Gelderland Sentence Examples
But Maximilian was regarded with suspicion by the states of Netherlands, and after suppressing a rising in Gelderland his position was further weakened by the death of his wife on the 27th of March 1482.
In 1494 he was again in the Netherlands, where he led an expedition against the rebels of Gelderland, assisted Perkin Warbeck to make a descent upon England, and formally handed over the government of the Low Countries to Philip. His attention was next turned to Italy, and, alarmed at the progress of Charles VIII.
The three succeeding years were mainly occupied with quarrels with the diet, with two invasions of France, and a war in Gelderland against Charles, count of Egmont, who claimed that duchy, and was supported by French troops.
The strip of coast from the mouth of the Scheldt to that of the Ems remained, however, in the hands of the free Frisians (q.v.), in alliance with whom against the Franks were the Saxons, who, pressing forward from the east, had occupied a portion of the districts known later as Gelderland, Overyssel and Drente.
Chief among these states were the duchy of Brabant, the counties of Flanders, Hainault, Holland, Gelderland, Limburg and Luxemburg, and the bishoprics of Utrecht and Liege.Advertisement
In the bishopric of Utrecht, in Gelderland and Friesland, the privileges accorded to Utrecht, Groningen, Zutphen, Stavoren, Leeuwarden followed rather on the model of those of the Rhenish " free cities " than of the Franco-Flemish commune.
Philip did not live to see Gelderland and Liege pass definitively under his rule; it was reserved for his son, Charles the Bold, to crush the independence of Liege (1468) and to incorporate Gelderland in his dominions (1473).
Gelderland, however, which had revolted after Nancy, had Charles of Egmont for its duke, and the two bishoprics of Liege and Utrecht were no longer subject to Burgundian authority.
These striking successes caused a wave of revolt to spread through Holland, Zeeland, Gelderland, Utrecht and Friesland.
The Union of Utrecht was signed on the 29th of January by the representatives of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Zutphen.Advertisement
This famous compact was the work of John of Nassau, at that time governor of Gelderland, and did not at first commend itself to his brother.
Goch became a town in 1231 and belonged to the dukes of Gelderland and later to the dukes of Cleves.
In 1588 he was appointed by the States-General captain and admiral-general of the Union, in 1590 he was elected stadtholder of Utrecht and Overysel, and in 1591 of Gelderland.
In 1233 the place came into the possession of the dukes of Gelderland and received the status of a town in 1247.
In later times it was held in fief, first from the dukes of Brabant, then from the dukes of Gelderland.Advertisement
In the south and east the destruction was arrested by the high sandy shores of Gooi, Veluwe, Voorst, and Gasterland in the provinces of Utrecht, Gelderland, Overysel, and Friesland respectively.
He took the part of the nobles against the burghers, but Duke Charles of Gelderland, jealous of the growing power of the house of Habsburg, intervened, put an end to the strife, and, in 1527, himself occupied the city.
Its industries include the manufacture of buttons, shoes, cigars and soap. The town dates from about 110o and was early an important fortified place; until 1371 it was the residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.
In the middle of the nave is the tomb of Gerhard III., count of Gelderland, and his wife Margaret of Brabant.
On the death of Frederick Henry William succeeded him, not only in the family honours and possessions, but in accordance with the terms of the act of survivance in all his official posts, as stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overyssel and Groningen and captain-general and admiral-general of the Union.Advertisement
On George's renewal of hostilities they transferred their allegiance to Duke Charles of Gelderland, in 1515.
Besides the dunes the only hilly regions of Holland are the southern half of the province of Limburg, the neighbourhood of Nijmwegen, Reliefand the hills of Utrecht, including the Gooi hills, the Veluwe region in Gelderland, the isolated hills in the middle and levels.
In the Waal ordinary high water is perceptible as far up as Zalt Bommel in Gelderland, in the Lek the maximum limits or ordinary and spring tides are at Vianen and Kuilenburg respectively, in the Ysel above the Katerveer at the junction of the Willemsvaart and past Wyhe midway between Zwolle and Deventer; and in the Maas near Heusden and at Well in Limburg.
Those of Friesland are of note for the abundance of their fish and their beauty of situation, on which last account the Uddelermeer in Gelderland is also celebrated.
