Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
594), who begins his history of the Franks by lamenting the decay of Latin literature in Gaul.
While Latin was declining in Gaul, even Greek was not unknown in Ireland, and the Irish passion for travel led to the spread of Greek learning in the west of Europe.
Later, when Gaul had been subdued, the place was dismantled and its Gaulish inhabitants resettled 4 m.
The colony of Massilia brought it into Gaul as 58.2-54.9.
It was reached from Rome by the Via Flaminia, constructed in 220 B.C., and from that time onwards was the bulwark of the Roman power in Cisalpine Gaul, to which province it even gave its name.
In 392 Valentinian was secretly put to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition which Theodosius was heading against him.
In 16, when governor of Gaul, he was defeated by the Sigambri (Sygambri), Usipetes and Tencteri, German tribes who had crossed the Rhine.
During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the wall of Antoninus to the shores of Kent.
Four years later he was murdered at Vienne in Gaul, probably at the instigation of his Frankish general Arbogast, with whom he had quarrelled.
In the division of the provinces, Gaul fell to Antony, who entrusted Pollio with the administration of Gallia Transpadana.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
As such it was assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Gaul, and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy in the strict sense of the term.
The eighth region, termed Gallia Cispadana, comprised the southern portion of Cisalpine Gaul, and was bounded on the north (as its name implied) by the river Padus or P0, from above Placentia to its mouth.
The road system of Cisalpine Gaul was mainly co1~ litioned by the rivers which had to be crossed, and the Alpine passes which had to be approached.
c. 736), king, or duke, of Aquitaine, obtained this dignity about 715, and his territory included the southwestern part of Gaul from the Loire to the Pyrenees.
obtained the primacy over Gaul and Germany.
The tribes inhabiting Gaul in Caesar's time, and belonging to one or other of the three races distinguished by him, were numerous.
All Gaul was now Roman territory.
Its bishopric founded by St Trophimus in the 1st century, was in the 5th century the primatial see of Gaul; it was suppressed in 1790.
For a century, from Maximian to Maximus (286-388), it was (except under Julian, who preferred to reside in Paris) the administrative centre from which Gaul, Britain and Spain were ruled, so that the poet Ausonius could describe it as the second metropolis of the empire, or "Rome beyond the Alps."
He assumed the title of archchancellor of Gaul and Arles (or Burgundy), and in 1315 admitted the claim of the archbishop of Cologne to the highest place of ter the archbishop of Mainz among the spiritual princes of the empire.
In the height of their power the Romans had surveyed and explored all the coasts of the Mediterranean, Italy, Greece, the Balkan Peninsula, Spain, Gaul, western Germany and southern Britain.
GAUL, the modern form of the Roman Gallia, the name of the two chief districts known to the Romans as inhabited by Celtic-speaking peoples, (a) Gallia Cisalpina (or Citerior, " Hither"), i.e.
north Italy between Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulterior, " Further"), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e.
(b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek colony of Massilia was founded (?
Roman armies began to enter it about 218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from 1 When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as "Gallia Bracata" (bracae, incorrectly braccae, " trousers"), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the rest of Gaul as "Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long.
According to this authority, Gaul was at that time divided among three peoples, more or less distinct from one another, the Aquitani, the Gauls, who called themselves Celts, and the Belgae.
13), giving an account of the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and the Gaul.
Mainly on account of its strategic position, Diocletian on his reorganization of the empire made Trier the capital not only of Belgica Prima, but of the whole "diocese" of Gaul.
It is not, however, until the middle of the 1st century B.C. that we have any detailed knowledge of pre-Roman Gaul.
(i) Narbonensis, that is, the land between Alps, sea and Cevennes, extending up the Rhone to Vienne, was as Augustus found it, distinct in many ways from the rest of Gaul.
Even in the 3rd century the cult of Celtic deities (Hercules Magusanus, Deusoniensis, &c.) were revived, the Celtic leuga reintroduced instead of the Roman mile on official milestones, and a brief effort made to establish an independent, though romanized, Gaul under Postumus and his short-lived successors (A.D.
451, but the general, Aetius, was "the last of the Romans," and in 486 Clovis the Frank ended the last vestige of Roman rule in Gaul.
286-293, was a Menapian from Belgic Gaul, a man of humble origin, who in his early days had been a pilot.
Ridgeway (Early Age of Greece, 1901) considers that the Belgic tribes were Cimbri, "who had moved directly across the Rhine into north-eastern Gaul."
Under Diocletian, Belgica Prima (capital, Augusta Trevirorum, Trier) and Secunda (capital, Reims) formed part of the "diocese" of Gaul.
He was, however, restrained from actually proceeding to enforce the decree of excommunication, owing to the remonstrance of Irenaeus and the bishops of Gaul.
He tells us that all men of any rank and dignity in Gaul were included among the Druids or the nobles.
As they were not a hereditary caste and enjoyed exemption from service in the field as well as from payment of taxes, admission to the order was eagerly sought after by the youth of Gaul.
Britain was the headquarters of Druidism, but once every year a general assembly of the order was held within the territories of the Carnutes in Gaul.
Stilicho and Serena were named guardians of the youthful Honorius when the latter was created joint emperor in 394 with special jurisdiction over Italy, Gaul, Britain, Spain and Africa, and Stilicho was even more closely allied to the imperial family in the following year by betrothing his daughter Maria to his ward and by receiving the dying injunctions of Theodosius to care for his children.
He thwarted the efforts of Alaric to seize lands in Italy by his victories at Pollentia and Verona in 402-3 and forced him to return to Illyricum, but was criticized for having withdrawn the imperial forces from Britain and Gaul to employ against the Goths.
that Stilicho was plotting with Alaric and with Germans in Gaul and taking other treasonable steps in order to make his own son Eucherius emperor.
Alaric died in the same year, and in 412 Honorius concluded peace with his brother-in-law and successor, Ataulphus (Adolphus), who married the emperor's sister Placidia and removed with his troops to southern Gaul.
Freeman, "Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" in Eng.
He returned through Gaul into Spain, and then proceeded to Mauretania, where he suppressed an insurrection.
Approaching the abbey he resolved to do as his favourite hero Amadis de Gaul did - keep a vigil all night before the Lady altar and then lay aside his worldly armour to put on that of Christ.
Another far more obscure town in Gaul, near Reims, also bore the name.
Nevertheless, Vitellius, the occupant of the throne, had on his side the veteran legions of Gaul and Germany, Rome's best troops.
In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.
Caesar sold on a single occasion in Gaul 63,000 captives.
There was a regular importation to Rome of slaves, brought to some extent from Africa, Spain and Gaul, but chiefly from Asiatic countries - Bithynia, Galatia, Cappadocia and Syria.
450), an ecclesiastical writer of the Western Church of whose personal history hardly anything is known, except that he was a native of Gaul, possibly brother of St Loup, bishop of Troyes, that he became a monk and priest at Lerinum, and that he died in or about 450.
St Augustine had earlier introduced the custom into the English Church, learning it on his way through Gaul.
It is uncertain at what period the use of the pastoral staff was introduced; but the evidence tends to show that it was about the 5th century, in Gaul or Spain.
The pastoral staff was certainly in use in Gaul in the 6th century (Vita S.
ALESIA, the ancient name for a hill in central France, now Alise-Ste-Reine (department Cote d'Or), where in 52 B.C. Caesar besieged the Gaulish national leader Vercingetorix within enormous entrenchments, forced him to surrender, and thus practically ended his conquest of Gaul.
A Roman named' Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army, upon which Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyons, where, through the treachery of the governor, he was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on.
After three days at sea the traders landed, possibly on the west coast of Gaul, and journeyed for twenty-eight days through a desert.
his natural diffidence, and opposition on the part of his relatives, Patrick resolved to return to Gaul in order to prepare himself for his mission.
He then invaded the territory of Arras, but was severely defeated at Hesdin-le-Vieux by Aetius, the commander of the Roman army in Gaul.
In any case, eventually, Franks fought (451) in the Roman ranks at the great battle of Mauriac (the Catalaunian Fields), which arrested the progress of Attila into Gaul; and in the Vita Lupi, which, though undoubtedly of later date, is a recension of an earlier document, the name of Meroveus appears among the combatants.
He died in 481 and was succeeded by his son Clovis, who conquered the whole of Gaul with the exception of the kingdom of Burgundy and Provence.
