Genoese Sentence Examples
The Genoese undertook to bring the French bishops to this council.
Neither the tunny nor the coral fishery is carried on by the Sardinians themselves, who are not sailors by nature; the former is in the hands of Genoese and the latter of Neapolitans.
The Pisans took up the challenge, and Musat was driven out of Cagliari with the help of the Genoese in 1022 for the third time.
The Pisans and Genoese now disputed about the ownership of Sardinia, but the pope and the emperor decided in favour of Pisa.
After this the Pisan supremacy of the island seems to have become more of a reality, but Arborea remained independent, and after the defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at the naval battle of Meloria in 1284 they were obliged to surrender Sassari and Logudoro to Genoa.Advertisement
We find them also at war with many of these powers, and with the Genoese, who endeavoured to monopolize the commerce of the Black Sea.
In 1309 it was conquered by the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem at the instigation of the pope and the Genoese, and converted into a great fortress for the protection of the southern seas against the Turks.
In the time of Timur Fujah was a fortress of Sarukhan, but had been previously in Genoese hands.
The modern town in the immediate neighbourhood, still known as Fokia, was founded by the Genoese in 1421 on account of the rich alum mines in the neighbourhood.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.Advertisement
Ren found supporters among the Italian princes, especially the Milanese Visconti, who helped him to assert his claims with arms. During the war of succession which ensued, Alfonso was taken prisoner by the Genoese fleet in August 1435, and was sent a prisoner to Filippo Maria at Milan.
The second and decisive battle was fought upon the Adriatic. The Genoese fleet under Luciano Doria defeated the Venetians off Pola in 1379, and sailed without opposition to Chioggia, which was stormed and taken.
The Genoese in their turn were now blockaded in Chioggia, and forced by famine to surrender.
It also had a few fiefs in Piedmont and in Genoese territory.
The new Genoese republic, French in all but name, was renamed the Ligurian Republic.Advertisement
Milan and Turin fell before the allies, and Moreau, who took over the command, had much difficulty in making his way to the Genoese coast-line.
He returned to Europe possessed of a vast store of knowledge respecting the eastern parts of the world, and, being afterwards made a prisoner by the Genoese, he dictated the narrative of his travels during his captivity.
The Cretans themselves, however, were eager for a change, and, disappointed in the hope of a Genoese occupation, were ready, as is stated in the report of a Venetian commissioner, to exchange the rule of the Venetians for that of the Turks, whom they fondly expected to find more lenient, or at any rate less energetic, masters.
In the 12th century Musatto, a Saracen, established himself in Cagliari, but was driven out with the help of the Pisans and Genoese.
The Genoese republic a little earlier underwent at his hand changes which made its doge all-powerful in local affairs, but a mere puppet in the hands of Bonaparte.Advertisement
The emperor Manuel I., urged on by the Genoese and other rivals of Venice, seized the pretext.
Boniface, marquis of Monferrat, desired to make good the claim to Salonica, and the Venetians doubtless wished to upset the Greek empire, which had recently shown itself so friendly to their rivals the Genoese.
Externally this rapid success awoke the implacable hatred of Genoa, and led to the long and exhausting series of Genoese wars which ended at Chioggia in 1380.
But it was impossible that the rival Venetian and Genoese merchants, dwelling at close quarters in the Levant cities, should not come to blows.
The first Genoese war began and ended in 1258 by the complete defeat of Genoa.Advertisement
But in 1261 the Greeks, supported by the Genoese, took advantage of the absence of the Venetian fleet from Constantinople to seize the city and to restore the Greek empire in the person of Michael VIII.
The Genoese were established in the spacious quarter of Galata and threatened to absorb the trade of the Levant.
To recover her position Venice went to war again, and in 1264 destroyed the Genoese fleet off Trepani, in Sicilian waters.
This victory was decisive at Constantinople, where the emperor abandoned the defeated Genoese and restored Venice to her former position.
The Genoese won a victory in the gulf of Alexandretta (1294); but on the other hand the Venetians under Ruggiero Morosini forced the Dardanelles and sacked the Genoese quarter of Galata.