Roebuck and deer are found in a wild state in Gelderland and Overysel, foxes are plentiful in the dry wooded regions on the borders of the country, and hares and rabbits in the dunes and other sandy stretches.Advertisement
Furze and the common juniper are regular dune plants, and may also be found on the heaths of Drente, Overysel and Gelderland.
Waste lands are chiefly composed of the barren stretches of heaths found in Drente, Overysel, Gelderland and North Brabant.
Zeeland and Groningen are the two principal agricultural provinces, and after them follow Limburg, North Brabant, Gelderland and South Holland.
Goats are most numerous in Gelderland and North Brabant.
The mineral resources of Holland give no encouragement to industrial activity, with the exception of the coal-mining in Limburg, the smelting of iron ore in a few furnaces in Overysel and Gelderland, the use of stone and gravel in the making of dikes and roads, and of clay in brickworks and potteries, the quarrying of stone at St Pietersberg, &c. Nevertheless the industry of the country has developed in a remarkable manner since the separation from Belgium.
The number of members in the first chamber is 50, South Holland sending io, North Holland 9, North Brabant and Gelderland each 6, Friesland 4, Overysel, Limburg and Groningen each 3, Zeeland, Utrecht and Drente each 2.
The duke of Anjou was solemnly inaugurated as duke of Brabant (February 1582), and shortly afterwards as duke of Gelderland, count of Flanders and lord of Friesland.
John William Friso had died IV young in 1711, leaving a posthumous son, William Charles Henry Friso, who was duly elected stadholder by the two provinces, Friesland and Groningen, which were always faithful to his family, and in 1722 he became also, though with very limited powers, stadholder of Gelderland.
The present Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1815 out of the duchies of Cleves, Berg, Gelderland and Jiilich, the ecclesiastical principalities of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the joint occupation of Cleves; and about a century later Upper Gelderland and Mors also became Prussian.
The citizens of Regensburg accepted their doctrines, which also made considerable progress in the Palatinate and in Austria, while the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von Wied, and William, duke of Gelderland, Cleves and Juliers, announced their secession from the Roman religion.
William was completely crushed; Gelderland was added to the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs, while the league of Schmalkalden impotently watched the proceedings.
The territory of the later duchy of Gelderland was inhabited at the beginning of the Christian era by the Teutonic tribes of the Sicambri and the Batavi, and later, during the period of the decline of the Roman empire, by the Chamavi and other Frank peoples.
There were in the i ith century a number of counts ruling in various parts of what was afterwards known as Gelderland.
In Gelderland the quarrel between them was converted into a dynastic struggle, the Hekeren recognizing Duke Reinald, while the Bronkhorsten set up his younger brother Edward.
To gain the support of the estates of Gelderland in this war of succession, Arnold had been compelled to make many concessions limiting the ducal prerogatives, and granting large powers to a council consisting of representatives of the nobles and the four chief cities, and his extravagance and exactions led to continual conflicts, in which the prince was compelled to yield to the demands of his subjects.
On the 23rd of February 1473 Arnold died, and Charles of Burgundy became duke of Gelderland.
Catherine, Adolf's sister, made an attempt to assert the rights of his son Charles to the duchy, but by 1483 Maximilian had crushed all opposition and established himself as duke of Gelderland.
It was, undoubtedly, a great and heroic achievement for the ruler of a petty state like Gelderland thus to assert and maintain his independence for a long period against the overwhelming power of the house of Austria.
Charles died the same year, and William, with the aid of the French, succeeded in maintaining his position in Gelderland for several years.
In 1579 the northern and greater part, comprising the three "quarters" of Nijmwegen, Arnhem and Zutphen, joined the Union of Utrecht and became the province of Gelderland in the Dutch republic. Only the quarter of Roermonde remained subject to the crown of Spain, and was called Spanish Gelderland.
By the peace of Paris of 1814 the bulk of Gelderland was incorporated in the United Netherlands, the remainder falling to Prussia, where it forms the circle of Dusseldorf.
The rise of the towns in Gelderland began in the 13th century, river commerce and markets being the chief cause of their prosperity, but they never attained to the importance of the larger cities in Holland and Utrecht, much less to that of the great Flemish municipalities.
The states of Gelderland first became a considerable power in the land during the reign of Arnold of Egmont (1423-1473).
From this time the absolute authority of the sovereign in Gelderland was broken.
In the time of the republic, as has been stated above, the province of Gelderland comprised the three first-named "quarters" only.
