Generations sentence example
It's hard to know what later generations will deem to be art.
This must be generations of collecting.
Books are the treasured wealth of the world and the fit inheritance of generations and nations.
Instead of designer thongs or flimsy lace things, Ethel wore the plainest of cotton panties, the type described by past generations as 'practical.'
She hadn't outsmarted generations of deities and Immortals while laden with emotions, but she had still done it.Advertisement
I've been a friend of his family for generations.
Tim had been prepared for this day by two generations of ambitious men who intended to see someone of their bloodline in the seat of power.
If we take the mere popular view of what is meant by the " old Political Economy," that is, that a generation or so ago economics was comprised in a neatly rounded set of general propositions, universally accepted, which could be set forth in a question we have really to determine is how we can make the best use of the accumulated knowledge of past generations, and to do that we must look more closely into the economic science of the 10th century..
Only by laying stone on stone with the cooperation of all, by the millions of generations from our forefather Adam to our own times, is that temple reared which is to be a worthy dwelling place of the Great God, he added, and closed his eyes.
The enigmatic Tim's request for a favor was readily granted after three generations of both their families working together towards the PMF's goals of national unity.Advertisement
In his foreign policy Pericles differs from those statesmen of previous generations who sought above all the welfare of Greece as a whole.
This powerful family possessed for many generations before 369 B.C. the privilege of furnishing the Tagus, or generalissimo, of the combined Thessalian forces.
In such cases the original parent-actinula does not itself become a medusa, but remains arrested in development and ultimately dies off, so that a true alternation of generations is brought about.
On the question of the date a comparison of genealogies of Maori chiefs shows that, up to the beginning of the 10th century, about eighteen generations or probably not much more than five centuries had passed since the first Maori arrivals.
When, as often, the great figures have been made the spokesmen of the thought of subsequent generations, the historical criticism of the prophecies becomes one of peculiar difficulty.Advertisement
To the later generations David was pre-eminently the Psalmist and the founder of the Temple service.
The second half of the 17th century witnessed remarkable transitions and developments in all branches of natural science,and the facts accumulated by preceding generations during their generally unordered researches were re placed by a co-ordination of experiment and deduction.
Others again consider that the whole cycle is a metamorphosis which, beginning in the Heterocotylea as a direct development, has become complicated in the Holostomidae by a larval history, and finally in the Malacocotylea has acquired additional complexity by the intercalation of two larval forms, and is thus spread over several generations.
His family were originally Prussians, and served in the Spanish army for several generations.
After the time of Aails the Ynglingar remained in possession of Upsala for four generations according to the saga.Advertisement
It will be regarded as a human right—a dividend for being born a human being, your share of the inheritance that all the prior generations accumulated.
You can help future generations by helping to answer the question of 'what is global warming?' when those who don't know ask you.
Just as each one of us has done our part in creating these problems, each of us can take measures to prevent further damage and correct some of the damage already done, paving the way towards a healthier planet for future generations.
Sustainable development aims to establish a system of resource consumption that both meets the needs of human life and leaves the environment healthy enough to continue to produce the resources future generations will need.
Not only will they be saving money on their water bill, but they will be helping to conserve our most precious natural resource for generations to come.Advertisement
The few family relatives I had were city people, for generations.
I trust you more than anyone, Jule, but these rumors of wars between immortals have been around for three generations of White Gods.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
In Cunina parasitica, however, the ovum develops into an actinula, which buds actinulae as before, but only the daughter-actinulae develop into medusae, while the original, parent-actinula dies off; here, therefore, larval budding has led to a true alternation of generations.
The actinula, when free, may multiply by larval budding, but in all cases both the original actinula and all its descendants become converted into medusae, so that there is no alter nation of generations.
There is no handing on of privilege or pre-eminence to perpetual generations.
Previous to this period the husbandry of Scotland was still in a backward state as compared with the best districts of England, where many practices, only of recent introduction in the north, had been in general use for generations.
There is in existence a vast store of accumulated knowledge, and few, if any, departments of economics have been left quite unilluminated by the researches of former generations.
A correct sense of proportion and the faculty of seizing upon the dominant factors in an historical problem are the result partly of the possession of certain natural gifts in which many individuals and some nations are conspicuously wanting, partly of general knowledge of the working of the economic and political institutions of the period we are studying, partly of what takes the place of practical experience in relation to modern problems, namely, detailed acquaintance with different kinds of original sources and the historical imagination by which we can realize the life and the ideals of past generations.
He could not have been what he was unless two generations before him had laboured at the problem of finding an intellectual expression and a philosophic basis for Christianity (Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras, Pantaenus, Clement).
In other gallflies and in aphids we find that a sexual generation alternates with one or with many virgin generations.
The flour-moth (Epheslia kuhniella) sometimes passes through five or six generations in a single year.
The resistance was well maintained in succeeding generations, and races so raisedDform a practical means of combating this serious disease.
His public lectures, indeed, were never largely attended, but in his more private classes, where he dealt with the technical work of a historian, he trained generations of scholars.
He sprang from a Roman Catholic family which for some generations had held important posts in the Hanoverian civil service.
Moreover, they contain many allusions to personal events which, later generations have forgotten.
Raskolniks or Nonconformists in the second half of the 17th century, rebel stryeltsy under Peter the Great, courtiers of rank during the reigns of the empresses, Polish confederates under Catherine II., the " Decembrists " under Nicholas I., nearly 50,000 Poles after the insurrection of 1863, and later on whole generations of socialists were sent to Siberia; while the number of common-law convicts and exiles transported thither increased steadily from the end of the 18th century.
For many generations the charitable foundations for the teaching and training of youth were a conspicuous feature in the economy of the city.
New generations grew up almost as ignorant as their fathers, but not with the same sense of dependence upon the white men.
The time had come when the results obtained in the development and application of the law of gravitation by three generations of illustrious mathematicians might be presented from a single point of view.
The assumption made was that (with the rare exception of parasites) all the change of structure through which the successive generations of animals have passed has been one of progressive elaboration.
Having obtained a first hybrid generation, he allowed the hybrids to self-fertilize, and recorded the result in a large number of instances (a thousand or more) as to the number of individuals in the first, second, third and fourth generations in which the character selected for experiment made its appearance.
In subsequent generations produced by self-fertilization of the hybrids it was found that the positive character was not present in all the individuals, but that a result was obtained showing that in the formation of the reproductive cells (ova and sperms) of the hybrid, half were endowed with the positive character and half with the negative.
The tendency of the proportions in the offspring of 'PP, 2PN, INN is to give in a series of generations a regular reversion from the hybrid form PN to the two pure races, viz.