The popes had, from time to time, sent the pallium or the dalmatic - specifically Roman vestments - as gifts of honour to various distinguished prelates; Britain, converted by a Roman mission, had adopted the Roman use, and English missionaries had carried this into the newly Christianized parts of Germany; but the great Churches of Spain and Gaul preserved their own traditions in vestments as in other matters.
Whatever effect the reinvigoration of the papacy may have had in hastening the process, the original impulse towards the adoption of the Roman rite had proceeded, not from Rome, but from Spain and Gaul; it was the natural result of the lively intercourse between the Churches of these countries and the Holy See.
If Spain and Gaul borrowed from Rome, they also exercised a reciprocal influence on the Roman use; it is interesting to note in this connexion, that of the names of the liturgical vestments a very large proportion are not of Roman origin, and that the non-Roman names tended to supersede the Roman in Rome itself.'
' Apart from the archiepiscopal pallium, the Churches of Spain and Gaul had need to borrow from Rome only the dalmatic, maniple and liturgical shoes.
On the other hand, it was from Spain and Gaul that Rome probably received the orarium (stole) as an ensign of the major orders.
Chinon (CaIno) existed before the Roman occupation of Gaul, and was from early times an important fortress.
According to the legend a raven settled on his helmet during his combat with a gigantic Gaul, and distracted the enemy's attention by flying in his face.
Cicero was in friendly relations with it, and exerted influence that it might retain its property in Gaul, so that it is obvious that it had then recovered municipal rights.
The Hexaplar text of the LXX., as reduced by Origen into greater conformity with the Hebrew by the aid of subsequent Greek versions, was further the mother (d) of the Psalterium gallicanum - that is, of Jerome's second revision of the Psalter (385) by the aid of the Hexaplar text; this edition became current in Gaul and ultimately was taken into the Vulgate; (e) of the SyroHexaplar version (published by Bugati, 1820, and in facsimile from the famous Ambrosian MS. by Ceriani, Milan, 1874).
According to this writer Gerbert's fame began to spread over Gaul, Germany and Italy, till it roused the envy of Otric of Saxony, in whom we may recognize Octricus of Magdeburg, the favourite scholar of Otto I., and, in earlier days, the instructor of St Adalbert, the apostle of the Bohemians.
The tore (torques), or cord of gold worn round the neck, was introduced from Gaul.
Ursinus and the leading men of his faction were expelled from Rome, and afterwards from central Italy, or even interned in Gaul.
It was an easy inference for the French mind that the Rhine should be the boundary throughout and the Gaul of Caesar restored.
We learn that in the year 418 " the Romans collected all the treasures that were in Britain, and hid some of them in the earth, that no man might afterwards find them, and conveyed some with them into Gaul."
Pliny states that glass was made in Gaul, and there is reason to believe that it was made in many parts of the country and on a considerable scale.
30), he was sent into Gaul at the time of the emperor Decius.
His intention of carrying the war into Gaul was anticipated by Constantine, who marched into Italy.
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
In Roman Gaul this territory formed part of the diocese of Auch (civitas Ausciorum), which corresponded roughly with the later duchy of Gascony.
His chief exploits in Gaul were the defeat of the Treviri under Indutiomarus in 54, his expedition against Lutetia (Paris) in 52, and his victory over Camulogenus and the Aedui in the same year.
These are shown with coulter and share and also with wheels, which had in earlier times been fitted to ploughs by the Greeks and also by the natives of Cis-Alpine Gaul (Pliny, Hist.
It was the Roman patron and client relationship which had remained in existence into the days of the empire, in later times less important perhaps legally than socially, and which had been reinforced in Gaul by very similar practices in use among the Celts before their conquest.
These practices the Frankish conquerors of Gaul found in full possession of society when they entered into that province.
This need was greatly increased when the Arab attack on southern Gaul forced them to transform a large part of the old Frankish foot army into cavalry.'
d'Arbois de Jubainville, for example (Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe, Paris, 1877), maintained that besides possessing Spain, Gaul, Italy and the British Isles, " Iberian " peoples penetrated into the Balkan peninsula, and occupied a part of northern Africa, Corsica and Sardinia; and it is now generally accepted that a race with fairly uniform characteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern Africa and Corsica.
In middle age he became a convert to Christianity, and about 306 he went to Gaul (Treves) on the invitation of Constantine the Great, and became tutor to his eldest son, Crispus.
It seems to have been begun in Nicomedia about 304 and finished in Gaul before 311.
His father, praefectus praetorio in Gaul, was a man of great wealth, who entrusted his son's education, with the best of results, to Ausonius.
Another famous hero and centre of a 14th-century cycle of romance was Amadis of Gaul; its earliest form is Spanish, although the Portuguese have claimed it as a translation from their own language.
in Gaul (Lindsay, Latin Language, p. 88).
In 412 he quitted Italy and led his army across the Alps into Gaul.
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von Bern - i.e.
7) - but three centuries later and on the authority of earlier writers unnamed - that he was exiled to Gaul and committed suicide at Vienne.
The work, begun by them, was carried on by younger contemporaries and successors; by Statius Caecilius (c.220-168), an Insubrian Gaul, in comedy; in tragedy by M.
While he shows the persuasive art of an orator by presenting the subjugation of Gaul and his own action in the Civil War in the light most favourable to his claim to rule the Roman world, he is entirely free from the Roman fashion of self-laudation or disparagement of an adversary.
In the two preceding periods the rapid diffusion of literary culture following the Social War and the first Civil War was seen to awaken into new life the elements of original genius in Italy and Cisalpine Gaul.
Something of the same may be seen in Rutilius Namatianus, a Gaul by birth, who wrote in 416 a description of his voyage from the capital to his native land, which contains the most glowing eulogy of Rome ever penned by an ancient hand.
From 464 to 486 he governed that part of Gaul which lies between the Maas, the Scheldt and the Seine, and was termed "king of the Romans" by the German invaders, Franks, Burgundians and Visigoths, who already occupied the rest of Gaul.
And now, throughout the provinces of Asia Minor, in Rome, and even in Gaul, amidst the raging of persecution, attention was attracted to this remarkable movement.
2 In Gaul and Rome the prospects of Montanism seemed for a while more favourable.
In ancient Gaul it was the country of the Nitiobroges with Aginnum for its capital, and in the 4th century it was the Civitas Agennensium which was a part of Aquitania Secunda and which formed the diocese of Agen.
1 While all critics agree in tracing back this form to the earliest years of the 2nd century, and regard it as the archetype of all similar Western creeds, there is great diversity of opinion on its relation to Eastern forms. Kattenbusch maintains that the Roman Creed reached Gaul and Africa in the course of the 2nd century, and perhaps all districts of the West that possessed Christian congregations, also the western end of Asia Minor possibly in connexion with Polycarp's visit to Rome A.D.
The plain fact is that the same facts were taught in Palestine, Asia Minor and Gaul, whether gathered up in a parallel creed form or not.
In the 6th century we find creed forms in use in Gaul which include them, but include also other variations distinguishing them from the form which we seek.
and commentaries, and after a searching investigation concluded that the creed was written in Gaul between 420 and 430, probably by Hilary of Arles.
LUGUDUNUM, or LUGDUNUM, an old Celtic place-name (fort or hill of the god Lugos or Lug) used by the Romans for several towns in ancient Gaul.
Lugudunum controlled the trade of its two rivers, and that which passed from northern Gaul to the Mediterranean or vice versa; it had a mint; it was the capital of all northern Gaul, despite its position in the south, and its wealth was such that, when Rome was burnt in Nero's reign, its inhabitants subscribed largely to the relief of the Eternal City.
From Aquileia he went to Gaul (366-370), visiting in turn the principal places in that country, from Narbonne and Toulouse in the south to Treves on the north-east frontier.
Caesar describes it as one of the oldest and most important towns in Gaul.
This epoch was introduced in Italy in the 6th century, by Dionysius the Little, a Roman abbot, and began to be used in Gaul in the 8th, though it was not generally followed in that country till a century later.
108, &c.); in Rome by its inclusion in the Muratorian canon, and in Gaul by its use in the Epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eus.
Auch (Elimberris) was the capital of a Celtiberian tribe, the Ausci, and under the Roman domination was one of the most important cities in Gaul.