But though Venice herself seemed to lie open to the Genoese, they took no advantage of their victory; they were probably too exhausted.
The Genoese Admiral Luciano Doria sailed into the Adriatic, attacked and defeated Vettor Pisani at Pola in Istria, and again Venice and the lagoons lay at the mercy of the enemy.
For many months the siege went on; but Pisani gradually assumed the offensive as Genoese spirits and food ran low.
Finally, in June 1380 the flower of the Genoese fleet surrendered at discretion.
But Venice had been made to suffer at the hands of Carrara, who had levied heavy dues on transit, and moreover during the Chioggian War had helped the Genoese and cut off the food supply from the mainland.
The Genoese had been invited by Urban II.
There were Genoese ships in St Simeon's harbour in the spring of 1098 and at Jaffa in 1099; in 1099 Dagobert, the archbishop of Pisa, led a fleet from his city to the Holy Land; and in i ioo there came to Jaffa a Venetian fleet of 200 sail, whose leaders promised Venetian assistance in return for freedom from tolls and a third of each town they helped to conquer.
But it was the Genoese who helped Baldwin I.
But the Genoese, who had helped with provisions and siege-tackle in the capture of Antioch and of Jerusalem, had both a stronger claim on the crusaders, and a greater interest in acquiring an eastern emporium.
But Genoese aid was given to others beside Baldwin (it enabled Raymund to capture Byblus in 1104, and his successor, William, to win Tripoli in 1109); while, on the other hand, Baldwin enjoyed other aid besides that of the Genoese.
The Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.
Founded by Raymund of Toulouse, between 1102 and 1105, with the favour of Alexius and the alliance of the Genoese, it did not acquire its capital of Tripoli till 1109.
Beaten in the war, the Genoese avenged themselves for their defeat by an alliance with the Palaeologi, which led to the loss of Constantinople by the Latins (1261), and to the collapse of the Latin empire after sixty years of infirm and precarious existence.
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists.
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.
Managhi claims as a Genoese, whose true name according to him was Angelino Dalorto.
The chart of the world by Juan de la Cosa, the companion of Columbus, is the earliest extant which depicts the discoveries in the new world (150o), Nicolaus de Canerio, a Genoese, and the map which Alberto Cantino caused to be drawn at Lisbon for Hercules d'Este of Ferrara (1502), illustrating in addition the recent discoveries of the Portuguese in the East.
At last the armies of sultan and pretender met at Ulubad (Lopadion) on the Rhyndacus in Asia Minor; Mustafa's troops fled at the first onset; Lampsacus, where the pretender took refuge, was captured with the aid of the Genoese galleys under Adorno.
After spending some time as a Genoese galley-slave, he turned corsair and became the terror of the Mediterranean coasts.
It became Genoese in 1527 and was strongly fortified.
Under the Genoese it was long the principal stronghold in the north of the island, and the residence of the governor; and in 1553 it was the first town attacked by the French.
Conquered by the Seljuks of Konia, and made the capital of the province of Tekke, it passed after their fall through many hands, including those of the Venetians and Genoese, before its final occupation by the Ottoman Turks under Murad II.
Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.
The most important buildings are the old palace of the Genoese governor, used as barracks, and the church (16th century), with the monument of the Baglioni family, which was intimately associated with the history of the town.
Calvi was founded in the 13th century and in 1278 passed into the hands of the Genoese.
In recognition thereof the Genoese senate caused the words Civitas Calvi semper fidelis to be carved on the chief gate of the city, which still preserves the inscription.
Cilicia Trachea is a rugged mountain district formed by the spurs of Taurus, which often terminate in rocky headlands with small sheltered harbours, - a feature which, in classical times, made the coast a resort of pirates, and, in the middle ages, led to its occupation by Genoese and Venetian traders.
War against the Pisans, who had been defeated by the Genoese in the naval battle of La Meloria in 1284, was carried on in a desultory fashion, and in i 293 peace was Campal= made.