In the course of several generations, Lamarck argued, a structural alteration amounting to such difference as we call " specific " might be thus acquired.
Thus the occurrence of blind animals in caves and in the deep sea was a fact which Darwin himself regarded as best explained by the atrophy of the organ of vision in successive generations through the absence of light and 1 Weismann, Vererbung, &c. (1886).
If a character of much longer standing (certain properties of height, length, breadth, colour, &c.) had not become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive generations of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave place to a new character when new moulding conditions operated on an individual (Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is likely to become fixed and transmitted by mere heredity after a much shorter time of existence in response to environmental stimulus ?
At first sight it appears difficult to understand how g PP the complicated series of actions which are definitely exhibited as so-called " instincts " by a variety of animals can have been due to the selection of congenital variations, or can be otherwise explained than by the transmission of habits acquired by the parent as the result of experience, and continuously elaborated and added to in successive generations.
Now it is clear that preceding generations of caterpillars cannot have acquired this habit of posturing by experience.
This factor is the Record of the Past, which grows and develops by laws other than those affecting the perishable bodies of successive generations of mankind, and exerts an incomparable influence upon the educable brain, so that man, by the interaction of the Record and his educability, is removed to a large extent from the status of the organic world and placed in a new and unique position, subject to new laws and new methods of development unlike those by which the rest of the living world is governed.
The educated man who has acquired new experiences, new knowledge, can place these on the great Record for the benefit of future generations of men, but he cannot bodily transmit his acquirements to his offspring.
Both father and mother were of Poitevin extraction, but the Arouets had been for two generations established in Paris, the grandfather being a prosperous tradesman.
The old bridge, famous for many generations, bearing its rows of houses and its chapel in the centre, was completed early in the 13th century.
The hostility he encountered in the propagation of these new religious ideas after his return to Khorasan in 1052 and Sunnite fanaticism compelled him at last to flee, and after many wanderings he found a refuge in Yumgan (about 1060) in the mountains of Badakshan, where he spent as a hermit the last decades of his life, and gathered round him a considerable number of devoted adherents, who have handed down his doctrines to succeeding generations.
Thus, whereas prophecy had to deal with temporary reverses at the hands of some heathen power, apocalyptic arose at a time when Israel had been subject for generations to the sway of one or other of the great worldpowers.
His ancestors had been celebrated as physicians for several generations, and his son was afterwards held by the Arabians to be even more eminent in his profession than Avenzoar himself.
On this view, therefore, at least two asexual generations (embryo and scolex) alternate with a sexual one (proglottides); and in the case of Staphylocystis the cyst contains two asexually produced generations, so that in such forms three stages (embryo, primary scolex-buds, secondary scolices) intervene between the proglottis of a Cestode and that of its offspring.
The great majority of the horses that come into the market as Arabs, are bred in the northern desert and in Mesopotamia, by the various sections of the Aneza and Shammar tribes, who emigrated from Nejd generations ago, taking with them the original Nejd stock.
Murder can be expiated by the payment of diya or bloodmoney, if the kinsmen of the murdered man consent; they may, however, claim the life of the murderer, and long and troublesome blood feuds often ensue, involving the relatives of both sides for generations.
For two generations the little cause prospered, and again after persecutions in 699 and 813.
Under such conditions the deeply-rooted nature of the blood-sucking instinct is most remarkable; for insects whose ancestors for many generations may not have tasted blood will seek for it with the utmost keenness and pertinacity so soon as an opportunity presents itself.
What is certain is its influence on the development of the Church's policy as to discipline in grave cases, like apostasy and adultery - a burning question for some generations from the end of the 2nd century, particularly in Rome and North Africa.
In the last generations before the fall of Jerusalem, however, it was pro nounced in a low tone so that the sounds were lost in the chant of the priests.'
It escapes into the adjacent tissue and there gives rise either to one or more generations of rediae or at once to a new type of organism - the cercaria.
The cycle of development taken by the Malacocotylea has been generally regarded as an alternation of one or more asexual generations with a sexual one.
Some authors looking upon these as parthenogenetic ova regard the developmental cycle as one composed of an alternation of parthenogenetic and of sexual generations.
He was a man happy in his ancestry; he inherited the dignity, the reserve, the keen and vivid intellect, and the picturesque imagination of the French Huguenot, though they came to him chastened and purified by generations of Puritan discipline exercised under the gravest ecclesiastical disabilities, and of culture maintained in the face of exclusion from academic privileges.
He probably worked some two generations before the time of Moronobu, but there is no reason to believe that his labors had any material share in determining the creation and trend of the new school.
The Goto family worked steadily during 14 generations, and its I9th century representativeGotO Ichijwill always be remembered as one of the familys greatest experts.
Shirozaemon was succeeded at the kiln by three generations of his family, each representative retaining the name of Tshiro, and each distinguishing himself by the excellence of his work.
Amyot's book, therefore, obtained an immense popularity, and exercised great influence over successive generations of French writers.
The Sabellian races of central and eastern Italy and the Italo-Celtic and Venetian races of the north, in whom the poetic susceptibility of Italy was most manifest two generations later, were not, until after the Social war, sufficiently in sympathy with Rome, and were probably not as yet sufficiently educated to induce them to contribute their share to the national literature.
The idealizing poetry of passion, which found a genuine voice in Catullus and the elegiac poets, could not prolong itself through the exhausting licence of successive generations.
Six of the seven states forming the confederation of the United Netherlands took as their stadtholder William of Orange-Nassau, called "the Silent," and his descendants during three generations.
It seems now surprising that vague counting by generations should so long have prevailed and satisfied the wants of inquiring men, and that so simple, precise and seemingly obvious a plan as counting by years, the largest natural division of time, did not occur to any investigator before Eratosthenes.
But it should not be forgotten that to many generations of close scholarship these genealogical lists seemed to convey such knowledge in the most precise terms, and that at so recent a date as, for example, the year in which Queen Victoria came to the throne, it was nothing less than a rank heresy to question the historical accuracy and finality of chronologies which had no other source or foundation.
For most of the period in question Thucydides is the only source; and despite the inherent merits of a great writer, it can hardly be doubted that the tribute of almost unqualified praise that successive generations of scholars have paid to Thucydides must have been in some measure qualified if, for example, a Spartan account of the Peloponnesian War had been preserved to us.
Even conservative students of the Bible urge that its historical passages must be viewed precisely in the light of any other historical writings of antiquity; and the fact that the oldest Hebrew manuscript dates only from the 8th century A.D., and therefore of necessity brings to us the message of antiquity through the fallible medium of many generations of copyists, is far more clearly kept in mind than it formerly was.
