a North American form of the genus Hydropsyche is said to spin around the mouth of its burrow a silken net for the capture of small animal organisms living in the water.
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  • Although the limitations of the genus are well marked, and its recognition in consequence easy, it is otherwise with regard to the species.
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  • In one genus, however, Peireskia, the stems are less succulent, and the leaves, though rather fleshy, are developed in the usual form.
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  • - This genus, which comprises nearly 300 species, mostly Mexican, with a few Brazilian and West Indian, is called nipple cactus, and consists of globular or cylindrical succulent plants, whose surface instead of being cut up into ridges with alternate furrows, as in Melocactus, is broken up into teat-like cylindrical or angular tubercles, spirally arranged, and terminating in a radiating tuft of spines which spring from a little woolly cushion.
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  • They are succeeded by succulent fruits, which are exserted, and frequently scaly or spiny, in which respects this genus differs both from Melocactus and Mammillaria, which have the fruits immersed and smooth.
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  • C. giganieus, the largest and most striking species of the genus, is a native of hot, arid, desert regions of New Mexico, growing there in rocky valleys and on mountain sides, where the tall stems with their erect branches have the appearance of telegraph poles.
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  • In the allied genus Echinocereus, with 25 to 30 species in North and South America, the stems are short, branched or simple, divided into few or many ridges all armed with sharp, formidable spines.
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  • Pilocereus, the old man cactus, forms a small genus with tallish erect, fleshy, angulate stems, on which, with the tufts of spines, are developed hair-like bodies, which, though rather coarse, bear some resemblance to the hoary locks of an old man.
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  • There are about a dozen species known of this genus, mainly Mexican.
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  • Males of the little water-bugs of the genus Corixa make a shrill chirping note by drawing a row of teeth on the flattened fore-foot across a group of spines on the haunch of the opposite leg.
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  • The Hydrometridae are a large family including the pond-skaters and other dwellers on the surface-film of fresh water, as well as the remarkable oceanic genus Halobates already referred to.
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  • 'SNOWDROP,' Galanthus nivalis, the best known representative of a small genus of the order Amaryllidaceae, all the species of which have bulbs, linear leaves and erect flower-stalks, destitute of leaves but bearing at the top a solitary pendulous bell-shaped flower.
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  • The Dichobunidae include the genus Dichobune, of which the species were small animals with buno-selenodont molars.
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  • Originally the family was an Old World type, but in the Miocene it gained access into North America, where the earliest form is Bothriolabis, an ancestral peccary showing signs of affinity with the European Miocene genus Palaeochoerus.
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  • Although now exclusively African, the family (of which all the representatives may be included in the single genus Hippopotamus, with several subgeneric groups) is represented in the Pliocene of Europe and the Lower Pliocene of northern India.
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  • The molars are partially selenodont in the typical genus Anthracotherium, with five cusps, or columns, on the crowns of those of the upper jaw, which are nearly square.
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  • The genus has a very wide distribution, extending from Europe through Asia to North America, and occurring in strata which are of Oligocene and Miocene age.
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  • In Ancodon (Hyopotamus) the cusps on the molars are taller, so that the dentition is more decidedly selenodont; the distribution of this genus includes not only Europe, Asia and North Africa, but also Egypt where it occurs in Upper Eocene beds in company with the European genus Rhagatherium, which is nearer Anthracotherium.
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  • Finally, we have in the Pliocene of India the genus Tetraconodon, remarkable for the enormous size attained by the bluntly conical premolars; as the molars are purely bunodont, this genus seems to be a late and specialized survivor of a primitive type..
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  • The position of the genus Carduelis in the family Fringillidae is not very clear.
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  • Of the various other genera allied to Mimus, the best known are the thrashers (genus Harporhynchus) of which six or eight species are found in North America, which are thrush-like and shy in their habits and do not mimic; and the cat-bird (Galeoscoptes carolinensis), which in addition to having an attractive song, utters clucks, whistles and mewing sounds.
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  • The squirrels of the typical genus Sciurus are unknown in Africa south of the Sahara, but otherwise have a distribution co-extensive with the rest of the family.
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  • A pig (Sus papuensis), a dingo, several species of mice (of which Chiruromys is a peculiar genus), a few squirrels, and a considerable number of Chiroptera (bats) inhabit the country.
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  • Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.
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  • On this account such species have been referred to a second genus, under the name of Lestodon, but the distinction scarcely seems. necessary.
