Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
It was reached from Rome by the Via Flaminia, constructed in 220 B.C., and from that time onwards was the bulwark of the Roman power in Cisalpine Gaul, to which province it even gave its name.
In 392 Valentinian was secretly put to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition which Theodosius was heading against him.
In 16, when governor of Gaul, he was defeated by the Sigambri (Sygambri), Usipetes and Tencteri, German tribes who had crossed the Rhine.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the wall of Antoninus to the shores of Kent.
Four years later he was murdered at Vienne in Gaul, probably at the instigation of his Frankish general Arbogast, with whom he had quarrelled.
In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, who entrusted Pollio with the administration of Gallia Transpadana.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
As such it was assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Gaul, and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy in the strict sense of the term.
The eighth region, termed Gallia Cispadana, comprised the southern portion of Cisalpine Gaul, and was bounded on the north (as its name implied) by the river Padus or P0, from above Placentia to its mouth.
The road system of Cisalpine Gaul was mainly co1~ litioned by the rivers which had to be crossed, and the Alpine passes which had to be approached.
C. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained this dignity about 715, and his territory included the southwestern part of Gaul from the Loire to the Pyrenees.
Obtained the primacy over Gaul and Germany.
The tribes inhabiting Gaul in Caesar's time, and belonging to one or other of the three races distinguished by him, were numerous.
All Gaul was now Roman territory.
Of the Greek Euchologion contain numerous prayers to be offered over animals sacrificed; and in the form of agape such sacrifices were common in Italy and Gaul on the natalis dies of a saint, and Paulinus of Nola, the friend of Augustine, in his Latin poems, describes them (c. 400) in detail.
A Gaul by birth, he was a native of Arelate (Arles), but at an early age began his lifelong travels through Greede, Italy and the East.
Dubos, but singularly transforming it, he maintained that those invasions were not marked by the violent and destructive character usually attributed to them; that the penetration of the German barbarians into Gaul was a slow process; that the Germans submitted to the imperial administration; that the political institutions of theMerovingians had their origins in the Roman laws at least as much as, if not more than, in German usages; and, consequently, that there was no conquest of Gaul by the Germans.
He is said to have made war not only against lesser rulers in Ireland, but also in Britain and Gaul, stories of his exploits being related in the Book of Leinster and the Book of Ballymote, both of which, however, are many centuries later than the time of Niall.
Under Charlemagne, the Jews, who had begun to settle in Gaul in the time of Caesar, were more than tolerated.
BELGAE, a Celtic people first mentioned by Caesar, who states that they formed the third part of Gaul, and were separated from the Celtae by the Sequana (Seine) and Matrona (Marne).
Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899); M.
23) that in the year 387 the churches of Gaul kept Easter on the 21st of March, those of Italy on the 18th of April, and those of Egypt on the 25th of April; and it appears from a letter of Leo the Great (Epist.
In Gaul we with many other cities kept Easter on the fourteenth calends of May, others, as the Spaniards, on the twelfth calends of April."
Its bishopric founded by St Trophimus in the 1st century, was in the 5th century the primatial see of Gaul; it was suppressed in 1790.
- xlvii.) traces the history of the West Goths from the Hunnish invasion to the downfall of the Gothic kingdom in Gaul under Alaric II.
Inhabited by the Rauraci and the Sequani, it formed part of ancient Gaul, and was therefore included in the Roman empire in the provinces of Germania Superior and Maxima Sequanorum.
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899); G.
The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
Gaul, Die Abfassungsverhdltnisse der pseudojustinischen Cohortatio ad Graecos (1902); Adolf Harnack, Diodor von Tarsus.
But Lepidus, having levied troops in his province of Transalpine Gaul, returned to Rome at the head of an army.
DRUIDISM, the name usually given to the religious system of the ancient inhabitants of Gaul and the British Islands.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
He assumed the title of archchancellor of Gaul and Arles (or Burgundy), and in 1315 admitted the claim of the archbishop of Cologne to the highest place of ter the archbishop of Mainz among the spiritual princes of the empire.
In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
GAUL, the modern form of the Roman Gallia, the name of the two chief districts known to the Romans as inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples, (a) Gallia Cisalpina (or Citerior, " Hither"), i.e.
North Italy between Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulterior, " Further"), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e.
(b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek colony of Massilia was founded (?
Roman armies began to enter it about 218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from 1 When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as "Gallia Bracata" (bracae, incorrectly braccae, " trousers"), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the rest of Gaul as "Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long.
According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae.
Prominent among them, and dwelling in the division occupied by the Celts, were the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Aedui, in the basins of the Rhodanus and its tributary the Arar (Saone), who, he says, were reckoned the three most powerful nations in all Gaul; the Arverni in the mountains of Cebenna; the Senones and Carnutes in the basin of the Liger; the Veneti and other Armorican tribes between the mouths of the Liger and Sequana.
The Gallic Wars (58-51) of Caesar (q.v.) added all the rest of Gaul, north-west of the Cevennes, to the Rhine and the Ocean, and in 49 also annexed Massilia.
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
(v.) The fifth division of Gaul was the Rhenish military frontier.
The armies in these districts formed the defence of Gaul against German invaders.
They also helped to keep Gaul itself in order and their presence explains why the four provinces of Gaul proper contained no troops.
In 407 a multitude of Franks, Vandals, &c., burst over Gaul: Roman rule practically ceased and the three kingdoms of the Visigoths, Burgundians and Franks began to form.
For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns (ARLES, NiMES, ORANGE, &C.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &C.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
The 10th century is the time of the settlement of the Northmen in Gaul, and of the change in religion and language of which the softening of the name is the outward sign.
The same spirit of enterprise which brought the Northmen into Gaul seems to carry the Normans out of Gaul into every corner of the world.
Elsewhere, as the settlers in Gaul became French, the emigrants from Gaul became English, Irish, Scottish, and whatever we are to call the present inhabitants of Sicily and southern Italy.
Settled in Gaul, the Scandinavian from a seafaring man became a landsman.
England indeed had, possibly in a somewhat ruder form, the earlier style of Romanesque once common to England with Italy, Gaul and Germany.