This evidence may in certain cases consist chiefly of the fact that generations of our predecessors have taken a certain view regarding a certain question; indeed most of our cherished beliefs have this foundation.
These had been sacred to almost a hundred generations of men, and it was difficult for the eye of faith to see them as other than absolutely infallible documents.
It was strenuously contended that the case could not well be otherwise, inasmuch as the art of writing must have been quite unknown in Greece until after the alleged age of the traditional Homer, whose date had been variously estimated at from 1000 to Boo B.C. by less sceptical generations.
We have seen that Oriental archaeology has in recent generations revolutionized our conceptions of the antiquity of civilization.
The fertility of the parthenogenetically produced insects would also diminish after a certain number of generations had been produced.
But the rights of Clarence were conveyed in the first instance to an only daughter, and the ambition and policy of the house of Lancaster, profiting by advantageous circumstances, enabled them not only to gain possession of the throne but to maintain themselves in it for three generations before they were dispossessed by the representatives of the elder brother.
Chaeroneia is also notable as the birthplace of Plutarch, who returned to his native town in old age, and was held in honour by its citizens for many successive generations.
Great care was shown not to alienate the Whig leaders in a body, which would have raised up under Pitt's leadership a formidable .party of resistance, but advantage was taken of disagreements between the ministers concerning the war, of personal jealousies, and of the strong reluctance of the old statesmen who had served the crown for generations to identify themselves with active opposition to the king's wishes.
Hence he spoke of the "Indies," and "las Indies" continued to be the official name given to their American possessions by the Spaniards for many generations.
That many years, perhaps two generations, must elapse before the more serious of these changes would be accepted by Turkish Moslems was well understood.
His parents were of Scottish-Irish descent, but the ancestors of both had been in New England for several generations.
The Roosevelt family' has been prominent in the life of New York for many generations, and is of Dutch origin.
Thus the compiler lived at least two generations after Ezra.
Here Josiah Wedgwood was born in 1730, his family having practised the manufacture in this locality for several generations, while he himself began work independently at the Ivy House pottery in 1759.
Moreover, the feeling of unity which bound Christians everywhere together and made of them one compact whole, and which found expression before many generations had passed in a strong organization, did much for the spread of the Church.
Superstition, misunderstanding and hatred caused the Christians trouble for many generations, and governmental repression they had to suffer occasionally, as a result of popular disturbances.
It was believed among the Jews that the Messianic age would be the age of the Spirit in a marked degree, and this belief passed over into the Christian Church and controlled its thought and life for some generations.
This double conception of salvation and of the means thereto was handed down to the Church of subsequent generations and became fundamental in its thought.
The escape of the insect takes place on the spontaneous bursting of the walls of the vesicle, probably when, after viviparous (thelytokous) reproduction for several generations, male winged insects are developed.
Lichtenstein has established the fact that from the egg of the Aphis of Pistachio galls, Anopleura lentisci, is hatched an apterous insect (the gall-founder), which gives birth to young Aphides (emigrants), and that these, having acquired wings, fly to the roots of certain grasses (Bromus sterilis and Hordeum vulgare), and by budding underground give rise to several generations of apterous insects, whence finally comes a winged brood (the pupifera).
The views of Adler as to the alternation of generations of numerous gall-flies have been fully confirmed, it having been ascertained by direct observation that the galls and the insects produced from them in one generation are entirely different from the next generation; and it has also been rendered certain that frequently one of the alternate generations is parthenogenetic, no males being produced.
It is supposed that these remarkable phenomena have gradually been evoked by difference in the nutrition of the alternating generations.
When two different generations are produced in one year on the same kind of tree it is clear the properties of the sap and tissues of the tree must be diverse so that the two generations are adapted to different conditions.
In some cases the alternating generations are produced on different species of trees, and even on different parts of the two species.
In the first place, we find in this group two distinct types of person or individual, the polyp and the medusa (qq.v.), each capable of a wide range of variations; and when both polyp and medusa occur in the life-cycle of the same species, as is frequently the case, the result is an alternation of generations of a type peculiarly characteristic of the class.
Here was the beginning, and in some measure doubtless the cause, of a long suite of murderous conflicts, bearing havoc and flame to generations yet unborn" (Parkman).
He was neither a general nor a statesman, nor even an honest man, but he was the most conspicuous and continuously active of the military adventurers who filled Spanish America with violence during the first two generations of its independence.
In 1799 an Englishman, Thomas Andrew Knight, after experiments on the cross-fertilization of cultivated plants, formulated the conclusion that no plant fertilizes itself through many generations.
Sprengel's work, which had been almost forgotten, was taken up again by Charles Darwin, who concluded that no organic being can fertilize itself through an unlimited number of generations; but a cross with other individuals is occasionally - perhaps at very long intervals - indis pensable.
Only where there is no such struggle for existence does self-fertilization often prove satisfactory for many generations."
Henceforth Absalon was the chief counsellor of Valdemar, and the promoter of that imperial policy which, for three generations, was to give Denmark the dominion of the Baltic. Briefly, it was Absalon's intention to clear the northern sea of the Wendish pirates, who inhabited that portion of the Baltic littoral which we now call Pomerania, and ravaged the Danish coasts so unmercifully that at the accession of Valdemar one-third of the realm of Denmark lay wasted and depopulated.
Men who imagined that they might at any moment be caught up to meet the Lord in the air were not likely to take steps for the instruction of the generations that might come after them.
On the other hand, it may be true that an impression of a briefer period of ministry naturally results, and in early generations did actually result, from the synoptic account considered as a whole.
It is not a priori improbable that the year of the central event from which the Christian Church dated her own existence should have been noted in the apostolic age and handed down to the memory of succeeding generations; and the evidence does go some way to suggest that we have in favour of A.D.
He reigned over Crete and the islands of the Aegean three generations before the Trojan War.
They not only formed one of the bridges by which the medieval thinkers got back to Plato and Aristotle; they determined the scientific method of thirty generations, and they partly created and partly nourished the Christian mysticism of the middle ages.
In future the philosophic method of palaeontology must continue to advance step by step with exploration; it would be a reproach to later generations if they did not progress as far beyond the philosophic status of Cuvier, Owen and even of Huxley and Cope, as the new materials represent an advance upon the material opportunities which came to them through exploration.
In this way complicated cycles of alternating generations arise, which are described fully in Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae.