The same year the republic purchased Leghorn from the Genoese for zoo,000 florins, and established a body of "Consuls of the Sea" to superintend maritime trade.
Formerly it was the old Genoese colony of Olchionia, and has still the ruins of a 13th-century Genoese castle.
In the 13th century the Genoese had a factory here which they called Tana.
This was the primary cause of the jealousy of the Genoese, and of the wars afterwards made by them upon Pisa and carried on until its power was crushed.
The aristocrats were the dominant party, and filled the highest offices of the republic, which, in the I 2th century, rose to great power, both on sea and land, by its wars with the Lucchese, Genoese and Moslems. In I I 10 Pisa made peace with Lucca after six years of continuous hostilities.
Even after the retaking of Jerusalem by the Moslems (1187) the Pisans and Genoese again met in conflict in the East, and performed many deeds of valour.
Shortly after this they renewed hostilities with the Genoese on account of Sardinia.
Here seventy-two Pisan galleys engaged eightyeight Genoese, and half the Pisan fleet was destroyed.
The chroniclers speak of 5000 killed and 1 i,000 prisoners; and, although these figures must be exaggerated, so great was the number of captives taken by the Genoese as to give rise to the saying - "To see Pisa, you must now go to Genoa."
At the height of his country's disasters he sought to confirm his own power by making terms with the Florentines, by yielding certain castles to Lucca, and by neglecting to conclude negotiations with the Genoese for the release of the prisoners, lest these should all prove more or less hostile to himself.
In addition to these privileges the Genoese also held Corsica and part of Sardinia; and throughout the island of Elba they were exempted from every tax.
Centuries later it was rebuilt by the Genoese, who called it Mauro Castro.
In 1514 they took Jijelli from the Genoese, and after a second beating at Bougie in 1515 were called in by the natives of Cherchel and Algiers to aid them against the Spaniards.
He had led 300 Maltese at the capture of two forts in Tripoli by the Genoese.
This Grand Master had gained the confidence of Philip of Spain, the friendship of the viceroy of Sicily, of the pope and of the Genoese admiral, Doria.
Thereafter it was held in turn by Genoese, Tunisians and Algerines.
Hohenstaufen, surnamed Stupor Mundi, in alliance with Pisa, against a Genoese squadron bringing a number of English, French and Spanish prelates to attend the council summoned to meet at the Lateran by Gregory IX.
Three Genoese galleys were sunk and twentytwo taken.
The Genoese, who had the larger and more efficient fleet, sent their whole power against their enemy.
When the Genoese appeared off Meloria the Pisans were lying in the river Arno at the mouth of which lay Porto Pisano the port of the city.
The Genoese, desiring to draw their enemy out to battle, and to make the action decisive, arranged their fleet in two lines abreast.
Uberto Doria, the Genoese admiral, was stationed in the centre and in advance of his line.
It is said that while the archbishop was blessing the fleet the silver cross of his archiepiscopal staff fell off, but that the omen was disregarded by .the irreverence of the Pisans, who declared that if they had the wind they could do without divine help. They advanced in line abreast to meet the first line of the Genoese, fighting according to the medieval custom to ram and board.
Still more glorious for Hungary was Louis's third war with Venice (1378-1381), when he was again aided by the Genoese.
His father, a Swiss officer in the service of the Genoese Republic, had married the mother of Laetitia Bonaparte, after the decease of her first husband.
It was possibly visited by Genoese navigators in 1291, and was certainly discovered by the Portuguese c. 1446, but was first explored for any distance from its mouth (1455) by the Venetian Alvise Cadamosto (q.v.), who published an account of his travels at Vicenza in 1507 (La Prima Navigazione per l'Oceano alle terre de' Negri della Bassa Ethiopia) .
The fortress and walls with which it was provided by the Genoese in the 9th or Loth century have been destroyed for military reasons.
When in 1405 the king of France sold Pisa to the Florentines he kept possession of Leghorn; but he afterwards (1407) sold it for 26,000 ducats to the Genoese, and from the Genoese the Florentines purchased it in 1421.
