Gay-lussac sentence example

gay-lussac
  • The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
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  • Gay-Lussac in 181q, is usually obtained in the form of its barium salt by suspending freshly precipitated hydrated manganese dioxide in water and passing sulphur dioxide into the mixture until all is dissolved; the barium salt is then precipitated by the careful addition of barium hydroxide.
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  • Three years later, at an unusually early age, he was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1804 he accompanied Gay Lussac on the first balloon ascent undertaken for scientific purposes.
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  • The discovery of boron by Gay Lussac and Davy in 1809 led Berzelius to investigate silica (silex).
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  • Hydrobromic and hydriodic acids were investigated by Gay Lussac and Balard, while hydrofluoric acid received considerable attention at the hands of Gay Lussac, Thenard and Berzelius.
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  • Of the halogen compounds of phosphorus, the trichloride was discovered by Gay Lussac and Thenard, while the pentachloride was obtained by Davy.
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  • The preparation of crystalline boron in 1856 by Wohler and Sainte Claire Deville showed that this element also existed in allotropic forms, amorphous boron having been obtained simultaneously and independently in 1809 by Gay Lussac and Davy.
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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
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  • Instances had already been recorded of cases where a halogen element replaced hydrogen with the production of a closely allied substance: Gay Lussac had prepared cyanogen chloride from hydrocyanic acid; Faraday, hexachlorethane from ethylene dichloride, &c. Here the electronegative halogens exercised a function similar to electro-positive hydrogen.
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  • After studying at Berlin, he went to Stockholm to work under Berzelius, and later to Paris, where he studied for a while under Gay-Lussac and Thenard.
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  • In common with Gay Lussac and Davy, he held subterraneous thermic disturbances to be probably due to the contact of water with metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths.
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  • The existence of acids not containing oxygen was, in itself, sufficient to overthrow this idea, but, although Berthollet had shown, in 1789, that sulphuretted hydrogen (or hydrosulphuric acid) contained no oxygen, Lavoisier's theory held its own until the researches of Davy, Gay-Lussac and Thenard on hydrochloric acid and chlorine, and of Gay-Lussac on hydrocyanic acid, established beyond all cavil that oxygen was not essential to acidic properties.
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  • This view, which was specially supported by Gay-Lussac and Leopold Gmelin and accepted by Berzelius, necessitated that all acids were monobasic. The untenability of this theory was proved by Thomas Graham's investigation of the phosphoric acids; for he then showed that the ortho- (ordinary), pyroand metaphosphoric acids contained respectively 3, 2 and I molecules of " basic water " (which were replaceable by metallic oxides) and one molecule of phosphoric oxide, P2 05.
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  • In historical order we may briefly enumerate the following: - in 1811, Gay-Lussac volatilized a weighed quantity of liquid, which must be readily volatile, by letting it rise up a short tube containing mercury and standing inverted in a vessel holding the same metal.
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  • This method was developed by Hofmann in 1868, who replaced the short tube of Gay-Lussac by an ordinary barometer tube, thus effecting the volatilization in a Torricellian vacuum.
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  • As Gay-Lussac and Humboldt showed in 1805, gases are absorbed in less amount by a saline solution than by pure water.
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  • This method was followed by that proposed by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, who decomposed molten caustic soda with red-hot iron; and this in turn was succeeded by Brunner's process of igniting sodium carbonate with charcoal.
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  • The peroxide, K204, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard, is obtained by heating the metal in an excess of slightly moist air or oxygen.
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  • The hydrosulphide, KHS, was obtained by Gay-Lussac on heating the metal in sulphuretted hydrogen, and by Berzelius on acting with sulphuretted hydrogen on potassium carbonate at a dull red heat.
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  • Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.
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  • Gay-Lussac showed that it was an element.
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  • Gay-Lussac. It is present in varying amounts in certain plants, being a product of the hydrolysis of the cyanogenetic glucosides, e.g.
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  • In Gay-Lussac's alcoholometer the scale is divided into 100 parts corresponding to the presence of 1, 2, ...
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  • Tralles's hydrometer differs from Gay-Lussac's only in being graduated at 4° C. instead of 15° C., and taking alcohol of density 7939 at 15.5° C. for pure alcohol instead of 7947 as taken by GayLussac (Keene's Handbook of Hydrometry).
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  • He thus enunciated the law of the expansion of gases, stated some months later by Gay-Lussac. In the two or three years following the reading of these essays, he published several papers on similar topics, that on the "Absorption of gases by water and other liquids" (1803), containing his "Law of partial pressures."
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  • He selected the administration of tobaccos, addressing himself especially to chemical researches under the guidance of Gay-Lussac, and gave striking proof of ability in two papers on the combinations of phosphorus with hydrogen and oxygen, published in Annales de Chimie et de Physique (1835 and 1837).