These fourteen are the only monasteries of which we have any knowledge as being founded before St Benedict's death; for the mission of St Placidus to Sicily must certainly be regarded as mere romance, nor does there seem to be any solid reason for viewing more favourably the mission of St Maurus to Gaul.
In the course of the 7th century Benedictine life was gradually introduced in Gaul,and in the 8th it was carried into the Germanic lands from England.
In 431 he appeared in Rome to interview Pope Celestine regarding the teachings of St Augustine and then all traces of him are lost until 440, the first year of the pontificate of Leo I., who had been in Gaul and thus probably had met Prosper.
c. 450) in his brief but influential Commonitorium; again from southern Gaul.
It is thus the concluding scene of the persecution under Marcus Aurelius, which is best known from the sufferings of the churches of Vienne and Lyons in South Gaul.
Two years later he put down a rising of the Aquitanians in Gaul, and crossed the Rhine to punish the aggressions of the Germans.
In southern Italy, probably under Greek influence, and in Milan (where the custom still survives) the diaconal stole was put on over the dalmatic. Similarly in Spain and Gaul, anterior to the Carolingian age, the stole was worn by deacons over the alba or outer tunic.
In Gaul and Spain we already find it in the 6th century; our first evidence for its use in Rome is of the 8th century, which is however, of course, no proof that it was not in use earlier.
In all probability it was introduced straight from the East into Spain and Gaul.
The Histoire de la Gaule meridionale sous la domination des conquerants germains (4 vols., 1836) was the only completed section of a general history of southern Gaul which he had projected.
In 39 he set out with an army to Gaul, nominally to punish the Germans for having invaded Roman territory, but in reality to get money by plunder and confiscation.
AMBIORIX, prince of the Eburones, a tribe of Belgian Gaul.
The Arduenna Silva was the most extensive forest of Gaul, and Caesar (Bello Gallico, lib.
In the Western Church, on the other hand, we hear nothing of the order till the 4th century, when an attempt seems to have been made to introduce it into Gaul.
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.
Besides establishing a certain unity in Gaul, Charles saved it from a very great peril.
In 720 they crossed the Pyrenees, seized Narbonensis, a dependency of the kingdom of the Visigoths, and advanced on Gaul.
By his able policy Odo succeeded in arresting their progress for some years; but a new vali, Abdur Rahman, a member of an extremely fanatical sect, resumed the attack, reached Poitiers, and advanced on Tours, the holy town of Gaul.
About 60 B.C. some of the Boii migrated to Noricum and Pannonia, when 32,000 of them joined the expedition of the Helvetians into Gaul, and shared their defeat near Bibracte (58).
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899), pp. 426-428; T.
The general state of learning in this century is illustrated by Ausonius (c. 310-393), the grammarian and rhetorician of Bordeaux, the author of the Mosella, and the probable inspirer of the memorable decree of Gratian (376), providing for the appointment and the payment of teachers of rhetoric and of Greek and Latin literature in the principal cities of Gaul.
In the second half of the 5th century the foremost representative of Latin studies in Gaul was Apollinaris Sidonius (fl.
An interest in Latin literature lived longest in Gaul, where schools of learning flourished as early as the 1st century at Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Narbonne and Marseilles; and, from the 3rd century onwards, at Trier, Poitiers, Besancon and Bordeaux.
Antonius Gnipho, a native of Gaul (by which Cisalpine Gaul may be meant), who is said to have been equally learned in Greek and Latin literature, and to have set up in later years a school of rhetoric which was attended by Cicero in his praetorship 66 B.C. It is possible that Caesar may have derived from him his interest in Gaul and its people and his sympathy with the claims of the Romanized Gauls of northern Italy to political rights.
Caesar secured the passing of a legislative enactment conferring upon himself the government of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria for five years, and exacted from the terrorized senate the addition of Transalpine Gaul, where, as he well knew, a storm was brewing which threatened to sweep away Roman civilization beyond the Alps.
The mutual jealousies of the Gallic tribes had enabled German invaders first to gain a foothold on the left bank of the Rhine, and then to obtain a predominant position in Central Gaul.
Caesar must have seen that the Germans were preparing to dispute with Rome the mastery of Gaul; but it was necessary to gain time, and in 59 B.C. Ariovistus was inscribed on the roll of the friends of the Roman people.
These successes roused natural alarm in the minds of the Belgae - a confederacy of tribes in the north-west of Gaul, whose civilization was less advanced than that of the Celtae of the centre - and in the spring of 57 B.C. Caesar determined to anticipate the offensive movement which they were understood to be preparing and marched northwards into the territory of the Remi (about Reims), who alone amongst their neighbours were friendly to Rome.
In the meantime Caesar's lieutenant, P. Crassus, received the submission of the tribes of the north-east, so that by the close of the campaign almost the whole of Gaul - except the Aquitani in the south-west - acknowledged Roman suzerainty.
Caesar now penetrated into Middlesex and crossed the Thames, but the British prince Cassivellaunus with his war-chariots harassed the Roman columns, and Caesar was compelled to return to Gaul after imposing a tribute which was never paid.
At Aduatuca (near Aixla-Chapelle) a newly-raised legion was cut to pieces by the Eburones under Ambiorix, while Quintus Cicero was besieged in the neighbourhood of Namur and only just relieved in time by Caesar, who was obliged to winter in Gaul in order to check the spread of the rebellion.
Caesar now reduced Gaul to the form of a province, fixing the tribute at 40,000,000 sesterces (350,000), and dealing liberally with the conquered tribes, whose cantons were not broken up.
In 56 B.e., at the conference of Luca (Lucca), Caesar, Pompey and Crassus had renewed their agreement, and Caesar's Break-up command in Gaul, which would have expired on the of thak-up ist of March 54 B.e., was renewed, probably for five Coalition.
Caesar was soon joined by two legions from Gaul and marched rapidly down the Adriatic coast, overtaking Pompey at Brundisium (Brindisi), but failing to prevent him from embarking with his troops for the East, where the prestige of his name was greatest.
The existing fragments tell us little as to the decentralization of the functions of government, but from the Lex Rubria, which applies to the Transpadane districts enfranchised by Caesar (it must be remembered that Cisalpine Gaul remained nominally a province until 42 B.C.) we gather that considerable powers of independent jurisdiction were reserved to the municipal magistrates.
Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1901), in which references to earlier literature will be found.
In Gaul we find a horse-goddess, Epona; there are also traces of a horse-god, Rudiobus.
In 74 Cotta obtained the province of Gaul, and was granted a triumph for some victory of which we possess no details; but on the very day before its celebration an old wound broke out, and he died suddenly.
Julius Caesar extended the sphere of the Roman municipal system by his enfranchisement of Cisalpine Gaul, and the consequent inclusion of all the towns of that region in the category of municipia.
But, excepting those in Cisalpine Gaul, the municipal system still embraced no towns outside Italy other than the citizen colonies.
Irenaeus (Gaul and Asia Minor, before 190) in his work against heresies, iv.
Firstly, that of Marcus, a Valentinian, of South Gaul about i 50, whose influence extended to Asia Minor.
But as early as 558 in Gaul the bread was arranged on the altar in the form of a man, so that one believer ate his eye, another his ear, a third his hand, and so on, according to their respective merits!
The first two are introductory, the next eight deal with Europe (two being devoted to Spain and Gaul, two to Italy and Sicily, one to the north and east of Europe, and three to Greek lands).
Before the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, the Sequani had taken the part of the Arverni against their rivals the Aedui and hired the Germans under Ariovistus to cross the Rhine and help them (71 B.e.).
Fifty years later Gaul was overrun by the barbarians, and Vesontio sacked (355).
Later, when Rome was no longer able to afford protection to the inhabitants of Gaul, the Sequani became merged in the newly formed kingdom of Burgundy.
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899), p. 483; A.
He was careful to ingratiate himself with Caesar, whom he accompanied when propraetor to Spain (61), and to Gaul (58) as chief engineer (praefectus fabrum).
He built a theatre in the capital, which was dedicated on the return of Augustus from Gaul in 13 (Dio Cassius liv.
The typical torque is a circlet with twisted rope-like strands, the ends not joined together; the torque was usually worn with the opening in the front as seen in a figure of a Gaul in a sculptured sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum at Rome.
The empire was divided between them, Honorius governing the two western prefectures (Gaul and Italy), Arcadius the two eastern (the Orient and Illyricum).