The old university buildings erected in 1713 by the Genoese architect Ricca proved too small; and new buildings, fitted more especially for the medical and scientific departments, have been erected..
During the break-up of the Later Roman Empire it was occupied by Genoese privateers (1197-1207) who in turn were expelled by the Venetians.
But several powers were arrayed against him - the duke of Savoy, who claimed the island on the strength of the marriage of his son Louis to Charlotte, the only legitimate daughter of John II., 2 the Genoese, and the pope.
Windroses with these characteristics are found in Venetian and Genoese charts of early 14th century, and are depicted similarly by the Spanish navigators.
The present town of Ajaccio lies about two miles to the south of its original site, from which it was transferred by the Genoese in 1492.
Occupied from 1553 to 1559 by the French, it again fell to the Genoese after the treaty of Cateau Cambresis in the latter year.
Lancelot Malocello, a Genoese, in 1270 reached at least as far as the Canaries.
The first direct attempt to find a sea route to India was, it is said, also made by Genoese, Ugolino and Guido de Vivaldo, Tedisio Doria and others.
In July 1261 Michael, who had attacked Constantinople with the help of the Genoese, conquered the town through his general Strategopoulos.
Subsequently Michael was involved in wars with the Genoese and Venetians, whose influence in Constantinople he sought to diminish by maintaining the balance of strength between them.
The second period includes the Genoese crusading exploits in the East, and extends to their victory over the Pisans (c. 1130), while the third reaches down to the days of the author's archbishopric. The sixth part deals with the constitution of the city, the seventh and eighth with the duties of rulers and citizens, the ninth with those of domestic life.
At the end of the 11th century it became subject to Pisa, and at the end of the 12th was taken and colonized by the Genoese, whose influence may be traced in the character of the population.
The Palazzo Doria in the Piazza del Principe, presented to Andrea Doria by the Genoese in 1522, is on the other hand earlier; it was remodelled in 1529 by Montorsoli and decorated with fine frescoes by Perino del Vaga.
The Piazza Ferrari, a large irregular space, is the chief focus of traffic and the centre of the Genoese tramway system; it is embellished with a fine equestrian statue of Garibaldi, unveiled in 1893, which stands in front of the Teatro Carlo Felice.
The patriotic spirit and naval prowess of the Genoese, developed in their defensive wars against the Saracens, led to the foundation of a popular constitution, and to the rapid growth of a powerful marine.
The seaports wrested at the same period from the Saracens along the Spanish and Barbary coasts became important Genoese colonies, whilst in the Levant, on the shores of the Black Sea, and along the banks of the Euphrates were erected Genoese fortresses' of great strength.
The commercial and naval successes of the Genoese during the middle ages were the more remarkable because, unlike their rivals, the Venetians, they were the unceasing prey to intestine discord - the Genoese commons and nobles fighting against each other, rival factions amongst the nobles themselves striving to grasp the supreme power in the state, nobles and commons alike invoking the arbitration and rule of some foreign captain as the sole means of obtaining a temporary truce.
Alternate victories and defeats of the Venetians and Genoese - the most terrible being the defeat sustained by the Venetians at Chioggia in 1380 - ended by establishing the great relative inferiority of the Genoese rulers, who fell under the power now of France, now of the Visconti of Milan.
It was at this very period - the close of the 15th and commencement of the 16th century - that the genius and daring of a Genoese mariner, Christopher Columbus, gave to Spain that new world, which might have become the possession of his native state, had Genoa been able to supply him with the ships and seamen which he so earnestly entreated her to furnish.
The government as restored by Andrea Doria, with certain modifications tending to impart to it a more conservative character, remained unchanged until the outbreak of the French Revolution and the creation of the Ligurian republic. During this long period of nearly three centuries, in which the most dramatic incident is the conspiracy of Fieschi, the Genoese found no small compensation for their lost traffic in the East in the vast profits which they made as the bankers of the Spanish crown and outfitters of the Spanish armies and fleets both in the old world and the new, and Genoa, more fortunate than many of the other cities of Italy, was comparatively immune from foreign domination.