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  • Special interest attaches to the recent discovery in the cavern of Ultima Esperanza, South Patagonia, of remains of the genus Glossotherium, or Grypotherium, a near relative of Mylodon, but differing from it in having a bony arch connecting the nasal bones of the skull with the premaxillae; these include a considerable portion of the skin with the hair attached.
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  • Scelidotherium is another genus of large South American Pleistocene ground-sloths, characterized, among other features, by the elongation and slenderness of the skull, which thus makes a decided approximation to the anteater type, although retaining the full series of cheek-teeth, which were, of course, essential to an herbivorous animal.
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  • A much smaller South American species represents the genus Nothrotherium.
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  • In North America Mylodon was accompanied by another gigantic species typifying the genus Megalonyx, in which the fore part of the skull was usually wide, and the third and fourth front toes carried claws.
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  • Another genus has been described from the Pleistocene of Nebraska, as Paramylodon; it has only four pairs of teeth, and an elongate skull with an inflated muzzle.
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  • (2) Genus is that part of the essence which is also predicable of other things different from them in kind.
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  • This classification, though it is of high value in the clearing up of our conceptions of the essential contrasted with the accidental, the relation of genus, differentia and definition and so forth, is of more significance in connexion with abstract sciences, especially mathematics, than for the physical sciences.
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  • How are we to distinguish species from genus ?
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  • Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe; while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver, Trogontherium cuvieri, representing a genus by itself.
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  • Those known to the older naturalists were for a long while referred to the genus Certhia (Tree-Creeper, q.v.) or some other group, but they are now fully recognized as forming a valid Passerine family Nectariniidae, from the name Neetarinia invented in 1881 by Illiger.
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  • This author divides the family into three sub-families: Neodrepaninae, consisting of a single genus and species peculiar to Madagascar; Nectariniinae, containing 9 genera, one of which, Cinnyris, has more than half the number of species in the whole group; and Arachnctherinae (sometimes known as "spider-hunters"), with 2 genera including I I species - all large in size and plain in hue.
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  • To these he also adds the genus Promerops, 3 composed of 2 species of South African birds, of very different appearance, whose affinity to the rest can as yet hardly be taken as proved.
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  • Gadow has more recently treated of this family, reducing the number of both genera and species, though adding a new genus discovered since the publication of Shelley's work.
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  • Gazelles (Gazella), which form by far the largest genus of the subfamily, are inhabitants of open and frequently more or less desert districts.
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  • With the palla, or impala(A epyceros melampus), we reach an exclusively African genus, characterized by the lyrate horns of the bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, and the presence of a pair of glands with black tufts of hair on the hind-feet.
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  • (A) With a great anterior prolongation of the ossification of the nasal partition, extending in the adult far beyond the nasal bones, and supported and embraced at the base by ascending plates from the upper jaw, forming the genus or sub-genus Tapirella.
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  • The genus is represented in Europe, north Asia, North America and Australia, and is characterized by oblong or linear stem-leaves, flowers in.
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  • Cotyledon, a widely distributed genus with about 90 species, is represented in the British Isles by C. Umbilicus, pennywort, or navelwort, which takes its name from the succulent peltate leaves.
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  • The Echeveria of gardens is now included in this genus.
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  • Any varieties in the congregational genus which emerge later on, keep within his general outlines.
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  • The genus contains about two hundred species in tropical and temperate regions.
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  • These are generally species of the genus Penaeus (like P. caramote of the Mediterranean) which are distinguished from all those already mentioned by having pincers on the first three, instead of only on the first two pairs of legs.
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  • The large river-prawns of the genus Palaemon (closely allied to Leander) found in most tropical countries are also often used as food.
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  • The sprat, pilchard or sardine and shad are species of the same genus.
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  • With respect to the production of hybrids, the genus is remarkable for its power of resisting the influence of foreign pollen, for the seedlings of any species, when crossed, generally resemble that which bears them.
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  • It possesses all the active, courageous and bloodthirsty disposition of the rest of the genus, but its diminutive size prevents it attacking and destroying any but the smaller mammals and birds.
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  • In animals galls occur mostly on or under the skin of living mammals and birds, and are produced by Acaridea, and by dipterous insects of the genus Oestrus.
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  • They have from very early times been resorted to as a means of staining the hair of a dark colour, and they are the base of the tattooing dye of the Somali women.3 The gall-making Hymenoptera include, besides the Cynipidae proper, certain species of the genus Eurytoma (Isosoma, Walsh) and family Chalcididae, 'e.g.'
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  • An American Aphid of the genus Pemphigus produces black, ragged, leathery and cut-shaped excrescences on the young branches of the hickory.