They dwelt in hill forts with walls of earth or rude stone, or in villages of round huts sunk into the ground and resembling those found in parts of northern Gaul, or in subterranean chambered houses, or in hamlets of pile-dwellings constructed among the marshes.
In religion, the chief feature was the priesthood of Druids, who here, as in Gaul, practised magical arts and barbarous rites of human sacrifice, taught a secret lore, wielded great influence, but, at least as Druids, took ordinarily no part in politics.
The Roman conquest of northern Gaul (57-50 B.C.) brought Britain into definite relation with the Mediterranean.
It was already closely connected with Gaul, and when Roman civilization and its products invaded Gallia Belgica, they passed on easily to Britain.
The civilization which had thus spread over half the island was genuinely Roman, identical in kind with that of the other western provinces of the empire, and in particular with that of northern Gaul.
This cantonal system closely resembles that which we find in Gaul.
They differ widely from the town houses of Rome and Pompeii: they are less unlike some of the country houses of Italy and Roman Africa; but their real parallels occur in Gaul, and they may be Celtic types modified to Roman use - like Indian bungalows.
Early in the 5th century the Teutonic conquest of Gaul cut the island off from Rome.
Stone seems to have been used first for churches, but this was not before the 7th century, and we are told that at first masons were imported from Gaul.
- The first recognition that the inhabitants of Germany, Holland, &c., were a people distinct from their Celtic neighbours dates from about the middle of the 1st century B.C., when Caesar's conquest of Gaul rendered a knowledge of northern Europe more generally accessible to the Romans.
Thus there can be little doubt that the Cimbri and their allies, who invaded Illyriculn, Gaul and Italy in the last years of the preceding century, were for the most part of Teutonic nationality.
Before Caesar's arrival in Gaul they had advanced beyond the former river, but their further progress in this direction was checked by his campaigns, and, though both banks of the river were occupied by Teutonic tribes throughout the greater part of its course, most of these remained in definite subjection to the Romans.
In 4069 the Vandals and other tribes invaded Gaul from the east and subsequently took possession of Spain and north-western Africa.
Immediately afterwards the Visigoths invaded Italy and captured Rome; then turning westwards they occupied southern Gaul and Spain.
Not much later a considerable portion of northern Gaul fell into the hands of the Franks, and before the middle of the century the eastern part was occupied by the Burgundians.
The chief events of the latter part of the century were the conquest of the eastern part of Britain by the Angli, the invasion of Italy by the Ostrogoths and the complete subjugation of northern Gaul by the Franks.
The first half of the 6th century saw the subjugation of the Burgundian and Visigothic portions of Gaul by the Franks and the recovery of Africa by the Romans.
The Franks and the Langobardi remained in Gaul and Italy, but they gradually became denationalized and absorbed in the native populations, while in Spain Teutonic nationality came to an end with the overthrow of the Visigothic kingdom by the Moors, if not before.
He fought in Gaul (51) and Spain (49) under Caesar, who, after he had crossed over to Greece (48), sent Calenus from Epirus to bring over the rest of the troops from Italy.
We find cases of their intervention in the ecclesiastical affairs of Alexandria, of the East, of Africa, Gaul and Spain.
From the time of popes Damasus Church in and Siricius various affairs were referred to Rome from Africa, Spain or Gaul.
In Spain, Gaul, Brittany and the provinces of the Danube, similar political changes took place.
In Gaul there was no chief metropolitan; but the king's court became, even sooner than that of Spain, the centre of episcopal affairs.
In Gaul there was no hostility to the Holy See, but on the contrary a profound veneration for the great Christian sanctuary of the West.
Arius and the two bishops of Marmarica Ptolemais, who refused to subscribe the creed, were excommunicated and banished to Illyria, and even Eusebius of Nicomedia, who accepted the creed, but not its anathemas, was exiled to Gaul.
But there are grounds for believing that some of the rudiments of chivalry are to be detected in early Teutonic customs, and that they may have made some advance among the Franks of Gaul.
Besides this, Charles had to struggle against the incessant rebellions in Aquitaine, against the Bretons, whose revolt was led by their chief Nomenoe and Erispoe, and who inflicted on the king the defeats of Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), and especially against the Normans, who devastated the country in the north of Gaul, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine.
Charles was recalled to Gaul, and after the death of Louis the German (28th August 876), in his turn made an attempt to seize his kingdom, but at Andernach met with a shameful defeat (8th October 876).
Charles, ill and in great distress, started on his way back to Gaul, and died while crossing the pass of the Mont Cenis on the 5th or 6th of October 877.
They were stationed at Ostia, at Cales in Campania, and in Gaul about the Padus (Po).
On his return to Severus in Gaul he was ordained; and, having soon afterwards inherited means through the death of his father, he set out for Palestine, where he was received with great respect by Jerome at Bethlehem.
Vigilantius now settled for some time in Gaul, and is said by one authority (Gennadius) to have afterwards held a charge in the diocese of Barcelona.
His reign is marked by the dismemberment of the Western Empire; the conquest of the province of Africa by the Vandals in 439; the final abandonment of Britain in 446; the loss of great portions of Spain and Gaul, in which the barbarians had established themselves; and the ravaging of Sicily and of the western coasts of the Mediterranean by the fleets of Genseric. As a set-off against these calamities there was the great victory of Aetius over Attila in 451 near Chalons, and his* successful campaigns against the Visigoths in southern Gaul (426, 4 2 9, 436), and against various invaders on the Rhine and Danube (428-31).
Freeman, "Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" (Eng.
Antioch and Code-Syria, Cyprus, Alexandria together with Egypt and the Thebais, Rome and the lower parts of Italy, together with certain parts of middle Italy, Proconsular Africa and Numidia, Spain, the maritime parts of Greece, the southern coasts of Gaul.
(4) Those districts in which Christianity was extremely weak or where it was hardly found at all: the districts to the north and north-west of the Black Sea, the western section of upper Italy, middle and upper Gaul, Belgica, Germany, Rhaetia, the towns of ancient Philistia.
404 an institution in which Goths might be trained to preach the Gospel to their own people; 3 Martin of Tours, who evangelized the central districts of Gaul; Valentinus, the " apostle of Noricum," about 440; Honoratus, who from his monastic home in the islet of Lerins, about 410, sent missionaries among the masses of heathendom in the neighbourhood of Arles, Lyons, Troyes, Metz and Nice; and St Patrick, who converted Ireland into " the isle of saints " (died either in 463 or 495).
The popular name of a plant, also known as the sweet gale or gaul, sweet willow, bog or Dutch myrtle.
The funds for these and similar purposes were supplied from the Patrimony of St Peter - the papal estates in Italy, the adjacent islands, Gaul, Dalmatia and Africa.
In his relations with the churches which lay outside the strict limits of his patriarchate, in northern Italy, Spain, Gaul, Africa and Illyricum and also in the East, Gregory consistently used his influence to increase the prestige and authority of the Roman See.
Mose important was the two-fold mission to Britain - of St Augustine in 596, of Mellitus, Paulinus and others in 601; but Gregory also made strenuous efforts to uproot paganism in Gaul, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, Arianism in Spain, Donatism in Africa, Manichaeism in Sicily, the heresy of the Three Chapters in Istria and northern Italy.
The so-called "simoniacal heresy," particularly prevalent in Gaul, Illyricum and the East, he repeatedly attacked; and against the Gallican abuse of promoting laymen to bishoprics he protested with vigour.
Kellett, Pope Gregory the Great and his Relations with Gaul; L.
He had not indeed "penetrated to the city," but his invasion of Italy had produced important results; it had caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna, it had necessitated the withdrawal of the Twentieth Legion from Britain, and it had probably facilitated the great invasion of Vandals, Suevi and Alani into Gaul, by which that province and Spain were lost to the empire.
By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was firmly established in central Germany and northern Gaul.
(457-481), and grandfather of Clovis (481-511), under whom the Salian Franks conquered the whole of Gaul, except the kingdom of Burgundy, Provence and Septimania.
The Vita Antonii was at an early date translated into Latin and propagated in the West, and the practice of monastic asceticism after the Egyptian model became common in Rome and throughout Italy, and before long spread to Gaul and to northern Africa.
At the time of the Roman advance on Gaul there were five principal tribes in Armorica, the Namneti, the Veneti, the Osismii, the Curiosolitae and the Redones.