It includes Dr Andrewes, afterwards bishop of Winchester, who was familiar with Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Greek, Latin and at least ten other languages, while his knowledge of patristic literature was unrivalled; Dr Overall, regius professor of theology and afterwards bishop of Norwich; Bedwell, the greatest Arabic scholar of Europe; Sir Henry Savile, the most learned layman of his time; and, to say nothing of others well known to later generations, nine who were then or afterwards professors of Hebrew or of Greek at Oxford or Cambridge.
It belongs to the same order of ideas that the headship of the Messianic ecclesia in Judea was assigned after the death of Jesus to his eldest brother James, and after him for several generations to the eldest living representative of his family.
The souls of members of the tribe who have died survive in these slips of wood, which are treasured up for long generations and repaired if they decay.
It only remained now for the primal man to descend into the abyss and prevent the further increase of the generations of darkness by cutting off their roots; but he could not immediately separate again the elements that had once mingled.
Separating from the total population of the country in 1900 the non-Caucasians (9,185,379), all white persons having both parents foreign (20,803,800), and one-half (2,541,365) of the number of persons having only one parent foreign, the remaining 43,555,250 native inhabitants comprised the descendants of the Americans of 1790, plus those of the few inhabitants of annexed territories, plus those in the third and higher generations of the foreigners who entered the country after 1790 (or for practical purposes, after 1800).
French Canadian Literature At The Opening Of The Loth Century Might Be Described As Entirely The Work Of Two Generations, And It Was Separated From The Old Regime By Three More Generations Whose Racial Sentiment Only Found Expression In The Traditional Songs And Tales Which Their Forefathers Of The 17Th Century Had Brought Over From The Mere Patrie.
The Seljukian dynasty of Syria came to an end after three generations, and its later history is interwoven with that of the crusaders.
Thus he came to the conclusion that the malady had been inherent in many successive generations of the silkworm, and that the epidemic condition was only an exaggeration of a normal state brought about by the method of cultivation and production of graine pursued.
He laid the foundations broadly in evangelism, finance, temperance and education, founding in the latter connexion a middleclass school at Shebbear, at which generations of ministers' sons and numerous students for the ministry have been educated.
Moreover, they were so absorbed in the expectation of the speedy return of Christ that they did not feel called to make provision for the instruction of subsequent generations.
And it has been an established principle of the undivided church since the 3rd century, the bishop of Rome in this case upholding against St Cyprian the view which subsequent generations have ratified as Catholic truth, that baptism by whomsoever administered is valid if water is used with the right words.
He came of a Somersetshire family, which had given five consecutive generations of clergymen to the Anglican church.
They have been for several generations the middle men between the white traders on the coast and the inland tribes of the Cross river and Calabar district.
Not for generations had the prospects for the ultimate annihilation of Protestantism been brighter.
The Naharin or Naharen of the Egyptian texts appears some five generations later in the Canaanitic of the Amarna letters in the form Nabrim (a), which would seem.
Meyer are right, it belongs to a time not many generations after Agum recovered the Marduk statue.
Matthew Paris said that he had a heart of wax; Dante relegated him to the limbo of ineffectual souls; and later generations have endorsed these scathing judgments.
When Skandagupta died about 480, the Gupta empire came to an end, but the dynasty continued to rule in the eastern provinces for several generations.
It may be carried as a somatic character, when it will be visible in the body tissues, or it may be carried as a gametic character, and its presence can only then be detected in subsequent generations, by adequately devised breeding tests.
P. Mudge for rats, that in a cross between a coloured individual of known gametic purity and an albino, the individuals of the progeny in either the first or second, or both generations, may differ, and that the difference in some cases wholly depends upon the albino used.
C. C. Hurst, more recently, has shown that albino rabbits, whether pure bred for eight generations at least, or extracted from pigmented parents, may carry the determinants for black or for black and grey.
Most writers would place it in the early 13th century, but Gautier would remove it two or three generations further back.
Silesia, already more than half Germanized, had for generations been the battle-ground between the Luxemburgers and the Piasts, and was split up into innumerable principalities which warred incessantly upon their neighbours and each other.
The doctrine of Thales was interpreted and developed in the course of three succeeding generations.
So markedly is this the case with hybrids that in a few generations all traces of a hybrid origin may disappear.
In the third generation the yellows from the second generation gave the proportion of one pure yellow, two impure yellows, and one green; while the green seed of the second generation threw only green seeds in the third, fourth and fifth generations.
The pure yellow in the third generation also threw pure yellows in the fourth and fifth and succeeding generations.
Those most suitable for the purpose of the gardener are carefully selected for propagation, while others not so desirable are destroyed; and thus after a few generations a fixed variety, race or strain superior to the original form is obtained.
Much more important were the papers entitled Rettungen, in which he undertook to vindicate the character of various writers - Horace and writers of the Reformation period, such as Cochlaeus and Cardanus - who had been misunderstood or falsely judged by preceding generations.
Life-history in some cases very complex and with well-marked sexual process and alternation of generations, in others much reduced; basidium (promycelium) derived usually from a thick-walled spore (teleutospore).
Life-history always very simple, no wellmarked alternation of generations; basidium borne directly on the mycelium.
The Ascomycetes, at least the Carpoascomycetes, exhibit a well-marked alternation of sexual and asexual generations.
Between the nuclear association and the nuclear fusion in the basidium many thousands of cell generations may be intercalated.
There is thus in all the Basidiales an alternation of generations, obscured, however, by the apogamous transition from the gametophyte to sporophyte.
Although in the forms without aecidia the two generations are not sharply marked off from one another, we may look up the generation with single nuclei in the cells as the gametophyte and that with conjugate nuclei as the sporophyte.
The skins are sold in the trade sale as martens, but as there are many that are of a very dark colour and the majority are almost as silky as the Russian sable, the retail trade has for generations back applied the term of sable to this fur.
Indian family who had been slaveholders for generations, he had a keen love of sport and a genuine sympathy with country-folk, but he had at the same time something of the scorn for lower races to be found in the members of a dominant race.
Hardly any scene even in this extraordinary city is more striking than the coup d'csil of this long street of tombs, preserving uninjured the records of successive generations eighteen centuries ago.
He was the one English thinker of the first rank in the long period of two generations separating Locke from Bacon, but, save in the chronological sense, there is no true relation of succession among the three.
Paul of Samosata represented the high-water mark of Christian speculation; and it is deplorable that the fanaticism of his own and of succeeding generations has left us nothing but a few scattered fragments of his writings.
The Pascal family were Auvergnats by extraction as well as residence, had for many generations held posts in the civil service, and were ennobled by Louis XI.
The engineering works are of a very high class, and from long generations of experience the farmer knows how best to use his water.