Ursula is warned by a dream to demand a respite of three years, during which time her companions are to be 1 i,000 virgins collected from both kingdoms. After vigorous exercise in all kinds of manly sports, to the admiration of the populace, they are carried off by a sudden breeze in eleven triremes to Thiel on the Waal in Gelderland.
Nor was the fissure in the Protestant ranks closed, and Charles took advantage of this disunion to conquer Gelderland and to mature his preparations for overthrowing the league of Schmalkalden.
The bishopric was weak, however, as compared with the neighbouring states, Holland, Gelderland and Brabant, from the mere fact of its ecclesiastical character.
The middle ages were marked by constant wars between the bishops of Utrecht and the counts of Holland and Gelderland.
The death of every bishop was always the signal for violent disputes among the neighbouring feudal states, each of them intriguing to secure the election of its own candidate; but, as stated above, Brabant and Gelderland had at last to recognize the fact of the supremacy of Holland over the see.
From Mary of Gelderland, the queen regent, she purchased the promise of help at the price of surrendering Berwick.
Like Drente on the north and Gelderland on the south, Overysel consists of a sandy flat relieved by hillocks, and is covered with waste stretches of heath and patches of wood and high fen.
The alliance ensured for Edward in his French wars the support of Philippa's influential kindred; and before starting on his French campaign he secured troops from William the Good, as well as from the count of Gelderland, the count of Julick, and the emperor Louis the Bavarian.
By the second Prussia secured some small additions of territory, including part of Gelderland and Neuchatel; in return France definitely and finally obtained the principality of Orange.
The provincial government house occupies the site of the former palace of the dukes of Gelderland.
Beyond is the popular summer resort of Velp, with the castle of Biljoen built by Charles, duke of Gelderland, in 1530, and the beautiful park of the ancient castle of Rozendaal in the vicinity.
The first account of it is in connexion with a tournament given there by Reinald I., count of Gelderland, in the beginning of the 14th century, and it ever after remained the favourite residence of the counts and dukes of Gelderland.
It was the seat of an independent lordship until 1402, after which time it was held in fief from the dukes of Gelderland.
In 1233 Otto II., count of Gelderland, chose this spot as his residence, conferred municipal rights on the town, and fortified it.
In 1514 Charles of Egmont, duke of Gelderland, took it from the Spaniards; but in 1543 it fell to the emperor Charles V., who made it the seat of the council of Gelderland.
The death of the duke of Anjou at Ban (1384) gave preponderant influence to Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy, who increased the large and fruitless expenses of his Burgunclian policy to such a point that on the return of a last unfortunate expedition into Gelderland Charles VI., who had been made by him to marry Isabel of Bavaria, took the governMadness ment from his uncles on the 3rd of May 1389, and vi.
Since he could not dismember the kingdom of France, his only course was to reconstitute the ancient kingdom of Lotharingia; while the conquest of the principality of Liege and of the duchy of Gelderland, and the temporary occupation of Alsace, pledged to him by Sigismund of Austria, made him greedy for Germany.
In 1472-1473 Charles bought the reversion of the duchy of Gelderland from its old duke, Arnold, whom he had supported against the rebellion of his son.
Historically it was part of the duchy of Gelderland, which is treated separately above.
The main portion of Gelderland north of the Rhine and the Old Ysel forms as it were an extension of the province of Overysel, being composed of diluvial sand and gravel, covered with sombre heaths and patches of fen.
Gelderland is intersected by the main railway lines, which are largely supplemented by steam-tram railways.
It was originally a hunting-lodge of the dukes of Gelderland, but in its present form dates chiefly from the time of the Stadtholder William III., king of England.
Copies were smuggled out to encourage supportive risings in Gelderland, West Frisia and Minden in January 1535.
For their separate local histories and their dynasties, their wars and political relations with one another and with neighbouring countries, reference must be made to the separate articles Flanders, Holland, Brabant, Gelderland, Limburg, Luxemburg, Utrecht, Liege.
Not far from Zutphen on the west at Monnikhuizen once stood the Carthusian convent founded by Reinald III., duke of Gelderland, in 1342 and dissolved in 1572.
He was succeeded in his dignities by his younger brother Frederick Henry (see Frederick Henry, prince of Orange), who was appointed stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Overyssel and Gelderland, captain and adjutant-general of the Union and head of the Council of State.