It contained hardly any towns, though many large country houses, and was perhaps less Romanized than the rest of Gaul.
These were mostly military foundations, and served the purpose of securing civilization against the inroads of the natives, who were not in a condition to be used as material for town-life as in Gaul and Spain, but were under the immediate government of the procurators, retaining their own clan organization.
Gaius Cassius, governor of Cisalpine Gaul, and the praetor Gnaeus Manlius, who attempted to stop him, were defeated at Mutina.
Having during his stay in Gaul defeated and concluded an alliance with Theodoric the Visigoth, at the beginning of 460 he crossed the Pyrenees for the purpose of joining the powerful fleet which he had collected at Carthagena.
MARCUS ANTONIUS PRIMUS, Roman general, was born at Tolosa in Gaul about A.D.
Our direct knowledge of Germany begins with the appointment of Julius Caesar as governor of Gaul in 59 B.C. Long before, that time there is evidence of German communication with southern civilization, as the antiquities prove, and occasional travellers from the Mediterranean had made their way into those regions (e.g.
said to have encountered are the Cimbri and Teutoni, probably from Denmaik, who invaded Illyria, Gaul and Italy towards the end of the 2nd century B.C. When Caesar arrived in Gaul the westernmost part of what is now Germany was in the possession of Gaulish tribes.
During the period of Caesars government he succeeded in annexing the whole of Gaul as far as the Rhine.
the Rhine and invaded Gaul in 406.
The remains of the nation shortly afterwards settled in Gaul.
Having obtained possession of that part of Gaul which lay between the Seine and the Loire, Clovis turned his attention to his eastern neighbors, and was soon engaged in a struggle with the Alamanni which probably arose out of a quarrel between them and the Ripuarian Franks for the possession of the middle Rhine.
He took refuge in Kent and then in Gaul, but soon returned to England, and in 619 became archbishop of Canterbury in succession to Laurentius.
After capturing his rival Glycerius, who had been nominated by the army in 473, at the mouth of the Tiber, he was recognized as emperor in Rome, Italy and Gaul.
13) attests this belief among the ancient Druids of Gaul.
The vases were of the last red figure style, and were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) from Gaul.
Ausonius could still reckon Catana and fourfold Syracuse (" quadruplices Syracusas ") among the noble cities; but Sicily is not, like Gaul, rich in relics of later Roman life, and it is now Egypt rather than Sicily that feeds Rome.
Sicily was to be reached only by a Teutonic power which made its way through Gaul, Spain and Africa.
Italy and the south of Gaul had not remained unaffected by the neighbourhood of the Greek colonies.
From the Greeks of southern Gaul Hellenic influences penetrated the Celtic races so far that imitations of Greek coins were struck even on the coasts of the Atlantic.
The Romans believed that these Cimbri and Teutones were the same as those who invaded Gaul and Italy at the end of the 2nd century B.C. The Cimbri may probably be traced in the province of Aalborg, formerly known as Himmerland; the Teutones, with less certainty, may be placed in Thyth or Thyland, north of the Limfjord.
The ease with which so important a conquest had been effected encouraged Justinian to attack the Ostrogoths of Italy, whose kingdom, though vast in extent, for it included part of south-eastern Gaul, Raetia, Dalmatia and part of Pannonia, as Well as Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, had been grievously weakened by the death first of the great Theodoric, and some years later of his grandson Athalaric, so that the Gothic nation was practically without a head.
According to Arbois de Jubainville, the Cenomani of Italy are not identical with the Cenomani (or Cenomanni) of Gaul.
In Italy, Cenomani is the name of a people; in Gaul, merely a surname of the Aulerci.
57), in Gaul and in Spain (Plin.
of an Irish saint Columbanus, who led twelve Irish monks into Gaul and Burgundy, the Celtic church appears to have denied that the papal jurisdiction extended beyond the limits of the Roman empire.
In Gaul, on the other hand, the Iron Age dates back some Soo years B.C.; while in Etruria the metal was known some six centuries earlier.
As a writer on field sports Xenophon was followed by Arrian, who in his Cynegeticus, in avowed dependence on his predecessor, seeks to supplement such deficiencies in the earlier treatise as arose from its author's unacquaintance with the dogs of Gaul and the horses of Scythia and Libya.
Ep. 78, 3); while in Gaul the grave of St Martin at Tours drew pilgrims from all quarters (Paul.
Africa possessed no sanctuary to compete with these; but we learn from Sulpicius Severus (c. 400) that the tomb of Cyprian seems to have been visited even by a Gaul (Dial.
In 1904 appeared the third volume, La Renaissance de Petal, in which the author describes the efforts of the Capetian kings to reconstruct the power of the Frankish kings over the whole of Gaul; and goes on to show how the clergy, the heirs of the imperial tradition, encouraged this ambition; how the great lords of the kingdom (the "princes," as Flach calls them), whether as allies or foes, pursued the same end; and how, before the close of the 12th century, the Capetian kings were in possession of the organs and the means of action which were to render them so powerful and bring about the early downfall of feudalism.
RUBICON, a small stream of ancient Italy, which flowed into the Adriatic between Ariminum and Caesena, and formed the boundary between Italy and the province of Cisalpine Gaul.
The trade with these regions was probably at this period in Phoenician hands, but we know that at a later time a considerable portion of the supply was carried overland through Gaul to Massilia.
34) the most powerful in Gaul in the time of Tarquinius Priscus.
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899).
are only important because they reflect the ideas, influence and aspirations of Martin, the foremost ecclesiastic of Gaul.
own time; next and more particularly, in the information he has preserved concerning the struggle over the Priscillianist heresy, which disorganized and degraded the churches of Spain and Gaul, and particularly affected Aquitaine.
This mysterious Western, offshoot of Gnosticism had no single feature about it which could soften the hostility of a character such as Martin's, but he resisted the introduction of secular punishment for evil doctrine, and withdrew from communion with those bishops in Gaul, a large majority, who invoked the aid of Maximus against their erring brethren.
This is generally known as the Breviarium Alaricianum, or Breviary of Alaric. Alaric was of a peaceful disposition, and endeavoured strictly to maintain the treaty which his father had concluded with the Franks, whose king Clovis, however, desiring to obtain the Gothic province in Gaul, found a pretext for war in the Arianism of Alaric. The intervention of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths and father-in-law of Alaric, proved unavailing.
In the following year he defended Marcus (or Manius) Fonteius on a charge of extortion in Gaul, using various arguments which might equally well have been advanced on behalf of Verres himself .
Cicero's legate was his brother Quintius Cicero (below), an experienced soldier who had gained great distinction under Caesar in Gaul.
He was bitterly attacked by Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony) in the senate on the ist of September for not being present there, and on the next day replied in his First Philippic. He then left Rome and devoted himself to the completion of the de Qfficiis, and to the composition of his famous Second Philippic, which was never delivered, but was circulated, at first privately, after Antony's departure from Rome to Cisalpine Gaul on the 28th of November.
The Moslems beat Odo, gained possession of Bordeaux, and overran the whole of southern Gaul nearly as far as the Loire.
Hajjaj, a man of high qualities, re-entered Gaul and pushed forward his raids as far as Lyons, but the Franks again drove back the Arabs as far as Narbonne.
Bale quotes the story that he travelled in Greece, Italy and Gaul, and studied not only Greek, but also Arabic and Chaldaean.
Towards the end of 27 B.C. he left Rome for Gaul, and from.
The defeat of Marcus Lollius, the legate commanding on the Rhine, by a horde of German invaders, seems to have determined Augustus to take in hand the whole question of the frontiers of the empire towards the north, and the effective protection of Gaul and Italy.
His strategy in dealing with the great host from Gaul was of the Fabian kind.
When the spring of 554 appeared, Lothaire with his part of the army insisted on marching back to Gaul, there to deposit in safety the plunder which they had reaped.
In 287 he suppressed the rising of the peasants (Bagaudae) in Gaul, but in 289, after a three years' struggle, his colleague and he were compelled to acquiesce in the assumption by his lieutenant Carausius (who had crossed over to Britain) of the title of Augustus.
CARNUTES (Carnuti, Carnutae, Kapvourivot in Plutarch), a Celtic people of central Gaul, between the Sequana (Seine) and the Liger (Loire).
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899), p. 402, on Cenabum.