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  • Mite-galls, or acarocecidia, are abnormal growths of the leaves of plants, produced by microscopic Acaridea of the genus Phytoptus (gall-mites), and consist of little tufts of hairs, or of thickened portions of the leaves, usually most hypertrophied on the upper surface, so that the lower is drawn up into the interior, producing a bursiform cavity.
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  • Parker recognizes five genera, with about twenty species, which he combines into three sub-families: Dinornithinae with Dinornis, Anomalopteryginae with Pachyornis, Mesopteryx and Anomalopteryx, comprising the comparatively least specialized forms; and Emeinae with the genus Emeus, not to be confounded with the vernacular emeu.
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  • The genus Atherura includes the brush-tailed porcupines which are much smaller animals, with long tails tipped with bundles of flattened spines.
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  • The name Ambrosia was also applied by Dioscorides and Pliny to certain herbs, and has been retained in modern botany for a genus of plants from which it has been extended to the group of dicotyledons called Ambrosiaceae, including Ambrosia, Xanthium and Iva, all annual herbaceous plants represented in America.
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  • In the long familiar Branchipus, Chirocephalus and Streptocephalus the males have frontal appendages, but these are wanting in the " brine-shrimp " Artemia, and the same want helps to distinguish Branchinecta (Verrill, 1869) from the old genus Branchipus.
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  • Estheria (RUppell, 1837) was instituted for the species dahalacensis, which Sars includes in his genus Leptestheria (1898); but Estheria was already appropriated, and of its synonyms Cyzicus (Audouin, 1837) is lost for vagueness, while Isaura (Joly, 5842) is also appropriated, so that Leptestheria becomes the name of the typical genus, and determines the name of the family.
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  • Penilia (Dana, 1849) is perhaps the only exclusively marine genus.
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  • In this family Macrothrix (Baird, 1843) is the earliest genus, among the latest being Grimaldina (Richard, 1892) and Jheringula (Sars, 1900).
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  • This family, so commonly called Lynceidae, contains a large number of genera, among which one may usually search in vain, and rightly so, for the genus Lynceus.
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  • There, as above explained, Leach began the subdivision of Muller's too comprehensive genus, the result being that Lynceus belongs to the Phyllopoda, and Chydorus (Leach, 1816) properly gives its name to the present family, in which the doubly convoluted intestine is so remarkable.
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  • The Haplopoda likewise have but a single family, the Leptodoridae, and this has but the single genus Leptodora (Lilljeborg, 1861).
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  • A third genus, Chonopeltis (Thiele, 1900), has suckers, but has lost its first antennae, at least in the female.
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  • In some of the genera parthenogenetic propagation is carried to such an extent that of the familiar Cypris it is said, " until quite lately males in this genus were unknown; and up to the present time no male has been found in the British Islands " (Brady and Norman, 1896).
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  • There are four families, the Diaptomidae with 27 genera, the Pontellidae with to, the Pseudocyclopidae and Candaciidae each with one genus.
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  • The first of these families is often called Centropagidae, but, as Sars has pointed out, Diaptomus (Westwood, 1836) is the oldest genus in it.
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  • The presence of a heart in this genus helps to make it a link between the Podoplea and Gymnoplea, though in various other respects it approaches the next family.
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  • The Harpacticidae owe their name to the genus Arpacticus (Milne-Edwards, 1840).
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  • Gymnotus is the only genus of - the family which possesses electric organs.
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  • A second closely-allied genus of this family is Pseudobranchus, differing in having a single branchial aperture on each side instead of three, and only three fingers.
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  • Of the Australia agamas no other genus is so numerously represented and widely distributed as Grammatophora, the species of which grow to a length of from 8 to 18 in.
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  • Allied is Sceloporus, with about 34 species, the most characteristic genus of Mexican lizards; only 4 species live in the United States, and only 3 or 4 are found south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and are restricted to Central America.
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  • - One genus, Aniella, with a few wormor snake-shaped species in California, which seem to be degraded forms of Anguidae.
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  • In the genus Tejus the teeth of the adult become molar-like; and in Dracaena they are transformed into large, oval crushers, indicating strictly herbivorous habits, while most members of the family live upon animal food.
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  • This family contains only one genus, Varanus, with nearly 30 species, in Africa, Arabia and southern Asia, and Australia, but not in Madagascar.
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  • Linnaeus, even in his latest publication, placed it in the genus Hirundo; but the interleaved and annotated copies of his Systema naturae in the Linnean Society's library show the species marked for separation and insertion in the Order Grallae - Pratincola trachelia being the name by which he had meant to designate it in any future edition.