The discontent created at the time by the provision of the treaty of Paris as confirmed by the congress of Vienna had doubtless no slight share in keeping alive in Genoa the republican spirit which, through the influence of a young Genoese citizen, Joseph Mazzini, assumed forms of permanent menace not only to the Sardinian monarchy but to all the established governments of the peninsula.
Among the earlier Genoese historians the most important are Bartolommeo Fazio and Jacopo Bracelli, both of the 15th century, and Paolo Partenopeo, Jacopo Bonfadio, Oberto Foglietta and Agostino Giustiniano of the 16th.
It was founded in the 14th century by Genoese merchant adventurers, who established a bank, and a trade in silks and velvets.
This was a Genoese expedition, which about 1270 seems to have sailed into the Alantic, re-discovered the "Fortunate Islands" or Canaries, and made something of a conquest and settlement in one of the most northerly isles of this archipelago, still known (after the Italian captain) as Lanzarote.
To Malocello's enterprise, moreover, it is probable that Petrarch (born 1304) alludes when he tells how, within the memory of his parents, an armed fleet of Genoese penetrated to the "Fortunatae"; this passage some would refer, without sufficient authority, to the expedition of 1291.
The Conosgimiento (as noticed above) explicitly derives the island-name from the Genoese commander who perished here.
Malocello's enterprise not only marks the beginning of the oversea expansion of western Europe in exploration, conquest and colonization (after the age of Scandinavian world-roving had passed); it is also probably not unconnected with the great Genoese venture of 1291 (in search of a waterway to India, which soon follows), with which this attempt at Canarian discovery and dominion has been by some unjustifiably identified.
The command of the sea was secured by driving the Genoese allies of the French out of the Channel.
They were afterwards robbed of the island by Leon Vetrano, a famous Genoese corsair; but he was soon defeated and put to death, and the senate, to secure their position, granted fiefs in Corfu to ten noble families in order that they might colonize it (1206).
As a preacher he was very successful, and his talents were fully recognized by successive popes, by whom he was made master of the sacred palace, inquisitorgeneral for all the Genoese dominions, and ultimately bishop of Scio and Hungarian legate.
Geronimo, a Genoese, flourished during the latter half of the 16th century.
On the Rock of St George stands the castle built by the Genoese in 1542, on the area of the old cathedral and now used as a military prison.
As early as the 12th century the Savonese built themselves a sufficient harbour; but in the 16th century the Genoese, fearing that Francis I.
As early as the 12th century the Genoese had a settlement on the site of Bender.
For several years he scoured the Mediterranean in command of the Genoese fleet, waging war on the Turks and the Barbary pirates.
War between France and the Empire having broken out once more, the French seized Corsica, then administered by the Genoese Bank of St George; Doria was again summoned, and he spent two years (1553-1555) in the island 425 fighting the French with varying fortune.
Both cities, along with Venice, but especially the Genoese, also did excellent service in reducing the Syrian coast towns still in the hands of the Turks in the reigns of Kings Baldwin I.
Though both Genoese and Venetians in their day of power planted numerous trading posts on various portions of the Mediterranean shores, of which some almost deserve the name of colonies, the history of modern colonization on a great scale opens with the Spanish conquests in America.
Contemporary observers agree that the disease was introduced from the East; and one eyewitness, Gabriel de Mussis, an Italian lawyer, traced, or indeed accompanied, the march of the plague from the Crimea (whither it was said to have been introduced from Tartary) to Genoa, where with a handful of survivors of a Genoese expedition he landed probably at the end of the year 1347.
He now crossed the Black Sea to Kaffa, then mainly occupied by the Genoese, and apparently the first Christian city he had seen, for he was much perturbed by the bell-ringing.
Its ruin was brought about by the commercial rivalry of the Genoese, who forbade the Greeks to trade there and diverted its commerce to Caffa and Sudak.
During the later part of this period, indeed, the Genoese made themselves masters of Famagusta - which had risen in place of Salamis to be the chief commercial city in the island - and retained possession of it for a considerable time (1376-1464); but it was recovered by King James II., and the whole island was reunited under his rule.