No Roman colony started without the sanction and direction of the public authority; and while the Colonia Romana differed from the Colonia Latina in that the former permitted its members to retain their political rights intact, the colony, whether planted within the bounds of Italy or in provinces such as Gaul or Britain, remained an integral part of the Roman state.
About 968 the pope declared that its abbot was primate of all the abbots in Germany and Gaul, and later he became a prince of the Empire.
On the death of his great-nephew Theodebald in 555, Clotaire annexed his territories; and on Childebert's death in S58 he became king of all Gaul.
The emperor returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph (233), but next year he was called to face German invaders in Gaul, where he was slain (on the 18th or 10th of March 235), together with his mother, in a mutiny which was probably led by Maximinus, a Thracian legionary, and at any rate secured him the throne.
It appeared in Gaul in 546, where it is described by Gregory of Tours with the same symptoms as lues inguinaria (from the frequent seat of buboes in the groin).
The new nations in Spain, Gaul, parts of Italy and Britain were forming the rude beginnings of what were to become national states in the centuries following.
766), was brought by Irish monks to their native land from the monasteries of north-eastern Gaul, and that Irish anchorites originally unfettered by the rules of the cloister bound themselves by it.
Britannicus's leading partisans were banished or put to death, and the allimportant command of the praetorian guard was transferred to Afranius Burrus, a Gaul by birth, who had been the trusted agent first of Livia and then of Tiberius and Claudius.
In northern Gaul, early in 68, the standard of revolt was raised by Julius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and himself the head of an ancient and noble Celtic family.
It is very probable that Vindex had other aims in view than the deposition of Nero and the substitution of a fresh emperor in his place, and that the liberation of northern Gaul from Roman rule was part of his plan.'
If this was so, it is easy to understand both the enthusiasm with which the chiefs of northern Gaul rallied to the standard of a leader belonging to their own race, and the opposition which Vindex encountered from the Roman colony of Lugdunum and the legions on the Rhine.
When on the 19th of March the news reached him at Naples of the rising in Gaul, he allowed a week to elapse before he could tear himself away from his pleasures, and then contented himself with proscribing Vindex, and setting a price on his head.
With regard to the introduction of the vine into other parts of Europe, it appears that it was brought to Spain by the Phoenicians, and to Italy and southern Gaul from Greece.
According to Pliny, Spanish, Gallic and Greek wines were all consumed in Rome during the 1st century of the Christian era, but in Gaul the production of wine appears to have been limited to certain districts on the Rhone and Gironde.
Their request for land was not granted, and in 109 B.C. they defeated the consul Marcus Junius Silanus in southern Gaul, but did not at once follow up the victory.
In 103 they marched back through Gaul, which they overran as far as the Seine, where the Belgae made a stout resistance.
In 54 he was with Caesar in Gaul.
He surrounded himself with a bodyguard of Caesar's veterans, and forced the senate to transfer to him the province of Cisalpine Gaul, which was then administered by Decimus Junius Brutus, one of the conspirators.
Meanwhile, Antony escaped to Cisalpine Gaul, effected a junction with Lepidus and marched towards Rome with a large force of infantry and cavalry.
Gaul was to belong to Antony, Spain to Lepidus, and Africa, Sardinia and Sicily to Octavian.
Notre Dame, the old cathedral, originally erected by the prefect of Gaul, was ruined by the Barbarians, rebuilt in the 11th and 12th centuries, and damaged by the Protestants.
In 529 a synod of fifteen bishops, under the presidency of Caesarius of Arles, assembled primarily to dedicate a church, the gift of Liberius, the lieutenant of Theodoric, in Gaul, but proved to be one of the most important councils of the 6th century.
ARNOBIUS (" the younger"), Christian priest or bishop in Gaul, flourished about 460.
The Vitae patrum consists of twenty biographies of bishops, abbots and hermits belonging to Gaul.
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899) p. 513; A.
383), known as the Roman, is still used at St Peter's in Rome, but the "Gallican," thanks especially to St Gregory of Tours, who introduced it into Gaul in the 6th century, has ousted it everywhere else.
According to the legends which grew up under the care of the monks, the first church of Glastonbury was a little wattled building erected by Joseph of Arimathea as the leader of the twelve apostles sent over to Britain from Gaul by St Philip. About a hundred years later, according to the same authorities, the two missionaries, Phaganus and Deruvianus, who came to king Lucius from Pope Eleutherius, established a fraternity of anchorites on the spot, and after three hundred years more St Patrick introduced among them a regular monastic life.
In the year 406 they moved westward, according to some writers at the instigation of Stilicho, who is himself said to have been of Vandal origin, and crossing the Rhine at Mainz proceeded towards Gaul.
B.) In Gaul the Vandals fought a great battle with the Franks, in which they were defeated with the loss of 2000 men, and their king Godegisel was slain.
The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers, the most important of these operations being directed to clearing Gaul of the Germans.
One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts.
The earliest invaders, under the name of Celtae, had occupied all central Gaul, doubtless mixing with the aboriginal Ligurians and Iberians, who, however, maintained themselves respectively in the later Provence and in Aquitania.
It is not unlikely that, as tradition states, there were incursions of Celts from central Gaul into Ireland during the general Celtic unrest in the 6th century B.C. It is certain that at a later period invaders from the continent, bringing with them the later Iron Age culture, commonly called La Tene, which had succeeded that of Hallstatt, had settled in Ireland.
It is probably from the Alamannic region that those Suebi came who joined the Vandals in their invasion of Gaul, and eventually founded a kingdom in north-west Spain.
Neither in Gaul nor Spain do they seem to have been generally recognized much before the 8th century.
It resisted Caesar longer than most of Gaul; when once vanquished it adopted Roman civilization readily.
He was the author of a Latin poem, De Reditu Suo, in elegiac metre, describing a coast voyage from Rome to Gaul in A.D.
Gaul (Toulouse or perhaps Poitiers), and belonged, like Sidonius, to one of the great governing families of the Gaulish provinces.
He witnessed the chequered career of Stilicho as actual, though not titular, emperor of the West; he saw the hosts of Radagaisus rolled back from Italy, only to sweep over Gaul and Spain; the defeats and triumphs of Alaric; the three sieges and final sack of Rome, followed by the marvellous recovery of the city; Heraclian's vast armament dissipated; and the fall of seven pretenders to the Western diadem.
Gilbert William Gaul >>
But it differed from the other Teutonic conquests in Gaul, in Britain, in Spain.
He was with Julius Caesar as legate in Gaul, but after the civil war broke out in 49 he seems to have remained in Rome to protect Caesar's interests.
Moreover, at the time of Livy's birth, Padua had long been in possession of the full Roman franchise, and the historian's family name may have been taken by one of his ancestors out of compliment to the great Livian gens at Rome, whose connexion with Cisalpine Gaul is well-established (Suet.
Gaul and Spain were overrun both by barbarian 1 Geschichte der Volkerwanderung (Gotha, 1863-1864).
The Empire received again, as the prize of Gothic victories, the Tarraconensis in Spain, and Novempopulana and the Narbonensis in Gaul.
The kingdom of Toulouse grew within Gaul at the expense of the Empire, and in Spain at the expense of the Suevi.
The kingdom of Toulouse took in nearly all Gaul south of the Loire and west of the Rhone, with all Spain, except the north-west corner, which was still held by the Suevi.
Theystood, therefore, at a great disadvantage when a new and aggressive Catholic power appeared in Gaul through the conversion of the Frank Clovis or Chlodwig.
Toulouse was, as in days long after, the seat of an heretical power, against which the forces of northern Gaul marched as on a crusade.
That Spain and a fragment of Gaul still remained to form a West Gothic kingdom was owing to the intervention of the East Goths under the rule of the greatest man in Gothic history.
The two branches of the nation were soon brought much more closely together, when, through the overthrow of the West Gothic kingdom of Toulouse, the power of Theodoric was practically extended over a large part of Gaul and over nearly the whole of Spain.
Toulouse passed away to the Frank; but the Goth kept Narbonne and its district, the land of Septimania - the land which, as the last part of Gaul held by the Goths, kept the name of Gothia for many ages.
The chance of forming a national state in Italy by the union of Roman and Teutonic elements, such as those which arose in Gaul, in Spain, and in parts of Italy under Lombard rule, was thus lost.
But the difference of race and faith between the Arian Goths and the Catholic Romans of Gaul and Spain influenced the history of the West Gothic kingdom for a long time.