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  • Both as regards structure and habits, the leopard may be reckoned as one of the more typical representatives of the genus Felis, belonging to that section in which the hyoid bone is loosely connected with the skull, owing to imperfect ossification of its anterior arch, and the pupil of the eye when contracted under the influence of light is circular, not linear as in the smaller cats.
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  • Walcott has described a tiny lamellibranch (Modioloides) from the inferior Cambrian, and he reports the gastropod (?) genus Chuaria from the preCambrian.
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  • Cephalopod molluscs have been traced back to the straight-shelled nautiloids of the genus Volborthella, while true ammonites have been found in the inferior Permian of the Continent and by American palaeontologists in the true coal measures.
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  • Bit by bit mutations are added to each other in different single characters until a sum or degree of mutations is reached which no zoologist would hesitate to place in a separate species or in a separate genus.
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  • Among the ammonites of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods types occur which in their external appearance so closely resemble each other that they could be taken for members of a single series, and not infrequently have been taken for species of the same genus and even for the same species; but their early stages of development and, in fact, their entire individual history prove them to be distinct and not infrequently to belong to widely separated genetic series.
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  • The polyphyletic law was early demonstrated among invertebrates by Neumayr (1889) when he showed that the ammonite genus Phylloceras follows not one but five distinct lines of evolution of unequal duration.
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  • The brachiopods, generally classed collectively as Spirifer mucronatus, follow at least five distinct lines of evolution in the Middle Devonian of North America, while more than twenty divergent lines have been observed by Grabau among the species of the gastropod genus Fusus in Tertiary and recent times.
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  • Deperet notes that the genus Neumayria, an ammonite of the Kimmeridgian, suddenly branches out into an explosion" of forms. Deperet also observes the contrast between periods of quiescence and limited variability and periods of sudden efflorescence.
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  • There have also been discovered the remains of a species of swan belonging to the South American genus Chenopis, and of the tuatara (Hatteria) lizard, the unique species of an ancient family now surviving only in New Zealand.
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  • A parasitic mode of life is also seen in medusae of the genus Cunina during the larval condition, but the habit is abandoned, in this case, when the medusae become adult.
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  • The " ni-in " (also known as " axe ") is a small scale insect belonging to the genus Coccus, found in Yucatan, Oaxaca, Vera Cruz, Michoacan and other southern states, where it inhabits the spondia trees and produces a greasy substance called " ni-inea," which is much used by the natives as a varnish, especially for domestic utensils, as it resists fire as well as water.
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  • The males of rotifers are of relatively rare occurrence, except in the genus A splanchna, where they were first recognized as such by Brightwell in 1841; though those of Hydatina had long since been seen and described as a distinct genus.
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  • In the case of one genus, Gastroschiza, this led to the creation of no less than six generic names.
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  • In this genus the number of segments composing the pygidium is obscured, as also it is in the genus Illaenus, which has as many as ten movable segments preceding the large semi-circular pygidium; but in such forms as Ogygia and Asaphus, which have about eight free segments, the sutural lines on the pygidium indicate that it is composed of about a dozen or more segments.
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  • Such was the structure of the appendages in Trilobites belonging to the genus Triarthrus; but considering the great structural differences that obtain between Triarthrus and many other genera, it would be rash to assume that there were not corresponding differences in the structure of the limbs.
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  • Hence in this genus the end bearing the free part of the flagellum is the anterior one.
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  • The genus Trypanosoma, in which are included at present the great majority of Trypanosomes, is rather to be regarded as derived from a Heteromastigine ancestor, such as Trypanoplasma, by the loss of the anterior flagellum.
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  • Some of these are placed by Leger in a newly discovered genus, Crithidia.
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  • The long neck and limbs, coupled with peculiarities in the structure of the skull, entitle the gerenuk, which is a large species, to represent a genus.
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  • Although the more typical goats are markedly distinct from sheep, there is, both as regards wild and domesticated forms, an almost complete gradation from goats to sheep, so that it is exceedingly difficult to define either group. The position of the genus Capra (to all the members of which, as well as some allied species, the name "goat" in its wider sense is applicable) in the family Bovidae is indicated in the article Bovidae, and some of the distinctions between goats and sheep are mentioned in the article Sheep. Here then it will suffice to mention that goats are characterized by the strong and offensive odour of the males, which are furnished with a beard on the chin; while as a general rule glands are present between the middle toes of the fore feet only.