It was founded in the 4th century by Genoese colonists, who employed large numbers of workmen (Calfats) in repairing ships - which industry gave its name to the place.
He encouraged maritime trade by negotiating a commercial treaty with England (1294) and forming a royal navy (1317) under the command of a Genoese admiral named Emmanuele di Pezagna (Manoel Pessanha).
It received a large accession of population at the fall of Acre in 1291; was annexed by the Genoese in 1376; reunited to the throne of Cyprus in 1464; and surrendered, after an investment of nearly a year, to the Turks in 1571.
Other interesting buildings are the house in which Pasquale Paoli lived while Corte was the seat of his government (1755 to 1769), and the house of another patriot, Giampietro Gaffori, whose wife defended it from the Genoese in 1750.
In the 18th century Corte was the centre of the resistance to the Genoese, and it was the seat of a university erected by Paoli.
Few remains of its former importance exist, the chief being the Citadel built by the Genoese and still showing Latin inscriptions on some of its towers, the one or two detached towers left when the town walls were pulled down, and two or three mosques, formerly Genoese churches.
It coined silver and copper during the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. The name Kaffa (Genoese Capha, Turkish Kefe) first occurs in a writer of the 9th century.
The Genoese established themselves on the site shortly after 1266, and the settlement flourished exceedingly, being the depot of a trade route reaching to China.
It became the head of the Genoese establishments in Gazaria, the see of a bishop, and the chief port on the northern shore of the Black Sea, far surpassing the Venetian Tana.
Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, sold to a rich Genoese Gherardino Spinola, seized by John, king of Bohemia, pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them ceded to Martino della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV.
The Aragonese castle and the Genoese walls have been demolished in recent times, and the town has a modern aspect, with spacious streets and squares.
Towards the close of the long struggle between Genoa and the republic of St Mark the Genoese entreated Giovanni Visconti to mediate on their behalf with the Venetians.
In this century also the Genoese founded trading factories on the banks of the Dniester.
In 1318, the Tatars, who had come into possession in the previous century, ceded the town to the Genoese, who soon raised it into new importance as a commercial centre.
After temporary occupations by the Seljuk Turks (1089-1092) and by the Venetians (1124-1125, 1172, 1204-1225), it was given in fief to the Genoese family of Zaccaria, and in 1346 passed definitely into the hands of a Genoese maona, or trading company, which was organized in 1362 under the name of "the Giustiniani."
In 1415 the Genoese became tributary to the Ottomans.
With a charter from the king giving him leave to set up the English banner on all the lands he might discover, the Bristol Genoese trader John Cabot successfully passed the great sea in 1497, and discovered Newfoundland and its rich fishing stations.
In 1294 the Genoese defeated a Venetian force in the neighbourhood.
Galata has a long history, which becomes of general interest after 1265, when it was assigned to the Genoese merchants in the city by Michael Palaeologus, in return for the friendly services of Genoa in the overthrow of the Latin empire of Constantinople.
There are also churches and houses dating from Genoese days.
In the middle ages it was the seat of a Genoese colony; and it has been in Polish, Turkish and Austrian possession.
There was no discovery here, for the whole Canarian archipelago was now pretty well known to French and Spanish mariners, especially since the conquest of 1402-06 by French adventurers under Castilian overlordship; but in 1418 Henry's captain, Joao Goncalvez Zarco rediscovered Porto Santo, and in 1420 Madeira, the chief members of an island group which had originally been discovered (probably by Genoese pioneers) before 1351 or perhaps even before 1339, but had rather faded from Christian knowledge since.
He died at Pisa while engaged in making peace between the Pisans and Genoese in order to secure the help of both cities in the crusade.
The Ligurians, who exhibited the hard cunning characteristic of the Genoese Riviera, must have been descendants of that Indo-European vanguard who occupied all northern Italy and the centre and south-east of France, who in the 7th century B.C. received the Phocaean immigrants at Marseilles, and who at a much later period were encountered by Hannibal during his Ligiwians.