Allying himself with the Franks and Vandals, he led his vast many-nationed army to the Rhine in the spring of 451, crossed that river, and sacked, apparently, most of the cities in Belgic Gaul.
Most fortunately for Europe, the Teutonic races already settled in Gaul rallied to the defence of the empire against invaders infinitely more barbarous than themselves.
Her great champion Aetius showed less energy in her cause than he had shown in his defence of Gaul.
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899), pp. 4 82 -4 8 3, 755-76 6, 819; A.
The news of the emperor's death (14) found Germanicus at Lugdunum (Lyons), where he was superintending the census of Gaul.
Cisalpine Gaul was apparently formed into a province by Sulla in 81 B.C. and continued to be so until the fall of the Republic.
HINCMAR (c. 805-882), archbishop of Reims, one of the most remarkable figures in the ecclesiastical history of France, belonged to a noble family of the north or north-east of Gaul.
In the middle of the 9th century there appeared in Gaul the collection of false decretals commonly known as the PseudoIsidorian Decretals.
For Gaul about the year 50o we have the testimony of Sidonius Apollinaris (iv.
The majority of inscriptions and images bearing her name have been found in Gaul, Germany and the Danube countries; of the few that occur in Rome itself most were exhumed on the site of the barracks of the equiles singulares, a foreign imperial bodyguard mainly recruited from the Batavians.
The litaniae minores or rogations, held on the three days preceding Ascension Day, were first introduced into Gaul by Bishop Mamertus of Vienne (c. 470), and made binding for all Gaul by the ist Council of Orleans (51 I).
In antiquity Surrentum was famous for its wine (oranges and lemons which are now so much cultivated there not having been introduced into Italy in antiquity), its fish, and its red Campanian vases; the discovery of coins of Massilia, Gaul and the Balearic Islands here indicates the extensive trade which it carried on.
Without obtaining a hearing, he was banished at the end of 335 to Treves in Gaul.
He made long journeys in Italy, in Gaul, and as far as Belgium.
Autun (Augustodunum) succeeded Bibracte as capital of the Aedui when Gaul was reorganized by Augustus.
In the distribution of the provinces Gaul and Britain were allotted to Constantius.
After 15 months (134-133) he reduced by hunger the6000-8000Numantine soldiers, much as Caesar afterwards reduced Alesia in Gaul.
Pompey was now in fact ruler of the greater part of the empire, while Caesar had only the two provinces of Gaul.
In 50 the senate by a very large majority revoked the extraordinary powers conceded to Pompey and Caesar in Spain and Gaul respectively, and called upon them to disband their armies.
The Dionysio-Hadriana did not, when introduced into Gaul, take the place of any other generally received collection of canons.
The chief collection known throughout Gaul before the Dionysio-Hadriana was the socalled collection of Quesnel, named after its first e ditor.'
We might expect to find such a collection, in view of the numerous and important councils held in Gaul; but their decisions remained scattered among a great number of collections none of which had ever a wide circulation or an official character.
He returned to Italy with Ursicinus, when he was recalled by Constantius, and accompanied him on the expedition against Silvanus the Frank, who had been forced by the unjust accusations of his enemies into proclaiming himself emperor in Gaul.
The font was viewed as the womb of the virgin mother church, who was in some congregations, for example, in the early churches of Gaul, no abstraction, but a divine aeon watching over and sympathizing with the children of her womb, the recipient even of hymns of praise and humble supplications.
He was consul in 54 B.C., and in 49 he was appointed by the senate to succeed Caesar as governor of Gaul.
thirty-five bishops of southern Gaul assembled in person or sent deputies to Agde on the 11th of September 506.
During the civil war between Marius and Sulla he sided with the former, but was defeated by Sulla at mount Tifata near Capua, and again by Metellus at Faventia in Cisalpine Gaul (82).
He thus fulfilled the prediction of a druidess of Gaul, that he would mount a throne as soon as he had slain a wild boar (aper).
In consequence of the rising of the Bagaudae in Gaul, and the threatening attitude of the German peoples on the Rhine, he appointed Maximian Augustus in 286; and, in view of further dangers and disturbances in the empire, proclaimed Constantius Chlorus and Galerius Caesars in 2 93.
In this work, which furnishes a valuable if prejudiced description of life in 5th-century Gaul, Salvian deals with the same problem that had moved the eloquence of Augustine and Orosius.
Darker still were the iniquities of Carthage, surpassing even the unconcealed licentiousness of Gaul and Spain (iv.
It is curious that Salvian shows no such hatred of the heterodox barbarians as was rife in Gaul seventy years later.
385), Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which, in spite of severe persecution for heresy, continued to subsist in Spain and in Gaul until after the middle of the 6th century.
The early Belgic settlers constituted perhaps in the main trading states which acted as intermediaries of commerce between Ireland and Gaul.'
Herenn 1 The importance of the commerce between Ireland and Gaul in early times, and in particular the trade in wine, has been insisted upon by H.
D'Arbois de Jubainville maintains that in Gaul the three classes of druids, vates and gutuatri, corresponded more or less to the pontifices, augurs and flamens of ancient Rome.
Leinster was probably the province in which Christianity was already most strongly represented, and Patrick may have entrusted this part of his sphere to two fellow-workers from Gaul, Auxilius and Iserninus.
The church founded by St Patrick was doubtless in the main identical in doctrine with the churches of Britain and Gaul and other branches of the Western church; but after the recall of the Roman legions from Britain the Irish church was shut off from the Roman world, and it is only natural that there should not have been any great amount of scruple with regard to orthodox doctrine.
As early as 633 the church of the south of Ireland, which had been more in contact with Gaul, had been won over to the Roman method of computation.
The identity of the earliest inhabitants of Gaul is veiled in obscurity, though philologists, anthropologists and archaeologists are using the glimmer of traditions collected by ancient historians to shed a faint twilight upon that remote C past.
When Gaul first enters the field of history, Rome has already laid the foundation of her freedom, Athens dazzles the eastern Mediterranean with her literature and her art, while B t in the west Carthage and Marseilles are lining opposite t,~CZs~ shores with their great houses of commerce.
Their empire in Gaul, encroached upon in the north by the Belgae, a kindred race, and in the south by the Iberians, gradually contracted in area and eventually crumbled to pieces.
A refuge of Italian pauperism in the time of the Gracchi, after the triumph of the oligarchy the Narbonnaise became a field for shameless exploitation, besides providing, under the proconsulate of Caesar, an excellent point of observation whence to watch the intestine quarrels between the different nations of Gaul.
On the heights, as at Bibracte, or on islands in the rivers, as at Lutetia, or protected by marshes, as at Avaricum, oppidaat once fortresses and places of refuge, like the Greek Acropoliskept watch and ward over the beaten tracks and the rivers of Gaul.
The victorious Gaul.
Thus ~rin after eight years of incoherent struggles, of scattered revolts, and then of more and more energetic efforts, Gaul, at last aroused by Vercingetorix, for once concentrated her strength, only to perish at Alesia, vanquished by Roman discipline and struck at from the rear by the conquest of Britain (5850 B.C.).
This defeat completely altered the destiny of Gaul, and she became one of the principal centres of Roman civilization.
During five centuries Gaul was unfalteringly loyal to her conquerors; for to conquer is nothing if the conquered be not assimilated by the conqueror, and Rome was a past-mistress of this art.
Caligula visited Gaul and founded literary comoetitions at Lyons, which had become the political and intellectual capital of the country.
Claudius, who was a native of Lyons, extended the right of Roman citizenship to many of his fellow-townsmen, gave them access to the magistracy and to the senate, and supplemented the annexation of Gaul by that of Britain.
70, the revolt of Sabinus was in the main an attemptby the Germans to pillage Gaul and the prelude to military insurrections.
After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).
Thanks to the political and religious unity which a common worship of the emperor and of Rome gave them, thanks to administrative centralization tempered by a certain amount of municipal autonomy, Gaul prospered throughout three centuries.
authiiritv The raids made by the Germanson the easternfrontiers, LU Gaul.
the incessant competitions for the imperial power, and the repeated revolts of the Pretorian guard, gradually undermined the internal cohesion of Gaul; while the insurrections of the Bagaudae aggravated the destruction wrought by a grasping treasury and by barbarian incursions; so that the anarchy of the 3rd century soon aroused separatist ideas.