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  • The short-horned Asiatic goats of the genus Hemitragus receive mention in the article Tahr; but it may be added that fossil species of the same genus are known from the Lower Pliocene formations of India, which have also yielded remains of a goat allied to the markhor of the Himalayas.
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  • It was discovered by Archibald Menzies in 1795 and was first described as Taxodium sempervirens, under which name it was known until distinguished by Stephan Endlicher as a new genus in 1847.
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  • They occur in the Lower Chalk formations, and in Tertiary times were widely diffused; the genus is represented in the Eocene flora of Great Britain, and in the succeeding Miocene period was widely distributed in Europe and western Asia.
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  • It is presumed that in the Glacial epoch the genus was exterminated except in the areas in western North America where it still persists.
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  • - Several forms of plants included in the genus Brassica are cultivated for the oil which is present in their ripe seeds.
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  • Some doubt exists whether the pygmy hog of the Nepal Terai, which is not much larger than a hare, is best regarded as a member of the typical genus, under the name of Sus salvanius or as representing a genus by itself, with the title Porcula salvania.
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  • Similar doubts have also been entertained with regard to the African bush-pigs or river-hogs, but from geographical considerations alone these are but regarded as representing a separate genus, Potamochoerus, although they are nearly allied to the verrucosus group of Sus.
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  • On the other hand, resemblance to that genus is shown by the reduction of the upper incisors to a single pair.
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  • Choeropotamus is a European Oligocene genus with bunodont molars which show a conspicuous basal cingulum in the lower dentition; the first premolar is absent.
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  • In the European Miocene Listriodon, which also occurs in the Indian Tertiaries, the molars have a pair of transverse ridges, like those of the proboscidean Dinotherium; but the genus is believed to be related to the Oligocene Doliochoerus and Choerotherium, in which these teeth show a more normal type of structure.
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  • For the genus Elotherium, of the Lower Miocene and Upper Oligocene of both hemispheres, which is often placed next the Suidae, see ARTIODACTYLA.
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  • In the cockles, in Cardium and in Trigonia, it is capable of a sudden stroke, which causes the animal to jump when out of the water, in the latter genus to a FIG.
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  • In the allied genus Cyclas, a byssus gland is formed in the foot and subsequently disappears, but no such gland occurs in Pisidium.
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  • This genus was very abundant in the Secondary epoch, especially in Jurassic seas.
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  • Lima; members of this genus form a nest by means of the byssus, or swim by clapping the valves of the shell together.
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  • Secondary substances so called are the species in which are the primarily called substances, and the genera of these species: for example, a particular man is in a species, man, the genus of which is animal: these then are called secondary substances, man and animal."
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  • On the other hand, a universal species or genus of substances is a predicate which, as well as everything else in all the other categories, always belongs to some individual substance or other as subject, and has no separate being.
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  • Accordingly, when he said that a substance is a subject, he meant a real subject; and when he said that a universal species or genus is a predicate, he meant that it is a real predicate belonging to a real subject, which is always some individual substance of the kind.
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  • Consequently, a species or genus is not a substance, as Aristotle says it is in the Categories (inconsistently with his own doctrine of substances), but a whole number of substances, e.g.
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  • Both sexes are devoid of antler appendage; but in this the musk-deer agrees with one genus of true deer (Hydrelaphus), and as in the latter, the upper canine teeth of the males are long and sabre-like, projecting below the chin, with the ends turned somewhat backwards.
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  • The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.
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  • The trees of the genus are closely allied in botanic features, as well as in general appearance, so that it is sometimes difficult to assign to them determinate specific characters, and the limit between species and variety is not always very accurately defined.
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  • The first family is represented by certain peculiar North American rodents known as sewellels, constituting the genus Haplodon (or Aplodon) and the family Haplodontidae and section Haplodontoidea.
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  • The well-known Indian palm-squirrel, Funambulus palmarum, typifies an Indo-Malay genus allied to Xerus in skull-characters but with molars more like those of Sciurus.
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  • The genus which is common to the northern parts of both hemispheres is distinguished by the large cheek-pouches and by the absence or rudimentary condition of the claw of the first hind-toe, resembles Tamias in the slender form of the body, but displays great variation in the length of the tail, which may be a mere stump, or comparatively long.
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  • The genus is common to the northern half of both hemispheres, and its members burrow and hibernate.
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  • The single existing N genus comprises the European beaver, Castor fiber, of Europe and orthern Asia, and the North American C. canadensis.
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  • Perognathus and Heteromys have rooted molars; the latter genus is distinguished by the presence of flattened spines among the fur, and has species extending into South America.
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