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  • Young Gay-Lussac received his early education at home under the direction of the abbe Bourdieux and other masters, and in 1794 was sent to Paris to prepare for the Ecole Polytechnique, into which he was admitted at the:end of 1797 after a brilliant examination.
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  • The new assistant scarcely came up to expectations in respect of confirming certain theoretical views of his master's by the experiments set him to that end, and appears to have stated the discrepancy without reserve; but Berthollet nevertheless quickly recognized the ability displayed, and showed his appreciation not only by desiring to be Gay-Lussac's "father in science," but also by making him in 1807 an original member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
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  • But this elevation was not considered sufficient by Gay-Lussac, who therefore made a second ascent by himself on the 16th of September, when the balloon rose 7016 metres (about 23,000 ft.) above sea-level.
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  • Brisson, and Gay-Lussac hurried back to Paris in the hope, which was gratified, that he would be elected to the seat thus vacated in the Academy.
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  • About this time Gay-Lussac's work, although he by no means entirely abandoned physical questions, became of a more chemical character; and in three instances it brought him into direct rivalry with Sir Humphry Davy.
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  • Gay-Lussac, it is said, was nettled at the idea of a foreigner making such a discovery in Paris, and vigorously took up the study of the new substance, the result being the elaborate "Memoire sur 1'iode," which appeared in the Ann.
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  • After this research Gay-Lussac's attention began to be distracted from purely scientific investigation.
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  • Gay-Lussac was patient, persevering, accurate to punctiliousness, perhaps a little cold and reserved, and not unaware of his great ability.
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  • The most complete list of Gay-Lussac's papers is contained in the Royal Society's Catalogue of Scientific Papers, which enumerates 148, exclusive of others written jointly with Humboldt, Thenard, Welter and Liebig.
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  • In 1816, along with Gay-Lussac, he started the Annales de chimie et de physique, and in 1818 or 1819 he proceeded along with Biot to execute geodetic operations on the coasts of France, England and Scotland.
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  • In this supplement Laplace gave many important applications of the theory, and compared the results with the experiments of Louis Joseph Gay Lussac.
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  • In it he disproved the idea advanced by Gay Lussac that potassium was a compound of hydrogen, not an element; but on the other hand he cast doubts on the elementary 1 Edmund Davy (1785-1857) became professor of chemistry at Cork Institution in 1813, and at the Royal Dublin Society in 1826.
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  • Phosphorus trichloride or phosphorous chloride, PC13, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1808, is obtained by passing a slow current of chlorine over heated red phosphorus or through a solution of ordinary phosphorus in carbon disulphide (purifying in the latter case by fractional distillation).
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  • The first step towards securing this requirement was taken as early as 1827 by Gay-Lussac, who discovered that the nitrous fumes, otherwise carried away from the lead chambers by the waste atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen, could be retained by bringing the gases into contact with moderately strong sulphuric acid, the result being the formation of nitroso-sulphuric acid: 2H 2 SO 4 + N203 = 2S0 2 (OH) (ONO) + H 2 O, and the latter remaining dissolved in sulphuric acid as "nitrous vitriol."
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  • The reaction is then: 2SO 2 (OH) (ONO) + SO 2 + 2H 2 O = 3H 2 SO 4 + 2NO; that is to say, all the "nitre" is returned to the chambers in the shape of NO; the sulphuric acid employed in the Gay-Lussac process is not merely recovered, but an additional quantity is formed from fresh S02; as the heat of the burner-gases also comes into play, much water is evaporated, which supplies part of the steam required for the working of the chambers; and the acid issues from the apparatus in a "denitrated" and sufficiently concentrated state (78 to 80% H2S04) to be used over again for absorbing nitrous vapours or any other purpose desired.
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  • This gas is now passed through the Gay-Lussac tower, which somewhat resembles the Glover tower, but is usually filled with coke, over which sulphuric acid of about 80% H2504 trickles down in sufficient quantity to retain the nitrous vapours.
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  • The size of the Glover towers, and more especially that of the Gay-Lussac towers, has been progressively increased, and thereby the cube of the lead chambers themselves has been diminished to a much greater extent.
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  • "packing" the towers have been rendered more durable, and in the case of the Gay-Lussac tower the loss of nitre has been diminished by avoiding the use of a coke packing, which acts upon that substance as a reducing agent.
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  • In many respects it resembles chlorine in its chemical behaviour, a circumstance noted by Gay-Lussac; it combines directly with hydrogen (at 50o° to 550° C.) to form hydrocyanic acid, and with chlorine, bromine, iodine and sulphur, to form cyanogen chloride, &c.; it also combines directly with zinc, cadmium and iron to form cyanides of these metals.
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  • Tralles's hydrometer differs from Gay-Lussac's only in being graduated at 4° C. instead of 15° C., and taking alcohol of density 7939 at 15.5° C. for pure alcohol instead of 7947 as taken by GayLussac (Keene's Handbook of Hydrometry).
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