Under Postumus Gaul had already attempted to restore an independent though short-lived empire (258267); and twenty-eight years later the tetrarchy of Diocletian proved that the blood now circulated with difficulty from the heart to the extremities of an empire on the eve of disintegration.
It was in Gaul that the decisive revolutions of the time were first prepared; Constantines crusades to overthrow the altars of paganism, and Julians campaigns to set them up again.
From the 4th century onward the balance of classes was dis- Soclaidisturbed by the development of a landed aristocracy organizathat grew more powerful day by day, and by the tion of corresponding ruin of the small proprietors and in- GauL
In the 4th century there was a veritable renaissance in Gaul, the Intel- last outburst of a dying flame, which yet bore witness lectual also to the general decadence.
The agreeable versidecadence fication of an amateur like Ausonius, the refined of GauL panegyrics of a Eumenius, disguising nullity of thought beneath elegance of form, already foretold the perilous sterility of scholasticism.
Art, so widespread in the wealthy villas of Gaul, contented itself with imitation, produced nothing original and remained mediocre.
In reality Christianity, which had contributed not a little to stimulate the christIan- political unity of continental Gaul, now tended to Gaul.
Christianity, introduced into Gaul during the 1st century of the Christian era by those foreign merchants who traded along the coasts of the Mediterranean, had by the middle of the 2nd century founded communities at Vienne, at Autun and at Lyons.
Thenceforward it was in the name of Christ that persecutions took place in an Empire now entirely won over to Christianity, In Gaul the most famous leader of this first merciless, if still perilous crusade, was a soldier-monk, Saint Martin of Tours.
In fact, whilst in the Eastern Church the metaphysical ardour of the Greeks was spending itself in terrible combats in the oecumenical councils over the interpretation of the Nicene Creed, the clergy of Gaul, more simple and strict in their faith, abjured these theological logomachies; from the first they had preferred action to criticism and had taken no part in the great controversy on free-will raised by Pelagius.
Sometimes the storm had burst over Gaul, and there had been need of a Marius to stem the torrent of Cimbri and Teutons, or of a Caesar to drive back the Helvetians into their mountains.
Whilst for ten years Alarics Goths and Stilichos Vandals were drenching Italy with blood, the Vandals and the Alani from the steppes of the Black Sea, dragging in their wake the The reluctant German tribes who had been allies of Rome ~ and who had already settled down to the cultivation of theirlands, invaded the now abandoned Gaul, and having come as far as the Pyrenees, crossed over them.
About the same time the Burgundians settled even more peaceably in Rhenish Gaul, and, after 456, to the west of the Jura in the valleys of The the Sane and the Rhone.
the Goths across the Danube, passed beyond the Rhine and occupied north-eastern Gaul; Ripuarians of the Rhine establishing themselves on the Sambre and the Meuse, and Salians in Belgium, as far as the great fortified highroad from Bavai to Cologne.
Accepted as allies, and supported by Roman prestige and by the active authority of the general Aetius, all these barbarians rallied round him and the Romans of Gaul, and ~fl 431 defeated the hordes of Attila, who had advanced as far as Orleans, at the great battle of the Catalaunian plains.
Having established themselves in the plains of Northern Gaul, but driven by the necessity of finding new land to cultivate, in the days of their king Childeric they had descended into the fertile valleys of the chief.
Thenceforward he devoted himself to the foundation of the Frankish monarchy by driving the exhausted and demoralized heretics out of Gaul, and by putting himself in the place of the now enfeebled emperor.
540), first bishop of Arras and Cambrai, who restored Christianity in northern Gaul.
The conquest of Gaul, begun by Clovis, was finished by his sons: Theuderich, Chlodomer, Childebert and Clotaire.
Thus the whole of Gaul was subjected to the sbns of Clovis, except Septimania in the south-east, where the Visigoths still maintained their power.
Recognized, in fact, already as separate provinces were Austrasia, or the eastern kingdom, Neustria, or north-west Gaul and Burgundy; Aquitaine alone was as yet undifferentiated.
The whole of Gaul was now handed over to three children:
reigned over a once more united Gaul of Franks and Gallo-Romans, and like Clovis lie was not too well Obeyed by the nobles; moreover, his had been a victory more for the aristocracy than ~ re for the crown, since it limited the power of the latter.
This political victory of the aristocracy was merely the consummation of a slow subterranean revolution which by innumerable reiterated blows had sapped the structure of the body politic, and was about to transfer the people of Gaul from the Roman monarchical and administrative government to the sway of the feudal system.
The Merovingian kings, mere war-chiefs before the advent of Clovis, had after the conquest of Gaul become absolute hereditary causes of nionarchs, thanks to the disappearance of the popular the failof assemblies and to the perpetual state of warfare.
He decided questions of war and peace, and re-established unity in Gaul by defeating the Neustrians and the Aquitanian followers of Duke Odo (Eudes) at Vincy in 717.
And Boniface also helped on the alliance between the papacy and the Carolingian dynasty, which, more momentous even than that between Clovis and the bishops of Gaul, was to sanctify might by right.
When Pippin died, aged fifty-four, on the 24th of September 768, the whole of Gaul had submitted to his authority.
No authority was more weighty or more respected than that of this feudal lord of Gaul, Italy and Germaiiy; none was more transient, because it was so purely personal.
He wanted to make this his Cisalpine Gaul, laying siege to the Roman state on every hand, and preparing in the Concordat for t~ie moral and material servitude of the pope.
Behind the rock, between Mont Tete de Chien and Mont de la Justice, the high grounds rise towards La Turbie, the village on the hill which takes its name from the tropaea with which Augustus marked the boundary between Gaul and Italy.
When Maximus usurped the supreme power in Gaul, and was meditating a descent upon Italy, Valentinian sent Ambrose to dissuade him from the undertaking, and the embassy was successful.
Others are probably later, and indicate that prosperity continued here, as it did on the other side of the Pyrenees in Gaul, till the later days of the 4th centuryperhaps indeed not till the fatal winters night in 406-7 when the barbarians burst the Rhine frontier and flooded Gaul and even Spain with a deluge from which there was no recovery.
From this date till the very end of the reign of Amalaric (5r1 531), the seat of the Visigothic kings was at Bordeaux, or Toulouse or Narbonne, and their main interests were in Gaul.
(453466) entered Spain as ally of Avitus, whom he had himself raised to the empire in Gaul.
But he was recalled to Gaul, and his return was accompanied by outrages against the Roman cities.
The Visigoths had been much Romanized during their establishment in Gaul, and we hear of no exodus as having accompanied Amalaric. The example of Theuclis is enough to show that the law of the Theodosian code which forbade the marriage of Romans and barbarians was not regarded by the Goths.
The Arab passed through them, going and returning to and from Gaul, but he never fully conquered them.
While the invasion of Gaul was still going on Manuza, the chief of the Berbers settled in north-western Spain, had revolted against the caliphs lieutenants.
Tetricus, who had been proclaimed emperor in the west after the death of Gallienus, and left undisturbed by Claudius II., still ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain.
Such was Gregory the Great's teaching, and such also is the purport of the Caroline books, which embody the conclusions arrived at by the bishops of Germany, Gaul arid Aquitaine, presided over by papal legates at the council of Frankfort in 794, and incidentally also reveal the hatred and contempt of Charlemagne for the Byzantine empire as an institution, and for Irene, its ruler, as a person.
They possessed the elements of a higher civilization (gold coinage, the Greek alphabet), and, according to Caesar, were the bravest people of Gaul.
The reports of gold and plunder spread by the Cimbri and Teutones on their way to southern Gaul induced the Helvetii to follow their example.
In the subdivision of Gaul in the 4th century, Helvetia, with the territory of the Sequani and Rauraci, formed the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum, the chief town of which was Vesontio (Besancon).
Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1899) and Mommsen, Hist.
After the murder of Alexander in Gaul, hastened, it is said, by his instigation, Maximinus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers on the 19th of March 235.
The style of the sculptures on the frieze is quite barbaric, with archaic elements, and is probably derived from Gaul.
Arthur appears as defender of Christianity, driving out pagan heresy, conquering Denmark, Norway and Gaul.
taking hostages, Caesar returned to Gaul, where there was a grave threat of a Gallic uprising.
By 69 he was still commanding a legion in Gaul.