The Nanda dynasty seems to have survived only for two generations, when (321 B.C.) Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the great Maurya dynasty, seized the throne.
Anl in doing this it inflicted on many generations incalculable and needless suffering.
The Large Black breed, which vies with the Large White breed for size, and is probably its superior as a bacon pig, has only since 1900 received national show-yard recognition; but there is ample evidence that, with its characteristic whole black colour with a mealy hue, length, fine hair and lop ear, the Large Black existed in the south of England for generations.
Four generations only span the time from the birth of Count Roger, about 1030, to the death of the emperor Frederick II.
He saw that it would be idle to expose and denounce the evils of slavery, while responsibility for the system was placed upon former generations, and the duty of abolishing it transferred to an indefinite future.
In the Homeric poems (1000 B.C.) the Achaeans are the master race in Greece; they are represented both in Homer and in all later traditions as having come into Greece about three generations before the Trojan war (1184 B.C.), i.e.
The citizen body had been increased some generations before by colonists from Magnesia-onMeander sent at the invitation of Antiochus I.
That later generations might not so easily distinguish the " abrogated " from the " abrogating " did not occur to Mahomet, whose vision, naturally enough, seldom extended to the future of his religious community.
And although it took several generations of poets to beat their music out to the perfection of the Virgilian cadences, yet in the rude adaptation of Ennius the secret of what ultimately became one of the grandest organs of literary expression was first discovered and revealed.
The explanation of the fact may partly be that the mechanical and other discoveries of the most ingenious minds among them, when not in constant requisition by later generations, were misunderstood or forgotten, and even in other cases were preserved only as rules of thumb by the craftsmen and experts, who would jealously hide them as secrets of trade.
Later generations reconciled these radictions by assuming the existence of two Horuses, one, brother of Osiris, Seth and Isis, being named Haroeris, i.e.
Nor could even the violent religious revolution of Akhenaton (Amenophis iv.), of which we shall later have occasion to speak, sweep away for ever beliefs that had persisted for so many generations.
It was a veritable drama that was here enacted, and recalled in its incidents the story of Osiris, the divine proto type of all successive generations of the Egyptian dead.
But there could be little guarantee that later generations would perpetuate the cult.
For generations the obstinately heathen Saxons had lain, a compact and impenetrable mass, between Scandinavia and the Frank empire, nor were the measures adopted by Charles the Great for the conversion of the Saxons to the true faith very much to the liking of their warlike Danish neighbours on the other side.
Over the remains a great and shapely mound was raised on the high headland, so that it might be seen from afar by future generations of men.
The following table is an adaptation of a scheme devised by Klebs, and indicates the inter-relationships of the marked alternation of generations which of genera- b' dominates the life-history of the higher plants.
Altogether it is difficult on morphological grounds to resist the conclusion that Florideae present the same fundamental phenomenon of alternation of generations as prevails in the higher plants.
It is probable, therefore, that we have here a sharp alternation of generations, both generations being, however, precisely similar to the eye up to point of reproduction.
Were the case of Sphaeroplea to stand alone, the phenomenon might perhaps be regarded as an alteration of generations, but still only comparable with the case of Bangia, and not the case of the Florideae.
But it is difficult to apply such a term at all to those cases in which there intervene between the oospore and the next sexual stage a series of generations, the zoospores of which are all precisely similar.
Marrying Matilda, widow of Simon de St Liz and heiress of Waltheof, David received the earldom of Huntingdon and supposed himself to have claims over Northumberland, a cause of war for' three generations.
As a matter of fact they are never quite the same in successive centuries, or even generations.
Thus land is handed down through successive generations under the nominal control of the recognized head of the clan.
It may, however, be that, moving among small coral islands for scores of generations and thus without materials, they lost the art.
The prevalence of elephantiasis and the occurrence of leprosy, for instance, in Hawaii, would seem to point at least in some places to a racial taint, due perhaps to the unbridled licentiousness of past generations.
For some generations the rulers have been men of education and character, and the state is conspicuous for good administration and prosperity.
They are a white race, though often sunburnt and bronzed for generations, and both their children and those who have lived in the cities might pass anywhere as Europeans.
His Hebrew instinct leads him to begin with a table of genealogy, artificially constructed in groups of fourteen generations - from Abraham to David, from David to the Captivity, and from the Captivity to the Christ.
Yet, wonderful as the Old Testament has ever seemed to past generations, it becomes far more profound a phenomenon when it is viewed, not in its own perspective of the unity of history - from the time of Adam, but in the history of Palestine and of the old Oriental area.
Time alone can show how far these colonies are likely to be permanently successful, or how the subtly enervating influence of the climate will affect later generations.
When once sexually ripe the axolotl are apparently incapable of changing, but their ancestral course of evolution is still latent in them, and will, if favoured by circumstances, reappear in following generations.
Moreover, even after making allowance for lack of experience as to the effect of the new product, drunkenness and exposure hardly tally with the statement that "Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations, and Noah walked with God," vi.
According to tradition the Heraeum was founded by Phoroneus at least thirteen generations before Agamemnon and the Achaeans ruled.
Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a fortiori before the life as depicted by Homer flourished - nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected.
During the lapse of untold generations, despite domestic anarchy and foreign conquest, the Hindu village has in many parts preserved its simple customs, written in the imperishable tablets of tradition.
Everywhere the same perpetual assiduity is found, but the inherited experience of generations has taught the cultivators to adapt their simple methods to differing circumstances.
It was recognized that the inheritance of future generations was being recklessly sacrificed to satisfy the immoderate desire for profit.
The indigenous methods of smelting the ore, which are everywhere the same, and have been handed down unchanged through countless generations, yield a metal of the finest quality in a form well suited to native wants.
Filipinos had for generations been ordained into priesthood although not received into monastic orders.
He was anticipated of course by many generations of spontaneous thinking (logica naturalis).
The Austrian chronicler Thomas Ebendorffer of Haselbach, who lived two generations later, first states that it was reported that King Wenceslaus had ordered that the confessor of his queen - an office that John of Pomuk never held - should be thrown into the Vltava because he would not reveal the secret of confession.
There were doubtless poets before Homer, as well as brave men before Agamemnon; and indeed the formation of a poetical dialect such as the Homeric must have been the work of several generations.
Feeling the difficulty of supposing that all the ancient minstrels sang of the " wrath of Achilles " or the " return of Ulysses " (leaving out even the capture of Troy itself), he was led to assume that two poems of no great compass dealing with these two themes became so famous at an early period as to throw other parts of the Trojan story into the background, and were then enlarged by successive generations of rhapsodists.
In the first place, the interval between generations is shortened, and the elder is contemporaneous with the younger for a longer period.