From the 10th century the place was associated with the Grimaldi, a powerful Genoese family who held high offices under the republic and the emperors; but not till a much later date did it become their permanent possession and residence.
It was captured after a determined resistance by the Genoese in 1379, but recovered in 1380.
When the war began in the spring of 1378, Venice was mainly concerned for the safety of its trading stations in the Levant and the Black Sea, which were exposed to the attacks of the Genoese.
A smaller force was sent to operate against the Genoese in the western Mediterranean, and was placed under the command of Vettor Pisani.
The danger on land seemed trifling to Venice so long as she could keep the sea open to her trade and press the war against the Genoese in the Levant.
While Carlo Zeno harassed the Genoese stations in the Levant, Vettor Pisani brought one of their squadrons to action on the 30th of May 1378 off Punta di Anzio to the south of the Tiber, and defeated it.
The battle was fought in a gale by 10 Venetian against II Genoese galleys.
The Genoese admiral, Luigi de' Fieschi, was taken with 5 of his galleys, and others were wrecked.
If Pisani had directed his course to Genoa itself, which was thrown into a panic by the defeat at Anzio, it is possible that he might have dictated peace, but he thought his squadron too weak, and preferred to follow the Genoese galleys which had fled to Famagusta.
Pisani had been reinforced early in the spring of 1378, but when he was sighted by the Genoese fleet of 25 sail off Pola in Istria on the 7th of May, he was slightly outnumbered, and his crews were still weak.
The Venetian admiral would have preferred to avoid battle, and to check an attack on Venice itself, by threatening the Genoese fleet from his base on the Istrian coast.
Luciano Doria fell in the battle, and the Genoese, who had suffered severely, did not at once follow up their success.
The barrier here approaches close to the mainland, and the position facilitated the co-operation of the Genoese with the Carrarese and Hungarians, but Chioggia is distant from Venice, which could only be reached along the canals across the lagoon.
The senate applied for peace, but when the Genoese replied that they were resolved to "bit and bridle the horses of Saint Mark" the Venetians decided to fight to the end.
The heavy Genoese vessels were much hampered by the shallow water and intricate passages through the lagoon.
The Genoese were thus shut in at the very moment when they thought they were about to besiege Venice.
The Genoese held out resolutely in the hope of relief from home.
As the main outlet for the overland trade from Bagdad and India, whose importance was great until the establishment of the Egyptian overland route, the place was a great resort, first of Genoese and Venetian merchants, then of those of West and North European nations.
Murat's minister of police was a certain Malghella (a Genoese), who favoured the Carbonari movement, and was indeed the instigator of all that was Italian in the king's policy.
He did something for the reorganization of the navy, and recovered Lesbos and Chios from the Genoese.
Between the windows, there are gilt and ' pietra dura ' console tables with late 17th century Genoese carved and gilt supporting figures.
Perhaps the most obvious is the chain of Genoese watchtowers and impregnable fortified cities dotted along the coastline.
In Genoa the government was particularly unpopular, for the Genoese resented being handed over to their old enemy Piedmont like a flock of sheep. Nevertheless the king strongly disliked the Austrians, and would willingly have seen them driven from Italy.
Unregulated enthusiasm might of itself have achieved little or nothing; enthusiasm caught and guided by the astute Norman, and the no less astute Venetian or Genoese, could not but achieve tangible results.
At last when reduced to a heap of ruins, Ostend fell before the resolution of Ambrosio de Spinola, a Genoese banker, to whom the command of the besiegers had been entrusted (see Spinola).
His father, a Genoese, who had established himself as a grocer and had married a Frenchwoman named Massabie, is said to have been his son's prototype in vigour and fluency of speech.
The palaces of the Genoese patricians, famous for their sumptuous architecture, their general effectiveness (though the architectural details are often faulty if closely examined), and their artistic collections, were many of them built in the latter part of the 16th century by Galeazzo Alessi, a pupil of Michelangelo, whose style is of an imposing and uniform character and disphiys marvellous ingenuity in using a limited or unfavourable site to the greatest advantage.