Theological questions, which had tortured the minds of generations, are by him relegated from the province of reason to that of faith.
Nor are the Welsh landowners and gentry devoid of this new spirit of nationalism, and although some generations ago they ceased as a body to speak the native tongue, they have shown a strong disposition to study once more the ancient language and literature of their country.
No doubt a sudden transference to an extreme climate is often prejudicial to man, as it is to most animals and plants; but there is every reason to believe that, if the migration occurs step by step, man can be acclimatized to almost any part of the earth's surface in comparatively few generations.
The best examples of partial or complete acclimatization are to be found where European races have permanently settled in the tropics, and have maintained themselves for several generations.
On the whole, we seem justified in concluding that, under favourable conditions, and with a proper adaptation of means to the end in view, man may become acclimatized with at least as much certainty and rapidity (counting by generations rather than by years) as any of the lower animals.
The designation suggests that these were "cave-dwellers," but although many caves and hollows have been found about Petra (and also in Palestine), this tradition probably "serves only to express the idea entertained by later generations concerning their predecessors" (Noldeke).
Several generations ago they gave up eating beef, and they are now completely Hinduized, except in a few remote recesses of Assam.
In the autumn of 1572 he returned to Edinburgh to die, probably in the picturesque house in the "throat of the Bow," which for generations has been called by his name.
The Ynglingatal and Ynglinga Saga enumerate Aail's ancestors to no less than seventeen generations, with short accounts of each.
France, naturally, hailed with satisfaction the rise of a faction which was content to be her armourbearer in the north; and the golden streams which flowed from Versailles to Stockholm during the next two generations were the political life-blood of the Hat party.
It is regrettable, for its own sake, that the Swedish Academy, which in earlier generations had identified itself with the manifestations of original literary genius, has closed its doors to the new writers with an almost vindictive pertinacity.
The act ensured to the Sheikh the constant devotion and gratitude of these men a feeling which was loyally maintained by their descendants for the members of his family in successive generations.
So great was the influence of Sheikh Haidar, and so earnestly did he carry out the principles of conduct which had characterized his family for five generations, that his name has become, as it were, inseparable from the dynasty of his son Ismail; and the term Haidari (leonine) is applied by many persons to indicate generally the Safawids of Persia.
Thus for the first time for two generations both the chief white races of South Africa were found working in cordial cooperation.
Their inorganic character naturally permitted later generations to bring them up to date, and accretions of this kind may be suspected in I Tim.
His immense expenditure on building and the arts involved the family in financial difficulties for two generations.
For three generations they remained Hindus; since then there has arisen amongst them a strange new sect called Zikari, with exceedingly loose notions of morality.
His frame is shorter and more spare and wiry than that of his neighbour to the north, though generations have given to him too a bold and manly bearing.
Owing probably to the fact that Makran was for many generations under the rule of the Persian kings, the Baluchi spoken on the west of the province, which is also called Makrani, is more largely impregnated with Persian words and expressions than the Eastern dialect.
From all this we conclude that what is poetry to us - akin to the folk-lore of water-sprites, naiads, kelpies, river-gods and water-worship in general - was to Tertullian and to the generations of believers who fashioned the baptismal rites, ablutions and beliefs of the church, nothing less than grim reality and unquestionable fact.
Yet the wider sense of "apostle" did not at once die out even in the third and fourth generations.
Like many other Persian Gulf ports, Bander Lingah was for many generations a hereditary patrimony of the Sheikh of an Arab tribe, in this case the Juvasmi tribe, and it was only in 1898 that the Arabs were expelled from the place by a Persian force.
Through many generations the inhabitants have gained their living chiefly from the sea; the township's fisheries, however, have greatly decreased in importance (the invested capital diminishing 67.1% in 1885-1895).
They typically present two structural forms, the non-sexual hydroid and the sexual medusoid; in such a case there is an alternation of generations (metagenesis), the hydroid giving rise to the medusoid by a sexual gemmation, the medusoid bearing sexual cells which develop into a hydroid.
At the same time they are not treated as mere tales for children, for Livy never forgets the dignity that belongs to them as the prelude to the great epic of Rome, and as consecrated by the faith of generations.
The idea that systematic efforts should be made to improve the breed of mankind by checking the birth-rate of the unfit and furthering the productivity of the fit was first put forward by him in 1865; he mooted it again in 1884, using the term "eugenics" for the first time in Human Faculty, and in 1904 he endowed a research fellowship in the university of London for the promotion of knowledge of that subject, which was defined as "the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations, either physically or mentally."
The indications of the use of this Gospel in the two or three generations following the Apostolic Age (see Gospel) are more plentiful than of any of the others.
The reasons leading to the great undertaking, in which Eusebius had no predecessors, were in part historical, in part apologetic. He believed that he was living at the beginning of a new age, and he felt that it was a fitting time, when the old order of things was passing away, to put on record for the benefit of posterity the great events which had occurred during the generations that were past.
The development from the egg may be direct, or may take place with an alternation of generations (metagenesis), in which a non-sexual individual, the so-called scyphistoma or scyphopolyp, produces by budding the sexual medusae.
The complicated alternation of generations seen in such a form as Aurelia does not occur in the more primitive genera.
For generations the popular conception of Roman Catholicism was derived from its bitter pages.
What he lacked was that insight into the best classical masterpieces, that command of the best classical diction, which is the product of successive generations of scholarship. To attain to this, Giovanni da Ravenna, Colluccio Salutato, Poggio and Filelfo had to labour, before a Poliziano and a Bembo finally prepared the path for an Erasmus.
Much might be written about the peculiar position held by Petrarch between the metaphysical lyrists of Tuscany and the more realistic amorists of succeeding generations.
His succession is somewhat remarkable, as his direct ancestors do not seem to have held the throne for six generations.
On the other hand, the language of the warlike invader or peaceful immigrant may yield, in a few generations, to the tongue of the mass of the population, as the Northman's was replaced by French, and modern German gives way to English in the United States.
The professional conditions of the sepoy's career, especially in Bengal, were no longer so tempting as they had been in the first generations of the company's rule.
The mere attempt to conquer the kingdom of light and shade for the art of painting was destined to tax the skill of generations, and is perhaps not wholly and finally accomplished yet.
In science he was the first among modern men to set himself most of those problems which unnumbered searchers of later generations have laboured severally or in concert to solve.
Not in his actual conclusions, though many of these point with surprising accuracy in the direction of truths established by later generations, but in the soundness, the wisdom, the tenacity of his methods lies his great title to glory.
Consciously or unconsciously he first taught the Irish to rely upon themselves and for many generations his name was the most universally popular in the country.
Other observers have in recent years demonstrated a similar relation in other genera between the number of chromosomes in the nuclei of the two generations.
In the three generations of the Vacarescu one can follow this process of rapid ' evolution.
Ten generations of settlers from northern Europe have been born, lived and died there, and the race is as strong and vigorous as that from which it sprang.
It was but slightly crossed for improvement by the Dishley Leicesters and has retained its characteristic type for generations.
Successive generations obeyed the monitions of the Inner Light.
Rank, with the accompanying privileges, jurisdiction and responsibility, was based upon a qualification of kinship and of property, held by a family for a specified number of generations, together with certain concurrent conditions; and it could be lost by loss of property, crime, cowardice or other disgraceful conduct.
The Bothach (= cottier) and the cleithe (= old dependent) were people who, though living for successive generations attached to the families of flaiths, did not belong to the clan and had no rights of Iv.
This surname was used in later generations to distinguish Ptolemy II.
They seemed about to rend the land in twain, but they really cured the English of their desperate particularism, and drove all the tribes to take as their common rulers the one great line of native kings which survived the Danish storm, and maintained itself for four generations cf desperate fighting against the invaders.
Perhaps the most noteworthy event of the second portion of the Conquerors reign was a rebellion which, though it made no head and was easily suppressed, marks the commencement of that feudal danger which was to be the constant trouble of the English kings for the next three generations.
Every English king difficulties for five generations had to face the danger from the with the church, no less than the danger from the barons, church.
For two generations they seem to have absorbed into their ranks all the most active and energetic of those who felt a clerical vocation.
For four generations the land was comparatively quiet, but the great rebellion of Owen Glendower in the reign of Henry IV.
In the course of two generations the farmers who paid rent for these holdings became more and more numerous, and demesne land tilled by villein-service grew more and more rare.
The Poles of Hull, whose descendants rose in three generations to ducal rank, were the earliest specimens of their class.
The marrorial system was already doomed, and the rent-paying tenant farmers, who had begun to appear after the Black Death, gradually superseded the villeins as the normal type of peasantry during the two generations that followed the outbreak that is generally known as Wat Tylers rebellion.
He planned to gather the Lollards of London and the Home Counties under arms, and to seize the person of the kinga scheme as wild as the design of Guy Fawkes or the Fifth Monarchy Rising Men in later generations, for the sectaries were not u0,der1 strong enough to coerce the whole nation.
Later generations have learned by repeated experience that the eloquence of Hyde Park orators is not the voice of England; there were some even then-among those not immediately responsible for keeping orderwho urged the government to ti-ust the people;l but with the object-lesson of France before them it is not altogether surprising that ministers refused to believe ih the harmlessness of societies, which not only kept up a fraternal correspondence with the National Convention and the Jacobi.
But the Beauchamps returned more than once to vain attacks on the stout walls of Berkeley, and a quarrel of two generations ended with the pitched battle of Nibley Green.
Dr Nugent eventually took up his residence with his son-in-law in London, and became a popular member of that famous group of men of letters and artists whom Boswell has made so familiar and so dear to all later generations.
If earlier times lived upon fragments of Origen, the generations of the West since Augustine have largely lived upon fragments 1 Loofs declares that the very conception of a means of grace is medieval.
More definite is the history of descent from an ennobled Spanish family which escaped from the Torquemada persecutions to Venice, there found a new home, took a new name, and prospered for six generations.
With them it began, and successive generations of inquirers into a strange career and a character still shrouded and baffling refer to them as settled starting-points of investigation.
In Coningsby the political conditions of the country were illustrated and discussed from the constitutional point of view, and by light of the theory that for generations before the passing of the Reform Bill the authority of the crown and the liberties of the people had been absorbed and extinguished in an oligarchic system of government, itself become fossilized and soulless.
Springing from the natural suggestions of self-defence against the march of a dangerous rivalry, it had the sanction of all British statesmanship for generations, backed by the consenting instinct of the people.
At the extreme west between the Sark and Esk as far up the latter as its junction with the Liddel, there was a strip of country, a "No man's land," for generations the haunt of outlaws and brigands.
These incidents seem to have been chosen for the purpose of casting light on the religious history and character of the people and showing how later generations explained the origin of various place names, cf.
The persecutions were continued down to the reign of Henry VIII., and when the writings of Luther began to appear in England the clergy were not so much afraid of Lutheranism as of the increased life they gave to men who for generations had been reading Wycliffe's Wickette.
This independence of the two generations for the greater part of their lives distinguishes this group FIG.
A cytological difference of great importance between the two generations can only be mentioned in passing.
For a discussion of this view, which regards the alternation of generations in Pteridophytes as antithetic and the two generations as not homologous with one another, reference may be made to the works of Celakovsky and Bower.
No doubt it was rather the practical than the theoretical side of Epicureanism which gave it so strong a hold on succeeding generations.
This law was derived partly from Moses, partly from the utterances of the later prophets, partly from oral tradition and from the commentaries and supplementary maxims of generations of students.
There was, however, in his theory an originality, a force, an apparent coherence which rendered it undeniably impressive; in fact, we find that for two generations the efforts to construct morality on a philosophical basis take more or less the form of answers to Hobbes.
At present, however, the theory of heredity is usually held in conjunction with Darwin's theory of natural selection; according to which different kinds of living things in the course of a series of generations come gradually to be endowed with organs, faculties and habits tending to the preservation of the individual or species under the conditions of life in which it is placed.
It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.
The first generations of Icelandic poets resemble in many ways the later troubadours; the books of the kings and the sagas are full of their strange lives.
And perhaps it is the highest praise of all to him that he wrote in his own " Danish tongue," and so ensured the use of that tongue by the cultured of after generations.
The development of this branch has infused life and interest into what might a few years ago have been regarded as the most lifeless mass of figures possible, expressing merely the positions and motions of innumerable individual stars, as determined by generations of astronomical observers.
The poorer servile classes or cottiers, wood-cutters, swine-herds, &c., who had a right of domicile (acquired after three generations), lived here and there in small hamlets on the mountains and poorer lands of the estate.
In some cases, however, land which belonged originally to a flaith was owned by a family; and after a number of generations such property presented a great similarity to the gavelled land.
The noble professions almost invariably 'ran in families, so that members of the same household devoted themselves for generations to one particular science or art, such as poetry, history, medicine, law.
This earl began the deadly feud with the house of Kildare, which lasted for generations.
Rex specimen will enthrall, educate and entertain our visitors and students for generations to come.
There is good reason to suggest that large roundhouses could have survived for generations.
Most of us are only two generations on from a professional seafarer; some of whom worked where ExCeL stands today.
Peacefully secluded in this unspoiled countryside Orchard House and Rose Cottage are ideal for all generations.
For the schistosomes there are two generations of sporocysts, the mother and daughter sporocysts.
Since then successive generations of school children have come to rely on this method of identification.
My grandfather was from five generations of tailors and trained in Saville Row to become a bespoke tailor.
They are not throwaway items that will clutter up landfill sites for generations.
Most alarming would be a situation in which person-to-person transmission resulted in successive generations of severe disease with high mortality.
After 6 generations the Jeffersons are the oldest family run vintners in England.
Now new investment around the harbor has transformed the waterfront and attracts generations of new visitors to the city.
By giving him a Red Button, or button of the highest rank, a Peacock's Feather, the order of the Double Dragon, a patent of nobility to his ancestors for three generations, and the title of Junior Guardian of the heir apparent, the Chinese showed their appreciation of his manifold and great services; while under the seal of the British government there were bestowed upon him the orders of C.M.G.
He came of a family which had been settled for many generations in the adjoining village of Daylesford; but his great-grandfather had sold the ancestral manor-house, and his grandfather had been unable to maintain himself in possession of the family living.
The Rohillas were a race of Afghan origin, who had established themselves for some generations in a fertile tract west of Oudh, between the Himalayas and the Ganges, which still bears the name of Rohilkhand.
It was not only the first territorial conquest from the Tatars, before whom Muscovy had humbled herself for generations; at Kazan Asia, in the name of Mahomet, had fought behind its last trench against Christian Europe marshalled beneath the banner of the tsar of Muscovy.
In all parts of Albania the vendetta (gydk, jak) or blood-feud, the primitive lex talionis, is an established usage; the duty of revenge is a sacred tradition handed down to successive generations in the family, the village and the tribe.
The hereditary office of king's poulterer (Pultrie Regis) was for many generations in the family of Merchiston, and descended to John Napier.
Hepatoscopy in the Euphrates valley can be traced back to the 3rd millennium before our era, which may be taken as sufficient evidence for its survival from the period of primitive culture, while the supreme importance attached to signs read on the livers of sacrificial animals - usually a sheep - follows from the care with which omens derived from such inspection on occasions of historical significance were preserved as guides to later generations of priests.
Rhabditis nigrovenosa has a developmental history which is entirely anomalous, passing through two sexual generations which regularly alternate.
For many generations Italy had been bandied to and fro between.
Two generations of these annalists have been distinguished - an older and a younger.
The life-cycle of the Leptolinae consists of an alternation of generations in which non-sexual individuals, polyps, produce by budding sexual individuals, medusae, which give rise by the sexual process to the non-sexual polyps again, so completing the cycle.
It is commonly assumed that the Trachylinae are forms which have lost the alternation of generations possessed by them ancestrally, through secondary simplification of the life-cycle.
The polyp of the Leptolinae has reached the limit of its individual development and is incapable of becoming itself a medusa, but only produces medusa-buds; hence a true alternation of generations is produced.
Thus in Cunina octonaria, the ovum develops into an actinula which buds daughteractinulae; all of them, both parent and offspring, develop into medusae, so that there is no alternation of generations, but only larval multiplication.
In Gonionemus the actinula becomes fixed and polyp-like, and reproduces by budding, so that here also an alternation of generations may occur.
It will be seen elsewhere, however, that whatever view may be held as to the origin of metagenesis in Hydromedusae, in the case of Scyphomedusae (q.v.) no other view is possible than that the alternation of generations is the direct result of larval proliferation.
A due consideration of it leads to the curious paradox that if any two animals be compared, the zoologically lower will be separated from the common ancestor by a larger number of generations, since, on the average, sexual maturity is reached more quickly by the lower form.
The Archegoniatae are characterized by a well-marked alternation of gametophyte and sporophyte generations; the former bears the sexual organs which are of characteristic structure and known as antheridia (male) and archegonia (female) respectively; the fertilized egg-cell on germination gives rise to the spore-bearing generation, and the spores on germination give rise directly or indirectly to a second gametophyte.
In accordance with the prevalent antithetic view of the alternation of generations in these plants (see PLANTS, REPRODUCTION or), the forms distinguished as sporophyte and gametophyte are not homogenetic; consequently their leaves are not homologous, but are only functionally similar (homoplastic; see infra).
He came of a long line of Airys who traced their descent back to a family of the same name residing at Kentmere, in Westmorland, in the 14th century; but the branch to which he belonged, having suffered in the civil wars, removed to Lincolnshire, where for several generations they lived as farmers.
But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.
In the first place, the normal life-cycle of plants and animals exhibits what is known as alternation of generations, so that any individual in the chain may resemble its grand-parent.
Even if the conception of the relative sanctity of gods and men remained unaltered, it by no means follows that in primitive times the same precautions were necessary in approaching the former as were demanded by the consciousness of later generations.
Those of Nui speak the language of the Gilbert islanders, and have a tradition that they came some generations ago from that group. All the others are of Samoan speech, and their tradition that they came thirty generations back from Samoa is supported by recent research.
In certain gall-flies (Cynipidae) no males are known to exist at all, and the species seems to be preserved entirely by successive parthenogenetic generations.
It is often forgotten that "extreme" ritual is no longer an "innovation" in the English Church; it has become the norm in a large number of parishes, and whole generations of Church people have grown up to whom it is the only familiar type of Christian worship. To attempt to "enforce the law" (whatever the law may be) would, therefore, seriously wound the consciences of a large number of people who are quite unconscious of having broken it.
Lamarck, Treviranus, Erasmus Dar win, Goethe, and Saint-Hilaire preached to deaf ears, for they advanced the theory that living beings had developed by a slow process of transmutation in successive generations from simpler ancestors, and in the beginning from simplest formless matter, without being able to demonstrate any existing mechanical causes by which such development must necessarily be brought about.
Thus, for example, as generations succeed one another, nervous disorders appear in various guise; epilepsy, megrim, insanity, asthma, hysteria, neurasthenia, a motley array at first sight, seemed to reveal themselves as terms of a morbid series; not only so, but certain disorders of other systems also might be members of the series, such as certain diseases of the skin, and even peculiar susceptibilities or immunities in respect of infections from without.
However the opinion of later generations may stand in respect of the Vivisection Act, it will surely appear to them that the other acts, largely based upon the results of experimental methods, strengthening and consolidating the medical profession, and fortifying the advance of medical education, led directly to a fundamental change in the circumstances of the people in respect of health.